In This Issue...
Beef Management Calendar................................. 2
Beef Quality Comer Injection Site Update......... 2-4
USDA Issues Permit For Tuberculosis
Diagnosis Kit For Cattle ................................ 4-5
Livestock Sum m ary .......................................... 5-6
Size Is Important When Breeding Yearling
H eifers .......................................................... 6
Florida Processor Recalls Pork Products For
Listeria ....................................... ............. .... 7
President Bush Signs Defense Appropriations
Bill That Bolsters USDA Homeland Security
E efforts ........................................ ...... ......... 7-8
UK Declared Free of Foot-And-Mouth
D isease................................. ... ............. 8
Prepared By Extension
Specialists In Animal Sciences
*. F.G. Hembry, Professor, Department Chairman
R.S. Sand, Associate Professor, Extension
E.L. Johnson, Associate Professor, Extension
W.E. Kunkle, Professor, Extension Beef
S.H. TenBroeck, Associate Professor,
Extension Youth Specialist
R.O. Myer, Professor, Animal Nutritionist,
W. Taylor, Coordinator Youth
A. Stelzleni, Research Programs/Services
All Breed Bull Sale Lakeland, FL
Southern Section Academic
Quadrathlon Lab Practicum
State Fair Horse and Livestock Judging
Events Tampa, FL
FCA Legislative Quarterly Meeting -
2 Florida Bull Test Sale Marianna
9-20 Tri-State In-Service Training Auburn
26 Equine In-service Training -
26 Beef In-service Training -Gainesville
27 Forages In-Service Training -
The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an equal opportunity/affirmative action employer authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to
individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, age, handicap, or national origin For information on obtaining other extension publications, contact your county
Cooperative Extension Service Office Florida Cooperative Extension Service/Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences/University of Florida/ Christine Taylor Waddill, Director
2 February 2002
^ Beef Management
1 Top dress winter forages, if needed.
) Check and fill mineral feeders.
1 Put bulls out with breeding herd.
1 Work calves (identify, implant with growth
stimulant, vaccinate, etc.).
1 Make sure lactating cows are receiving an
adequate level of energy.
1 Watch calves for signs of respiratory diseases.
1 Cull cows that failed to calve while prices are
1 Check for lice and treat if needed..
1 Prepare land for summer crops.
1 Begin grazing warm season permanent
1 Check and fill mineral feeder.
1 Observe bulls for condition and success.
Rotate and rest if needed.
1 Deworm cows as needed.
1 Make sure calves are healthy and making good
1 Hang forced-use dust bags by April 1st for
external parasite control or use insecticide
impregnated ear tags.
1 Identify, vaccinate, implant, and work late
1 Put bulls out March 1st for calving season to
start December 9.
1 Remove bulls March 22nd to end calving season
1 Plant warm season annual pastures.
1 Plant corn for silage.
1 Check and fill mineral feeder.
1 Check dust bags or apply treated ear tags.
) Check for external parasites and treat if
1 Observe cows for repeat breeders.
1 Deworm cows as needed if not done in March.
1 Vaccinate against blackleg and brucellosis
after 3 months of age and before 12 months of
) Market cull cows and bulls.
) Update market information and refine market
strategy for calves.
Beef Quality Corner -
Injection Site Update
The problem of injection site damage to beef
continues to be a nagging concern for the industry.
Anyone who has been anywhere near the cattle
business during the last decade has heard about the
For years, producers and veterinarians
administered vaccines, antibiotics, and other
injectables by the handiest route intramuscularly
in the rump. That was the most convenient route
and there were no visible injection site "knots" on
the neck. What the industry discovered was that
there were still "knots," but now they were deep in
the top sirloin muscle group. Additionally, those
injection site lesions remained present when the
cattle were harvested and the beef arrived to the
retailer or consumer.
The discovery of the problem, the
educational program, and the progress made in
reducing the incidence of injection site lesions has
been a successful example of industry leadership
and effective use of check-off funded educational
programs. Though the incidence of injection site
lesions in beef has declined from the huge
February 2002 3
percentages of the early 1990's, it is obvious a few
folks are still not getting the message. There seems
to be both some misconceptions about the problem
and a lack of willingness for producers to accept
responsibility for the issue.
The injection lesions that are found before
they reach the consumer are certainly a concern
because they result in trim losses and extra labor.
These extra expenses add to the processor's costs
and are ultimately paid for by the cattle producer.
The most serious damage caused to the industry by
the lesions is when they reach the consumer. Even
lesions that have regressed tend to leave an
unsightly scar or calloused area. Additionally, shear
force tests have shown that beef located up to three
inches away from the lesion is much tougher than
In many cases it has been difficult for
cow/calf producers to accept their share of
responsibility for the injection site problem. "How
can the little vaccination I give to light weight
calves show up months down the road?" Some folks
have also incorrectly assumed that injection lesions
only resulted from the use of vaccines such as the
clostridial products. Research work conducted by
Colorado State University has demonstrated that
injection site damage is present at least one year
after the injection and that the clostridial vaccines
are not the only culprit. The table below illustrates
the incidence of injection site lesions when calves
were vaccinated at branding (48 days of age) and at
weaning (199 days of age) with different products.
It is clear that the lesions were a problem at
slaughter; which was 7.5 months after the
vaccinations at weaning and 12 months after
vaccinations at turn-out time.
The Effect of Product Injected, Timing of Injection, Incidence of Lesions, and Amount of Trim Loss
Timing of Injections
% of Calves
2-mL Clostridial Branding 72.5% 1.7 oz
Weaning 46.3% 1.1 oz
5-mL Clostridial Branding 92.7% 3.0 oz
Weaning 79.5% 2.4 oz
Vitamin AD Branding 5.3% 2.7 oz
Weaning 10.0% 1.9 oz
Antibiotic (4.5 mL/100 lb) Branding 51.2% 3.7 oz
Weaning 92.3% 3.1 oz
Injection-Site Audit, "Top Butts"
100 .810.9 1 10.710210 7101
5.6 5.8 6.1
5. 8-..433.4 3.0 2.5
( 7J -,
4 February 2002
The injection site lesion problem is also a
concern with slaughter cows. The occurrence of
injection site lesions in market cows continues to be
above 40%. Contrary to many folks' perceptions,
the beef from slaughter cows does not wind up in
the grinding tub. Many whole primal cuts such as
the rib, loin, and top sirloin butt may find their way
to family steak restaurants. Cuts from the rump and
round may be marketed as "100% lean" and be used
in roast beef sandwich products. Producers who say
that those lesions are the packer's problem are
simply failing to accept their responsibility to beef
quality assurance and long term beef demand.
Some basic guidelines for using injectables
1. Read the label.
2. All injections given in front of the
3. Choose the subcutaneous route when
4. Give no more than 10 mL per injection.
5. Do not tue disinfectants around needles
when using modified live vaccines.
6. Do not combine vaccines into one
7. Mark and separate syringes.
Bill McKinnon, Extension Animal
Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA
Department has issued a
U.S. veterinary biological
product permit to Biocor
Animal Health, Inc. of
Omaha, Neb., a division of Commonwealth Serum
Laboratories, Limited, Melbourne, Australia, for a
bovine gamma interferon test kit for use in the
diagnosis of tuberculosis infection in cattle.
The Animal and Plant Health Inspection
Service issues permits authorizing the importation
of specified biological products subject to
restrictions and controls as provided in Title 9,
Code of Federal Regulations, Part 104, according to
a news release. Under these regulations, a product
that is shown to meet all the necessary requirements
may be permitted by the Center for Veterinary
Biologics of APHIS' veterinary services program.
Bovigam-TB is a rapid in vitro blood-based
test for the diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis
infection in cattle. The test is intended for use after
skin testing for tuberculosis in cattle has been
completed. The gamma interferon kit is used as a
confirmatory test for positive and negative cattle
within three to 30 days of the skin test.
Tuberculosis is caused by the organism
Mycobacterium bovis, which infects cattle
worldwide and is of major importance to the U.S.
cattle industry as well. Bovine tuberculosis is a
contagious, infectious, and communicable disease.
It affects cattle, bison, deer, elk, goats, and other
species including humans. Bovine tuberculosis in
infected animals and humans manifests itself in
lesions of the lung, bone and other body parts,
causes weight loss, general debilitation, and can be
February 2002 5
APHIS works cooperatively with the national
livestock industry and state animal health agencies
to eradicate tuberculosis from domestic livestock in
the United States and to prevent its recurrence.
SOURCE: Bryan Salvage
Release January 8, 2002
Dry weather nationally
has reduced forage supplies,
and uncertain domestic and
international demand have
plagued the beef industry
this fall. Another year of
drought, added to the
uncertainty created by the War on Terrorism, has
forced adjustment in the beef sector.
Poor overwintering forage prospects nationally
have resulted in large beef cow slaughter as
producers in many areas are faced with inadequate
grazing conditions and heavier demand on hay
stocks. Producers in many of the drier areas have
already fed large quantities of hay from this year's
Slowing domestic and international economies
have exhibited weaker demand for beef which has
resulted in reduced cattle slaughter levels even as
slaughter weights set new record highs. Even as the
slaughter weights set new records there is no excess
of cattle in the Choice grade. Overfinished cattle are
not likely to drive prices down in that grade.
The latest reports indicate reduced feedlot
placements, but also a much slower marketing
trend. Retail demand for beef seems to be holding
up, but reduced travel and hotel/restaurant trade as
well as weaker export demand are forcing more
beef into the retail market at lower wholesale prices,
a condition which should promote additional
Winter weather conditions likely will play a
major roll in determining feedlot performance and
marketing numbers. Stacker-feeder cattle supplies
continue to be buffeted as much by uncertain forage
and overwintering prospects as by fed cattle prices.
Placement of stacker-feeder cattle in feedlots is
Adding to the downward price pressure,
consumption of beef in Japan, including U.S.
produced beef, has dropped significantly since the
confirmation of Bovine Spongiform
Encephalopathy (BSE) or Mad Cow Disease in a
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6 February 2002
heifer on September 11, 2001. Additional cases
have been confirmed since then continuing the near-
term downward consumption trend of beef and U.S.
beef imports to Japan. First- time cases of BSE have
now been confirmed in Finland and Austria.
Pasture conditions from Orlando south are
mostly in good shape. Rain has been adequate for
supporting pasture feed and normal seasonal
conditions exist. The panhandle pasture conditions
are poor with many farmers feeding supplemental
SOURCE: The Florida Agri-Journal
Released January 2, 2002
Researched by Les Harrison
Development Rep. I,
Division of Marketing
Size Is Important When
Breeding Yearling Heifers
A goal of many Florida cattlemen is to
successfully breed yearling heifers to calve at two
years of age, and breed them back to calve again at
three years of age. This gives an additional calf in
the lifetime of producing females in comparison to
breeding heifers first at two years of age. In Florida
we have to overcome three major hurdles to
accomplish this goal.
First, the tropical grasses used in Florida do
not provide the energy needed to obtain the
necessary weight gains required of heifers from
weaning until they are exposed to bulls at 15
months of age. Second, the breeding season most
used in south Florida is from early winter to early
spring when the quantity and quality of tropical
grass pastures are most limiting. Third, the
Brahman genetics needed in cattle production in
south Florida produce good, fast growing females
that tend to be late maturing, thus slow breeders.
It is difficult to breed yearling heifers and get
them rebred after calving under the above
conditions. To accomplish this goal heifers require
the best pasture available and liberal amounts of
supplemental energy and protein. Supplementation
must be initiated at weaning and fed through the
following breeding season. Heifers then must be fed
energy and protein supplement from the time they
calve until they are bred back to conceive their
second calf. These cows will require special
nutrition after dropping their second calf and rebred
at three years of age.
Here are some targets to obtain for a successful
yearling heifer breeding program. Heifers should
weigh 450 (light mature weight cattle) to 500
pounds or more at weaning. Heifers should obtain
65% of their mature weight when exposed to bulls
for the first time. For example, Angus heifers
should weigh 600 to 650 pounds or more, while
Brangus heifers need to weigh 700 to 750 pounds or
more when exposed to bulls.
After breeding, heifers should be managed to
gain 1.0 to 1.25 pound per day and have a 6.0 or
better body condition score at calving. Heifers
should maintain the above body weight and
condition score until rebred for their second calf.
A yearling heifer breeding program is
expensive, but it can be profitable, especially with
good feeder calf prices. However, cattlemen must
realize that it is a two to three year program and
they must make a commitment to provide good
quality pasture and liberal amounts of concentrate
supplement to ensure success.
SOURCE: Findlay Pate
Range Cattle REC, Ona, Florida
Published in "The Peace River
Farmer and Rancher" January 2002
February 2002 7
S Recalls Pork
The Food Safety and Inspection Service said
that Opa Locka, Florida-based Special America's
BBQ Inc. has recalled about 150 pounds of fresh
pork sausage products that may be contaminated
The products subject to recall are one pound
packages of Special America's MR. TANGO Cuban
Brand COOKED BUTIFARRA Cured Sausage.
Each package bears the lot number LOT# 355, the
sell-by date of 2/20/02 and the Ext. No. 11179
located inside the USDA seal of inspection.
These products were produced on Dec. 20,
2001, and distributed to retail stores in Miami,
Questions about the recall may be directed to
Avio Presa, Special America's BBQ plant manager,
at (305) 681-5646.
SOURCE: Dan Murphy
Release January 22, 2002
President Bush Signs
Bill That Bolsters USDA
$367 million provided for pest and
animal disease prevention, food safety,
research, and feeding programs
The President has signed the Defense
Appropriations Act, which included $367 million
for the U.S. Department of Agriculture to bolster
biosecurity efforts in the wake of the September 11
tragedies, including strengthening programs for
food safety, pest and animal disease protections and
research, along with funding for other key
"These appropriations will provide important
resources to help strengthen our biosecurity efforts
in the wake of September 11," said Agriculture
Secretary Ann M. Veneman. "The protection of our
food supply, including guarding against pest and
animal diseases, is extremely critical. We must
continue to invest in food safety programs, research
and laboratory modernization to ensure America's
consumers and food and agriculture industry are
protected against any potential threats."
Key funding includes:
$105 million for the Animal and Plant
Health Inspection Service for pest and
disease exclusion, detection and monitoring
$80 million for upgrading USDA facilities
and operational security
$50 million for an animal bio-containment
facility at the National Animal Disease
$40 million for the Agricultural Research
$23 million for the Plum Island Animal
$15 million for security upgrades and
bioterrorism protection for the Food Safety
and Inspection Service
$14 million for increased security measures
at the National Veterinary Services
Laboratories in Ames, Iowa
$39 million for the Women, Infants and
Children program to respond to the effects
of unemployment and other conditions.
"We continue to make our protection systems a
top priority," said Veneman. "I commend the work
of the Conference Committee for developing this
bipartisan resolution. These resources are important
investments that will help strengthen our protection
8 February 2002
Beginning last year, USDA has worked to
enhance many of these programs through annual
budget requests and emergency appropriations.
Secretary Veneman has repeatedly called for
more long-term planning in infrastructure programs
to ensure American farmers and consumers are
protected against threats such as foot-and-mouth
disease, which ravaged the UK and parts of Europe
this spring. As well, Veneman has urged further
consideration of such critical programs be examined
as part of the next farm bill.
Since September 11, USDA has worked with
the newly created Office of Homeland Security,
states, other federal agencies, states and industry, to
examine immediate emergency needs and develop
longer-term strategies to continue protecting
America's food and agricultural systems.
"We will continue to coordinate with the Office
of Homeland Security and other federal agencies,
particularly the Department of Health and Human
Services, to utilize these additional resources most
effectively," Veneman said. "We formed the
USDA Homeland Security Council to help
coordinate antiterrorism efforts across all USDA
program areas and with other federal and state
For more information on USDA's homeland
security efforts, please visit the Department's
biosecurity website at http:// www.usda.gov/
SOURCE: Alisa Harrison
Release January 10, 2002
UK Declared Free Of Foot-
Nearly a year after the first outbreaks rocked
the country's livestock sector, Great Britain has
regained its status as foot-and-mouth disease free,
according to the results of an evaluation by the Foot
and Mouth Disease and Other Epizootics
Commission of the Organization for International
Epizootics, the Paris-based international animal
The commission evaluated documentation on
the eradication of FMD, which was submitted by
British government officials. In accordance with
procedures adopted by the OIE International
Committee during its May 1997 session, recognized
the UK's FMD-free status, without vaccination. For
countries that have been previously declared FMD-
free and where vaccination is not practiced, the OIE
requires a waiting period of three months after the
last confirmed case before free status can be
The last FMD case confirmed in the UK was
on Sept. 30, 2001.
The OIE action is not automatically binding,
but most countries -- including the United States --
usually follow the agency's decisions.
Release January 24, 2002