Table of Contents
 Livestock summary
 2004 Corn Silage Field Day
 USDA provides new tool for first...
 Veneman announces expanded BSE...
 Beef industry provides restaurants...
 Delaying the initial implant improved...
 Calf-fed steers graded higher and...

Group Title: Animal science newsletter
Title: Animal science newsletter ; April 2004
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00067334/00051
 Material Information
Title: Animal science newsletter ; April 2004
Series Title: Animal science newsletter
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Creator: Department of Animal Sciences, IFAS
Publisher: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Department of Animal Sciences, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publication Date: April 2004
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00067334
Volume ID: VID00051
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.


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Table of Contents
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
    Livestock summary
        Page 2
    2004 Corn Silage Field Day
        Page 3
    USDA provides new tool for first responders
        Page 4
    Veneman announces expanded BSE surveilance program
        Page 5
    Beef industry provides restaurants with menu ideas to build beef demand
        Page 6
    Delaying the initial implant improved quality grade in steer calves
        Page 7
    Calf-fed steers graded higher and were more acceptable in palatability attributes than yearling steers
        Page 8
Full Text

In This Issue...
Beef 1Mana1acllllentl C(lcendar 2
Li\estock Su1nmar\ 2
21111i- Corn Silace Filid Da\ ?
LISDA Pro idies Nc\\ Tool for First Rcspondcrs 4
\Cl1en1an AIIIInnounceC E\pandcd BSE Sur\ cillancc
Proa Inl 5
Beef Incllstr\ Pvro idces Restaurants \\ ith MlcInu
Ideas to Build Beef Demand 1
Effect of ScouLII onl Calf canineie \\ciulit 7
Dcln\ in1 thd Initial Implant Impro\ cd (Qualli
Giadc inI Stee'r Cal\c' 7
C'haractcriznll Bccf Co\\ Entcrpri.nsc in EIrht
Nortllhern Great Plains States x
Calf-Fed Steers Graded Hiihcr and \\-ere Mor
Acceptable in Palatabilit\ Attnrbutcs than
Ycarliini Steers x

Prepared by Extension Specialists in
Animal Sciences
J.D. Arthington
Beef Cattle Management, Ona
J.N. Carter
Beef Cattle Extension Specialist, Marianna
*: GR. Hansen
Beef Cattle Production, Marianna
*: EG Hembry, Professor
Department Chairman, Gainesville
*o M.J. Hersom
Extension Beef Cattle Specialist, Gainesville
*o E.L. Johnson, Associate Professor
Extension Equine Specialist, Gainesville
T.T. Marshall, Professor
Beef Cattle Management, Gainesville
: R.O. Myer, Professor
Animal Nutritionist, Marianna
*. R.S. Sand, Associate Professor
Extension Livestock Specialist, Gainevie '
: W. Taylor, Coordinator
Youth Education/ .. ........ Gainesville
S.H. TenBroeck, Associate Professor
Extension Equine Specialist, Gainesville
T.A. Thrift, Assistant Professor
Beef Cattle Nutrition. Gainesville

i / Dates to Remember

1 (irj- IFcd l3cct i\\ ill h \\ >ik F ir N i *i '.,,i>n
.\.- iLultLural lCI.nipl',.. PIj\llin, FL
3 State 4-H and FFA Livestock Judging Contest UF
Horse Teaching Unit, Gainesville, FL
U tice. \iL.AlAi.-. IL
10 State 4-H & FFA Horse Judging Contest Gainesville,
12 Cl't B3.1WISI.'S SC I'_IC \ I [)C'Nklh' ( OllllH ', -.M C[k'llSI ll
1 tticc. .\ilc.id I L
17 State 4-H & FFA Meats Judging Contest Gainesville,
29) .\nniIl Idcl ntlic.ition \\ ,lik.lh'p Il- BUiit rI'acliI
I hni. ( Ii cLl '-\ ill F L

4 SI.Lirli1'.l1r Dil.A \ it,.A d NM cC ._'Z [hilthl I n '.ec ', ,t
h- hF i !d.i (- ,ItC1Ck e 1 1 nl r .i ( d1iii. ''. Cie. h- L
5 41st Annual Florida Dairy Production Conference -
Hilton University of Florida Conference Center;
Gainesville, FL
5-7 :..,!" .\!l .lt [Ji'1 (-.i[nCt A Ih .' [ -11 C li'se (-'!]-l`'lC n!LC' -
I lIlton L n L'ir'. 'r t I h 'l a C nflt'Ll nc ( 'llt'l'.
(- j ii.k'', li L
16-21i -I4" .\in ,.,. i- h ,= al. Intimlt ,n' .\ i hu,.,i. Ii -l
Show and International Conference on Livestock in
the Tropics Kissimmee, FL
19 I I .\R' IF ua. 1 BUL t IFld Da'. 'utilhtfrupial
.\.L;'i ~i.lln.riL l R.,ea~ cll 'tjttil~ i. B ook u 'l- IlI. L
24-26 IFAS/NRCS Nutrient Management Module 7 Florida
Practicum USDA Service Center; Okeechobee, FL
27 2111-1 (('rn '~lI.Wl I-iIl [).' Pl.nt Si.ienl i .I!I
I- lLiLjtiiOn Re. .cLL1' h iL nt. t- Ith ., F L

Registration for the 53rd Annual Beef
0 Cattle Short Course is available online
i ,-,ii at http://www.animal.ufl.edu/
Registrations must be completed (or postmarked if
mailed) on or before April 23, 2004, to take
advantage of the discounted early registration fee.
For additional information, please contact Bob Sand
or Tim Marshall at (352) 392-1916.




4pri 2004

The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research educational information, and other
services only to individuals that function with regard to race, color sex, age, handicap, or national origin. For information on obtaining other extension pubhcations, contact your county
Cooperative Extension Service office.

Beef Management

0 Plant warm season annual pastures.
0 Plant corn for silage.
0 Check and fill mineral feeder.
0 Check dust bags or apply treated ear tags.
0 Check for external parasites and treat if necessary.
0 Observe cows for repeat breeders.
0 Deworm cows as needed if not done in March.
0 Vaccinate against blackleg and brucellosis after
3 months of age and before 12 months of age.
0 Market cull cows and bulls.
0 Update market information and refine market
strategy for calves.

0 Remove bulls.
0 Harvest hay from cool season crops.
0 Plant warm season perennial pastures.
0 Fertilize warm season pastures.
0 Check mineral feeder.
0 Check for spittlebugs and treat if necessary.
0 Apply spot-on agents for grub and louse control.
0 Check dust bags.
0 Vaccinate and implant with growth stimulant any
later calves.
0 Reimplant calves with growth stimulant at 90-
120 days, when you have herd penned.
0 Dispose of dead animals properly.
0 Update market information and refine marketing
0 Remove bulls May 21 to end calving season
March 1.

O Last date for planting sorghum.
0 Check mineral feeder, use at least 8% phosphorus
in mineral an not over 2 12 to 1 calcium to
phosphorus ratio.
0 Check pastures and hay field for spittlebugs, mole
crickets, and army worms.
0 Treat if necessary; best month for mole cricket



0 Check dust bags.
0 Watch for evidence of pinkeye and treat.
I Utilize available veterinary services and
diagnostic laboratories.
0 Get heifers vaccinated for brucellosis if not
already done.
0 Pregnancy check cows.
R Update market information and plans.
0 Make first cutting of hay.
0 Put bulls out June 1 for calves starting March
0 Reimplant calves at 90 to 120 days with growth

Livestock Summary

The number of cattle and
calves on farms and ranches on
January 1, 2004, was down 1 percent
from a year earlier and down over 8
percent from the cyclical peak on
January 1, 1996. Last year marked
the eighth year of herd liquidation, and there is no
hint of movement toward increased female retention.
Although moisture conditions have improved
somewhat this winter, forage conditions remain very
uncertain for the 2004 grazing season. Even with
the smallest cattle inventory since 1959, the present
environment of uncertainty may not be very
conducive to herd expansion.
Declining feed grain stocks and strong
domestic export demand is resulting in higher feed
costs. This rise in feed costs will put additional
pressure on cattle feeders. After spring grazing
season begins, assuming near-normal grazing
conditions, cow slaughter is expected to drop well
below year-earlier levels.
Cattle inventories are down 5% since 1998,
removing some pressure on hay stocks, but poor
forage conditions going into winter and increased
snow cover are increasing supplemental feeding in
many areas. Weather conditions and supplemental
feeding needs will be the key to prices on hay over
the next couple of months. Hay quality has been an
issue, particularly for other hays, and the prices are
likely sending mixed signals of fairly strong demand,

but poorer quality.


After hitting a record 2.57 billion pounds in
2003, beef exports may only reach 220,000 pounds
in 2004 if bans currently in place remain for the entire
year. U.S. exports remained strong enough to end
2003 at a record high level in spite of the post
December 23 ban on U.S. beef and live animals.

Significantly reduced exports are likely this
year because all major markets except Canada have
banned U.S. beef and live animal exports after the
discovery of a cow with bovine spongiform
encephalopathy (BSE) in Washington State on
December 23, 2003. Initially cattle/beef prices
declined sharply, but the markets realized that
domestic consumer reaction was muted and
consumer beef demand remained relatively strong.
Any opening of export trade would tighten beef
supplies resulting in stronger prices.
Livestock Trends
Florida Broter Chicks Hathed
n F I

The Florida Agri-Journal
Researched by Sherilyn Burris
Information Specialist I
Division of Marketing
Release March 5, 2004


2004 Corn Silage Field

Thursday, May 27, 2004

University of Florida
Departments ofAnimalSciences andAgronomy
Plant Science and Education Unit; Citra, FL


Registration at Plant Science Unit Citra -
Coffee, milk and donuts provided by the
Florida Farm Bureau Federation

11im M

Florida Catte and Calves Cash Receipts

are i---------------


Florida Hog Marketkgs

im 20M MCn

8:15 Introduction Drs. Jerry Bennett and Glen

8:20 Demonstrations in the Field Dr. Carrol
Chambliss, Mr. Jerry Wasdin, and Corn
Seed Representatives
Roundup-Ready varieties
BT Varieties
15 inch rows
Twin rows

9:15 Fertigation/Timing of N Application &
Other Nutrient Management
Recommendations Drs. Carrol
Chambliss, Danny Colvin, David Wright

10:00 Break Provided by Agriliance

10:15 Triple Cropping Forage Systems for
Greater Sustainability Dr. Ray Gallaher

10:35 Weeds and More Weeds, Transgenic
Varieties, and Corn without Atrazine -
Dr. Greg MacDonald


T> .





10:55 Management of Silage in Hot and
Humid Areas Drs. Limin Kung, Jr. and
Gbola Adesogan

11:25 My Experiences in Corn Production:
Panel Discussion


Lunch Provided by Diamond R.
Fertilizer; Farm Credit of North Florida;
Helena Chemical Co.; Southern States,
Trenton; Magnum Plus Fertilizer; Marty
Karle, Gromore UAP; and Ring Power

12:45 Equipment Field Demonstrations
Planting conventional, strip-till, no till
Static Equipment Displays
Feed Mixer Wagons
Handling Equipment
Irrigation Fertilizer Injection Pumps
Irrigation Systems
Moisture Testing Equipment
Silage Bags

Refreshments Provided by Lake Butler
Farm CenterHandling Equipment


I ."" R \
Plant Science Research and Education Unit
2256 West Highway 318
Citra, FL 32113
Phone: (352) 591-2678

From 1-75 (Exit 368), turn east on CR 318, 3
miles to US 441 then continue on CR 318 for 2 miles.
The unit is approximately 20 miles south of
Gainesville and 20 miles north of Ocala.
To register, please visit the Corn Silage Field
Day web site at http://www.animal.ufl.edu/dairy/
For further information concerning the Corn
Silage Field Day, please contact Jerry Wasdin at
wasdin@animal.ufl.edu or (352) 392-1120.


Jerry Wasdin
Research Programs/Services Coord
UF/IFAS, Department of Animal
Sciences, Gainesville, FL


USDA USDA Provides New Tool
S for First Responders

To prepare for the intentional and unintentional
introductions of animal diseases into the nation's
food production pathway, Agriculture Secretary Ann
M. Veneman has announced the release of an
informational compact disc for federal and state
agriculture first responders.
"This new tool provides federal, state and
private veterinarians immediate access to resources
and relevant information to help them more
effectively identify, respond to, control and facilitate
recovery from a foreign animal disease outbreak,"
Veneman said.
The compact disc, "Food Security: The Threat
to American Livestock," was developed in
conjunction with Auburn University. USDA s Animal
and Plant Health Inspection Service, (APHIS) helps
to ensure the safety of all animal and plant products
from the farm to the food distribution centers located
around the country. The agency has embarked on an
extensive program to enhance its readiness to detect,
deter and respond to terrorist events involving plant
or animal pathogens. State and federal officials who
have a role to fulfill in the event of an unintentional
or intentional threat to U.S. livestock will also have
access to this data bank.


Shortly after the events of Sept. 11, Veneman
formed a Homeland Security Council within the
department to develop a plan and coordinate efforts
among all USDA agencies and offices. The council
focused on: food supply and agriculture production,
USDA facilities and staff and emergency

APHIS' compact disc addresses emergency
preparedness and brings homeland security issues to
the forefront of private veterinary practitioners and
other agricultural first responders, as they conduct
their daily activities. It offers comprehensive
information on infectious disease threats to livestock,
animal disease awareness briefings, standard
veterinary medical information for diagnosing such
diseases and emergency information gathering and
reporting mechanisms.
Additionally, this information resource outlines
routine biosecurity measures for on-site farm visits,
recommends emergency response plans and suggests
disease monitoring methods. The Food Security CD
supports the National Animal Health Emergency
Management System's goals, which are:
* Preventing the introduction of foreign and
emerging animal pathogens.
* Being prepared to detect and manage an outbreak
of a foreign animal disease.
* Having an appropriate response system for
control and eradication of the disease.
* Having a system for recovery from the animal
health emergency event.


Ed Curlett, (301) 734-3256
Jerry Redding, (202) 720-6959
United States Department of
Agriculture, Washington, D.C.
Release March 26, 2004


USDA Veneman Announces
SExpanded BSE
Surveillance Program

Agriculture Secretary Ann M. Veneman has

announced details for an expanded surveillance effort
for Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (B SE) in the
United States.

"We are committed to ensuring that a robust
U.S. surveillance program continues in this country,"
said Veneman. "This one-time extensive surveillance
plan reflects the recommendation of the international
scientific review panel."

On December 30, 2003, Veneman announced
that an international scientific review panel would
review the U.S. Department of Agriculture's
investigation into the BSE find in Washington State
and provide recommendations for future actions. Last
month, this panel, operating as a subcommittee of
the Secretary's Advisory Committee on Foreign
Animal and Poultry Diseases, recommended a one-
year enhanced surveillance program targeting cattle
from the populations considered at highest risk for
the disease, as well as a random sampling of animals
from the aged cattle population.
The panel also complimented USDA on its
investigative efforts as well as commented that the
removal of specified risk materials from the food
supply was the single most important action USDA
took to protect public health.
USDA's BSE surveillance program historically
has been focused on the cattle populations where it
is most likely to be found, including those condemned
at slaughter because of signs of central nervous
system disorders, non-ambulatory cattle and those
that die on farms. In FY 2004, USDA sampled 20,543
animals-a sample size designed to detect the disease
if it occurred in one animal per million adult cattle
with a 95 percent confidence level, which is 47 times
the international standard for low-risk countries.
Veneman said that $70 million will be
transferred from the USDA Commodity Credit
Corporation to fund the enhanced program with the
goal to test as many cattle as possible in the high-
risk population as well as to test a sampling of the
normal, aged cattle population over a 12 to 18 month
time frame.
The enhanced surveillance plan incorporates


recommendations from the international scientific
review panel and the Harvard Center for Risk
Analysis; both have reviewed and support the plan.

In addition, USDA is appreciative of the advice,
assistance and analyses provided by the House and
Senate Agriculture Committees, House and Senate
Appropriations Committees and the House
Government Reform Committees in developing this
robust, aggressive surveillance plan.
The primary focus of USDA's enhanced
surveillance effort will continue to be the highest risk
populations for the disease, but USDA will greatly
increase the number of target animals surveyed and
will include a random sampling of apparently normal,
aged animals. USDA will build on previous
cooperative efforts with renderers and others to
obtain samples from the targeted high-risk
populations, which are banned from the human food
Under the enhanced program, using statistically
geographic modeling, sampling some 268,000
animals would allow for the detection of BSE at a
rate of 1 positive in 10 million adult cattle with a 99
percent confidence level. In other words, the
enhanced program could detect BSE even if there
were only five positive animals in the entire country.
Sampling some 201,000 animals would allow for the
detection of BSE at the same rate at a 95 percent
confidence level.
The sampling of apparently normal animals will
come from the 40 U.S. slaughter plants that handle
86 percent of the aged cattle processed for human
consumption each year in the United States. The
carcasses from these animals will be held and not
allowed to enter the human food chain until test
results show the samples are negative for BSE.
USDA will begin immediately to prepare for
the increased testing, with the anticipation that the
program will be ready to be fully implemented June
1, 2004. In the meantime, BSE testing will continue
at the current rate, which is based on a plan to test
40,000 animals in FY 2004. Testing will be conducted
through USDA's National Veterinary Services
Laboratory in Ames, Iowa, and a network of

laboratories around the country.
USDA is also working to approve rapid tests
for use in the testing program. USDA will help defray
costs incurred by industries participating in the
surveillance program for such items as transportation,
disposal and storage, and carcasses being tested.
Detailed information on the surveillance plan
can be found at http://www.aphis.usda.gov/lpa/


Alisa Harrison, (202) 720-4623
Jim Rogers, (202) 690-4755
United States Department of
Agriculture, Washington, D.C.
Release March 15, 2004



Beef Industry Provides
Restaurants with Menu
Ideas to Build Beef

As the challenges to be more creative and
economical continue to grow in the food service
industry, the Beef Checkoff Program has been out
front with new and ground-breaking recipes to
increase consumer demand for beef. The colorful
new 28-page recipe collection entitled Innovation
in Action offers a variety of recipes and menu
concepts to tempt every palate.
This piece was funded by beef producers
through their $1-per-head checkoff, and coordinated
for the Cattlemen's Beef Promotion and Research
Board and state beef councils by the National
Cattlemen's Beef Association (NCBA).
"We are extremely pleased to offer "Innovation
in Action" to restaurant and other food service
operators," said Sid Sumner, Bartow, Fla., beef
producer and chairman of the Joint Foodservice
Committee. "Creativity is the ingredient that helps
turn occasional customers into loyal ones, and we're
happy to help with this to make sure beef is part of
the picture."


Today's growing food industry is continually
evolving and heavily influenced by many ethnic
cultures. Innovation in Action embraces these
influences by pairing beef with complementary
ingredients to create dishes with Latin, Mediterranean
and Asian flavor, among others.
In addition to innovative recipes and concepts
such as steak moo shu, beef pretzels, Cheeseburger
Fries and all-American sushi, readers will also find
starters, cooking and preparation tips, and
information featuring exciting new beef products
recently developed for foodservice operations. The
collection also highlights ideas from some of the
hottest operations on how to transform good menu
items into profitable hits.
"As a partner with restaurants in growing beef
business, America's beef producers know the best
thing we can do is develop new products and creative
recipes that allow them to build relationships and
loyalty with their customers," said Sumner. "We
believe this booklet will be very helpful to restaurants
and other food service establishments."
Innovation in Action also highlights the newest
beef value cuts that are a result of a new cutting
approach developed through beef checkoff-funded
research: taking the best portion of what used to be
sold as larger roasts and cutting them into higher-
value steaks. These new cuts are low on plate waste
and high on tenderness, flavor and quality. Distinctive
recipes for all occasions -- including breakfast -- are
The booklet will be distributed to food service
operators throughout the country. Additional copies
of the brochure can be obtained by calling the NCBA
Customer Service Department at 1-800-368-3138 or
mailing a request to innovationinaction@beef.org
and requesting item #24708.


Walt Barnhart
National Cattlemen's Beef
http://www.beef. org
Release March 26, 2004


Effect of Scours on Calf
Weaning Weight
Montana State University researchers evaluated
health and performance records of 3637 calves from
inbred and outbred populations over a 14-year period.
The inbred cattle were linebred Herefords. The
outbred cattle consisted of four genotypes: 1)
Hereford; 2) Angus x Hereford; 3) Simmental x
Hereford; and 4) Tarentaise x Hereford. Over the 14-
year period, the average incidence of scours was 35%;
the range was 13 to 64%. Incidence of scours was
significantly higher for inbred than outbred calves
(41 vs 28%). Incidence of scours was significantly
higher in calves born to 2-yr-old dams and decreased
with increasing age of dam. Scours significantly
impacted calf weaning weight. Over all years,
scouring calves weighed 458 lb at weaning while
non-scouring calves weighed 478 lb. Also, outbred
calves were significantly heavier than inbred calves
(483 vs 452 lb. The authors concluded that the
economic benefit of managing to reduce the
incidence of scours should exceed the expense to
reduce the economic loss that can occur when calves
are afflicted with scours (Anderson et al. 2003. Prof.
Anim. Sci. 19: 399).

Delaying the Initial Implant
Improved Quality Grade in Steer

The objective of this University of Nebraska
study was to determine if delaying the initial feedlot
implant would influence performance and carcass
traits in steer calves implanted twice during the
finishing period. One hundred crossbred steer calves
(476 lb) were used in the study. One-half were
implanted with Synovex S after a 14-day
acclimation period. The remainder were implanted
with Synovex S 30 days after the 14-day acclimation
period. All calves were re-implanted 112 days later
with Synovex Choice and harvested after another
100 days.
Average daily gain (3.74 lb/d), final weight
(1,269 lb), hot carcass weight (799 lb), fat thickness
(.48 in), ribeye area (12.79 sq in), and yield gain (3.2)


were not affected by implant regimen. However, the
delayed implant steers had significantly higher
marbling scores (570 vs 527) and a higher percentage
grading Choice (92 vs 68%). The authors concluded
that delaying the administration of Synovex Suntil
30 days on feed can improve marbling score and
quality grade without compromising feedlot
performance (Funston et al. 2004. University of
Nebraska Beef Cattle Report. MP80A).

Characterizing Beef Cow
Enterprises in Eight Northern
Great Plains States

South Dakota State University researchers
summarized data collected from 185 cooperating cow
herds during the years 1991-1999 in eight Northern
Plains states (ND, SD, MT, WY, MN, IA, NE, and
KS). Data were collected and analyzed by
Standardized Performance Analysis (SPA)
guidelines. Compared to industry averages, these
operations were large, averaging 508 breeding
females. In addition to production data, 148 of the
cooperators provided financial information. Although
the results reported here are not necessarily applicable
to other regions, they nevertheless provide
benchmark data regarding practices, production
levels and financial performance of enterprises in a
major cow-calf producing area of the U.S. Following
is an abbreviated summary of results (Dunn et al.
2003. South Dakota Beef Report).
* Acres/exposed female 21.3 A
* Pregnancy percentage 93.0%
* Calving percentage 91.4%
* Weaning percentage 86.7%
* Female replacement rate 19.7%
* Average age at weaning 199.0 days
* Average weaning weight per calf- 519.0 pounds
* Pounds calf weaned per female exposed 451.0
* Total expenses per beginning year female $397
* Total revenue per beginning year female $430
* Net income $33
* Return on assets 3.1% pounds
* Total assets per beginning year female $2,087

Calf-Fed Steers Graded Higher
and Were More Acceptable in
Palatability Attributes than
Yearling Steers
Research has shown variable results when calf-
feds and yearlings are compared for quality grade
and measures of meat palatability. However, very few
studies have made this comparison using
contemporaries from the same herd. University of
Nebraska scientists used 3% British x 14 Continental
steers to make this comparison in a two-year study
where herdmates were assigned at weaning time to
be finished as either calves or yearlings. Calf-feds
were placed directly in a finishing yard for 6 to 7
months and were 13 to 14 months old when
harvested. Yearlings were backgrounded on various
growing systems (drylot, corn stalks, and pasture)
and then finished for 3 months. They were 19 to 20
months old when harvested. Both groups were fed
to be harvested at a constant fat thickness endpoint
of 0.5 in. Yearlings had significantly heavier
carcasses (828 vs 696 lb) and greater ribeye areas
(12.6 vs 11.3 sq in). There were no significant
differences in fat thickness or yield grade. Calf-feds
had significantly more marbling and a higher
percentage of Choice carcasses than yearlings. Steaks
from calves were significantly more tender as
measured by shear force after 7, 14, and 21 days of
aging. They were also scored higher by a sensory
panel for tenderness, juiciness, flavor, and overall
acceptability after 7 and 14 days of aging. Based on
the shear force data, the probability of a tough steak
from calf-feds was only 1.9, 0.7, and 0.02% after 7,
14, and 21 days of age, respectively. Yearlings
showed a much higher probability of being tough:
29.2, 11.9, and 4.0% after 7, 14, and 21 days of age,
respectively (Brewer et al. 2004. University of
Nebraska Beef Cattle Report MP 80-A).


Harlan Ritchie, Steven Rust, and
Daniel Buskirk
Beef Cattle Specialists
Michigan State University
East Lansing, MI 48824
Release Winter 2004



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