al Science e
Prepared By Extension
Specialists In Animal Sciences
F.G. Hembry, Professor, Department Chairman
o E.L. Johnson, Associate Professor, Extension
R.O. Myer, Professor, Animal Nutritionist,
R.S. Sand, Associate Professor, Extension
o A. Stelzleni, Research Programs/Services
W. Taylor, Coordinator Youth
o S.H. TenBroeck, Associate Professor,
Extension Youth Specialist
In This Issue...
Beef Management Calendar ..................... .. 2
2002 Corn Silage Field Day ................ ..................
Young Horses Need More Zinc, Copper For Strong
Skeletons, Says UF Expert.............................3.
USDA Announces Additional Steps To Reduce
Pathogens In Raw Ground Beef........................ 5
Call For Consignments 2002-2003 Florida Bull
T e st .................................................... 6
Livestock Summary..................... ............. 6
Animal Sciences Publications Update................. 7
Food Industry Animal Welfare Program Moving
Forw ard ..................................... ..................... 8
../., UNIVERSITY OF
Instituteof Food and Agricultural Sciences
1-3 UF Beef Cattle Short Course -
5-10 Florida International Trade Show -
16 Spring Rancher's Forum Geneva
17 2002 Alachua County 4-H Awards
18 Heart of Florida Club Calf Sale -
23 Subtropical Agricultural Research
Station Field Day Brooksville
23 Beef Forage Field Day Brooksville
TBA CVM MBNA Equine Conference
TBA Timpoochee Horse Camp -
9-15; 16-22; Welaka Horse Camp Welaka
19-21 2002 FCA Annual Convention and
Trade Show Marco Island
27 State Horse Demonstrations and Public
Horse Quiz Bowl, Horseman of the
The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an equal opportunity/affirmative action employer authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to
individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, age, handicap, or national origin For information on obtaining other extension publications, contact your county
Cooperative Extension Service Office Florida Cooperative Extension Service/Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences/University of Florida/ Christine Taylor Waddill, Director
2 May 2002
l Harvest hay from cool season crops.
l Plant warm season perennial pastures.
l Fertilize warm season pastures.
l Check mineral feeder.
l Check for spittlebugs and treat if necessary.
l Apply spot-on agents for grub and louse
l Check dust bags.
l Vaccinate and implant with growth stimulant
any later calves.
l Reimplant calves with growth stimulant at 90-
120 days, when you have herd penned.
l Dispose of dead animals properly.
l Update market information and refine
l Remove bulls May 21 to end calving season
" Last date for planting sorghum.
" Check mineral feeder, use at least 8%
phosphorus in mineral an not over 2 12 to 1
calcium to phosphorus ratio.
" Check pastures and hay field for spittlebugs,
mole crickets, and army worms. Treat if
necessary; best month for mole cricket control.
" Check dust bags.
" Watch for evidence of pinkeye and treat.
" Utilize available veterinary services and
" Get heifers vaccinated for brucellosis if not
" Pregnancy check cows.
l Control weeds in summer pastures.
l Apply nitrogen to warm season pastures, if
l Check mineral feeder.
l Check for army worms and mole crickets, and
treat if necessary.
l Wean calves and cull cow herd.
l Watch for evidence of footrot and treat.
l Consider preconditioning calves before sale
including vaccination for shipping fever and
IBR at least 3 weeks before sale.
l Check dust bags.
l Update market information and plans.
l Revaccinate calves at weaning for blackleg.
2002 Corn Silage
June 6, 2002
Department ofAnimal Sciences
University of Florida, IFAS
Dairy Research Unit Hague, FL
SR441, North of Gainesville, on CR 237
Registration at the corn field
Dr. Glen Hembry
9:00 Demonstrations In The field
Dr. Carroll Chambliss
Seed Corn Co. Representatives
Roundup-Ready Corn Varieties
Bt Corn Varieties
15 Inch Corn Rows
Waste Water And Non-Waste Water Areas
May 2002 3
*Weed Control That Works For You
Dr. Joyce Ducar
11:15 Old And New Concepts In Field Corn
Dr. Carrol Chambliss
11:45 Travel to Shop Area
1:00 Silage Inoculate Review
Dr. Adegbola Adosegan
1:25 The Feed You Need: How Different Silages
And Processing Fit
Dr. Mary Beth Hall
1:50 Farm Measurements For Estimating Quality
And Quantity Of Silage In The Silo
Dr. Charlie Staples
2:15 Closing Comments
There is no cost to participate in the 2002
Corn Silage Field Day and lunch will be provided.
To ensure your reservation for the sponsored lunch,
please email a list of all registrants individually,
including your name and complete mailing address,
to Cindy Dunbar, at email@example.com. For
further information or if you have any questions,
you may call (352) 392-2992.
Follow signs from SR 441.
Young Horses Need More
Zinc, Copper For Strong
Skeletons, Says UF
They run fast and jump high, sometimes
suffering torn cartilage and broken bones as a result.
They're not human athletes, they're horses. And a
University of Florida expert says current national
nutrient recommendations may not provide all the
zinc and copper the animals need to develop strong
cartilage and bone in their early years.
"The entire equine industry is based on
athleticism, whether we're talking about horses used
for racing, show or pleasure riding," said Ed Ott,
animal sciences professor with UF's Institute of
Food and Agricultural Sciences. "The skeletal
system is literally the foundation for a healthy,
A 1989 National Research Council report,
considered the "gold standard" for equine nutrition,
recommends that growing horses get 40 milligrams
of zinc and 10 milligrams of copper per kilogram of
feed. But recent UF research shows foals aged 5 to
18 months develop the strongest bones when given
feed containing double those amounts, Ott said.
Both minerals are used for enzyme processes in
forming and maintaining cartilage, and zinc is also
involved in mineralization of cartilage, the process
by which cartilage is replaced by bone in
In light of the findings, Ott, who headed a
panel of experts that issued the report, said the
recommendations should be revised in order to help
reduce the incidence of fractures and other skeletal
injuries to horses. In 1999, Ott and other equine
nutrition experts met to discuss recent research, said
Charlotte Kirk Baer, director of the council's Board
on Agriculture and Natural Resources in
"Their consensus was that the report should
be revised," Kirk Baer said. "We're all in favor of
that, it's mainly a question of when the funding
4 May 2002
becomes available. Because the council is a private
entity, its projects are dependent on funding from
the federal government, foundations and industry
"Unfortunately, several federal agencies
have made cutbacks in their allocations to the
council," she said. "We're concerned that perhaps
the agencies aren't aware of the tremendous value
that industry and the general public place on these
Early next year, the council will issue an
updated report on nutrient requirements for dogs
and cats, she said. The council's recommendations
for horses are important to feed producers and
others with a professional interest in equine
nutrition, said Larry Mack, nutritionist with
Seminole Feeds in Ocala.
"The report is certainly a base of
information, although it's not the only thing we look
at," Mack said. "The council tends to be pretty
conservative and makes recommendations based on
the most thoroughly reviewed findings, whereas we
try to be a little more cutting-edge in order to stay
He said commercial horse feeds often are
fortified with zinc, copper and other minerals. Many
Seminole feeds contain 120 milligrams of zinc and
40 milligrams of copper per kilogram. Ott said that
recreational horse owners may want to consider the
proper supplementation of their grazing animals.
"You can't assume that forage will meet 100
percent of a horse's nutritional requirements," he
said. "You may have problems if the soil is
deficient in some nutrients, or there aren't enough
plant species available to provide a balanced diet."
Zinc and copper are considered trace
minerals, because horses need them in minute
amounts, Ott said. A 6-month-old foal weighing
235 kilograms would need about 472 milligrams of
zinc and 118 milligrams of copper per day.
"Prior to birth, the skeletal systems of horses
and other vertebrates are composed entirely of
cartilage," he said. "In horses, much of the
mineralization process occurs between birth and 1
year of age, and mineralization isn't complete until
3 to 4 years."
To conduct the research, Ott worked with
graduate students at UF's Horse Research Center
near Ocala. They provided foals with varying
amounts of zinc and copper and used X-ray
technology to estimate bone mineral content and
"We used non-invasive procedures so that
we could work with the same foals as they
matured," he said. "For horses, the most critical
time in skeletal development is between 5 months
and 18 months, when their bodies are growing
He said future UF research will examine the
roles zinc and copper play in skeletal development
of younger and older horses.
za utt, professor witn me university or l-onraa's institute or -ooa
and Agricultural Sciences, checks development of yearling horses
at a UF research facility in Ocala, Thursday- APR- 4, 2002. Ott
found that horses aged 5 to 18 months develop the strongest
skeletons when given feed containing 80 milligrams zinc and 20
milligrams copper per kilogram. Current national recommendations
indicating horses need only half those amounts may need to be
revised, he said. (AP Photo: University of Florida/IFAS/Thomas
(352) 392-1773 x277
By: Ed Ott (352) 392-2455
Charlotte Kirk Baier (202) 334-3062
Larry Mack (352) 732-4143
IFAS Communications Services
University of Florida
Release April 4, 2002
USDA USDA Announces
-- Additional Steps
Pathogens In Raw
Agriculture Under Secretary for Food Safety
Dr. Elsa Murano announced new meat safety
directives to control pathogens in plants that
produce ground beef. The Hazard Analysis and
Critical Control Point system, or HACCP, requires
plants to determine those points in their process
where contamination can occur and where it can be
controlled. Under these new directives, Food Safety
Inspection Service inspectors will determine
whether plants have specifically addressed
Salmonella and E. coli 0157:H7 in their Pathogen
Reduction/HACCP plans to have effective control
measures for these pathogens. Ground beef plants
that do not employ effective decontamination
strategies, or that do not require their suppliers to do
so as part of their PR/HACCP systems, will be
targeted for increased verification testing by FSIS,
above that which is already conducted. USDA
currently tests for Salmonella and E.coli 0157:H7
in grinding plants to verify that the plants' food
safety systems are controlling microbial hazards.
"A key part of pathogen reduction is a
strong HACCP system," said Murano in a speech to
the National Food Policy Conference. "These
directives are an example of how we can better tap
Under the PR/HACCP rule, if a plant does
not have an adequate plan, or does not have an
adequate sanitation program, the U.S. Department
of Agriculture's Food Safety and Inspection Service
can withhold marks of inspection or suspend
inspection at a plant, which effectively shuts down
"Recent data released by the Centers for
Disease Control and Prevention and USDA show
that foodborne illness is declining in the United
States, and that the prevalence of Salmonella in
meat and poultry has declined since the
May 2002 5
implementation of the PR/HACCP rule," said
Murano. "If we are going to continue to drive down
the incidence of pathogens in raw ground beef, it is
crucial that we increase our efforts and resources on
those establishments where microbial control may
be insufficient," said Murano.
The directives will be issued within the next
several weeks and will be in place while the
department works through the rule-making process
to include the directives in its food safety
The announcement today is part of a series
of actions USDA announced Dec.18, 2001 to
further improve meat and poultry safety. USDA is
expediting the placement of 75 new Consumer
Safety Officers with the primary responsibility of
conducting in-depth reviews of plant HACCP and
sanitation plans throughout the country. This will
bring the total CSO staff to 110, supplementing the
more than 7600 USDA food safety inspectors
In addition, USDA is conducting a series of
public meetings to gain input from interested
parties. Murano announced a public symposium on
food safety, which will be held May 6-7 at
Georgetown University in Washington, DC. Titled
Pathogen Reduction: A Scientific Dialogue, the
symposium will bring together leading experts from
government and academia to discuss scientific data
and issues associated with pathogen reduction and
The above initiatives are part of the USDA's
overall strategy to improve food safety, which is
supported through the Bush Administration's FY
2003 budget request for the Department. It
provides for $905 million, the second straight year
of record level spending, to strengthen FSIS in
order to ensure safe and wholesome meat, poultry
and egg products for consumers.
SOURCE: Alisa Harrison (202) 720-4623
Matt Baun (202) 720-9113
Release April 22, 2002
6 May 2002
It is now time to plan consignments to the
2002-2003 Florida Bull Test at the University of
Florida, North Florida Research and Education
Center, Marianna. Consignment is open to all
breeds and composites with Expected Progeny
Differences. Bull must be born between September
1 and December 31, 2001. Bulls will be gain tested
for 112 days. Weight growth, ultrasound, health,
and reproduction data will be gathered throughout
the test. Eligible bulls will be sold at auction at the
NFREC Pavilion on Saturday, January 25, 2003.
Bulls will be scheduled to arrive at the testing
facility on August 2-3, will go on test August 21-22,
and complete the test on December 11-12.
Nomination forms are available by contacting: Mrs.
Mary Chambliss, North Florida Research and
Education Center, 3925 Hwy 71, Marianna, FL
32446-7906, Phone: (850) 482-9904, or can be
downloaded from http://flbulltest.ifas.ufl.edu/.
Nominations are due by July 1, 2002.
USDA is reporting that
the cattle inventory numbers
on January 1, 2002, indicates a
decline of another one percent
from the 1996 cyclical peak.
This decline of cattle and calves on farms
marks the 12th year of the cattle cycle which began
in 1991. The previous cyclical low occurred in 1990
with 95.8 million head nationwide.
This trend strongly suggests that inventories
will continue their decline for at least the next two
years. Beef production in 2002 is expected to
decline two percent from last year, and four to five
percent from the 2000 record.
Replacement heifers are not expected to
calve this year in potentially sufficient number to
offset the larger cow slaughter of 2001. A larger
than expected number of heifers from this year's
calf crop would need to be retained to even begin to
offset continued large beef cow slaughter.
The next real change for herd expansion will
likely come from retained heifers in this year's calf
crop. They will be bred in 2003 and produce calves
The projected number of beef heifers
expected to calve this year is up three percent, still
it is only 115,000 higher than the low level of a year
earlier. The numbers of heifers calving and entering
the beef and dairy cow herds in the second half of
2001 to decline to the lowest level since 1988.
Better forage and grazing prospect from
improved moisture would supply the base for
increased heifer retention and reduced beef
production in the fourth quarter of 2002. Renewed
El Nino prospects may bring this about for Florida
This year, fed cattle prices are likely to rise
through the year and average in the mid-$70 range,
even as slaughter weights rise to new record levels.
Another good sign for Florida cow-calf ranchers
that the post 9-11-01 economy is beginning to
recover and profit projections are improving.
Head of Cattle Sold in Florida: Weekly Averages
4 5 6 7 8
May 2002 7
#1- 2 Steer Calves 250 300 Ibs: Weekly Price Averages
January 14 March 15, 2002
N,. -..- .
3 4 5
6 7 8
Eastern Cornbelt Direct Hogs Weighted Average:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
FDACS Announces the Livestock
The Florida Department of Agriculture
and Consumer Services (FDACS) recently
published a Livestock Export Directory. The
purpose of the directory is to assist Florida
producers in the export of high quality Florida
livestock and genetics to the international
community. The directory is available in English
and Spanish and provides a comprehensive
perspective on the exporting process. To obtain
your copy, please call FDACS Division of
Marketing and Development at (850) 488-4366
The Florida Agri-Journal
Release April 1, 2002
Researched by Les Harrison
Development Rep. I,
Division of Marketing
The Department of Animal Sciences is
continuing to add to our list of
publications available from our web page
The newest addition is the proceedings for
the 51st Annual Beef Cattle Short Course, which
was held May 1-3, 2002, in Gainesville, Florida.
The articles are available in both html and pdf
format and can be accessed at http://www.animal.
The Florida Cow-Calf Management, 2nd
Edition, is now available on the EDIS web site
(http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu). To make file loading
quicker, each chapter is listed separately and all
chapters are in both html and pdf format.
As a reminder, the Animal Sciences
Newsletter is available on our web site at
index.htm. We are unable to print copies in color
format for distribution, but most figures and
graphics are in color and are in this format in both
the html and pdf versions.
If you do not have the Adobe Acrobat
Reader, which is necessary for viewing and printing
the pdf format files, you may download
the free version from http://www.adobe.com/
We will continue to update you as
publications become available.
8 May 2002
Food Industry Animal
Welfare Program Moving
No one can argue that the issue of animal
welfare continues to heat up in the meat and poultry
industries. Here's news about a program some may
not be familiar with.
The Food Industry Animal Welfare Program
was established by the Food Marketing Institute and
the National Council of Chain Restaurants, and
brings together experts in veterinary medicine,
animal science and agricultural production for the
purpose of identifying science-based, objective and
measurable indices for desirable practices in the
growing, handling and processing of animals used
for food production.
Goals of the FMI/NCCR Animal Welfare
Identifying and implementing best practices
in animal production that have their basis in
A measurable audit process
Consistency across the retail sector
Improved communication across the supply
chain on animal welfare issues
When The Program Began
The program began with the adoption of
an animal welfare policy and program by FMI
in January 2001. FMI and NCCR announced a
formal alliance in June 2001. The AVMA also
joined the effort as a member of the FMI-
NCCR's Animal Welfare Expert Advisory Panel
in June 2001.
"Veterinarians are specifically trained
for and dedicate their working lives toward,
ensuring the health, welfare and humane
treatment of animals," said Gail C. Golab,
assistant director, professional and public
affairs, and AVMA liaison to the pre-mentioned
Last December, members of the FMI-
NCCR Animal Welfare Expert Advisory panel
met and developed guidance documents that
describe the process, content and audit
components necessary for meaningful and
effective animal welfare guidelines. An FMI-
NCCR interim report, released in January and
available at http://www.avma.org/, explains
these components in more detail and describes
other activities of this broad-based animal
welfare program, which include:
Comparing existing species-specific
industry guidelines with the process and
criteria established by its Animal Welfare
Expert Advisory Panel for acceptable
guidelines content and audit systems.
Recommending changes for modifying and
enhancing current practices that do not meet
the specified FMI-NCCR criteria or do not
address appropriate animal welfare issues
for each species in particular environments.
Encouraging scientific research to fill gaps
in information and ensure that
recommendations are based on sound
Periodic reviews of guidelines and best
practices to make certain they keep pace
with scientific discovery.
"We believe a science- and performance-based
approach to appropriate modification of agricultural
practices is the only way to ensure that changes
made are those that will actually result in health and
welfare benefits for animals," Golab said.
Release April 12, 2002
_ _I~I II -