In This Issue...
Beef Nlanauement Calendar
Bronson Lirues Floridians to Protect Thensel es
and Animals Against Mosquitoes
Bronson Lauids Multi-Agency Response to Animal
Needs During Hurricanes 3
UF IFAS Provides Hurricane Tips tor Farmers 4
Li stock Nlananement Issues BroMught on by\
Hurricanes and Floodin, 6
Hurricanes Prompt NCBA to Establish Permanent
Disaster Relief Fund
NANIP Course Set for October 8
Prepared by Extension Specialists in
Beef Cattle Management, Ona
*: J.N. Carter
Beef Cattle Extension Specialist, Marianna
*: GR. Hansen
Beef Cattle Production, Marianna
o EG. Hembry, Professor
Department Chairman, Gainesville
*o M.J. Hersom
Extension Beef Cattle Specialist, Gainesville
o: T.A. Houser
Extension Meat Specialist, Gainesville
*o E.L. Johnson, Associate Professor
Extension Equine Specialist, Gainesville
T.T. Marshall, Professor
Beef Cattle Management, Gainesville
R.O. Myer, Professor
Animal Nutritionist, Marianna
R.S. Sand, Associate Professor
Extension Livestock Specialist, C..:, ,, vi
SW. Taylor, Coordinator
Youth Education/Training, Gainesville
S.H. TenBroeck, Associate Professor
Extension Equine Specialist, Gainesville
T.A. Thrift, Assistant Professor
Beef Cattle Nutrition, Gainesville
4/V, Dates to Remember
I Il'"' Aniuiul FC'A (Qu)iii Rcipk)iccm.cinut Hcill'i SalC -
1 The Farm Bull Sale Okeechobee, FL
4-5 Ne\\ 4-H Chib Leader TraiIunII Series GCjnesc\ ile.
7 North Florida REC 3rd Annual Fall Field Day -
9 Co\\ (icck Rjncli Bull Sale Alice illk AL
12 Animal Health Topics for Today and Tomorrow -
12 Held He'Alth i INllIiei 'eii'lll ScininKii Hardee C'OllllII
A. ni-C'\ c C nilllil FL
14 UF/IFAS Range Cattle REC Field Day Ona, FL
14-17 Flondti uilnci Hoic Sho\\ Cniltbuin N i\\bm .
16 Florida Santa Gertrudis Association Auction Bartow,
16 2.1114-211115 C'Ouini\ 4-H & O)pen Horse Shl\\ Dates -
Ne\\ bernr FL
21 Florida Section, Society for Range Management Fall
Tour Sarasota, FL
21 LinleI C(I'lc F:iiin Bull SJle KIssininice. FL
21 Meadows Creek Bull Sale Kissimmee, FL
21 Caillki\\: \ Anii'iis Bull Sjlc Kis-liiiiniie FL
22 Ankony Angus Bull Sale Ocala, FL
22 GIlhain An''Ius Bull Salk ()Okchliocc FL
23 Debter Hereford Bull Sale Horton, AL
27 nclck G Bull Sale Hlimpton. GA
29 Lemmon Cattle Company Okeechobee, FL
I Thlee Tice' F:iiin Bull Sal \ oodblin. GA
2 Election Day
5 H:idee FaInis Black Bull Sal Cluelland. FL
5 Rogers Bar HR/Parker Charolais Sale Okeechobee,
II Ve!lC ii's Dj\
13 Walden Farms Bull Sale Brantley, AL
19-21 C'iamp Coole\ Bull Sale Fiiinklin TX
25 Thanksgiving Holiday
UNIVERSITY OF "0 '
SFLORIDA S ece
IFAS EXTENSION ) slei ,.
The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmave Acton Employer authorized to provide research, educational information, and other
services only to individuals that function with regard to race, color, sex, age, handicap, or national origin. For information on obtaining other extension pubhcations, contact your county
Cooperative Extension Service office.
0 Plant cool season legumes.
0 Plant small grain pastures.
0 Check mineral feeder.
0 Check for external parasites, especially lice, and
treat if needed.
0 Check for spittlebugs and grassloopers and treat,
0 Watch condition of cow herd; maintain adequate
0 Isolate any additions to the herd for 30 to 60 days
and observe for signs of disease; retest for
brucellosis and leptospirosis.
0 Be sure you have adequate handling facilities,
and they are in good working order.
0 If you are raising bulls for the commercial market,
October thru December is the main bull-buying
season for cattlemen in south Florida and now is
the time to have your promotion program fully
0 Have soils tested.
0 Observe cows daily to detect calving difficulty.
0 Use mineral with high level of magnesium if
grass tetany has been a problem in the past.
0 Check for external parasites and treat if needed.
0 Maintain adequate nutrient level for cow herd.
0 Calve in well-drained pastures.
0 Survey pastures for poisonous plants.
0 Start summarizing your annual records, both
production and financial-then you will have time
to make adjustments for tax purposes.
0 Re-evaluate winter feeding program and feed
0 Get breeding soundness exams on bull battery
so you have time to find replacements if some
0 Implement bull conditioning program.
0 Review plans and arrangements for the upcoming
0 Check progress of developing replacement
heifers are they going to meet your target weight
by the start of the breeding season?
R Begin grazing small grain pastures (if ready).
0 Check mineral feeder.
0 Check for external parasites and treat if needed.
0 Deworm cows and heifers prior to winter feeding
0 Observe regularly for calving difficulties.
0 Rotate calving pastures to prevent diseases.
0 Watch for scours in calves.
0 Investigate health of bulls before you buy.
0 Have dead animals posted by a veterinarian or
0 Complete review of management plan and update
for next year. Check replacement heifers to be
sure they will be ready to breed 3 4 weeks prior
to the main cow herd.
Floridians to Protect
While state and local officials are treating
hurricane-impacted areas to reduce mosquito
populations, Florida Agriculture and Consumer
Services Commissioner Charles H. Bronson today
reminded Floridians to take steps to reduce the threat
of exposure to themselves and their animals.
"Mosquitoes remain the single largest carrier
of diseases, and it is important that people take
precautions to minimize the risk that mosquitoes
pose," Bronson said. "While we have set up a
command post and are assisting counties and local
mosquito control districts with aggressive mosquito
spraying, state residents still need to be mindful of
the mosquito threat."
Toward that end, Bronson is recommending that
Remove standing water from their property
to the extent possible, wear long-sleeved shirts
and long pants when outside around dusk and
dawn when mosquitoes are most active, and use
a mosquito-repellent with DEET.
Make sure that horses are vaccinated and
receive necessary booster shots against both
West Nile Virus and Eastern Equine
Encephalitis. Check with your veterinarian to
make sure that the animals have been vaccinated
and that the shots are up to date.
Make sure or check with your veterinarian to
be certain that dogs and cats are on routine
preventative medication against heart worm.
Animals not being treated need to be tested and
be negative for the disease before preventative
medications can begin.
Meanwhile, Bronson's department, which
oversees mosquito control districts throughout
Florida, is aggressively treating storm-impacted areas
with aerial spraying of mosquitoes. More than 2
million acres have been treated to date, and Bronson
said he expects that treatments will continue for at
least a few more weeks until mosquito populations
SOURCE: Dr. Thomas Holt
Release September 21, 2004
Bronson Lauds Multi-
Agency Response to
Animal Needs During
Florida Agriculture and Consumer Services
Commissioner Charles H. Bronson is praising the
efforts of an interagency emergency team created to
respond to agricultural needs during a disaster.
The State Agricultural Response Team (SART)
was recently formed to bring state, federal and local
resources together to address the needs of agriculture
and animal industries during natural disasters and
other emergency situations. The coordinated effort
ensures that agencies involved in agriculture and
animal industries effectively communicate and plan
for emergencies that affect Florida. This provides
for a more effective, unified and efficient use of the
various resources needed to respond to a disaster.
"It's critical that we take care of our citizens
during an emergency, but there are many significant
issues that affect the agriculture and animal industries
as well," Bronson said. "The multi-agency effort
proved very effective during the three recent
hurricanes in mobilizing resources, getting
information out to the public and industry
representatives and ensuring resources were delivered
to the intended recipients."
During the recent hurricanes the department's
Division of Animal Industry, in conjunction with a
host of public and private partners, made hundreds
of producer assessments; assisted in animal rescue
and evacuation; coordinated direct veterinary care;
provided emergency feed and water to livestock and
small animal shelters; and coordinated receipt and
distribution of small and large animal feed, animal
crates, fencing, and animal health supplies in the
impacted areas. SART was also able to provide
individual citizens with information about pet-
friendly shelters and hotels and locations of animal
SART member agencies include the Florida
Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services;
the University of Florida's Institute of Food and
Agricultural Sciences, Extension Service and College
of Veterinary Medicine; the U.S. Department of
Agriculture's Veterinary Services and Farm Service
Agency; Florida Cattlemen's Association; Florida
Animal Control Association; U.S. Humane Society;
Florida Veterinary Medical Association; Florida Farm
Bureau; and Southern Plant Diagnostic Network.
The SART effort is also a vehicle for the various
agencies to develop and implement procedures and
train participants to provide a safe, environmentally
sound and effective response to future disasters. For
information about SART visit http://www.flsart.org.
SOURCE: Liz Compton
Release September 22, 2004
Hurricane Tips for
Due to the recent hurricanes farmers in the
southeastern region have seen much of their crop and
livestock destroyed. Hurricanes Charley and Frances
brought more than $2 billion in damage to Florida's
annual crops, state officials said. It's a hard hit when
Florida's annual crop production revenue is $6.4
billion, and with a couple months left in hurricane
season, there's no telling how much greater the
damage will be. The concerns for farmers come in
many different forms, from knowing and using safety
rules for clean-up; salvaging crops, grains and feeds;
health maintenance for livestock and poultry;
reconditioning equipment; and recovery of orchards
Dr. Stephen Olson, a University of Florida/
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (UF/
IFAS) professor of horticulture, says that while there
not much vegetable growers can do to prevent the
destruction of their crops, they can take a pro-active
step towards disease prevention. Before the storm,
Olson says farmers should "make sure the proper
fungicides or bacterialcide materials have been
applied. After the storm, they are going to be looking
at lots of wind damage and a lot of damaged leaves,
and they are going to have to go back out into the
fields as quick as they can, and assess the damage,
and again put out the appropriate protectant
materials." He also said that farmers may have to get
back out and re-fertilize, due to the heavy rains and
flooding washing it away. Another concern for
vegetable growers is the management of weeds after
flooding from a hurricane. The UF/IFAS "Disaster
Handbook," states that in the year after a flood, new
weed problems will be likely. Some of the weeds
carried into the field by floodwaters may not have
germinated in time to be noticed during the previous
growing season. Mechanical and chemical methods
need to be considered in both the flood year and
subsequent years to manage weeds.
According to UF/IFAS publication, by Thomas
Yeager, for operators of hurricane-damaged nurseries,
irrigation of salvageable container plants or plants
planted after the hurricane is a short-term priority.
Short-term production efforts should concentrate on
removing plants from flooded areas, providing shade
where needed, and preparing inventory for sale. "Two
of the highest priorities for nursery growers affected
by a hurricane or a damaging storm are to, assess
damage and initiate insurance filing and set up
temporary systems to keep salvageable crops and
materials useable," said Dr. Jyotsna Sharma, an
assistant professor of environmental horticulture for
UF/IFAS, who is based at the North Florida Research
and Education Center (NFREC) in Quincy, Fla.
"Suitable irrigation water might become a limited
resource, and therefore, electrical conductivity of
water and substrate should be monitored carefully to
maintain plants during the post-storm period."
As for farmers of row crops there are also
preventative measures and preparations that they can
make before the storm. "If a hurricane is coming
through, peanuts should not be dug if the vines are
healthy. Peanuts that have been plowed up are often
blown around and many areas of the field may be
flooded which can cause peanuts to rot," said Dr.
David Wright, a UF/IFAS extension specialist in
cropping systems and conservation tillage, and
professor of agronomy, who is also based at NFREC-
Quincy. "Peanuts should be sprayed with a fungicide
prior to the storm if there is a good likelihood that it
will be 2-3 weeks to harvest or before the ground
will dry out. Disease can explode under these
conditions and vines deteriorate quickly causing huge
harvest losses." For cotton farmers, "it is often not
advisable to defoliate cotton a week to 10 days before
possible high winds since most defoliants are used
with boll openers and as cotton opens it becomes
more susceptible to being blown out of the boll,"
Wright said. After the storm he says "farmers should
wait for the soil and then the lint of the cotton to dry
out before they can get back in there. They do need
to get to it as soon as possible when it dries out."
Orchards and Groves
The threat of trees uprooting during a hurricane
is of extreme importance to farmers who own
orchards or groves. If the trees are uprooted during
the storm, many can be reset if the root ball is intact.
Once reset, secure with stakes to immobilize them.
Set up trees that have been knocked down or washed
out. Straighten trees while the soil is still wet, but
work carefully to avoid breaking roots. Use props,
stakes or guy wires for anchorage, although stakes
are better if they can be driven deep enough to give
adequate support, since props and guy wires make
cultivation more difficult. Some of the other tips the
UF/IFAS "Disaster Handbook," provides for orchard
farmers after the storm are: drain orchards as soon
as possible by digging new drainage or by pumping,
standing water may cause root suffocation. To prevent
further erosion, use brush, prunings or other material
to block gullies and keep heavy equipment out of
orchards with wet soil. Robert E. Rouse says in UF/
IFAS publication for citrus grower preparedness
should focus on things like personnel assignments,
safety training, emergency equipment, and
communications equipment. He says that "prepared
management can deal with a hurricane and its
consequences. By having a plan and following it,
grove managers can greatly increase the odds of a
grove being productive in the long term following a
Greenhouse growers should take precautions
before the hurricane to prepare the structure and
plants. Bob Hochmuth, the mutli-county extension
agent for UF/IFAS at NFREC-Suwannee Valley,
whose extension program focuses on greenhouse
production, says that securing the greenhouse
structure is very important to the health and survival
of the plants. "Greenhouses that are covered with
two layers of plastic are kept inflated with a small
blower between the two layers. Keeping this air space
inflated is very important to the strength of the
greenhouse structure," Hochmuth said. "Power
outages disable the blower, so a small backup
generator, even if mainly used to keep this blower
operating; can be critical during high winds. Backup
generators are critical after a major storm to be able
to run environmental controls and irrigation systems.
"Small greenhouse operators can also help secure the
structure prior to the storm by securing a shade cloth
over the entire greenhouse even if the shade is not
required at that time. This extra layer adds security
to the structure." Hochmuth says that it's also
important to make sure entry doors are properly
secured so that wind doesn't destroy the crop and
greenhouse structure. After the hurricane, according
to the UF/IFAS "Disaster Handbook," flooded
greenhouses and shadehouses need to follow special
procedures to avoid problems with new plantings.
One of those procedures is to sterilize greenhouse
soil before new plantings are made, which can be
done through steam cleaning or chemicals. Also
greenhouse growers should disinfect all surfaces and
tools, remove flood deposits and the top inch of old
When it comes to livestock owners, they face
very different issues due to hurricanes than crop
farmers. Dr. Gary Hansen, a UF/IFAS extension
specialist in beef cattle and assistant professor of
animal science located at NFREC-Marianna, says
that there are a few steps that livestock owners can
take before the hurricane. "Probably one of the most
critical parts of having a storm come in, is having
animals identified so that they can be traced back to
who owns the animals," Hansen said. "A lot of times,
fences will be knocked down by trees, animals then
get out of the premise that they're on and if you don't
have them ID-ed, then no one knows who owns the
animals or how to get them back to the owner. The
other is: make sure you know exactly how many
animals you have, count them up before the storm,
then go out afterwards and count them up and make
sure they're all there." Hansen also says that letting
the cattle out into a pasture is safer for than putting
them in a barn or other structure, "during the Storm,
most animals will, amazingly enough, have natural
instincts as where to go and what to do." After the
storm, Hansen says it's important for cattle to have a
pasture that is dry. "Cattle do not like to graze under
water, so farmers might need to come in and provide
animals with hay." It's also important to be cautious
when giving wet feed to livestock. The best way to
approach giving animals wet feed is to only give it
to a few first, wait for a few days, then give it to the
The Handbooks says that flood-damaged
grains must be salvaged quickly because grain can
begin to spoil within a few hours. Wet grain molds
and heats up quickly, possibly resulting in
spontaneous combustion. Farmers can remove dry
grain and store it separately, but the best way to
save wet grain is to get the grain to a commercial
dryer quickly. There are also many diseases that
are caused by standing water left over from heavy
rains and floods, which can affect livestock,
including Blackleg, Anthrax, and Foot Rot. If your
fields or farm buildings have been flooded, take
special precautions against flood-related diseases
in poultry and livestock. For more detailed
information and hurricane tips, visit the UF/IFAS
"Disaster Handbook," online at http://
disaster.ifas.ufl.edu/chap6fr.htm or visit http://
UF/IFAS, North Florida Research
and Education Center
Release September 17, 2004
Livestock Management Issues
Brought on by Hurricanes and
The recent hurricanes have created management
challenges and animal stress for the cow herd beyond
those normally associated with weaning, late
gestation, and calving. While in the midst of recovery
efforts from the hurricanes and their lingering effects
of damage and flooding it is imperative to continue
to utilize some of the best-management practices
(BMPs) for the cow-calf enterprise. Delaying and/or
skipping crucial management practices may not only
affect the 2003-04 calf crop but also the 2004-05 calf
crop as well. The following are some thoughts to
consider over the next couple of months.
Nutrition and Feeding
Late gestation and calving are critical times to
supply adequate energy and protein for the cow.
Maintaining cow body condition will help to ensure
adequate milk production for the new calf and
maintain fertility to produce the next calf. Stretch
you pasture and hay supply by providing
supplemental feed that are highly digestible fiber
sources such as soybean hulls, citrus pulp, brewer's
grains, corn gluten feed, wheat middlings or whole
cottonseed. Feed hay in bale rings to reduce waste
and encourage maximal utilization of the hay.
Damaged feed grains and moldy hay can cause
digestive disturbances or worse. Generally, the
severity of the effects of feeding damaged feeds is
greatest for horses, sheep, poultry, swine and cattle
in that order. Wet feeds and grain may produce
mycotoxins which can be toxic to certain livestock.
If you must feed wet or flood damaged feed proceed
with caution. Observe animals for any sign of illness.
Wet hay will begin to heat and mold very
quickly. Spontaneous combustion could occur in as
little as 2-3 days. Move and restack any dry hay. If
possible open wet bales to accelerate drying. Standing
water will prevent grazing. Lack of available forage
can cause cattle to eat poisonous plants which they
would normally not consume. Fallen tree branches
may offer a tempting but deadly roughage source
depending upon the species.
Standing water can also cause a number of
health problems for cattle aside from the nutritional
issues. Standing in water for a long duration can
encourage the onset of foot-rot. Foot-rot can be
accelerated by injuries from fencing and other debris
in the water and a high bacterial load in the water.
Flood conditions are also often associated with
blackleg and assorted clostridial diseases. Current
vaccination programs are incredibly important during
this time of additional stress. Other diseases carried
by pest such as flies and mosquitoes will be of
concern in flooded areas. Finally, the presence of dead
animal carcasses is of great concern for the health of
the cow herd, new calves, and the producer.
Remember, utilizing the BMPs that are practiced
on a daily basis can help to mitigate the additional
challenges and stress to both the cow herd and the
SOURCE: Dr. Matt Hersom
UF/IFAS, Department of Animal
Sciences, Gainesville, FL
Release September 30, 2004
Hurricanes Prompt NCBA to
Establish Permanent Disaster
Four hurricanes in six weeks greatly have
increased the need for assistance to farmers and
cattlemen in the Southeast, so the National
Cattlemen's Beef Association has established a
permanent Disaster Relief Fund.Money and products
collected through this effort will be sent to the local
state cattlemen's associations to ensure the most
efficient distribution. The fund will be earmarked for
cattlemen in areas that qualify for disaster assistance
under federal guidelines.
"Today, the urgent need is in Florida and
Alabama, but next year there could be forest fires in
Montana or drought in the Midwest.By establishing
this fund, we'll have resources and the means in place
to help producers when they need it," says Jim
McAdams, NCBA president-elect.
NCBA organized a relief effort for Florida
following Hurricane Charley, the first hurricane to
hit this season.To date, about $50,000 in donated
materials, services and money have been received
and forwarded to Florida for distribution.
Individuals who wish to contribute to the NCBA
Disaster Relief Fund can call 1-866-BEEF-USA for
information.Donations also can be sent to NCBA
Disaster Relief Fund, c/o NCBA, P.O. Box 3469,
"When you get blown away, the need for help
is pretty immediate," says Dr. Billy Powell, executive
vice president of the Alabama Cattlemen's
Association."Hurricane Ivan hit the Gulf Coast,
moved inland and dropped lots of rain, went back
through Florida and then over to Texas.It was kind
of like a Stephen King novel."
Powell says that in 12 counties already declared
100 percent disaster areas, about 4,200 Alabama
cattlemen were hit by Hurricane Ivan, and the damage
extends well beyond that area.As in Florida, fences
are down everywhere, buildings are destroyed and
material costs to replace them have skyrocketed.
Jim Handley, executive vice president of the
Florida Cattlemen's Association, calls the situation
there "Tough.There's a world of water.In places, you
can't even get a truck in to load calves." He says that
some of the auction barns hit in the first storms are
reopening, but the most pressing need is for the
federal government to expedite disaster relief.
NCBA staff in Washington, D.C., have been
working with the congressional delegations from the
affected states on the issue.In addition to finding
funds, it is important to identify the programs through
which they will be distributed.NCBA will establish
a hotline for producers seeking information about
relief efforts once those programs are identified.
September 27, President Bush offered a
supplemental funding bill that included $400 million
specifically for disaster relief for agriculture in
Florida and Alabama.Florida Sens. Bob Graham and
Bill Nelson are seeking $700 million in another bill.
"The impact from these storms will be felt for
months," says McAdams."Besides replacing the
immediate losses of buildings, crops and livestock,
producers will have to contend with pasture loss from
30 or more days of rain.That's going to lower
shipping weights, body condition scores and that's
going to raise feed costs.
"While we work with the federal government
to see what kind of disaster relief is available, this
fund will help supply some relief immediately at the
time of need."
SOURCE: National Cattlemen's Beef Assoc.
Release September 28, 2004
f NAMP Course Set
f for October
The North American Meat Processors
Association is offering its next Center of the Plate
training course on October 26-28 at the University
of Florida in Gainesville, FL.
The course provides a basic look at the origins
of meat products by demonstrating how carcasses
are converted into the portioned items commonly
traded in the foodservice business. It will cover all
major center of the plate protein items, including beef,
pork, lamb, veal, poultry and seafood.
Attendees also will receive information about:
the IMPS/NAMP numbering system, the
meat items described by these numbers and
NAMP's Meat and Poultry Buyers Guides
the origination of meat items and how this
affects their final use
how standards keep meat products consistent,
wholesome and fair throughout the market
how to identify common defects or
inconsistencies in meat products
the most current menu trends, ideas and
how value is determined for different meat
The $699 registration fee (before October 4)
includes a copy ofNAMP's flagship publications -
the Meat Buyers Guide and Poultry Buyers Guide
- plus a copy of the IMPS, the U.S. Trade
Descriptions for Poultry and the Seafood Handbook.
Twenty-two hours of continuing education
credits are available from the American Culinary
Federation. RD/DTR credit also is available.
For more information and to download the
agenda and registration information, go to http://
www.namp.com or contact NAMP at (800) 368-
SOURCE: John Gregerson
Release September 3, 2004