DATES TO REMEMBER
Oak Knoll and Mo Brangus Bull Sale -
FCA Replacement Heifer Sale Ocala
UF/IFAS Range Cattle REC Field Day -
National 4-H Week Statewide
Graham Angus Bull Sale Okeechobee
Lemmon Angus Bull Sale Okeechobee
1 Hereford Association for Florida Annual
Sale Lake Placid
2 Hardee Farms Black Bull Sale -
2 Milligan & Moody Hereford/Rogers Bar
HR Charolais Sale Okeechobee
21 Farm City Week Barbecue Immokalee
IJV 1HIS Issi ...
PREPARED BY EXTENSION
SPECIALISTS IN ANIMAL SCIENCES
F.G. Hembry, Professor, Department Chairman
R.S. Sand, Associate Professor, Extension Livestock
E.L. Johnson, Associate Professor, Extension Equine
W.E. Kunkle, Professor, Extension Beef Specialist
F.W. Leak, Associate Professor, Extension Meat
S.H. TenBroeck, Associate Professor, Extension
R.O. Myer, Professor, Animal Nutritionist, Marianna
W. Taylor, Coordinator Youth Education/Training
The Department ofAnimal
Sciences wishes to express our
deepest sympathies to the victims
and their families of the tragic
Terrorist Attacks on America,
September 11. 2001.
B eef C battle M anagem ent C alendar........................................................................................... .................. 2
W est N ile Virus Update ................... ......................... .................... .... 2
B eef M anagem ent Sem inar ........................................................................................................ ..............3
Cattle and Forage Field Day at the Range Cattle REC ........................................ ........................... 3
Sprouts Not Meat Causing Half of All Food-Borne Illnesses...............................................................4
V alue-B asked M marketing .......... .................................................................................................................4-5
E -A nsw ers ....................................................... .......................................................................... .... ... 5
New Title in Progress From the IFAS-Extension Bookstore! .......................... ... .....................5
Florida Cattle Pioneer Bud Adams Recalls 50 Years of Progress and Partnership with UF ......................6-8
The newsletter is also available on the web at http://www.animal.ufl.edu/BeefCattle/Newsletter/index.htm.
2 October 2001
BEEF MANAGEMENT CALENDAR
Q Plant cool season legumes.
Q Plant small grain pastures.
Q Check mineral feeder.
Q Check for external parasites, especially lice, and treat if
Q Check for spittlebugs and grassloopers and treat, if
Q Watch condition of cow herd; maintain adequate nutrition.
Q Isolate any additions to the herd for 30 to 60 days and
observe for signs of disease; retest for brucellosis and
O Be sure you have adequate handling facilities, and they
are in good working order.
U Have soils tested.
U Observe cows daily to detect calving difficulty.
U Use mineral with high level of magnesium if grass tetany
has been a problem in the past.
U Check for external parasites and treat if needed.
U Maintain adequate nutrient level for cow herd.
U Calve in well-drained pastures.
U Survey pastures for poisonous plants.
U Start summarizing your annual records, both production
and financial then you will have time to make adjustments for
U Re-evaluate winter feeding program and feed supplies.
U Begin grazing small grain pastures (if ready).
U Check mineral feeder.
U Check for external parasites and treat if needed.
U Deworm cows and heifers prior to winter feeding season.
U Observe regularly for calving difficulties.
U Rotate calving pastures to prevent diseases.
U Watch for scours in calves.
U Investigate health of bulls before you buy.
U Have dead animals posted by a veterinarian or diagnostic
U Complete review of management plan and update for next
year.Check replacement heifers to be sure they will be ready to
breed 3 4 weeks prior to the main cow herd.
WEST NILE UPDATE
As of September 13, 2001, a total of 82 horses
have tested positive for WNV with an estimated 25-
30% being fatal. In endemic areas, people who have
suspect horses are reluctant to report them due to the
cost of testing. Horse owners in areas where the virus
has not yet been reported, are encouraged to participate
in the surveillance efforts and report the cases. As of
now, the furthest South that an equine case has been
reported, is Marion County (one Citra horse reported
last week), and so far, a total of three cases have been
reported in Alachua County.
A vaccine is now available through your
veterinarian. It has been tested for safety requirements
in trials involving approximately 650 horses, of which
half a dozen experienced minor side effects (i.e. sore
spot at injection site, mild colic, etc.). Due to the need
for early release of the vaccine in the face of the
outbreak, efficacy trials results are pending. Therefore,
the vaccine has been released under a conditional
license meaning it needs to be administered by a vet.
We expect reasonable efficacy due to the company's
record in producing similar vaccines. In the meantime,
the major risk taken by owners when they vaccinate is
lack of efficacy information. That is, we don't know
for sure if it will provide the horses any protection. It is
not labeled for use in pregnant mares because
insufficient numbers of such animals were used in
safety trials. However, five pregnant mares were
vaccinated in the trials with no side effects. Due to the
nature of the vaccine (killed virus), no side effects are
expected in mares or fetuses. In addition, weanlings
may be vaccinated. No competition with passively
acquired immunity is expected because mares were not
exposed to the virus last year (unless they were living
in New York!). Therefore the vaccine should be as
effective in foals as in adult horses. Keep in mind that
all horses will need a booster the first year of
vaccination. Large numbers of horses were probably
exposed to the virus in areas such as Jefferson County
and are likely to have mounted their immune response
by now. Ultimately, it is up to the owner to make a
decision to vaccinate or not. To learn more about the
vaccine, please visit these web sites:
SOURCE: Dr. Saundra TenBroeck
University of Florida
Department of Animal Sciences
Gainesville, FL 32611
October 2001 3
An educational program to help you manage
your cattle herd.
TUESDAY, OCTOBER 2, 2001
Boston Farm/Santa Fe River Research Unit
University of Florida
Presented by: Northeast Florida Beef & Forage Group
3:45 4:00 pm
CATTLE AND FORAGE FIELD DAY
AT THE RANGE CATTLE REC
Thursday, October 11, 2001
Range Cattle REC Ona, Florida
Moderator: Lockie Gary, County Extension Director,
8:30-9:30 Registration and Coffee
Cattle Identification Demonstration
Larry Vamadoe, Extension Agent Dairy &
Duval County County Extension Service
Beef Heifer Selection Demonstration
Cindy Sanders, Extension Agent Livestock
Alachua County Extension Service
Buying Heifers vs. Raising Heifers
Dr. Bob Sand, IFAS Extension
Optimum Calving Season and Forage
Dr. Bill Kunkle, IFAS Extension
Questions & Answers
(This same meeting will be held on Thursday, October 4,
2001 in Jacksonville, Florida.)
For persons with disabilities requiring special
accommodations, please contact Cindy Sanders, Extension
Agent Livestock, at the Alachua County Extension Office
(352-955-2402) at least five working days prior to the program
so that proper consideration may be given to the request.
Extension Agent Livestock
SOURCE: Cindy Sanders
Extension Agent Livestock
Alachua County Extension
Gainesville, Florida 32609
- Findlay Pate
Florida FIRST and its benefits to the Florida
- IFAS Vice President Mike Martin
Influence of day length on late fall and winter
- Paul Mislevy
A statewide effort in bahia grass breeding
- Ann Blount
Values from spring fertilization of bahia grass
- Rob Kalmbacher
Update on the use of nematodes to control pest
mole crickets on bahia grass pasture
- Martin Adjei
Implications of alliances on cow-calf risk and
- Tom Anton
Extended forage availability with combined
bahia grass/limpo grass in south Florida
- John Arthington
12:00 PM Steak Lunch
- Carrol Chambliss
To reserve a free steak lunch call 863-735-1314 or e-mail:
firstname.lastname@example.org. Please include Name and Address, and
indicate total number of persons attending if more than one.
SOURCE: Range Cattle REC
4 October 2001
SPROUTS NOT MEAT CAUSING
HALF OF ALL FOOD-BORNE
Sprouts, those crunchy little greens that liven up
salads, can make you sick. And the odds are a lot
higher than they are for supposedly dangerous,
pathogen-laden red meat.
Not that the meat industry wants to spread any
bad news, but a new study reported by ABC News
and published in last week's Annals of Internal
Medicine found that more than one-half of confirmed
food-borne illnesses in California were linked to
alfalfa or clover sprouts in 1996 and 1998.
The study investigated six multi-county
outbreaks of bacterial infection in California from
1996 through 1998. There were 600 confirmed cases
of disease, and two deaths associated with eating
sprouts. The study estimates that an additional 22,800
people were infected, but never realized that sprouts
were the cause.
The study's lead author, Janet Mohle-Boetani of
the Los Angeles County Department of Health
Services, reported that during the study period,
sprouts caused more outbreaks than any other food;
though the common perception is that undercooked
meat, and eggs and contaminated water supplies are
usually the at the top of the offender list when it
comes to E. coli 0157:H7 and salmonella.
The seeds from which sprouts are grown are
often the source of the bacteria. The seeds can be
contaminated by irrigation water, fertilizer containing
animal manure, or by grazing livestock.
To grow sprouts, the seeds are put into a rotating
drum and misted with warm water. They are left at
room temperature to sprout, providing a perfect
incubator to increase the population of bacteria that
may be present. The sprouts are most often eaten raw
on salads and sandwiches, leaving the bacteria
The Food and Drug Administration suggests
cooking the sprouts in order to kill any bacteria that
might be present. "In order to minimize risk for food-
borne illness avoid raw sprouts," said a spokesperson
for the FDA.
Washing sprouts is not effective, because
bacteria on the seed can become internalized during
The FDA recently released a consumer advisory
for sprouts. Guidelines were also put in place for
decontamination of seeds. All growers are required to
sanitize the seeds chemically before growing sprouts.
The FDA has also approved irradiation for
decontaminating seeds, but not for sprouts.
The MEATing Place
Release August 30, 2001
Six years ago in 1995 a group of UF/IFAS
extension faculty and Florida cattlemen toured the
feedlot industry in Oklahoma and Texas. At that time
most fat cattle were sold on a cash or weight basis at
the feedlot. Little emphasis was placed on value-
based marketing or carcass merit.
This past March (2001), Payne Midgette and I
toured several feedyards in the Texas panhandle, and
oh what a change. It is estimated that 60% of fat
cattle are now being sold on a grid. A grid is a
formula that pays for carcass merit. Premiums are
paid for high quality grades (choice and prime), high
yielding carcasses (yield grades 1 and 2), large rib
eyes (> 12.5 square inches), and a low back fat
thickness (< 0.5 inches). Grids discount low quality
grades (especially standard), low yielding carcasses
(yield grades 4 and 5), small loin eyes (< 12.5 square
inches), and a high back fat thickness (> 0.5 inches).
October 2001 5
There are several grids, each placing emphasis
on specific quality traits. Most grids heavily discount
dark cutters, and heavy (> 949 lb) and light (< 600 lb)
carcasses. Some grids even discount brands,
implants, and kidney fat.
One Texas rancher-feeder shared a print-out or
spread sheet on a pen of heifers finished at McLean,
Texas and sold on a grid. We were amazed at the
amount of information that the packer provided on
each carcass to establish market value. The spread
sheet gave rib eye area, carcass grade, back fat
thickness, carcass weight, dressing percent, and %
kidney fat. These data can be used back at his ranch
to cull cows, select heifers, and improve his bull
Most interesting about the above carcass data
was the $300 difference in the price paid for the
lowest and highest value carcass. A good proportion
of this value difference was due to carcass weight;
but grade, yield, and muscling (rib eye area) had high
With the technology to identify calves at birth or
weaning and follow them with scanners and
computers all the way to the rail and meat counter,
value-based marketing is here. More and more
Florida calves will be purchased on their ability to
gain well and efficiently in the feedlot, and produce a
good-quality, high-yielding carcass.
Even for cattlemen that sell small lots of calves
through public auction markets, the technology is
available to identify their calves and follow them to
the rail. This will allow any cattlemen to develop a
sound breeding and production program that will be
recognized by the feedlot and packing industry.
Cattlemen that make an effort to develop good
reputation calves will be rewarded with premiums,
and those that do not will have their calves
SOURCE: Dr. Findlay Pate, Center Director
Range Cattle REC Newsletter
Range Cattle REC
Ona, Florida 33865
Release July 2001, Vol. 4 -No. 2
E-Answers, found at
a searchable database containing
research papers, articles, essays,
and other publications contributed by 46 land-grant
universities throughout the United States. Users can
access more than 100,000 publications on topics
including agriculture, forestry, 4-H, lawns and
gardens, family and consumer issues, economics,
water quality, and the environment.
Users search the database by keyword, and can
also narrow their searches to institutions from
particular regions of the United States. Results are
displayed in list form, with a short description of
each publication along with a link to allow immediate
Online since 1997, E-Answers was developed by
IFAS Communication Services and funded by a grant
from Agricultural Communicators in Education and
the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Extension
personnel throughout the nation promote E-Answers,
because it helps them advise clients accurately. The
site received a Gold Award from ACE in 1998 for
Best innovative Use of Communication Technology.
ACE is an international professional organization for
agricultural communicators, with more than 700
members, most of them based at land-grant
IFAS Communications Services
Release July/August 2001
NEW TITLE IN PROGRESS FROM
"Introduction to Meat Science Education"
An orientation to meat science and evaluation, designed
for teachers and 4-H leaders to use in middle and high school
agricultural education programs.
6 October 2001
FLORIDA CATTLE PIONEER BUD
ADAMS RECALLS 50 YEARS OF
PARTNERSHIP WITH UF
FORT PIERCE, Fla.---Until 1948, it seemed that
Florida cattle production would be forever limited by
the state's withering heat and humidity.
Then came Alto "Bud" Adams, Jr.
Adams understood the problem firsthand.
Growing up on his father's ranch near Fort Pierce
he'd raised the small, hardy Spanish cattle Florida
was known for -- they tolerated the climate but didn't
perform well in the marketplace. Retailers and
consumers favored improved beef breeds like the big
Herefords that thrived in the Midwest.
In 1948, Bud Adams decided to develop superior
beef cattle suited to Florida conditions by
crossbreeding Hereford bulls with Brahman cows, a
breed developed from Indian cattle to withstand hot,
"Those Hereford bulls came from Kansas, and
they didn't last long in this heat," Adams said. "I
wanted to try using the crossbred bulls as breeding
stock, which was something cattlemen weren't
supposed to do back then."
In the early 1950s, Adams sought advice from
Marvin Koger, a cattle geneticist with the University
of Florida's Institute of Food and Agricultural
"Dr. Koger said it would take about four
generations of crossbred to crossbred matings to
achieve uniformity," Adams said. "By the fourth
generation they were breeding 99 percent true to
type, and I knew we were onto something."
Bud Adams called his cattle Brafords and
standardized them at 3/8 Brahman and 5/8 Hereford,
he said. Heat-tolerant yet growth, the animal
became a favorite of Southern ranchers and one of
the few recognized beef breeds developed in the 20th
Fifty years after he began developing the
Braford, Bud Adams has become a symbol of Florida
agriculture and its ability to cope with change. While
adopting the latest scientific innovations, he remains
a staunch conservationist. Known as one of the state's
premiere cattlemen, he has diversified into citrus
production and ecotourism.
And despite half a century of accomplishment,
Bud Adams remains focused on the future.
"Bud has foresight. If there's a better way to do
something, he'll try it," said Findlay Pate, director of
UF's Range Cattle Research and Education Center in
Ona. "You can't stand still in the cattle business."
Alto "Bud" Adams, Jr., a leading Florida cattleman,
relaxes on the front porch of a replica "cracker" house at
his ranch in Fort Pierce. The house is seen by thousands
of visitors each year during "eco-tours" of the 18,000 acre
ranch. Best known as developer of the Braford beef cattle
breed, Adams has worked with University of Florida's
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences for 50 years to
develop and popularize innovative cattle production
methods. (Photo by Milt Putnam, University of
October 2001 7
Over the years, Adams has tried, and
popularized, many production methods developed by
UF scientists. Pate considers him a valuable ally to
the Ona center.
"When Bud Adams talks, Florida cattlemen
listen," he said. "Several years ago we found that you
don't need phosphorus amendments to grow bahia
grass, the state's most popular cattle forage. This was
a break with tradition, but Bud followed our
recommendations and other ranchers followed Bud.
Everyone saved money and helped protect water
In the early 1980s, Adams donated 250 head of
Braford cattle to the Ona center for research
purposes, Pate said. After several generations of
breeding, the Brafords now comprise about half of
the center's 1,019 cattle.
"Those Brafords have been vital to our research,"
he said. "Through his generosity, Bud has helped
IFAS improve the entire Florida cattle industry."
Jim Handley, executive vice-president with the
Florida Cattlemen's Association, said Adams'
attention to the "big picture" is well known to the
state's ranchers. Adams was president of the
association in 1958 and has remained active ever
"Cattlemen need to maintain a positive
relationship with the community at large, and Bud
emphasizes that," Handley said. "He's an outstanding
spokesperson for our industry because he enjoys
educating the public, and he's very conscious of the
rancher's role in protecting the environment.
"Bud will tell you that it all starts with the land,"
he said. "South Florida's cattle industry is successful
because the land here supports great forage grass, so
it's our responsibility to keep nature's balance."
Handley said Adams always looks to nature for
solutions to ranching management problems. Rather
than rely on chemical pesticides to kill insects,
Adams promotes biological pest control using native
predators. To keep pastures healthy, he allows them
to "rest" after cattle have grazed for several weeks.
"Sustainability is becoming more and more
important for ranchers," he said. "Bud has been using
it as the foundation of his business for decades."
There are actually three Adams Ranch operations
in Florida, located in Osceola, Okeechobee and St.
Lucie counties, said Mike Adams, Bud's second-
eldest son. Mike is a third-generation University of
Florida graduate and president of Adams Ranch, Inc.
Lee, the eldest Adams son, manages the Osceola
County ranch. Rob, the youngest, manages the
Adams Ranch Citrus Company, known as ARCCO,
based at the St. Lucie County ranch.
Best known of the three, the St. Lucie County
ranch is where Bud grew up. His father, Alto Adams,
Sr., an attorney and Florida Supreme Court justice,
purchased the ranch in 1937 after his doctor advised
him to spend more time outdoors, Mike Adams said.
Located near Fort Pierce, the 18,000-acre ranch
is headquarters for the family business, where new
ideas are first put into practice. Like the other Adams
operations, the Fort Pierce ranch produces Braford
cattle and sells them as breeding stock, but it also
grows 2,000 acres of citrus and is home to a thriving
"When we got into ecotourism it raised a few
eyebrows," Mike Adams said. "After all, this is a
working cattle ranch. But Dad knew it was a good
way to establish a deeper connection with the
Since 1996, the Fort Pierce ranch has hosted
tours from January through June, attracting about
9,000 visitors per year, he said. Traveling in open-air
buses over dirt roads, they get a glimpse of the real
The property looks much the same today as it did
centuries ago, a blend of cabbage-palm hammocks
and open grassland, Mike Adams said. Besides the
dirt roads, fences and spring fed canals, there are few
signs of man's involvement.
Except, of course, for the cattle. Brick-red bulls,
cows and shy calves are everywhere, sometimes
temporarily blocking the roads, always staring
curiously at human passers-by. A surprising number
of cattle lounge in the noonday sun.
8 October 2001
"Brafords are comfortable in the sun," Mike
Adams said. "The short, light-colored hair increases
their heat tolerance."
Cattle are hardly the only creatures present. Deer
and wild turkey feed warily in the pastures, while
red-shouldered hawks and sandhill cranes make
appearances overhead. In the canals, wading birds,
fish and turtles mingle, along with the occasional
Near the garage where the tour buses are stored
is an ordinary-looking pasture that holds the next step
in Adams cattle production. Known as ABEEF, they
are a composite of Hereford, Brahman, Red Angus
and Gelbvieh cattle, developed for faster growth and
better muscling and marbling.
"In 1990, we started asking ourselves what
improvements we could make for the 21st century,
and this is the result," Mike Adams said. "We sold
our first ABEEF bulls last year."
Tim Olson, a UF animal sciences associate
professor, said that so far, the ABEEF cattle are
fulfilling their promise. In the early stages of the
ABEEF project, Bud Adams invited Olson and other
UF beef production experts to a conference where he
explained his goals and asked for input.
"They knew exactly what they wanted to
accomplish to meet the needs of the marketplace,"
Olson said. "And they had done their homework. Bud
has been in this business long enough that he can
anticipate the consequences of research developments
and market trends."
If Bud Adams doesn't have a crystal ball to see
the future of Florida beef production, UF animal
sciences professor Roger West has provided him with
the next best thing. Using medical ultrasound
equipment, West can evaluate the carcass
characteristics of live cattle.
By directing ultra high frequency sound waves
into the animal's body and electronically monitoring
them, a sound "picture" is formed, he said. The
results are then converted to visual data and
interpreted by a technician, who can predict the size
and quality of various cuts of beef the animal will
yield. This information can help breeders maximize
"This sounds like science fiction to some
people," West said. "But when Bud heard about the
method he immediately recognized its potential.
Today, every Adams Ranch bull gets ultrasound
analysis and we'll probably start using it on the
"Bud is always looking a little further down the
road," he said. "That's what keeps him on top."
SOURCES: Bud Adams (561) 461-6321
Findlay Pate (941) 735-1314, ext. 203
Jim Handley (407) 846-6221
Mike Adams (561) 461-6321
By: Tom Nordlie (352) 392-1773
IFAS Communications Services
University of Florida
Release: August 28, 2001
If you or someone in your area is planning an
upcoming event and would like to announce it in
the Animal Science Newsletter, please contact our
office by the 15th of each month for submission into
the next issue. We may be reached at (352) 392-
1916 (Suncom: 622-1916) or items may be faxed to
the Animal Science Extension Office at (352) 392-
7652 or e-mail to email@example.com.