In This Issue...
Beef Management Calendar............................. 2
"E-Answers" Correction................................. 3
Animal Sciences Publications Update ................... 3
Scrapie eradication Long awaited plan announced by
USDA................................ .............. 3-4
Third Annual COSAF Field Day........................ 5
The 2002 Chicago Mercantile Exchange
Inc. Beef Industry Scholarship Program........... 5-6
Feeding Food Wastes to Livestock....................... 6-7
Meat Feats Included in 2002 Guinness
Book of World Records................ ......... 7
Study Pins Salmonella Infections on
Sources Other Than M eat............................ 7-8
UF Online Guide to Experts.................... ....... 8
Prepared by Extension
Specialists in Animal Sciences
F.G. Hembry, Professor, Department Chairman
R.S. Sand, Associate Professor, Extension
E.L. Johnson, Associate Professor, Extension
W.E. Kunkle, Professor, Extension Beef Specialist
F.W. Leak, Associate Professor, Extension Meat
S.H. TenBroeck, Associate Professor, Extension
R.O. Myer, Professor, Animal Nutritionist,
W. Taylor, Coordinator Youth Education/Training
A. Stelzleni, Research Programs/Services
? Dates to
Hereford Association of Florida
Annual Sale Lake Placid, FL
Hardee Farms Black Bull Sale -
Milligan & Moody Hereford/Rogers
Bar HR Charolais Sale Okeechobee,
Veterans Day (Observed)
Florida Cow/Calf Seminars 2001
Hillsborough County Nov. 12th
Jackson County Nov. 13th
Sumter County Nov. 14th
Okeechobee County Nov. 15h
Farm City Week Barbecue -
The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an equal opportunity/affirmative action employer authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to
individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, age, handicap, or national origin For information on obtaining other extension publications, contact your county
Cooperative Extension Service Office Florida Cooperative Extension Service/Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences/University of Florida/ Christine Taylor Waddill, Director
November 2001 2
s Beef Management
Have soils tested.
J Observe cows daily to detect calving difficulty.
Use mineral with high level of magnesium if
grass tetany has been a problem in the past.
Check for external parasites and treat if needed.
Maintain adequate nutrient level for cow herd.
Calve in well-drained pastures.
Survey pastures for poisonous plants.
Start summarizing your annual records, both
production and financial then you will have
time to make adjustments for tax purposes.
Re-evaluate winter feeding program and feed
Begin grazing small grain pastures (if ready).
Check mineral feeder.
Check for external parasites and treat if needed.
Deworm cows and heifers prior to winter
Observe regularly for calving difficulties.
Rotate calving pastures to prevent diseases.
Watch for scours in calves.
Investigate health of bulls before you buy.
Have dead animals posted by a veterinarian or
Complete review of management plan and
update for next year.
Check replacement heifers to be sure they will
be ready to breed 3 4 weeks prior to the main
Apply lime for summer crops.
Check for lice and treat if necessary.
Control weeds in cool season pastures.
Begin grazing winter clover pastures when
approximately 6 inches high. Rye should be 12
18 inches high.
Check mineral feeders.
Put bulls out for October calving season.
Make up breeding herd lists if using single sire
Watch for calf scours.
Give bulls extra feed and care so they will be in
condition for breeding season.
Make sure cow herd has access to adequate
Buy only performance tested bulls with
Get taxes filed.
Discuss herd health with your veterinarian and
outline a program for the year. Review herd
health program with your veterinarian
Carry a pocket notebook to record heat,
breeding abnormalities, discharges, abortions,
retained placentas, difficult calvings and other
Observe cow herd for calving difficulties.
Watch for grass tetany on winter pastures.
Increase magnesium levels in mineral mixes if
grass tetany has been previous problem (if you
are not already using a high magnesium
Examine bulls for breeding soundness and
semen quality prior to the breeding season.
Vaccinate cows and heifers against vibriosis
and leptospirosis prior to the breeding season.
^i' s^ l-'
Last month, we notified you of E
Answers, a searchable database containing research
papers, articles, essays, and other publications
contributed by 46 land-grant universities throughout
the United States. The web address for this site was
listed incorrectly and we wanted to provide you
with the correct address, which is http://www.e-
We are sorry for any inconvenience this may
In keeping with our promise to notify you of
new or updated Animal Science publications, Dr.
Bill Kunkle, Department of Animal Sciences; Dr.
John Arthington and Dr. Findlay Pate, Range Cattle
REC, Ona; have recently added publications to
Dr. Bill Kunkle has published "Strategies for
Cost Effective Supplementation of Beef Cattle" and
is available at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/AN085.
Dr. John Arthington has published "Colostrum
Management in Newborn Calves" and is available
Dr. John Arthington and Dr. Findlay Pate have
published "Estimating the Value of Wet Citrus Pulp
for Florida Cattlemen" and is available at
We will continue to update you as publications
Long awaited plan
announced by USDA -
Scrapie eradication will
require dedication of
A plan to eradicate the fatal disease scrapie
from the nation's sheep flocks and goat herds,
announced earlier this week by the US Department
of Agriculture, will require dedication and
commitment of producers and other stakeholders,
say industry leaders.
"To be successful, the scrapie eradication
program will require the cooperation of every
segment of the industry, from producer to meat
packer, including local veterinarians, and state
animal health officials," says Glenn Slack, President
and Chief Executive Officer of the National
Institute for Animal Agriculture (NIAA).
"We are tackling scrapie because it has the
potential to jeopardize the future of sheep and goat
production in the United States."
The USDA-announced plan to eliminate
scrapie from the U.S. will be administered by the
Agriculture Department's Animal and Plant Health
Inspection Service (APHIS).
Key elements include:
Interstate movement restrictions on animals
from infected and source flocks and high
risk and exposed animals from other flocks;
An indemnification program for owners of
high risk, test positive, and suspect animals;
A nationwide individual identification
program for breeding sheep and goats and
sheep over 18 months of age;
Surveillance and testing of sheep at
November 2001 4
Uniform minimum standards for state
Especially important is that each flock
identified as scrapie-infected will be required to
prepare a plan to eradicate the disease and to
monitor for recurrence of the disease in that flock or
herd. To that end, producers will be provided with
professional expertise, testing, and indemnity for
animals required to be removed. The federal
government earmarked $10 million for the program
in the 2001 budget.
"As with the other eradication programs, this
will take a long term commitment from everyone
involved," states Dr. Cindy Wolf, a small ruminant
specialist at the University of Minnesota and a flock
owner. "While this may be a tough time for
producers because of low prices, drought and a
number of other problems, it is important that we
get on with the eradication program because of the
length of time it will take," she says.
"The disease takes two to five years to show
clinical signs, therefore we expect that it will take a
minimum of a decade to eradicate scrapie. In
addition, it will take another seven years without a
scrapie outbreak for the US to be recognized
internationally as "scrapie free." So this is at least a
17 year project," she concludes.
"Further, increased concern and attention is
being paid to all transmissible spongiform
encephalopathy (TSE) diseases, including scrapie,
as a result of the discovery of TSEs in cattle, cats
and people in Europe," concludes Dr. Wolf.
According to the American Sheep Industry
Association (ASI), scrapie costs American sheep
and goat producers an estimated $20 to $25 million
Frank Moore, president of ASI and a Wyoming
sheep producer, said "ASI has requested since 1996
that USDA take assertive action on a national
scrapie eradication program."
"We will work closely with APHIS and the
states to successfully implement this eradication
program and to help assure that it has the least
negative impact possible," said Moore.
To help producers learn about the new
requirements, NIAA applied for and was awarded
an educational grant from USDA, according to
"All sheep and goat producers will soon be
receiving an "ERADICATE SCRAPIE!" pamphlet
in the mail which briefly explains the program and
the identification requirements," said Slack.
"Further, in the next four weeks, producers will be
receiving detailed information explaining what
producers need to know in order to implement the
program and where to go for help or questions," he
Packets of information will also be mailed to
sheep and goat veterinarians and other industry
stakeholders across the nation to assist in
communicating the new regulations.
Media will also be kept abreast of new
information and developments. "The National
Scrapie Education Initiative will continue to supply
the sheep, goat and general agricultural media with
updates and information about the program as it
unfolds," says Slack. NIAA will also be making
information available on the Internet at
In addition, persons can obtain official
information about scrapie and the identification
requirements on USDA's website,
www.aphis.usda.gov/vs/scrapie.htm or contact your
local APHIS Veterinary Services Area Office by
calling, toll-free, 1-866-USDA-TAG (873-2824) or
the State Veterinarian's office."
SOURCE: Gale Johnson
National Institute for Animal
Phone: (270) 782-9798, Ext. 112
November 2001 5
Third Annual COSAF Field
The Third Annual Center of Sustainable
Agroforestry (COSAF) Field Day will be held on
November 27, 2001, from 9:00 a.m. to 12:00 p.m.,
with a meeting included. It is being held at St. Leo
Abbey, St. Leo, Florida. (1-75 north to State Road
52 (Exit 59). Turn east on SR 52 to the township of
The COSAF is a 501 (c) (3) small research
organization, involved in a project that touts the
benefits of the fast-growing Leucaena plant, a
legume tree used as a browse in tropical countries.
The COSAF has transferred ecotypes of the giant
Leucaena, from Gainesville (Agronomy
introduction gardens) to St. Leo. Dr. Rob
Kalmbacher has used Leucaena over the years,
obtaining excellent weight gains as reported in a
paper that he recently published in the International
Grasslands Journal. COSAF is concentrating on
converting Leucaena to energy, via fermentation,
using the University of Florida's patented SEBAC
process. Cattlemen could then use it for browse in
the spring and fall and energy in the winter.
If you would like more information or
directions to St. Leo Abbey, please contact Dr. Tom
Cunilio at (352) 588-5399.
Center of Sustainable
Phone: (352) 588-5399
Sixteen $1,250 Scholarships
Sponsored by Chicago Mercantile
Exchange Inc. & The National
Introduced in 1989 to celebrate the 25th
Anniversary of Live Cattle Futures, Chicago
Mercantile Exchange Inc., Beef Industry
Scholarship Program continues to recognize
outstanding youth in the beef community. Sixteen
$1,250 scholarships will be awarded to students
who intend to pursue a career in the beef industry -
talented and thoughtful students who may emerge
as industry leaders. A career in the beef industry
may include: education, communications,
production, research, or any other area involved
with the beef industry.
The top winner, out of the 16 recipients, will
receive an all expense paid trip to the Annual Cattle
Industry Convention and Trade Show in Denver,
Colorado, February 6-9, 2002. If the recipient of
this award has already been awarded a trip to
convention, then this does not apply. There is no
cash value substitute for the trip.
The National Cattlemen's Foundation (NCF)
will administer the program, read the essays, and
select the winners. Essays will be judged on the
basis of clarity or expression, persuasiveness,
originality, accuracy, relevance of topic, and the
solutions offered. Winners will be officially
announced at the convention in February. All
applicants will be notified of results in January
November 2001 6
2002. CME and the NCF reserve the right to
publish any or parts of all essays submitted.
To be eligible, a student must:
1. Be enrolled or plan to enroll as an
undergraduate student in the College of
Agriculture at a four-year institution in
the 2002/2003 academic year.
2. Write a brief letter expressing/
indicating the student's expectations as
an active participant in the future of the
3. Write an essay of 750 words or less
describing an issue confronting the beef
industry today or in the future and offer
what your solution would be.
4. Obtain two letters of reference from
current or former professors or industry
5. Prepare a cover sheet to include:
Name, complete current mailing
address and telephone number, school
name, year in school, permanent
mailing address and telephone number.
6. Enclose the above items in a single
envelope and submit to: Mr. Donald
Butler, Chairman, National
Cattlemen's Foundation, 9110 E.
Nichols Ave., Centennial, CO 80112.
All entries must by postmarked by
November 28, 2001.
For additional information, please contact
Audrey Potts at (303) 694-0305 or firstname.lastname@example.org.
Feeding Food Wastes
Recycling food wastes for animal feed has
been and is a viable waste disposal option for many
food wastes have a high nutritional value.
The term "food waste" used here applies to
wasted food from the food service industry (i.e.,
restaurants) and grocery stores. These wastes
include plate waste (scrapings), food leftovers,
kitchen wastes, spoiled food, expired food,
mislabeled food, etc. Other terms to describe these
wastes include food residuals, plate waste, and
kitchen scraps to name a few. The older terms,
"garbage" and "swill", are still used but the
livestock and waste management industries prefer
not to use these.
Many kinds of food waste can be fed directly
to livestock with minimal processing. Food that
does not contain or has not been in contact with
meat or meat byproducts is exempt from federal and
Florida regulations and can be fed to cattle and
swine with no processing.
Food wastes that include meat and (or) meat
byproducts or have been in contact with meat or
meat byproducts can also be fed to livestock. Cattle
can be fed these wastes as long as they are wastes
from food intended for human consumption. For
swine, regulations for feeding these wastes,
however, are more stringent. Individuals who plan
to feed swine this type of food waste must be a
licensed food waster feeder (garbage feeder) by the
state of Florida. The state has adopted regulations
set forth in the federal 1980 Swine Health
Protection Act. Under these regulations, food waste
with meat and (or) meat byproducts or has been in
contact with meat and (or) meat byproducts must be
cooked at 2120 F (1000 C) (boiling) for at least 30
minutes before being used as swine feed. The state
of Florida has inspectors who will periodically visit
swine food waste feeders to ensure that cooking
regulations are being followed. There are over 150
licensed food waste feeders in Florida. Licenses
must be renewed annually.
November 2001 7
For additional information and to obtain a
license, contact the Florida Division of Animal
Industry at (850) 410-0900 or visit their web site at
SOURCE: Robert Myer
Professor, Non-ruminant livestock
North Florida REC
Phone: (850) 482-9955
Book of World
Meatingplace.com is doing its part by
announcing that the 2002 edition of The Guinness
Book of World Records is filled with hundreds of
new records, including some amazing examples of
meat-related human achievements, such as:
Fastest sandwich made using only one's feet:
1 minute 57 seconds for a bologna and
Most Big Macs consumed in a lifetime:
17,500 (Donald A. Gorske of Wisconsin).
The Guinness Book got started at a shooting
party in County Wexford, Ireland, in 1954. Sir
Hugh Beaver, then head of Guinness Brewing Co.,
became embroiled in an argument with a fellow
shooter over which was the fastest game bird, the
golden plover or the grouse? (It's the grouse.)
Sir Hugh realized such arguments must occur
in bars everywhere and a book providing the
answers would be great for pub landlords. Guinness
World Records was born, according to a news
The first edition was published in 1955 and
immediately became a best-seller. Nearly 50 years
later, the book has sold more than 90 million copies
worldwide, making it the world's best-selling
copyright book, the news release claimed.
What Meatingplace.com would like to see
next is Robert Stack investigating, "What ever
happened to shelf-stable, microwaveable entrees?"
on Unsolved Mysteries.
Any readers have similar requests on the
Release October 8, 2001
Study Pins Salmonella
Infections On Sources
Other Than Meat
A new scientific study, "Serotype distribution
of Salmonella isolates from food animals after
slaughter differs from that of isolates found in
humans" (Sarwari et al, in the Journal of Infectious
Disease, 2001:183:1295-1299), tried to use a
mathematical model to predict serotype
distributions of salmonella isolates among humans
on the basis of serotypes recovered from meat and
poultry tested under the salmonella performance
standards, according to a report from the National
The data, however, showed differences among
serotypes recovered from meat products and those
found in human patients suffering from
What does that mean? This study makes it
fairly clear that food-borne salmonellosis can be
traced to foods other than raw muscle foods, NMA
November 2001 8
suggested, even as human salmonellosis can be
transmitted by vectors other than food.
NMA said that sources at the Food Safety and
Inspection Service concluded that, "In reality, we
probably are dealing with a complex natural system
in which certain serotypes are preferentially
transmitted by specific raw food products, whereas
others are derived from alternative sources. These
complexities need to be considered when regulatory
approaches to salmonella species control are being
NMA officials suggested that policymakers
and activists who believe that more rigid regulatory
rules for salmonella need to be instituted
exclusively on meat and poultry products should
review the study mentioned above.
"We [need to] comprehend the complexity of
the scientific management of this ubiquitous
pathogen," NMA said in a statement.
Meanwhile, the Washington, D.C.-based
Center for Science in the Public Interest submitted a
petition to the Agriculture Department on Oct. 1
asking the agency to begin posting on its Web site
the salmonella test results for individual plants
tested under Salmonella Performance Standard,
according to Food Chemical News.
"Posting individual plant results on the FSIS
Web site may have the benefit of encouraging
establishments to make improvements in their
sanitation procedure since consumers would be less
likely to purchase products made by those facilities
that repeatedly exceed standards," CSPI said in a
The data CSPI is requesting is already
available via a Freedom of Information Act request.
CSPI officials declined to comment further to
Release October 11, 2001
UF Online Guide to
It has often been difficult to keep track of
"who" does "what" within the University of Florida,
but, now finding an expert in your area of question
or interest, has just been made a little easier.
An online guide to UF experts is located at
http://experts.ufl.edu/. This web site allows you to
search a database by area of expertise, department
name, or the name of the expert you are seeking.
If you are unable to find what you are looking
for, or need additional information, there are links
to offices that are available to help and links of
interest to web sites within the University of