I. UNIVERSITY OF H q l
EXTENSION 1 'N
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences A
Melanie Burson, a student majoring in animal sciences at the
University of Florida's College of Agricultural and Life Sciences,
applies a respiratory vaccine to a calf during a livestock
management class in Gainesville, Friday-Sep. 21, 2002.
Burson, a junior from St. Cloud, FL, said the experience of
working with animals will be valuable for her future career in
Florida's $5 billion livestock industry. Upon graduation, many
students further their education in UF's College of Veterinary
Medicine. (AP photo by Tara Piasio/University of Florida/IFAS)
In This Issue...
Beef Management Calendar.................... ............ 2
Livestock Summary ................................................. 2
Forage Testing ................................... ..................... 4
2'i" I Florida Agricultural Fast Facts
Directory" Now Available ....................................... 6
Sustainable Development: Organics and
Sustainable Living Conference ............................... 6
CSPI Slams Meat Industry on New Kids'
W ebsite ............................... ............ ............... 7
Federal Agencies Release Updated FDA
Food C ode ........................................ ................ 8
3 Fall Field Day NFREC, Quincy, FL
(Rescheduled from September 26, 2002, due to
4 FCA Heifer Sale Ocala, FL
4 Brangus Bonanza Okeechobee, FL
7 Arcadia Brangus Bull Sale Mo Brangus & Oak
Knoll Ranch Arcadia, FL
7 Livestock Evaluation Coaches Workshop -
18 Graham Angus Bull Sale Okeechobee
Livestock Market Okeechobee, FL
19 St. Johns County Cracker Day Elkton, FL
25 Lemmon Angus Bull Sale Okeechobee Livestock
Market Okeechobee, FL
1 Hereford Association of Florida Annual Bull Sale -
1 Hardee Farms Black Bull Sale Chiefland, FL
1 Callaway Farms Sale Hardee Farms -Chiefland,
1 Milligan Herefords Livestock Market -
1-3 Eastern National 4-H Horse Roundup -
7 Hereford Association of Florida Annual Bull Sale -
8-10 Eastern National 4-H Horse Roundup -
16 Organics and Sustainable Living Conference -
Prepared By Extension Specialists
In Animal Sciences
*o F.G. Hembry, Professor, Department Chairman
o* E.L. Johnson, Associate Professor, Extension Equine
o T.T. Marshall, Professor, Beef Cattle Manageme
+ R.O. Myer, Professor, Anima. a
:* R.S. Sand, Associate Pro or
*: W. Taylor, Coordinator Youth Education/Training
o: S.H. TenBroeck, Associate Professor, Extension Youth
o T.A. Thrift, Assistant Professor, Beef Cattle Nutrition
The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an equal opportunity/affirmative action employer authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to
individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, age, handicap, or national origin For information on obtaining other extension publications, contact your county
Cooperative Extension Service Office Florida Cooperative Extension Service/Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences/University of Florida/ Christine Taylor Waddill, Director
2 October 2002
0 Implement bull conditioning program.
0 Review plans and arrangements for the
upcoming breeding season.
R Check progress of developing replacement
heifers are they going to meet your target
weight by the start of the breeding season?
0 Plant cool season legumes.
0 Plant small grain pastures.
0 Check mineral feeder.
0 Check for external parasites, especially lice, and
treat if needed.
0 Check for spittlebugs and grassloopers and treat,
0 Watch condition of cow herd; maintain adequate
0 Isolate any additions to the herd for 30 to 60
days and observe for signs of disease; retest for
brucellosis and leptospirosis.
0 Be sure you have adequate handling facilities,
and they are in good working order.
0 If you are raising bulls for the commercial
market, October thru December is the main
bull-buying season for cattlemen in south
Florida and now is the time to have your
promotion program fully activated.
0 Have soils tested.
0 Observe fall-calving cows daily to detect
0 Use minerals with a high level of magnesium if
grass tetany has been a problem in the past.
0 Check for external parasites. Treat if needed.
0 Maintain adequate nutrient level for the cow
0 Calve in well-drained pastures.
0 Survey pastures for poisonous plants.
0 Start summarizing your annual records, both
production and financial. This will allow time to
make adjustments for tax purposes.
0 Re-evaluate winter feeding program and feed
0 Get breeding soundness exams on bull battery
so you have time to find replacements if some
0 Begin grazing small grain pastures (if ready).
0 Check mineral feeder.
0 Check for external parasites and treat if needed.
0 Deworm cows and heifers prior to winter
0 Observe regularly for calving difficulties.
0 Rotate calving pastures to prevent diseases.
0 Watch for scours in calves.
0 Investigate health of bulls before you buy.
0 Have dead animals posted by a veterinarian or
0 Complete review of management plan and
update for next year.Check replacement heifers
to be sure they will be ready to breed 3 4
weeks prior to the main cow herd.
The USDA is reporting that
this year's large meat production is
resulting in an abundant supply of
meats for domestic consumption. An eight to nine
percent decline in exports and a two to three percent
increase in imports is exacerbating the situation.
Cattle, hog, and broiler prices will be pressured
Weather conditions and limited forage supplies
continue to affect cattle producers' decisions.
Increase cow slaughter and large feedlot placements
of heavyweight cattle suggest that producers may
not be planning to expand herds. Reduced harvest
estimates for corn and soybean harvest will likely
intensify the trend.
October 2002 3
The cattle industry has faced almost
continuous drought since herd liquidation began in
1996. Grazing conditions are poorest in the western
half of the U.S. The Northern Plains and the Mid
and South Atlantic Coastal State are in a similar
condition. The mid-August pasture and range
conditions indicated 48 percent very poor and poor
conditions as compared to 38 percent a year earlier.
Florida is marvelous by comparison. Pasture
feed is 15 percent fair, 80 percent good, and five
percent excellent. Army worms are causing some
damage in northern and panhandle pastures.
As such, forage conditions and hay production
remain major uncertainties for the industry at mid
year. The USDA's Acreage Reports indicated that
farmers and ranchers expect to expand harvested
hay acreage by nearly two percent over a year
earlier. This will be the largest hay acreage since
1988. However, drought and limited irrigation
water in many areas will influence crop yield.
Cow slaughter in the first half of 2002 was
down nearly four percent from the weather elevated
levels of a year earlier. The levels were still up over
one percent from the first half of 2000.
Heifer slaughter was down marginally in the
first half of 2002, but large feedlot placements
weighing over 800 pounds in April and May raise
questions on the number of heifers that are likely to
be bred this year and calve in 2003. A positive sign
for Florida's cow-calf operations.
Parts of Canada are suffering from drought, yet
other areas have received too much rain. The result
is an unexpectedly large number of cattle being sent
south for finishing. This trend is expected to
diminish later in the year as inventory is reduced.
Additionally, the weather conditions are causing
fewer U.S. cattle to be sent north.
Total beef cattle exports are expected to be up
nearly one percent in 2002 and an additional five
percent in 2003. Concerns by the Japanese public
over BSE has depressed demand for beef imports,
but the Republic of Korea has increased it's imports
by 104 percent through April 2002.
Florida Cattle Production
1999 2000 2001 2002
Florida Hog Cash Receipts
1998 1999 2000 2001
Florida Broiler Production Value
1998 1999 2000
The Florida Agri-Journal
Researched by Les Harrison
Development Rep. I
Division of Marketing
Release September 5, 2002
4 October 2002
Why Test Your Forage?
Forage testing provides useful information
about the nutritive value of a forage. This
information can be used to adjust the amount of
protein and energy supplements that are fed with the
forage in order to meet the needs of the animals. If
the energy and protein of the forage are relatively
high, the amount of supplement can be reduced,
resulting in a cost savings. On the other hand, if
energy and protein in the forage are not sufficient to
meet the needs of the animals, the producer can feed
the correct amount of supplement in order for the
animals to perform satisfactorily.
How To Get Started
Contact one of the certified forage testing labs
listed on this web site:
Ask the following questions:
1. What analyses are available?
2. Is chemical or near infrared reflectance
3. What is the cost per analysis?
4. How long will it take to receive the test
5. What are the instructions for collecting,
processing, and mailing the sample?
How To Collect A Sample
Properly collecting and identifying a sample is
very important. A sampling device or tool is needed
for collecting hay samples. Several commercial
types are available. They usually consist of a tube
with a cutting edge on one end and a shank on the
other that is fastened in the chuck of an electric drill
or hand brace. The sampler is driven into the end of
a rectangular bale or the rounded side of a round
bale to obtain core samples that are a cross section
of the bale. Collect a single core sample from each
of 12 bales for a particular lot of hay. Combine the
12 cores into one sample. This will insure that the
sample is representative. The outer layer of
weathered round bales should be pulled away
Each hay cutting, type of hay, etc. should be
sampled and analyzed separately. Each hay cutting
or lot should be identified and stored separately so
that when it is fed it can be matched with its forage
Silage also can be analyzed. Collecting a silage
sample may be somewhat more difficult but can be
managed. A sample can be collected from the face
of a bunker silo as it is being fed and from the
unloader of an upright silo. Bagged silage can be
sampled by cutting small slits along the side of the
bag, collecting a handful of silage and then covering
or resealing the slit with waterproof tape. Collect
silage from 5 or 6 places along the bag, mix well,
and extract a small sample to send to the laboratory.
Immediately place the sample in the plastic bag and
seal it. If not mailed right away, place the sample in
a refrigerator or freezer. Also, a fair estimate of the
nutritive value of the silage can be obtained by
analyzing the fresh material as it is going into the
Pasture samples can be collected and analyzed
by plucking the forage with your fingers at about
the height the animals are grazing it. Scissors or
some other cutting device also could be used. If
possible, these samples should be dried before
sending to the laboratory. If drying is not possible,
mail the sample immediately after it is harvested.
Your results are only as good as your sample!
What Results Are Provided
Results provided may include dry matter,
crude protein, total digestible nutrients (TDN),
neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber
(ADF), minerals, and some type of quality index. A
quality index assigns a numerical value to a hay
which then can be used to compare one hay to
October 2002 5
another. The lab you use may price each analysis
separately or some as a group. Often you can select
which analyses you want and omit others, thus
reducing the cost. Ask the lab to send you
information on how to interpret each analysis.
How To Use The Results
The results of forage tests may be compared to
the requirements for TDN and protein of different
classes of animals. An example for growing beef
heifers is in Table 1. The TDN requirements of
heifers increase with higher weights and higher
gains. Many residual pastures and hays available
during the fall and winter have a TDN concentration
of 50% or lower. Forages with lower TDN
concentrations also have lower levels of voluntary
intake. If the forage alone will not meet the
requirements for TDN or protein, then supplements
will be needed.
If you do not know how to use the results,
contact your County Agricultural Extension Office
or your nutrition consultant for advice.
1This document is SS-AGR-63, one of a series of the
Agronomy Department, Florida Cooperative Extension
Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences,
University of Florida. This publication is also part of the
Florida Forage Handbook, an electronic publication of the
Agronomy Department. For more information you may
contact the editor of the Florida Forage Handbook, C. G.
Chambliss (email@example.com). Revised June 2002.
Please visit the Edis website at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu.
Dr. Carrol Chambliss
University of Florida
Phone: (352) 392-1811 x-212
Dr. John Arthington
Range Cattle REC
Phone: (863) 735-1314 x-204
Dr. Martin Adjei
Range Cattle REC
Phone: (863) 735-1314 x-211
Dr. Ann Blount
North Florida REC
Phone: (850) 482-9849
Table 1. Daily TDN and protein requirements of heifers at various weights and gains.a
Dry Matter Daily TDN Requirements Crude Protein Requirements
Heifer Weight Daily Gain Intake % of Total % of Total
(Ib) (Ib) (Ib/day) Ib/day Dry Matter Ib/day Dry Matter
0 9.8 4.9 50.0 .75 7.6
0.5 11.0 6.2 56.0 .94 8.5
500 1.0 11.8 7.3 62.0 1.11 9.4
1.5 12.1 8.3 68.5 1.25 10.3
0 12.6 6.3 50.0 .89 7.1
0.5 14.1 7.9 56.0 1.11 7.9
700 1.0 15.1 9.1 62.0 1.27 8.4
1.5 15.5 10.6 68.5 1.40 9.0
aNational Research Council Nutritional Requirement of Beef Cattle, 1984.
6 October 2002
Florida Agriculture Commissioner Charles H.
Bronson has announced the availability of the
"2002 Florida Agricultural Fast Facts Directory"
which provides a statistical examination of Florida's
food, fiber and forestry industries.
The 168-page directory, published by the
Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer
Services in conjunction with the U.S. Department of
Agriculture, combines information that previously
was printed in various separate publications.
In addition to agricultural statistics and
specialized data, the "Fast Facts" contains price
histories and production levels of various
commodities, a listing of agricultural groups and
associations in Florida, agricultural news stories,
and a listing of publications and producer assistance
services offered by the Department.
"The directory is of interest to those involved
in commerce, education and government who need
information about Florida's second-largest
industry," Bronson said. "It's a quick reference for
everyone -- from teachers seeking data for school
projects, to agricultural producers wishing to
determine the impact of their crops and livestock on
the state and the nation."
"Fast Facts" is available free upon request
while supplies last. To obtain a copy, call (850)
488-9948, or visit www.florida-agriculture.com
(click on "Publications"), or write to:
"2002 Agricultural Fast Facts Directory"
Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer
Mayo Building, Room 435
407 Calhoun Street
Tallahassee, FL 32399-0800
Florida Department of Agriculture
and Consumer Services
Phone: (850) 488-4366
CSPI Slams Meat
Industry on New
The Washington, D.C.-based activist group
Center for Science in the Public Interest has
launched a children's Website (www.Smart-
Mouth.org) that aims to teach kids how to "bite
back" at fast food chains and food processors,
according to a new release from the National
Cattlemen's Beef Association.
The CSPI news release leads off: "Learning
about healthy eating can be fun on Smart-
Mouth.org, a snazzy new Web site where games
teach kids (and their parents and teachers) how to
eat well-and resist the food industry's marketing
campaigns. Kids can see how their favorite
restaurant foods stack up, play 'true or false' with a
food industry spokesman, and 'bite back' by asking
food companies and government officials to
The news release continued, "Smart-Mouth.org
is launched as the food industry -- and fast-food
chains in particular -- come under increased
scrutiny for their roles in promoting overweight and
obesity in children. Smart-Mouth.org is part of a
comprehensive strategy by CSPI to help address
childhood obesity and other diet-related health
Industry had a far different reaction.
"This Website is one of more extreme efforts
we've seen from CSPI," read a statement from
NCBA, "and we are dismayed by the tone and the
'facts' that are taken out of context."
Here are examples of some of the messages on
"It takes up to 10 times more land to feed
people on diets including meat, milk, and other
animal-based foods than on diets made up mostly of
plant foods (fruits, veggies, bread, rice, cereal)."
"Two feedlots (for cows being fattened for
slaughter) in Colorado produce more excrement
(cow poop) than the cities of Denver, Boston,
Atlanta and St. Louis -- combined."
"Eating chicken instead of beef? Good for
you. Just make sure it's grilled (not fried) and skip
the mayo or cheese on your chicken sandwich."
"When cows are getting fattened up for
slaughter, they produce about 50 pounds of manure
each day. So in two to three days, the poop from
one cow would weigh as much as you do.
"If you give people foods that pack a lot of
calories into a small volume, they tend to eat more
calories. That's why foods like ice cream, cheese,
fried foods and meats are fattening."
"Eating beef, pork, and other red meat is a
major cause of heart disease in the U.S. and other
Here are talking points to respond to this
Given the growing incidence of both
overweight/obesity and eating disorders,
more than ever it is important for kids to
develop a healthy, positive relationship with
food. That includes enjoying foods, even
snacks and fast food, in moderation. This
web site does not help kids do that.
The American Dietetic Association and the
Dietary Guidelines advise Americans to eat
diet of balance, variety and moderation.
What this Website does is divide foods into
good foods and bad foods, and leaves no
room for middle ground.
Ironically, CSPI is doing exactly what they
accuse food marketers of doing --
September 2002 7
manipulating impressionable children with
half-truths and misinformation.
* More than three-quarters of kids under the
age 11 are not eating the recommended
servings from the meat group, putting them
at risk for nutritional deficiencies such as
iron, zinc and B-vitamins.
* Beef is important to include in a kid's diet. It
provides more than nine essential nutrients
that help kids grow and develop.
* The CSPI Website says that chicken is a
preferred protein for children. [But] to get
the same nutrients provided in a three-ounce
serving of cooked top round steak
(compared with a three-ounce chicken
breast), you would have to eat seven chicken
breasts to get the same amount of vitamin
B12; five and a half chicken breasts to get
the same amount of zinc; three chicken
breasts to get the same amount of iron or
folate; two and one-third chicken breasts to
get the same amount of riboflavin; and two
chicken breasts to get the same amount of
Release September 24, 2002
8 October 2002
Federal Agencies Release
Updated FDA Food Code
FDA, the Centers for
Disease Control and the Food
F Safety and Inspection Service
released the 2001 edition of the
Food Code, a revised and
updated guide containing the most recent and best
advice to ensure that food sold at retail is safe,
properly protected and presented. The guide is
available through the National Technical
Epidemiological outbreak data repeatedly
identify five major risk factors related to employee
behaviors and preparation practices in retail and
foodservice establishments as contributing to food-
borne illness: improper holding temperatures;
inadequate cooking, such as undercooking raw shell
eggs; contaminated equipment; food from unsafe
sources; and poor personal hygiene.
Food Code 2001 provisions address the four
areas of personnel, food, equipment/facilities/
supplies and compliance and enforcement.
The Food Code 2001 is available in a four-
color, spiral-bound edition from NTIS by calling
(800) 553-6847 or (703) 605-6000, for $49 plus $5
handling fee (no additional charge for shipping).
Quote order number PB2002-100819KRZ. Most
major credit cards accepted. Fax orders to (703)
SOURCE: Dan Murphy
Release September 20, 2002