In This Issue...
Beef Managemenl Calendar ...... ............ .......... 2
Livestock Sum m ary ........................... .................. 2
Beef Industry University Travel Course for Teen
Leaders ...................................... .............. . 3
C attle Feeding Library ............................................. 5
NalionalAnimal Idenlification Plan .........................6
USDA Issues Proposed Rule for Mandatory
Country of Origin Labeling ...................................... 7
Finishing Cull Beef Cows on a High-Grain Diet ........... 8
Corn vs. Soyhulls as a Supplemental Source
of Energy for Lactating Beef Cows ........................... 8
Prepared by Extension Specialists in
F.G. Hembry, Professor
E.L. Johnson, Associate Professor
Extension Equine Specialist
T.T. Marshall, Professor
Beef Cattle Management
R.O. Myer, Professor
Animal Nutritionist, Marianna
R.S. Sand, Associate Professo _L^ ,
Extension Livestock Speciac'st
W. Taylor, Coordinator
S.H. TenBroeck, Associate Professor
Extension Equine Specialist
T.A. Thrift, Assistant Professor
Beef Cattle Nutrition
Dates to Remember
1 (t I c,.li I ..i. i. ip..rrir- I .1. rl.... T Ml R II. i J I Irl .,.I.
1 Hines Brothers/Express Ranches Bull Sale High Springs,
I B I I.- & \\% lhr 1 ., I I 1.c i: i L 1 t.. Nl. I -r t. I I, .il i.
1 Twin Valley Farms Bull Sale Prattsville, AL
7 FI.'t J i 'l FmI T 11 IIi rI.. ,l FC'F Pi-..i.lln TI.IIiinm I -
A.-lJL.IL I C -'".Li F'.i[ iIIL1. k itl Lt ( I k Ill- FL
7 Callaway Farms Black Angus Sale Hardee Farms,
7 II i .Ici F irnit, BIl i !.. B iill il. t I... o1 i.i FL
7 Rogers Charolais Okeechobee, FL
N i\ .i l '. F mi t I .l i .. 11 ..i i .il Pr .I. ticr, ... il. I B r ..ll -.
14 Leachman Bull Sale Okeechobee, FL
21 II Ic .ir. r il ikn .. r .I 4"' A. .. .iu l A ll
RBILL Bull JI. 1 \\ J.tILItLi FL
J-5 Ft A B ,.irlI .[),i l..r t hi i l li. N ecli, -Ii.eC .li1 FL
25 Christmas Day
2t) 1 LccLlltihcc M .lI*'Illlct I I Ic I Icc L llthcc FL
University of Florida graduate student Tonya Stephens, left, and
sophomore Jenifer Harding prepare horses for exercise at UF's Horse
UNIVERSITY OF 1
FLORIDA di cffce
IFAS EXTENSION Airs r ...
The Institute of Food and Agrcultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Acton Employer authorized to provide research, educational information, and
other services only to individuals that functon with regard to race, color sex, age, handicap, or national orngn. For information on obtaining other extension pubhcatons, contact your
county Cooperative Extension Service office.
0 Have soils tested.
0 Observe cows daily to detect calving difficulty.
0 Use mineral with high level of magnesium if grass
tetany has been a problem in the past.
0 Check for external parasites and treat if needed.
0 Maintain adequate nutrient level for cow herd.
0 Calve in well-drained pastures.
0 Survey pastures for poisonous plants.
0 Start summarizing your annual records, both
production and financial-then you will have time to
make adjustments for tax purposes.
0 Re-evaluate winter feeding program and feed
0 Get breeding soundness exams on bull battery so
you have time to find replacements if some fail.
0 Implement bull conditioning program.
0 Review plans and arrangements for the upcoming
0 Check progress of developing replacement heifers
are they going to meet your target weight by the
start of the breeding season?
0 Begin grazing small grain pastures (if ready).
0 Check mineral feeder.
0 Check for external parasites and treat if needed.
0 Deworm cows and heifers prior to winter feeding
0 Observe regularly for calving difficulties.
0 Rotate calving pastures to prevent diseases.
0 Watch for scours in calves.
0 Investigate health of bulls before you buy.
0 Have dead animals posted by a veterinarian or
0 Complete review of management plan and update
for next year. Check replacement heifers to be sure
they will be ready to breed 3 4 weeks prior to the
main cow herd.
0 Apply lime for summer crops.
0 Check for lice and treat if necessary.
0 Control weeds in cool season pastures.
0 Begin grazing winter clover pastures when
approximately 6 inches high. Rye should be 12-8
0 Check mineral feeders.
0 Put bulls out for October calving season.
0 Make up breeding herd lists if using single sire herds.
0 Watch for calf scours.
0 Give bulls extra feed and care so they will be in
condition for breeding season.
0 Make sure cow herd has access to adequate fresh
0 Buy only performance tested bulls with superior
0 Get taxes filed.
0 Discuss herd health with you veterinarian and outline
a program for the year. Review herd health program
with your veterinarian regularly.
0 Carry a pocket notebook to record heat, breeding
abnormalities, discharges, abortions, retained
placentas, difficult calvings and other data.
0 Observe cow herd for calving difficulties.
0 Watch for grass tetany on winter pastures.
0 Increase magnesium levels in mineral mixes if grass
tetany has been previous problem (if you are not
already using a high magnesium mineral).
0 Examine bulls for breeding soundness and semen
quality prior to the breeding season.
0 Vaccinate cows and heifers against vibriosis and
leptospirosis prior to the breeding season.
The current cattle market is
S presenting some interesting
opportunities for Florida's cow calf
Operators. A rainy year, too rainy
by some accounts, has also offered
Frequently one sector of the cattle industry is
profitable at the expense of another sector. The
Canadian beef situation and the current herd reduction
have created a new profitability dynamic.
So how much higher can beef go? The price ratio
of beef prices as compared to pork and chicken prices
has continued its acceleration of the past few years.
Existing trends suggest that this will continue for a while
The North American beef industry has become
increasingly concentrated over the last ten years. The
two largest beef packers in Canada are two of the
largest packers in the U. S.
Recent years have seen both box beef and cattle
imported from Canada. Likewise, both have been
exported to Canada in smaller quantities.
Cyclical herd liquidation has been underway in the
U.S., Mexico, and Canada. Weather induced cow
slaughter has been large again this year. Dry conditions
and reduced forage has delayed herd expansion for at
least another year.
About eight to 10 percent of U.S. beef imports
are either Canadian cattle or box beef. Removing that
import volume from the marketplace and the current
tight supply for high-quality beef tighten the situation
The earliest that beef production can increase is
2006, and that is only if more heifers are retained and
bred in 2004. Ahard winter will negatively impact the
selling trend and push herd expansion further out.
Beef supplies will decline even more in 2004 and
2005. At the same time, beef supplies will become
temporarily shorter as the herd expansion signals
become stronger and more females are retained.
Florida's cow-calf operators are carefully
observing. Demand and prices for quality feeder cattle
will be strong if the planned herd expansion proceeds.
Weather will play a maj or roll in any trend that develops,
to nobody's surprise.
Other factors that have potential influence on
livestock demand are the economy and eating trends.
A slip or slowing of the general economic recovery will
negatively shift the price of beef, but the prospect for
this happening is marginal.
Another potentially influential factor is eating trends.
Much is currently being said about the collective
waistline of America. To date, beef is still in a favorable
light with most consumers.
Florida 2003 Table Egg Prices
Florida Milk Cow Inventory
FL Cattle & Calves Inventory Value
Researched by Les Harrison
Development Rep II
Release October 3, 2003
Beef Industry University Travel
Course for Teen Leaders
The Beef Industry University is an exciting,
educational, enlightening experience for teen leaders
who plan to spend a life in the beef cattle industry.
Maybe the most important function of this summit is to
motivate and inspire our outstanding teens to continue
in the beef industry in the face of inhibiting factors
presented by the media, their peers, and sometimes
their own family. The program is designed to connect
teens with the important and influential issues and people
in the beef industry.
Applicants must be at least 15 years-of-age by
September 2003 of the application year and be a current
member of the Junior Florida Cattlemen's Association.
Participants will submit applications by January 15,
2004. The FCA Youth Committee will make the
selections by February 1, 2004. Members will be
notified immediately so that plans can be made for
participation. Session 1 is scheduled for June 2004 and
Session 2 is scheduled for July 2004. Please submit
Dr. Tim Marshall
P.O. Box 110910
Animal Science Building
Gainesville, FL 32611
The FCAYouth Committee reserves the right to
interview the applicants if the printed applications
do not provide sufficient information to complete
the selection process.
Follow the format as described in the following to
create an application packet. Please be accurate,
complete, but concise. Your packet development is an
indicator ofyour communication skills, ability to organize
and creativity. Using Micorsoft Word, WordPerfect or
other software, create this packet. Do not try to hand
write on this form.
1. Legal Name -Name that you want used to address
you (ie., Sue rather than Susan)
2. Permanent Mailing Address
3. Phone Numbers (home, cell, others)
4. E-mail Address
5. Birth Date
6. Number of years actively involved as member of
the Junior FCA.
7. Evidence of school scholastic performance
provided by your high school or college (GPA, SAT,
8. Provide evidence of activity and professional
development gained from:
c. Junior FCA and local County Cattlemen's
d. Junior breed associations
e. Other youth programs
9. Work experience in the beef cattle industry
10. Other work experience
These questions must be answered by the ap-
plicant alone. He/she may use any source of in-
formation to respond, but must use personal criti-
cal thinking and creative writing to provide the
11. What is the image stocker calves from the
southeastern United States? What can you do to
enhance this image?
12. Why do you want to participate in this program?
13. Why should you be selected to represent Florida's
Junior FCA membership in this program?
14. How would you use what you learn in this program
to benefit the beef cattle industry, the Junior FCA
membership, and yourself?
15. Describe the United States beef cattle industry
structure and discuss how Florida's beef cattle
producers fit into this national structure.
Florida Cattlemen's Association Office, Kissimmee
9:00 Introduction of Beef Industry Course for
What is leadership?
How can I become a leader?
10:00 Round Table Discussion of Leadership (15
Florida Cattlemen's Association
National Cattlemen's BeefAssociation
What does FCA/BCBA do for its
How can its members serve the industry
Florida Beef Council and National Beef
How does the Beef Checkoff help our
11:35 Round Table Discussion FCA, NCBAand
Florida and National Beef Industry
Current size, scope and structure of the
Florida Cattle Industry. Florida is unique in
the east, having some of the largest ranches in
the nation. Not only does the Florida cattle
industry have a large economic effect on the
Florida economy, but the economy of other
states such as Oklahoma, Kansas and Texas
2:00 Round Table Discussion of the Beef Cattle
2:35 Issues Facing the Beef Industry
National Animal Identification; B SE; Export/
Import Markets; Food Safety; Beef
Demand; Animal Use Guidelines; Land and
Water Use; New Product Development;
3:35 Round Table Discussion of Issues
Day 2 Drive to eastern OK for the night
Day 3 Drive to Flint Hills, Kansas
Cooper Cattle Company: Flint Hills native
grass, stocker cattle management
Drive to OK City
Cowboy Hall of Fame
Night in OK City
Day 4 Morning: Drive to Amarillo, TX
Afternoon: Texas Cattle Feeders Association
Corporate office of large cattle feeder such
as Friona Industries or Cactus Feeders
Many other businesses in the area such as
Amarillo Brokerage Company; Micro Beef
Technologies; Consulting nutritionist and
Day 5 BeefProcessing Plant (Amarillo Tyson/IBP
or Plainview Excel)
Two feedyards: small private yard and large
Day 6 Drive to Fort Worth, TX
Fort Worth Stockyards visit the historic
area around the old stockyards
Superior Livestock Auction
Day 7 Drive home
Department ofAnimal Sciences
Planning for Session 2
The following is a list of possible host businesses.
Departure point will depend on the geographic
distribution of the participants, but we may meet in
Kissimmee or Gainesville.
Day 1 Drive to Marianna REC
Visit a North Florida cattle operation
With increasing interest in
cattle feeding by Florida
cattlemen comes the increased
need for information about cattle feeding issues and
topics. One source of concise and accurate information
is the Cattle Today internet library located at
* Custom feeding as an option
* How grids changed the fed cattle market
* Market trends
* Growth implant update
* Health management and biosecurity in feedyards
* Locating a new feedyard
* Stocker cattle management
* and nearly 100 more
National Animal Identification
Since September 11, 2001, our nation has been
on a heightened state of alert. Threats to our livelihood
and way of life not only include direct assaults, which
result in loss of lives, but also assaults on our food supply.
Several foreign animal diseases pose a threat to
production agriculture in the United States. With this in
mind, it has been proposed that the United States needs
a traceback system in place that can identify all animals
and premises potentially exposed to foreign animal
disease within 48 hours after discovery. The only way
to accomplish this goal is with a National Animal
Identification Plan that is mandatory for all producers.
In October of 2003 the National Animal ID
Program was released to the public. The plan was
requested by the United States Animal Health
Association and has been in development phases for a
couple of years. Animal and Plant Health Inspection
Service (APHIS-a branch of the USDA) and over 100
animal industry professionals (representing more than
70 national livestock industry organizations) were
involved in the development of the plan.
Many beef producers may see this as yet another
regulatory hurdle that must be dealt with. Cattle fever
tick and Brucellosis eradication programs were very
much viewed in this light when they began. The US ID
plan encompasses all species including: bison, beef
cattle, dairy cattle, swine, sheep, goats, alpacas, llamas,
horses, domestic deer and elk, poultry (eight species
including game birds) and aquaculture (eleven species).
Implementation of the National Animal ID program
will occur in phases. Phase one will involve a premise
identification system that must be in place by July 2004.
Management of the premise ID is the responsibility of
each state department of agriculture. The premise ID is
needed at all locations in the livestock production chain
including markets, assembly points (order buyers),
exhibitions, processing plants, etc., so that an animal
can be tracked through every location where it may
have come into contact with other animals.
Phase two stipulates all cattle, swine and small
ruminants must possess individual or group lot
identification for interstate movement by July 2005 with
the remaining species in compliance by July 2006.
Individual ID is necessary for tracking animals that are
destined to be commingled with other animals as they
move through the system. Acceptable means of
identification include Visual tags (with a country code
and individual number), however, the accepted means
of ID forbeef producers will most likely be an electronic
ID ear tag. The electronic ear tag will facilitate transfer
of information, remove human error, and allow 48-hour
traceback. Groups of animals that are never commingled
(for example, a load of cull cows that are sold directly
from the ranch to the packer) can be assigned a group
ID and do not need to be individually identified.
Phase three involves enhancing the ability to track
animals through all marketing channels. These date
deadlines were established only as guidelines for imple-
There are still many unanswered questions about
the National ID plan. For instance:
* What is the definition of a premise?
* What if a producer runs cattle in two separate
counties? Does he have two premise ID's?
* What if the producer runs cattle in two separate
states? Does he have to work with the Animal
Health Commission in each state?
* What forms of ID are acceptable?
* Who pays for the electronic tag placed in the left
* What is the producers liability?
* Who polices the program?
Lots of questions remain to be answered but one
thing is for sure, the National Animal ID plan is starting
to take shape and will happen within the next five years
in some form. Additional information and the complete
74-page summary of the National Animal ID Plan is
available at www.usaip. info.
SOURCE: ToddA. Thrift
Assistant Professor, Beef Cattle
Department ofAnimal Sciences
USDA Issues Proposed Rule for
Mandatory Country of Origin
The U.S. Department of Agriculture today issued
the proposed rule for the mandatory country of origin
labeling program as required by the 2002 Farm Bill.
Under the proposed rule, muscle cuts of beef
(including veal), lamb and pork; ground beef, ground
lamb and ground pork; farm-raised fish and shellfish;
wild fish and shellfish; perishable agricultural
commodities (fresh and frozen fruit and vegetables);
and peanuts must be labeled at retail to indicate their
country of origin. In addition, the notice of country of
origin for fish and shellfish must include and distinguish
between wild and farm-raised fish and shellfish, as
required by the legislation.
Covered commodities are excluded from
mandatory country of origin labeling if they are an
ingredient in a processed food item. Examples of
covered commodities excluded under this provision of
the proposed rule would be bacon, orangejuice, mixed
nuts and fruit/vegetable party trays.
Food service establishments, such as restaurants,
lunchrooms, cafeterias, food stands, bars, lounges and
similar enterprises are exempt from the mandatory
country of origin labeling requirements.
Under the proposed rule, a covered commodity
can only bear a "United States country of origin"
declaration if certain criteria are met.
For beef, the covered commodity must be
derived exclusively from animals born, raised and
slaughtered in the United States, including animals that
were born and raised in Alaska or Hawaii and
transported for a period not to exceed 60 days through
Canada to the United States and slaughtered in the
For lamb and pork, the covered commodity
must be derived exclusively from an animal that was
born, raised and slaughtered in the United States.
Farm-raised fish and shellfish covered
commodities must be derived exclusively from fish or
shellfish hatched, raised, harvested and processed in
the United States.
Covered commodities forwild fish and shellfish
must be derived from fish or shellfish harvested in the
waters of the United States or by a U.S. flagged vessel
and processed in the United States or aboard a U. S.
In the case of perishable agricultural
commodities and peanuts, the covered commodities
must be derived exclusively from produce or peanuts
grown in the United States.
The proposed rule also outlines the requirements
for labeling products of mixed origin including products
produced both in foreign markets and in the United
States as well as labeling requirements for blended
products. Additionally, recordkeeping requirements for
retailers and their suppliers are outlined.
The full text of the proposed rule will be published
in the October 30 FederalRegister Comments may
be sent via e-mail to: email@example.com or sent regular
mail to: Country of Origin Labeling Program; USDA
Agricultural Marketing Service; 1400 Independence
Ave., SW Stop 0249; Washington, D.C. 20250-0249,
no later than Dec. 29, 2003. Copies of the proposed
rule and additional information can be found
Agricultural Marketing Service
Release October 27, 2003
Finishing Cull Beef Cows on a
Previous research has shown that feeding cull cows
a high-energy diet for 60 to 100 days can be profitable
depending upon the cost of grain in relationship to the
price of cows at the end of the feeding period. In this
Montana study, cull beef cows were allotted to a control
group (no implant) and a group that was implanted with
Synovex-Plus. The obj ective was to determine the
effects of implant, initial body weight (BW), and initial
body condition score (BCS) on feedlot performance
and carcass characteristics. Cows were fed 90 days
on a high-energy, 80-85% concentrate diet.
* Increased initial BW was associated with increases
in final BW, hot carcass weight, ribeye area, and
numerical yield grade. Average daily gain (ADG)
and backfat were not affected by initial BW.
* Initial BCS had no effect on any feedlot or carcass
trait except for an increase in backfat.
* Implant significantly affected all feedlot and carcass
characteristics except for backfat. Implanted cows
had 0.48 lb/d greaterADG 40 lb greater final BW,
40 lb greater carcass weight, 1.3 sq. in. larger ribeye
area, 0.27 increase in marbling score, and 0.24
numerically lower yield grade.
The authors concluded that feeding cull cows for
a period of time before marketing can enhance carcass
quality and may improve profitability. However, the
cost of gain may often be greater than ultimate sale price
of the cows. They added that it is important to consider
seasonality of cull cow prices and the price differential
Harlan Ritchie, Steven Rust, and
Beef Cattle Specialists
Beef Cattle Research Update
Michigan State University
Release Fall 2003
between cull cow slaughter grades. In this study,
implanting clearly improved feedlot performance and
carcass characteristics (Funston et al. 2003. Prof. Anim.
Corn vs. Soyhulls as a
Supplemental Source of Energy
for Lactating Beef Cows
Previous research has shown that supplementing
cows in early lactation with high-starch grains (e.g.,
corn) may negatively impact digestion of the forage
portion of the diet, whereas supplementing with low-
starch feeds (e.g., soyhulls) does not interfere with
forage digestion. In this North Dakota study, 78 cow-
calf pairs, fed a basal diet of 75% grass hay, 25% wheat
straw, were allotted to four different supplemental
treatments during early lactation: 1) 10.5# dry rolled
corn (8% crude protein [CP]); 2) 8.1# dry rolled corn
plus 3.4# sunflower meal (8.9% CP); 3) 11.7# soyhulls
(8.9% CP); 4) 9.9# soyhulls plus 2.3# sunflower meal
(10.8% CP). All diets were equivalent in energy. On
July 25, diets were reformulated to meet the lower
energy requirements of late lactation. All cows and
calves were weighed every 28 days. At each weighing,
milk yield was determined on a sample of five cows in
There were no significant differences between any
of the treatments for changes in cow weight, cow
condition score, milk yield, or calfweight. These results
indicate that either corn or soyhulls are suitable as an
energy supplement for the quality of forage used in this
trial. Furthermore, the addition of sunflower meal as a
protein supplement had no effect on cow or calf
performance (Baumann et al. 2003. Proc. Beef Field
Day, Carrington Res. Center, North Dakota State Univ.,