In This Issue...
Beef M management Calendar ............................ 2
Livestock Sum m ary ......................... ..... ... 2
Dashle, Johnson Urge USDA to Slow
Repeal of Canadian Cattle Ban .................. 4
Insist on Health Certificate Before Buying
Pet, Officials Urge; Exotic Animals
Pose Even Greater Danger to Health .......... 5
Does Creep Feeding Calves Pay?...........6..... 6
EVA Remains a Concern for Equine
Industry .................................................... .. .7
Canadian BSE Slims U.S. Steer Weights......... 8
Prepared by Extension
Specialists in Animal
*. F.G. Hembry, Professor, Department
E.L. Johnson, Associate Professor, Extension
T.T. Marshall, Professor, Beef Cattle
R.O. Myer, Professor, Animal Nutritionist,
R.S. Sand, Associate Pro
Livestock Specialist ;
W. Taylor, Coordinator Youth
*: S.H. TenBroeck, Associate Professor,
Extension Youth Specialist
*: T.A. Thrift, Assistant Professor, Beef Cattle
1 State 4-H Horse Events
(Demonstrations, Public Speaking, Quiz
Bowl, Horseman of the Year Interviews)
7-11 Florida 4-H Legislature Tallahassee,
10-12 State 4-H Horse Show Tampa, FL
16 Food Safety and Quality Program and
Serv-Safe Test Inverness, FL
17 Santa Rosa County Farm Tour -
21-25 Florida 4-H Congress Gainesville, FL
14 4-H Swine and Beef Workshop -
20 Food Safety and Quality Program and
Serv-Safe Test Inverness, FL
F UNIVERSITY OF
The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an equal opportunity/affirmative action employer authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to
individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, age, handicap, or national origin For information on obtaining other extension publications, contact your county
Cooperative Extension Service Office Florida Cooperative Extension Service/Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences/University of Florida/ Christine Taylor Waddill, Director
2 July 2003
0 Cut corn silage.
0 Control weeds in summer pastures.
0 Apply nitrogen to warm season pastures, if
0 Check mineral feeder.
0 Check for army worms and mole crickets, and
treat if necessary.
0 Wean calves and cull cow herd.
0 Watch for evidence of footrot and treat.
0 Consider preconditioning calves before sale
including vaccination for shipping fever and
IBR at least 3 weeks before sale.
0 Check dust bags.
0 Update market information and plans.
0 Revaccinate calves at weaning for blackleg.
0 Check for mole crickets, spittlebugs, and
grassloopers, and treat if necessary.
0 Check dust bags.
0 Wean calves and cull cow herd if not already
done. Remove open, unsound, or poor
0 Train cowboys to observe normal and abnormal
behavior and signs of disease.
0 Be sure any replacement purchases are healthy
and have been calfhood vaccinated for
0 September or October is a good time to deworm
the cow herd if internal parasites are a problem.
0 When replacement heifers are weaned, give
them required vaccinations and teach them to
eat then put them on a good nutrition program.
0 Determine bull replacement needs, develop
selection criteria, and start checking availability
of quality animals.
0 Review winter feed supply and feeding plans so
that needed adjustments can be made before
supplies tighten and prices rise.
0 Treat for liver flukes as close to August 15th as
possible, if they are in your area.
0 Cut hay.
0 Apply lime for fall and winter crops.
0 Harvest Bahiagrass seed.
0 Check mineral feeder.
0 Update market information and marketing plans.
0 Check for army worms, spittlebugs, and mole
crickets, and treat if necessary.
0 Check dust bags.
0 Wean calves and cull cow herd.
0 Watch for evidence of abortions.
0 Observe animals regularly for signs of disease.
0 If cattle grubs were found on cattle last winter
or heel flies were observed in the pasture, treat
for cattle grubs this month.
0 Pregnancy test and cull open heifers from
0 Cut hay.
0 Heavily graze pastures to be interplanted to cool
0 Check mineral feeder.
The USDA is predicting a
continuing decline in red meat
production in 2004 totaling about
84.4 billion pounds because of a
national reduction of animal
This figure is predicted to be slightly
this year and 1.5 percent below 2002
Cattle inventories this spring exhibited few
signs of stabilizing and a major improvement in
moisture and forage conditions will be necessary to
even begin a movement toward female retention in
First-quarter beef and dairy cow slaughter
reached their highest levels since 1997 rising 5 and
14 percent, respectively.
Summer and fall forage conditions will have to
improve to create any incentive to decrease these
slaughter levels. Shifts toward heavier feeding
weights and expansion may be slow even if forage
conditions improve. At this time, the industry will
be attempting to rebuild its financial base in 2004.
Strong demand, especially for higher grading
cattle, have kept prices $5 to $10 per hundredweight
(cwt) above what they were a year ago.
The retail level experienced record beef prices
in February and March with a record high $3.57 per
pound set in March. Retail prices for Choice beef
are expected to continue to rise modestly in 2004
with a likely 4 to 5 percent increase this year.
Beef exports will likely be up less than 1
percent this year and are expected to increase nearly
4 percent in 2004, possibly reaching a record 2.55
million pounds. Cattle prices are predicted to
increase as well and should continue to register
gains again next year.
Total U.S. beef exports are holding their own
and even slightly increasing despite declining
production and temporary decreases in demand.
This suggests that figures are likely to spike to
record levels in 2004 as world economic growth
picks up and bovine spongiform enchepalapathy
(BSE) concerns decline in Japan.
The two most disappointing markets for beef
exports this year are Japan and Mexico. Japanese
exports have plummeted due to BSE. Mexican
exports have sharply declined because of the peso
losing 20 percent of its value against the U.S. dollar
over the last 12 months. As a result, this has raised
prices in terms of the peso and thus has reduced
Mexican demand for U.S. beef.
Drought in Canada and the tight feeder cattle
market in the United States will limit U.S. feeder
cattle exports to Canada as well. While these
numbers might be up from last year's dry-weather
figures, feeder cattle exports to Canada are expected
to be significantly below historical levels.
There are two particular factors that could
affect future beef production in 2004. One is the
Country of Origin Labeling (COOL) law which is
scheduled be become mandatory after September
30, 2004. The other is the possible continuation or
re-emergence of Sudden
Syndrome (SARS) in Asia.
July 2003 3
Polk Highlands Okeechobee Osceola
1998 1999 2000 2001
Florida 2001 Milk Production Values
March April June July August
The Florida Agri-Journal
Researched by Tony Young
Marketing Specialist I
Division of Marketing
Release June 5, 2003
Florida's Top 5 Beef Counties
Florida Egg Production Values
4 July 2003
USDA to Slow
In a letter to Veneman dated June 11, Daschle
said he hopes USDA proceeds with caution before
lifting the moratorium on Canadian beef, and that
COOL be enacted before the ban is nixed.
"I am hopeful Secretary Veneman will proceed
with caution before lifting the moratorium on
Canadian beef, and implement COOL, which will
serve as another important tool to add to our
country's comprehensive food safety regime, in a
timely fashion," Daschle said.
Daschle, the Democrats' leader in the Senate,
has been one of the more vocal members of his
party since a lone case of bovine spongiform
encephalopathy, or mad cow disease, was
discovered last month in Alberta. He applauded
Veneman's decision to ban Canadian beef and goats
and has expressed concern that the USDA could be
in a rush to reopen the border.
"I am hopeful that before you lift the
moratorium, you ensure that Canada completes its
epidemiological work to exhaust all leads in tracing
animals linked to the original infected cow,"
Daschle wrote to Veneman.
Johnson's position on lifting the ban mirrored
"It was prudent of the USDA to freeze imports
in response, and I oppose allowing Canadian beef or
cattle back into our markets until USDA has fully
implemented (country-of-origin) labeling," Johnson
said. "Relaxing the restrictions on imports before
mandatory labeling could kick the legs out from
underneath consumer confidence in American
During a Wednesday (June 11) teleconference
with reporters, Veneman said USDA has not set a
timetable outlining when and how the ban might be
"We simply aren't prepared, at this point, to
provide any kind of indication of when we're going
to have market opening with regard to the Canadian
beef," Veneman said.
Alberta Premier Ralph Klein hopes to discuss
the border issue with Vice President Dick Cheney
during a visit to Washington on June 23. "There's a
possibility we will be meeting with Mr. Cheney and
I'll bring this up if the borders are not open," Klein
Paul Haddow, executive director of
international relations at the Canadian Food
Inspection Agency, said Canadian officials would
send a letter to Washington later on Thursday
asking that low risk meat products from cattle and
other ruminants, or cud-chewing animals, be
"With any luck at all we should start
certain products moving within a very short
of time," Haddow told Parliament's foreign
"But as to when everything will be back to
normal, I couldn't hazard a guess," he said.
An interim report on Canada's handling of the
case is expected to be ready on Thursday and
officials hope that will help end bans in key markets
around the world, which the industry estimates have
been costing it up to $27.5 million ($20 million) a
"We're going to be requesting that the
Americans -- based on science -- remove the
measures on a low-risk group of goods and we will
give them a definition of what we mean by low risk
goods," Haddow told the Reuters news service.
"It would include muscle cuts from younger
animals," he added, saying the list was also likely to
include veal, as well as products from other
ruminants such as sheep and Arctic muskox.
Iowa Senator Chuck Grassley said on Tuesday
the U.S, Department of Agriculture planned to ease
the ban and would allow imports of muscle cuts and
live cattle younger than 30 months of age.
Release June 18, 2003
Insist on Health
Greater Danger to
State veterinary, health and wildlife officials
urge Floridians to insist on obtaining health
certificates before purchasing or importing any pets
- especially in the case of exotic animals.
Caution was issued jointly by the Florida
Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services,
the Florida Department of Health (DOH), and the
Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation
Commission (FWC) in the wake of human cases of
monkeypox in Midwestern states.
"We are finding that more and more animal
diseases can be transferred to humans, so it is
imperative that an animal has a clean bill of health
before purchasing it," said Florida Agriculture
Commissioner Charles H. Bronson, who oversees
the State Veterinarian's Office.
Bronson's office has asked all veterinarians in
Florida to be on the lookout for prairie dogs, rodents
or rabbits animals associated with the outbreak of
monkeypox in the Midwest. Veterinarians, pet shop
owners, and the general public also are being asked
July 2003 5
to notify the State Veterinarian's Office of any
recent shipments or knowledge of recent shipments
of prairie dogs to Florida. A 24/7 toll free number
for reporting such information is (800) 342-5869.
"To reduce disease exposure, DOH and the
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
do not recommend owning exotic or wild animals if
you have young children or immunocompromised
people in your house," said Deputy State Health
Officer Bonnie Sorensen, M.D., M.B.A.
Human monkeypox is a rare, zoonotic viral
disease that occurs primarily in the rain forest
countries of Central and West Africa, It is a member
of the orthopox family of viruses. In humans,
infection with monkeypox virus results in a rash
illness similar to but less infectious than smallpox.
Monkeypox in humans is not usually fatal. The
incubation period is about 12 days.
Monkeypox is transmitted through contact
with an infected animal. Symptoms include fever,
cough, headache, myalgia, rash, or lymph node
enlargement within three weeks after contact with
Officials recommend that before buying a pet
from any source, make sure it has a health
certificate indicating that it is in good health. If you
are importing an animal from another state, it
requires what is known as an "Official Certificate of
Veterinary Inspection" (OCVI) issued by a licensed
and USDA-accredited veterinarian from the state
from which it was sent.
Before buying or importing an exotic animal -
such as rodents, reptiles, deer, big cats, or zoo
animals check with the State Veterinarian's Office,
(850) 410-0900, and the FWC, (850) 488-6253, to
determine whether it is legal to own or import such
animals and what the conditions are regarding
licensing and possession.
Officials say it is critically important to avoid
letting exotic animals go free, as diseases they may
harbor could be a threat to wildlife. It is illegal to
release these animals into the wild.
6 July 2003
For more information about monkeypox,
please visit the CDC website at www.cdc.gov or
call (888) 246-2675.
Updated information may also be found at
report a disease or suspect, contact the Office of the
State Veterinarian at (850) 410-0900 or fill out and
submit the form at http://www.doacs.state.fl.us/
If you have any questions, input, or reports,
please feel free to contact one of the following:
Animal Industry, M-F, 8-5
Animal Industry's Kissimmee
Agricultural Law Enforcement
Emergency Operations Center
Department of Health
USDA's 24/7 hot line number
Department of Agriculture and
Consumer Services (DOACS)
Dr. Lee Coffman
Dr. Carina Blackmore
Release June 11, 2003
Creep feeding calves
is a way to put additional
weight on calves prior to
weaning. However, the
Performance of calves and
the economics of creep
feeding is not a sure thing.
A three year creep feeding study conducted in
Alabama by Auburn University showed that calves
fed creep feed for 182 days prior to weaning gained
an additional 36 pounds. Calves consumed 507
pounds of creep feed. Today, the additional gain is
worth about $30 per calf (avg. heifers and steers).
However, the cost of creep feed (at $200 per ton)
was $50 per calf. Obviously, with these costs and
returns creep feeding is not economical.
In a three year study in Oklahoma, heifer and
steer calves fed creep feed for 159 days prior to
weaning were 30 pounds heavier than non creep-fed
calves. Creep-fed calves ate 363 pounds of feed.
Today, the additional gain is worth approximately
$25 per calf and the cost of creep feed is about $37
per calf. Again, with these cost and return values
creep feeding is not profitable.
Another Oklahoma study involved creep
feeding calves nursing two-year-old first-calf
heifers. Calves creep fed 135 days were 108 pounds
heavier at weaning than calves not creep fed. With
the higher price per pound market value for the
smaller non-creep fed calves, the advantage is only
about $50.00 per calf fed creep feed. Calves ate 740
pounds of creep feed which would cost about $74.
With these cost and returns, creep feeding is not
profitable even for calves nursing two-year-old
In a four year creep feeding study at
Brooksville, Florida, calves received creep feed for
60 days prior to weaning. The average increase in
gain from creep feeding was 27 pounds per calf. It
is interesting that the average gain response to creep
feeding varied from 6 pounds per calf in the poorest
year to 50 pounds per calf in the best year. A breed
response to creep feeding also occurred, with a 52
pound increase for Hereford calves, a 34 pound
increase for Brangus-type calves, and only an 8
pound increase for Brahman calves. Over all, calves
consumed about 600 pounds of creep feed. With a
feed cost of about $60 per calf, creep feeding would
be far from being profitable.
Creep feeding calves is not an economical
practice in most situations. Gain responses might
offset feed costs during a drought or for calves
nursing first-calf heifers. Also, the $200 per ton cost
for creep feed is for that delivered in 50 pound bags.
Creep feed purchased in bulk quantities would cost
much less which would help return a profit. But
even with discounted feed prices, profits from creep
feeding nursing calves are questionable. Also, the
above economic analysis does not include the cost
of creep feeding equipment nor labor.
SOURCE: Findlay Pate
UF/IFAS, Range Cattle REC, Ona,
Published in "The Peace River
Farmer and Rancher"
EVA Remains a
Concern for Equine
Despite many efforts,
equine viral arteritis (EVA)
continues to hamper international trade activities in
the U.S. horse industry, according to Amy Mann,
director of regulatory affairs for the American
Horse Council. Mann made her remarks to the
National Institute for Animal Agriculture's Equine
Health Committee at an April meeting in
"Unfortunately, the U.S. has been and
continues to be denied exports of many valuable
stallions and their semen because of their infective
state," said Mann. She says action is needed
"because a significant number of top breeding
stallions worldwide are EVA carriers and these
stallions represent some of the best genetics in their
respective breeds." While primarily a respiratory
disease, EVA can cause abortions in mares and
death in neo-natal foals.
Mann points out that the U.S. is the only major
horse breeding country not regulating the disease.
"USDA does not feel it can implement an import
program because we don't have a domestic
program," said Mann. Currently, only three states
have regulations governing EVA.
July 2003 7
In the mid-1990's, Mann said the American
Horse Council established a working group to
review the issue and develop guidelines to assist
stallion and mare owners who wish to use EVA
shedder stallions when breeding to a susceptible
mare. The document was widely distributed, said
Mann, although only a handful of breed registries
have adopted the guidelines.
With educational efforts continuing, Mann
credits USDA with the production of an excellent
video on EVA that has been widely distributed and
with holding a video teleconference with state
veterinarians to discuss industry's concerns.
She said another step in the educational
process has been the publication of an Advanced
Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (ANPR) in the
Federal Register, which sought industry input on a
number of options for addressing EVA. Mann said
comments suggested "overwhelming" support for
the option of calling for the determination of the
serological status of imported stallions and allowing
the state of destination to determine how best to
"handle the animal."
Mann said, currently, interest in the disease
seems to have diminished, based on fewer reports of
outbreaks and vaccine orders. "Despite all our
efforts, EVA carrier stallions and infective semen
are still freely imported into the U.S. and few states
have taken action to address the disease within their
borders." Mann said the industry remains concerned
that many U.S. horses are being denied export to
Europe because of their shedder status, yet some of
the same European states are not enforcing
established EVA programs they have in place. She
said USDA has agreed to take up this matter with
the European Commission.
A proposal by USDA to regulate EVA
domestically has not been approved. However, a
previous meeting of industry and government
officials resulted in an agreement to develop a set of
guidelines or possibly some uniform methods and
rules (UM&R) to assist states and the industry in
setting up prevention and control programs. Mann
hopes this action will "send a message to the rest of
the world that we intend to take this matter
8 July 2003
seriously, including the possibility of regulating
SOURCE: Equine Health Report
http://animalagri culture. org
Canadian BSE Slims U.S. Steer
Canadian cattle weights are rising rapidly and
marketing from Canadian feedyards are becoming
backlogged as U.S. slaughter has increased to fill
the void left by the reduction in world beef supplies
associated with the closure of Canada's borders.
Federally inspected cattle slaughter the first
week of June was the largest in the United States
since the mid-1970's and average daily slaughter
during the first half of June was nearly 8 percent
larger than last year, notes Kansas State University
agricultural economist James Mintert. Canadian
dressed steer weights climbed about 36 pounds
from early May to early June, moving 1 percent
above the prior year. In contrast, U.S. dressed steer
weights rose just 10 pounds during May and were
still 2 percent below a year ago at month's end.
"The longer the ban remains in place, the
greater the impact will be on the U.S. market,"
Mintert said, noting that this is partly because the
full impact of the ban will not be felt until reduced
supplies of Canadian feeder cattle coming into the
United States are reflected in smaller U.S. slaughter
cattle supplies. But the ban on Canadian beef
exports could also provide a boost to U.S. beef
exports as traditional market outlets for Canadian
beef turn to other beef exporters, including the
United States, to meet their needs.
"The ban on Canadian beef exports could also
provide a boost to U.S. beef exports as traditional
market outlets for Canadian beef turn to other beef
exporters, including the United States, to meet their
needs," Mintert said. "Following the United States,
the largest Canadian beef export customers during
2002 were Mexico and Japan. It would not be
surprising to see the United States pick up most of
this business, if the export ban remains in place very
Although the USDA hasn't made a decision
regarding how quickly the border will be opened, it
could easily be several more weeks, or longer,
before trade resumes, Mintert said. Moreover, it's
likely that USDA will consult with other major
trading partners, such as Japan, before reopening
the border. If that's the case, it will likely delay the
resumption of trade even longer.
"So, in the short run, it appears the biggest
impact of the Canadian BSE situation could prove
to be the reduction in North American beef
supplies," Mintert said.
In their weekly newsletter University of
Missouri agricultural economists Glenn Grimes and
Ron Plain noted it is difficult to get a good reading
on what has happened to beef demand in Canada
because of the increase in supply domestically,
which has reduced cattle and beef prices sharply.
Grimes and Plain said they could not identify
any weakness in U.S. beef demand, even though
Choice beef prices have weakened some from the
highs of early June.
"However, this weakness is probably due to the
very high slaughter of 791 thousand head under
Federal Inspection slaughter -- we believe this is the
largest weekly Federal Inspected slaughter since
1976 -- which means U.S. feeders are moving
marketing forward," Grimes and Plain said. "In
fact, our cattle slaughter has run way above year
earlier levels since early May and cattle weights are
substantially below a year earlier. In fact, our cattle
slaughter has run way above year earlier levels
since early May and cattle weights are substantially
below a year earlier."
Release June 23, 2003