Table of Contents
 Livestock summary
 53rd Annual Beef Cattle short...
 New calendar website lists UF/IFAS...

Group Title: Animal science newsletter
Title: Animal science newsletter ; March 2004
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00067334/00050
 Material Information
Title: Animal science newsletter ; March 2004
Series Title: Animal science newsletter
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Creator: Department of Animal Sciences, IFAS
Publisher: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Department of Animal Sciences, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publication Date: March 2004
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00067334
Volume ID: VID00050
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.


This item has the following downloads:

00001 ( PDF )

Table of Contents
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
    Livestock summary
        Page 2
    53rd Annual Beef Cattle short course
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
    New calendar website lists UF/IFAS statewide extension education programs
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
Full Text

In This Issue...
In This Issue ... /Dates to Remember
Beef Management Calendar ................................ 2- /
Livestock Summary .................. .... ............. 2
53' Annual Beef Cattle Short Course ................... 3 March
New Calendar Website Lists UF/IFAS Statewide
Extension Education Programs .................... 6 I L1'. o1I liu.,rz t h.itl. I-
3-4 West Florida Livestock Show & Sale Quincy, FL
Longevity Attributes of Bos indicus x Bos taurus ,, a .l rims L'..et.k PrlutiL.,n ( ,,k-erCnI c -
C rossbred C ow s ............................. ................. 7 i. F L
9-10 FCA Legislative Quarterly Meeting Tallahassee, FL
New Growth Factor May Enhance Beef Cattle ,
13 ;t.dtt 4-1 1 I [)Ilulo'", (. ontelt I- l i ii. F L
Efficiency ............. ....................................... 7 20 County 4-H & Open Horse Show Newberry, FL
Classifying Age of Cattle by Dental Eruption May 25 \I- R -( BeeUr C.ttlc I-CelI D.i', NR.lu1,in.I., I L
Be Inaccurate .................. ....................... 7 27 Small Farms Livestock Production Conference -
Sebring, FL
High Starch Vs. High Fiber Diets for Early-Weaned Sebring, FL
C alves ...................................... ................. 8
A Vaccine and a Microbial Feed Additive Were April
Effective in Reducing Fecal Shedding of 3 L 1 LIL
E. C oli 0157:H 7 .................. ........... .......... 8 (j le. FL
S 10 Horse Judging Contest Gainesville, FL
d by E sion S ciais in 17 Meats Judging Contest Gainesville, FL
Prepared by Extension Specialists in
Animal Sciences
J.D. Arthington
BeefCattle Management, Ona
J.N. Carter
BeefCattle Extension Specialist, Marianna
*: GR. Hansen
BeefCattle Production, Marianna N A SS
*: EG Hembry, Professor
Department Chairman, Gainesville
*: M.J. Hersom Preliminary Ag Census Data has been
Extension BeefCattle Specialist, Gainesville released based on the 2002 Census of
: E.L. Johnson, Associate Professor
Extension Equine Specialist, Gainesville Agriculture. Preliminary results show, among other
*. T.T. Marshall, Professor things, the average age ofAmerican ag producers
BeefCattle Management, Gainesville in 2002 was 55 years old; 27% of ag producers
: R.O. Myer, Professor
AnimalNutritionist, Marianna were women; and 90% of American's ag
*. R.S. Sand, Associate Professor operations are still run by individuals or families
ExtensionLivestockSpecialist, Gainevlle ... .
ExtensionLivestock Specialist, Gaie ille and in most cases are small. In fact, 59% of ag
W. Taylor, Coordinator
Youth Education/! ...... Gainesville operations had less than $10,000 in sales of ag
: S.H. TenBroeck, Associate Professor products in 2002. For more information go to
Extension Equine Specialist, Gainesville www.usda.gov/nass/.
4. T.A. Thrift, Assistant Professor
BeefCattle Nutrition, Gainesville
The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research, educational information, and
other services only to individuals that function with regard to race, color sex, age, handicap, or national origin. For information on obtaining other extension publcatons, contact your
county Cooperative Extension Service office.

FLORIDA f cience


9Marci 2004

Beef Management

0 Fertilize pasture to stimulate early growth and get
fertilizer incorporated in grass roots while there is
still good soil moisture.
0 Prepare land for summer crops.
0 Begin grazing warm season permanent pastures.
0 Check and fill mineral feeder.
0 Observe bulls for condition and success. Rotate and
rest if needed.
0 Deworm cows as needed.
0 Make sure calves are healthy and making good
weight gains.
0 Hang forced-use dust bags by April 1 st for external
parasite control or use insecticide impregnated ear
0 Identify, vaccinate, implant, and work late calves.
0 Put bulls out March 1 st for calving season to start
December 9.
0 Remove bulls March 22nd to end calving season
January 1.

0 Plant warm season annual pastures.
0 Plant corn for silage.
0 Check and fill mineral feeder.
0 Check dust bags or apply treated ear tags.
0 Check for external parasites and treat if necessary.
0 Observe cows for repeat breeders.
0 Deworm cows as needed if not done in March.
0 Vaccinate against blackleg and brucellosis after 3
months of age and before 12 months of age.
0 Market cull cows and bulls.
0 Update market information and refine market
strategy for calves.

0 Remove bulls.
0 Harvest hay from cool season crops.
0 Plant warm season perennial pastures.
0 Fertilize warm season pastures.
0 Check mineral feeder.


Livestock Summary

Demand for beef continues to be
S-strong into 2004, particularly for higher
quality fed beef. The beef sector was
forced to make many adjustments
throughout 2003 but was helped by a
very strong consumer and export market
that evolved over the past few years.
Feedlots in December were less current and
slaughter weights should increase from the lows that were
experienced during the summer. Boxed beef prices
declined from their $194 a cwt peak in mid-October to
between $155-160 in mid-December.
Retail prices will continue to rise through late winter
as the live/wholesale/retail prices adjust themselves to
the rapid supply/price changes of 2003.
November's retail price for Choice beef rose
sharply averaging a record $4.32 a pound, up to 10
percent from October's record, and up 29 percent from
a year ago.
The retail and hotel/restaurant industries absorbed
much of the price increase through the month of October
as the wholesale to retail margin fell 41 cents a pound
from $1.63 in July to $1.22 in October.
November, on the other hand, saw the wholesale
to retail spread rise to $1.74 per pound.
Although current fed cattle and boxed beef prices
are slightly off their highs, they are projected to remain
well above any previous highs for the next couple of
years as supplies continue to tighten.


0 Check for spittlebugs and treat if necessary.
0 Apply spot-on agents for grub and louse control.
R Check dustbags.
0 Vaccinate and implant with growth stimulant any later
0 Reimplant calves with growth stimulant at 90-120
days, when you have herd penned.
0 Dispose of dead animals properly.
0 Update market information and refine marketing
0 Remove bulls May 21 to end calving season March

Once December figures are calculated, the month's
averages will likely remain 25 to 30 percent higher than
what they were last year.
The beef industry will face challenges over the next
couple of years to maintain adequate supplies for the
various sectors of the domestic and international markets.
Market share is forecast to be lost to pork and
poultry as the next expansion phase of the cattle cycle
begins and more cows and heifers are retained.
The better the industry can adjust to the declining
higher quality beef supply over the next couple of years,
the less downward price adjustment will be needed to
gain back market share. Beef supplies are not predicted
to rise until mid-2006 with market share having to be
The USDA recently announced that DNA evidence
now helps to verify that the B SE positive cow found in
the Washington State originated from a dairy farm in
Alberta, Canada. Research and preventative measures
are on going. For more information, please visit the
USDA website (www.usda.gov) or call 1-866-
USDACOM (873-2266).
The New Year continues to be an interesting year
for Florida's cow/calf operators while the ability to
quickly adapt to the industry's ever changing needs is a
vital ingredient in remaining viable.

Livestock Trends
Florida Camils and Caf Inventory

Florida Mik Praduclon



I=m A n t1


The FloridaAgri-Joural
Researched by Tony Young
Marketing Specialist I
Division ofMarketing
Release January 15, 2004



53rd Annual Beef Cattle Short

"Management Issues and Industry
Challenges in Defining Times"

Hilton University of Florida Conference Center,
Gainesville, Florida
May 5-7, 2004

Flrida BroaBr Produtdon Vakis

128 9

ir tua inam^^^^

Has the cattle industry been in more challenging
times??? The discovery this past year, on December 23rd,
ofBSE in the United States has resulted in maj or changes
zi in the way we conduct some aspects of the beef business
and has accelerated and brought into focus procedures
and processes that were being contemplated prior to
December 23rd. Your marketing strategies may be
effected by some changes at the processing level related
to age of animal at the time of processing. Mandatory
electronic individual animal identification and country of
origin labeling (COOL) have become more urgent
centers of discussion throughout the beef industry. Both
will alter past farm and ranch procedures. The origin of


the cattle you produce will be more easily identified and
you and the end user will know the carcass characteristics
of those cattle. Although carcass characteristics are
important, it is equally important to maintain proper
genetic make-up of the cow herd to optimize production
performance within the production environment. This
year's Beef Cattle Short Course program is extremely
important to you because it deals with these many current
issues. Wednesday's program addresses issues related
to BSE, the National Animal Identification System,
changes in marketing strategies, and a marketing outlook.
Thursday morning's program, sponsored by the
American Breeds Coalition, examines the use of genetic
markers for genetic selection, implications of beef-type
evaluations and balancing production, environment, and
the market place. Apanel discussion with top geneticists,
ranchers, feeders, processors, and retailers will respond
to questions concerning the use ofBos indicus genetics
for beef production. Thursday afternoon will be devoted
to demonstrations and discussions of various products
designed for individual animal electronic identification.
The very important topic of effective and strategic beef
cow herd supplementation will be discussed Friday
morning accompanied by three break-out sessions
designed to address the unique supplementation needs
of the large southern ranches and of cattle producers in
the central and in the northwest parts of Florida. There
will be a breakfast Thursday morning sponsored by
Lakeland Animal Nutrition and Alltech, Inc. with a
discussion of the importance of selenium nutrition in beef
production. Thursday's lunch will be sponsored by Farm
Credit Associations of Florida and the Thursday
afternoon break will be sponsored by Helena Chemical
Company. Of course, there will be the traditional
Cattlemen's Steak-Out on Thursday evening. The cattle
industry is always exciting and always challenging. Recent
events make the information you will gain at this year's
Beef Cattle Short Course necessary for meeting the
challenges you face in your beef cattle business. For more
information or to register, please visit the website at
http://www.animal.ufl. edu/extensi on/b eef/

New Meeting Location for the 53rd Annual
Beef Cattle Short Course

The 53rd Annual Beef Cattle Short Course will be
held at the Hilton University of Florida Conference

Center, Gainesville, Florida. This is a new location for
the short course and the accommodations should prove
to be a great enhancement in both the short course and
trade show. The Hilton University of Florida Conference
Center is located at 1714 SW 34th Street, Gainesville,
FL. You may obtain more information about this new
meeting location by visiting the Beef Cattle Short Course
web page located at http://www.animal.ufl.edu/extension/


"Management Issues and Industry Challenges in
Defining Times"
Wednesday, May 5, 2004
11:00 Registration (Hilton UF Conference Center)
Presiding: E GlenHembry, Department ofAnimal
Sciences, UF/IFAS, Gainesville, FL
1:00 Welcome
1:15 Remarks Roger West, President, Florida
Cattlemen'sAssociation, Gainesville, FL
1:35 Market Outlook for 2004 and Beyond -
RandyBlach, Cattle-Fax, Englewood, CO
2:25 Refreshment Break
Presiding: Todd Thrift, Department ofAnimal Sciences,
UF/IFAS, Gainesville, FL
2:45 Under Construction: NationalAnimal
Identification System Glen Smith, Ag Infolink,
Macon, GA
3:30 Political Climate of BSE and COOL: How
Does it Affect You on the Ranch? -Bryan Dierlam,
NCBA, Washington D.C.
4:00 Have Marketing Plans Changed Given the
Ramifications of BSE and the Resulting Market
Conditions? RandyBlach, Cattle-Fax
4:45 Adjourn


5:00 Allied Industry Trade Show and Reception -
Several companies will have exhibits and representatives
to answeryour questions. Hors d'oeuvres provided
compliments of the exhibitors. A cash bar is available for
your enjoyment.

Thursday, May 6, 2004
7:00 The Importance of Selenium Nutrition in
Today's Beef Production Breakfast Sponsored by
Lakeland Animal Nutrition and Alltech,Inc.
"Genetics, Breeds, and Breeding Programs for
Profitable Beef Production in Florida" -
Sponsored by the American Breeds Coalition -
Braford, Brahman, Beefmaster, Brangus, Red
Brangus, Santa Gertrudis, and Simbrah"
Presiding: DavidRiley, STARS, USDA, Brooksville,
8:15 Genetic Selection Using Genetic Markers -
Gary Hansen, North Florida REC, UF/IFAS,
Marianna, FL
8:45 Implications of Breed Type Evaluations -
Larry Cundiff Meat Animal Research Center, USDA,
Clay Center, NE
9:30 Connecting the Cowherd to the Carcass:
Balancing Production, Environment and the Market
Place Bill Turner, Texas A&M, College Station, TX
10:15 Refreshment Break
Presiding: Bill Turner, Texas A&M, College Station,
10:30 Panel Response to Questions Concerning
the Use of Bos indicus Genetics for Beef
Production -
- Larry Cundiff, MARC, USDA, Clay Center, NE;
Breeds Research
- Tim Olson, Department of Animal Sciences, UF/IFAS,
Gainesville, FL; Breeds Research
- Dan Dorn, Decatur County Feed Yards, Oberlin, KS;

Feeder in Northern Plains
-DougHusfeld, Hondo Creek Cattle Co., Edroy, TX;
Feeder in Southern Plains
- GlenDolezal, Excel Corp.,Wichita, KS; Major
-Dwain Johnson, Department of Animal Sciences, UF/
IFAS, Gainesville, FL; Meats Research
-Joe Jordon, Publix, Lakeland, FL; Retail
- Charlie Bradburry, Nolan Ryan's All Natural Tender
Aged Beef, Huntsville, TX; CEO
- Ferrin Squires, Deseret Cattle & Citrus, St. Cloud,
FL; Cow/Calf and Current FL Beef Council Chairman
-Don Quincy, Quincy Cattle Co., Chiefland, FL;
12:00 Leave for Lunch at UF/IFAS Beef Teaching
Unit (Sponsored by Farm Credit Associations of
Florida Directions to be provided)
Presiding: TimMarshall and Bob Sand, Department of
Animal Sciences, UF/IFAS, Gainesville, FL
2:00 Demonstrations and Discussions The
U. S. Animal Identification Plan calls for a mandatory
system of ID, using radio-frequency identification
technology to allow traceback on any animal within 48
hours of a disease outbreak. Some of the companies
involved with EID tags, readers, scale heads,
software, and other data management systems will
demonstrate their products.
- Micro Beef Technologies/Decatur County
- Aglnfo Link USA
- Emerge Interactive
-Alflex USA
- Temple Tag
-Y-TEX Corporation
3:00 Break Sponsored by Helena Chemical


4:30 Adjourn
6:00 Cattlemen's Steak-Out (Horse Teaching Unit
Arena) Transportation on your own

Friday, May 7, 2004
"Profitable Cow Supplementation for Florida
Management Systems"
Presiding: E Glen Hembry, Department of Animal
Sciences, UF/IFAS, Gainesville, FL
8:30 Principles of Supplementing the Grazing
Beef Cow -MattHersom, Department ofAnimal
Sciences, UF/IFAS, Gainesville, FL
9:15 Breakout Session Each session will have a
program designed to meet the needs of cattlemen in the
designated areas. Specific cow supplementation systems
will be presented and discussed by extension
professionals located in these areas.
1. Large South Florida Ranches
Topics will include: Stockpiled Limpo Grass, Molasses, and
2. Central Florida (Gainesville to Orlando)
Topics will include: Current Producer Supplementation
Perspectives, Supplement Nutrition and Economic
Evaluation, and Animal Management to Optimize
3. Northwest Florida
Topics will include: Methods of Harvesting and Utilizing
Forage Options and Supplementing the North Florida Beef
10:15 Refreshment Break
11:45 Adjourn



F New Calendar Website
I Lists UF/IFAS Statewide
iL I Extension Education
Everything you need to know about statewide
University ofFlorida IFAS Extension education programs
is nowjust a few clicks away thanks to a new calendar
of events Web site.
"Whether it's a workshop for master gardeners, a
local 4-H club seminar, a field day for peanut farmers, a
nutrition seminar for seniors, a parenting class, or
hundreds of other timely topics, we have programs
statewide," said Larry Arrington, acting dean for
extension with UF's Institute of Food and Agricultural
Sciences (UF/IFAS). "Our new calendar of events Web
site is a convenient, one-stop source of information for
what's going on in all 67 Florida counties."
Arrington said the extension service provides
educational outreach programs for all Florida residents,
both rural and urban.
"IFAS Extension is your gateway to the vast
resources of UF, providing research-based information
on a wide range of useful topics," he said. "To reach
more people and expand our extension programs, we've
added an online calendar-http://calendar.ifas.ufl.edu
-that has a complete, up-to-date listing of extension
workshops, seminars, training programs, field days, and
planned events."
Millie Ferrer, interim associate dean for extension,
said there are many programs going on at any given time.
Many of these workshops provide continuing education
"In February, for example, there are 28 different
courses or workshops scheduled around the state during
a single week," she said. "Now Florida residents can
click on programs and courses for a specific month,
geographical area, or specific topic and get what they
need quickly."




Larry Arrington, Professor and
Associate Dean
University ofFlorida, Gainesville, FL
Email: lra@ifas.ufl.edu
Phone: (352) 392-1761


Millie Ferrer, Professor
University ofFlorida, Gainesville, FL
Email: MFerrer@ifas.ufl.edu
Phone: (352) 392-1761
Release January 15, 2004

By: Patti Bartlett, ICS
University ofFlorida, Gainesville, FL
Email: ppbartlett@ifas.ufl.edu
Phone: (352) 392-1773
Release February 6, 2004


Longevity Attributes of
Bos indicus x Bos taurus
Crossbred Cows

F.A. Thrift and TA. Thrift, Universities of Kentucky
and Florida, respectively, recently published an excellent
research review of the attributes of Bos indicus
(Brahman) x Bos Taurus (European) crossbred cows.
Brahman x European crosses are used widely in the
southeastern and Gulf Coast regions of the U.S.
Compared to B. taurus females, Brahman x B. taurus
females express a higher level ofpreweaning productivity
during a longer lifespan. The longevity observed in
Brahman cross cows can be partially explained by their
greater tolerance to hot, humid environments. In addition,
Brahman cross cows are less subject to death or being
culled for the following maladies: calving difficulty,
external parasites (flies, ticks and mosquitoes), internal
parasites, eye disorders (pink eye and cancer eye), teeth
deterioration, and grass tetany. Research has clearly
shown that longevity/stayability is related to greater
economic efficiency in the cow herd. In contrast, longevity
can tend to be shortened in some B. indicus x B. taurus
genetic types due to udder/teat abnormalities and vaginal/
uterine prolapses (Thrift and Thrift. 2003. Prof Anim.
Sci. 19 (5): 329).

New Growth Factor May
Enhance Beef Cattle Efficiency
Alberta researchers recently isolated and cloned a
DNA sequence that encodes a 53-amino acid protein,

bovine epidermal growth factor (EPG). Previous
research in rodents and rabbits demonstrated that EPG
has the ability to stimulate proliferation of a number of
cell types, including the epithelial cells that line the
intestine. This work also indicated that EPG can improve
the absorption of nutrients across intestinal membranes.
Furthermore, oral administration of EPG reduced the
incidence of intestinal infections and prevented weight
gain reduction that results from infection. Future research
by Alberta scientists will focus on the biological effect of
bovine EPG in cattle. The objective will be to determine
ifEPG has the ability to enhance the efficiency of nutrient
absorption and reduce intestinal disease in beef cattle.
The authors stated that because of the positive effects of
EPG on intestinal function, it may have great potential as
a feed additive in cattle diets (Bilodeau-Goeseels et al.
2003. Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Lethbridge
Research Centre).

Classifying Age of Cattle by
Dental Eruption May Be

The age of 30 months and older is being used as
the cutoff for the exportation of certain boneless beef
products from Canada and the U.S. The same age is
proposed for the exportation of live cattle. It has been
assumed that cattle under 30 months of age cannot exhibit
BSE (Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy). Therefore,
accurate determination of age becomes an important
issue. Bovine dentition is being investigated as a method
for age determination in cattle. Cattle are considered to
be aged 30 months or older when they have more than
two permanent incisor teeth erupted (the first pair of
permanent incisors and at least one tooth from the second
pair). Alberta Agriculture scientists recently reviewed
earlier research that had been conducted on the
relationship between cattle age and dental eruption. Their
review of five different studies revealed it is likely that
from 16 to 50 % of the youthful cattle harvested that are
categorized as over 30 months of age using dentition are
actually less than 30 months. Exports aside, discounts in
the domestic market could result in a 30 to 50% loss in
value compared to a carcass from a similar animal that
was less than 30 months of age. Because these studies


are over 20 years old, the authors noted there is a need
to characterize the current cattle population for the
relationship between age and the eruption of permanent
incisors (Basarab et al. 2003. Lacombe Research Centre
Newsletter, Vol. 7, Issue 4).

High Starch Vs. High Fiber Diets
for Early-Weaned Calves
In a Montana State University trial, spring-born
steer calves were early-weaned at approximately 74 days
of age. They were assigned to two different dietary
treatments, a high starch diet consisting of 60% barley
or a high fiber diet consisting of 60% wheat middlings.
The diets were equivalent in crude protein and net energy.
At weaning, all calves were weighed and ultrasounded
to determine intramuscular fat (IMF). Ultrasound
measurements were repeated approximately every 28
days until the steers were shipped to a commercial
feedyard at 90 days after weaning. Steers were harvested
at 307+7 days after weaning (at approximately 12.5
months of age). ADG was greater during the first 34
days after weaning for barley-fed than for wheat midds-
fed calves (2.84 vs. 2.18 lb/d), but gains were similar
for the entire 90-day growing period (average of 2.811 b/
d). Barley fed calves deposited significantly more IMF
early and retained this advantage until shipment to the
feedyard (4.44 vs. 3.31%). However, by the time of
harvest, there was no significant difference between
treatments in IMF. The results of this trial appear to be
inconclusive. Therefore, additional research may be
needed to determine the effects of high starch vs. high
fiber starting diets on performance and marbling
deposition in early-weaned calves (Rainey et al. 2003.
Montana State University BeefNewsletter, Vol. 9, No.
1, Dec. 2003).

A Vaccine and a Microbial Feed
Additive Were Effective in
Reducing Fecal Shedding of E.
Coli 0157:H7
A trial was conducted at the University of Nebraska
to evaluate the effects of two intervention strategies on

the prevalence of E. coli 0157:H7 shedding by feedlot
steers. A total of 384 steers (768 lb) were assigned to
one of four treatments: 1) Control; 2) a microbial feed
additive, Lactobacillus acidophilus; 3) a developmental
vaccine against E. coli 0157:H7; or 4) feed additive
plus vaccine. Steers were fed for an average of 121 days
and then harvested. Rectal fecal samples were taken
from each steer for each of five periods and analyzed
for the presence of E. coli 0157:H7.

There were no differences among treatments in
feedlot performance or carcass characteristics. As shown
in the table, the average prevalence ofE. coli 0157:H7
over the five periods was lower for the three treatments
than for the Control steers.

Microbial & Vaccine


Percent reduction in
prevalence from Control

The differences for the vaccination and combination
treatments were statistically significantly different from
the Controls. Similar results were recently reported by
Belk et al. (2004) in a study at Colorado State University.
The Nebraska workers concluded that the two
interventions may be used separately or in concert to
effectively reduce fecal shedding ofE coli 015 7:H7 in
feedlot cattle (Folmer et al. 2004. University ofNebraska
Beef Cattle Report MP 80-A).



Harlan Ritchie, Steven Rust, and
Daniel Buskirk
Beef Cattle Specialists
Michigan State University
East Lansing, MI 48824
Release Winter 2004




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs