DATES TO REMEMBER
11 Florida Limousin Association Show &
Sale Fair grounds, Lake City
29 Equine Institute and Allied Trade Show
29 FL Santa Gertrudis Assoc. Cattlemen's
Kind Auction Bartow
1 Oak Knoll and Mo Brangus Bull Sale -
5 FCA Replacement Heifer Sale Ocala
11 UF/IFAS Range Cattle REC Field Day -
7-13 National 4-H Week Statewide
19 Graham Angus Bull Sale Okeechobee
26 Lemmon Angus Bull Sale Okeechobee
PREPARED BY EXTENSION
SPECIALISTS IN ANIMAL SCIENCES
F.G. Hembry, Professor, Department Chairman
R.S. Sand, Associate Professor, Extension
E.L. Johnson, Associate Professor, Extension
W.E. Kunkle, Professor, Extension Beef
F.W. Leak, Associate Professor, Extension Meat
S.H. TenBroeck, Associate Professor, Extension
R.O. Myer, Professor, Animal Nutritionist,
W. Taylor, Coordinator Youth Education/Training
IJV EH1s IssutE...
B eef C attle M anagem ent C alendar .......................................... ................................................. 2
First West Nile Virus Vaccine For Horses Released ............ ......... ................... ........... 2-3
The A nim al Rights 2001 Conference........... ........... ......... ........................... ............... 3-6
Quarter M million Bucks At Stake For Best Angus Breed Cattle .................................. ................. 6
Comparative Intake and Nutrient Digestibility of the Grass Forages: Florakirk and Tifton 85
Bermudagrasses and Florona Stargrass To Coastal Bermudgrass Fed To Horses.......................7-8
The newsletter is also available on the web at http://www.animal.ufl.edu/BeefCattle/Newsletter/index.htm.
2 September 2001
BEEF MANAGEMENT CALENDAR
U Cut hay.
O Heavily grazed pastures to be interplanted to cool season
O Check mineral feeder.
O Check for mole crickets, spittlebugs, and grassloopers, and
treat if necessary.
U Check dust bags.
U Wean calves and cull cow herd if not already done. Remove
open, unsound poor producing or overage cows.
O Train cowboys to observe normal and abnormal behavior and
signs of disease.
U Be sure any replacement purchases are healthy and have been
calfhood vaccinated for brucellosis.
O September or October is a good time to deworm the cow herd
if internal parasites are a problem.
O When replacement heifers are weaned, give them required
vaccinations and teach them to eat then put them on a good nutrition
O Determine bull replacement needs, develop selection criteria,
and start checking availability of quality animals.
U Review winter feed supply and feeding plans so that needed
adjustments can be made before supplies tighten and prices rise.
O Plant cool season legumes.
" Plant small grain pastures.
U Check mineral feeder.
U Check for external parasites, especially lice, and treat if
O Check for spittlebugs and grassloopers and treat, if needed.
O Watch condition of cow herd; maintain adequate nutrition.
O Isolate any additions to the herd for 30 to 60 days and observe
for signs of disease; retest for brucellosis and leptospirosis.
U Be sure you have adequate handling facilities, and they are in
good working order.
O Have soils tested.
O Observe cows daily to detect calving difficulty.
U Use mineral with high level of magnesium if grass tetany has
been a problem in the past.
U Check for external parasites and treat if needed.
U Maintain adequate nutrient level for cow herd.
U Calve in well-drained pastures.
O Survey pastures for poisonous plants.
U Start summarizing your annual records, both production and
financial-then you will have time to make adjustments for tax
J Re-evaluate winter feeding program and feed supplies.
FIRST WEST NILE VIRUS VACCINE FOR
The equine industry called out for a way to protect its
horses from the deadly neurological disease West Nile virus
(WNV), and researchers and federal authorities responded.
The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA)
and Fort Dodge Animal Health announced Wednesday, Aug. 1, the
approval and release of the very first WNV vaccine for horses. The
virus had already begun to appear in horses in the panhandle of
Florida. This is the southernmost and earliest onset of equine cases
in the three years since the virus first appeared in the Western
Hemisphere. To be conditionally licensed, the vaccine had to meet
federal standards of purity, safety, and reasonable expectation for
efficacy. Each state will have to give approval for the vaccine's use,
and most states have conditionally licensed products available only
through a veterinarian.
West Nile virus hit the northeastern United States in 1999,
baffling public health officials and epidemiologists when it killed
birds, horses, and humans. Officials are still not sure how the
disease was introduced in the United States, but they believe after
studying the genetic makeup of many virus samples it was a single
introductory occurrence. The virus is spread by the bite of an
infected mosquito and harbored by birds. West Nile virus killed
36% of its diagnosed equine victims in 1999, and 38% in 2000.
Officials hope the vaccine will give veterinarians the
upper hand in preventing the appearance of equine cases, which
typically do not occur until late summer or early fall. (Learn more
about the history of WNV in this country at
lifIp Iiii c .. ic !c i !!! .l., ._westnile.html).
In February of 2000 when the USDA was forming its
WNV Strategic Plan, authorities agreed to expedite the processing
of applications for conditional licensure of a WNV vaccine. Several
pharmaceutical companies were working to make the vaccine
available to the horse industry, but Fort Dodge was the first to
complete field trials to test the safety of the vaccine in horses and
submit their product to the USDA Veterinary Services' Center for
Veterinary Biologics in Ames, Iowa, for conditional approval.
The killed vaccine consists of a two-dose initial series of
injections given intramuscularly. The vaccine is a "first generation"
product, meaning that other approaches are already in the works to
provide a vaccine that will allow better differentiation between
horses naturally exposed to WNV and horses which have been
vaccinated for the virus. According to industry sources, there should
be 25,000 doses of the vaccine immediately available, and 4,000
more available at the first of September. In mid-September, Fort
Dodge should release another 200,000 doses of the vaccine,
followed by a possible 600,000 by the first of November. The
vaccine price should remain in the ballpark of the costs of routine
Tom Overbay, DVM, Director of Professional Services at
Fort Dodge Animal Health stated, "We definitely have a product
that does no harm. We certainly don't want unrealistic or
unreasonable fear of the virus; we want horse owners to use a
product because they think it is good medicine." Overbay explained
that the vaccine has been shown to stimulate an immune response in
the animal against the virus. "Whether the immune response that is
stimulated is the correct immune response to prevent the disease,
that's something continual testing will answer for us," he said.
Proof of an immune response has been used to grant full approval to
other equine vaccines used to prevent Eastem/Westem/Venezuelan
encephalitis, and this represents the same criteria in approving
September 2001 3
But as with all health products, the vaccine will need to be
part of a sound health management disease program, according to
Overbay. "It's just a part of the program, along with sound nutrition,
the horse's housing, and as much protection from mosquitoes as
possible. All these things roll together."
Horses affected by parasites or suffering from inadequate
nutrition cannot mount as strong an immune response against WNV
as horses which are healthy and on a good preventive health care
Only time will tell whether this vaccine will be a solution
to the problem of disease in horses caused by West Nile virus.
Release August 2, 2001
THE ANIMAL RIGHTS 2001
Terrorism and a Radical Agenda at a
Hilton Hotel, as described by Jim Beers
(July 10, 2001)
After several requests by Conservation Force, an international
sustainable use conservation organization located in Louisiana, I
agreed to attend the annual animal rights meeting. The Conference
ran from June 30 to July 5 at the Hilton Hotel in McClean, Virginia.
John Jackson, Chairman of Conservation Force, believed that it was
important for hunters and other sustainable use supporters to attend
this conference just as animal rights representatives attended annual
wildlife management meetings. This made sense to me.
I was surprised to learn that no other sustainable use or
hunting or fishing group planned to have anyone attend this meeting
in a suburb of Washington. As the five days passed, I discovered that
no participants or attendees from any of the national conservation
groups were to be found, here in their own backyard. To the best of
my knowledge, no one else who questioned the goals or tactics of the
animal rights movement was in attendance.
Those of you who hunt, fish, trap, wear fur, raise mink, sell
fur or leather products, train animals, have pets, enjoy rodeos, enjoy
circuses, live on ranches or farms, log timber or graze animals, use
wood products, eat meat, eat eggs, eat cheese, eat wild fish and
wildlife, eat seafood, attend dog races, support animal research for
human treatments, support proactive fish and wildlife management
for human benefit, use public lands, own guns, support the 2nd
Amendment, wear leather, oppose terrorism, oppose intimidation,
oppose physical threats, recreate in the outdoors with your families,
love your children, want you religious institutions kept free from
infiltration and manipulation, believe in the Constitutional freedoms
of the USA, oppose the continued expansion of Federal power,
oppose forcible establishment of rule by anarchy in our USA, oppose
the efforts of the UN to regulate everything to do with fish and
wildlife and guns throughout the world, and who love this nation and
what it stand for; should have been there. Organizations that
represent your interests should have been there. Law enforcement
organizations should have been there.
The people and groups that gathered at this luxury Hilton
Hotel for five days, made no bones that they are going to eliminate
every traditional use of animals and many other American freedoms
and traditions. They have been going about this incrementally for
years. Since there have been no serious consequences of their
activities, the boldness and arrogance has reached gargantuan
proportions. They clearly believe and preach the radical reformation
of the way we live, the way we relate to our government, and the
elimination of most freedoms that we take for granted here in the
USA. They intend to change the relationship between mankind and
the animal world that has existed for millennia.
This radical movement must be brought into the light of
day. Their agenda, from mandated veganism to obtaining legal rights
first for apes and then for all other animals, must be understood by all
of us. The current process where bear hunting is voted out in one
state and all of us say, "I don't hunt bears." Where wild Himalayan
sheep are added to UN lists and all of us say, "I will never get to the
Himalayas." Where public land is locked up and we say, "I will never
have to use that land." Where dog breeders are restricted to low
numbers or forbidden to breed their dogs and we say, "I have a cat."
This incremental process of dividing us and slowly taking away right
after right, this must be exposed and responded to by all of us,
including those vegans and disgruntled citizens who value freedom
and America's promise.
The only way for me to convey the truly frightening
experience of attending this conference is to describe what I
encountered. I earnestly hope that the reader will be convinced to
treat this movement with the serious consideration and public
scrutiny that it deserves. If all of us don't pull together to maintain
our freedoms and way of life, these people will surely turn us into a
society that out forefathers would not recognize and in which we, and
I ultimately believe they, would not want to live.
I can only report what I saw through the eyes of a 60-year-
old white male. These are also the eyes and ears of a Catholic wildlife
biologist and ex-law enforcement officer who hunts, fishes, and
understands the benefits of proactive fish and wildlife management.
After a stint with the Utah Game and Fish, the US Navy, the
Minneapolis Police Department, and 30 years in various locations
with the US Fish and Wildlife Service; I am what I am and I see what
I see. All of these things are relevant to what I am about to report to
Although the First Amendment guarantees the right of free
speech and free assembly, many of the things I saw and heard could
only by characterized as inciting mayhem. Many of the people
making presentations crossed state lines to get there and there were
numerous inferences, suggestions, and encouragements to commit
violent and unlawful acts of major magnitudes.
Arrival and Registration
Walking through the parking lot each day revealed an
abundance of bumper stickers. Most referred to veganism in varying
intensities. The eventual imposition of veganism nationwide was the
most common. Other stickers referred to resisting globalism,
disrupting NAFTA, outlawing circuses, outlawing rodeos, stopping
fishing, stopping hunting, stopping dog racing, protesting at Seattle
and Quebec, intimidating the World Bank, and outlawing all fur and
The exhibit area outside, lays between the registration desk
and the conference rooms. Passing through the exhibits revealed an
incredible range of protest topics. The following is a partial list of the
handouts and publications:
* How the international chemistry industry is killing poor people
around the world.
* How President Bush is using religion to kill our Constitution.
* Why we must stop the war on drugs.
4 September 2001
* How the World Bank is being forced to meet the demands of
* Why we should teach children not to be ashamed of their bodies.
* How all religions were originally vegan.
* Ending the use of animals in research, testing, and education.
* Stopping the use of animals for meat, eggs, and dairy products.
* Spiritual Communication with animals.
* Using animal communicators.
* What would Jesus eat today?
* Stopping logging in the Philippines.
* How President Bush is oppressing minorities.
* Why we shouldn't eat bananas, chocolate, or beef; or use coffee.
* How to stop union busting in Haiti.
* Boycotting McDonalds, Macy's, Anheuser Busch, and the Back
Bay Restaurant Group.
* Why criminals start out as animal abusers.
* What's wrong with-leather, hunting, seafood, fur, meat, etc.
* Protesting in Solidarity with the U'wa People.
* The Global Sweatshop Coalition.
* Ending Procter and Gamble Testing on animals.
* Internships for animal rights, indigenous rights, anti-sweatshop,
* Internship for Direct Action/Civil Disobedience.
There were more things here but space is limited. I mention
these to give the reader a taste of the atmosphere at this conference.
Video Presentations and Sessions
Videos were constantly being shown. The following
selections represent the flavor of those presentations:
* Igniting a Revolution. A sympathetic primer by radical
environmental and animal activists on "ecotage."
* Sexual Politics of Meat. Carol Adams, feminist-vegetarian
* Animal Liberation: The Movie. Alf raids of British laboratories
and factory farms.
S What's Wrong With Hunting. By Buffalo Bills Coach Mary
* Puppy Mill Expose. By actor Charlize Theron.
* The Real Life of Circus Animals. By Ali McGraw.
* Great American Meatout. By Ed Asner.
* Money and Myths. How state wildlife agencies fail to protect
* The Burger King Campaign. By Dan Rather.
* Australia Factory Farm Raids.
There were many others on trapping, chicken farms, the
cowboy image, etc. There were four concurrent sessions throughout
the days. Here are selections from the program:
* When Is Killing OK? (Attacking animals? Unwanted dogs &
cats? Fetuses or babies?)
* What Rights? Which Animals? (Should intelligence matter?)
* Getting Attention (Legally) (Effective use of street
* Getting Attention (Otherwise) (CD's, disruptions, banner drops,
rescues, phone/web siege, destruction)
* Animal Spirituality (Communicating with animals)
* How Broad Our Ethics? (Can we justify lying, cheating,
stealing, subordinating other social goals?)
* Animal Victimhood (Commonality of oppression of animals,
children, women, minorities)
* Winning Hearts and Minds (Changing behavior through feelings
* Your Son or the Rat? (Whose life do we value?)
* Role of Violence
* Direct Tactics (economic and peer pressure, physical threats)
* Enacting Federal Legislation (issues, coalitions, legislators and
* How Can We All Get Together? (What are the opportunities and
obstacles? What are the steps?)
* Enacting State and Local Laws
* What Price Solidarity? (When should we tolerate damaging
tactics or statements by other leaders?)
* What Price Animal Liberation? (How far should we go to
liberate animals? What should be off limits?)
* Medicine Campaigns (Huntingdon, Coulston, OPRC, Procter &
* Outreach to Women and Minorities
* Outreach to Religion
* Companion Campaigns (property, puppy mills, spay/neuter, no-
kill, Korean dogs)
Things Heard in the Sessions
I could only attend one-fourth of the sessions because there
were four presented at a time in four locations. I can only say that
those I did attend ranged from very old rhetoric about trapping and
hunting to scary references to the violent change of our form of
government. There were reportedly over a thousand attendees. Many
were my age and boasted about starting in the Vietnam protests.
Many of the middle-aged attendees boasted of other protest
movement experience on behalf of radical feminism, the
environment, and oppressed workers and minorities. About a third of
the attendees were under 25. Many of these were heavily tattooed and
made liberal use of metal rings through various body parts. My guess
would be that half of them were attending their first such conference.
In my opinion, they were being scrutinized by many of the sponsors
and session instructors. They were encouraged to meet with
instructors later in hallways and at dinner if they were interested in
learning "more" about what was discussed and the things only
It appeared to be a bazaar for inducting young people into
terrorist activities. Keep this in mind as you read the following
excerpts from sessions which I attended.
* Animals are like exploited workers and prisoners.
* WTO demonstrations helped to save turtles.
* Oppressed people are like labor and environmental supporters.
* Pollution is just like police brutality. Use it as an excuse to
demonstrate and forage coalitions.
* Abortion rights activists can help to involve the women's
movement and the lesbian/gay activists.
* An eco-feminist ethicist ranted against patriarchy and the "Miss
* A German leftist studied right wing extremism. He concludes:
People in power exploit, oppress, and exclude. Speciesism is racist
and right wing like Nazism talked about Slavs. Invading Russia
was like invading the wilderness. Nazism today is the animal users
who enslave and kill animals like slave laborers who were "hunted"
for the sport by Nazis.
* Competition establishes inequality and oppression.
* Guns must be eliminated from society.
* Anyone with a gun wants to kill.
* I've been arrested six times and I still teach at my University.
* Some places like San Francisco will never prosecute you for
* Put bricks through windows to intimidate wives and children.
* Baseball bats, when they pull into their driveways, have a way
of discouraging people.
* Sometimes you have to "blow shit up."
* Some people should be "blown up."
September 2001 5
* Bomb threats at key moments, in England, have won the day for
* Harass business acquaintances on the golf course and their
* Break up stockholder meetings and company parties.
* Here's how to find out where people live.
* There is "other" stuff that I will by glad to tell you about in the
hall or after the dinner.
* There are no consequences of arrest.
* Break-ins, destroying property (fire, etc.) is all justified since
society refuses to protect animals.
* Make things as costly as you can.
* I'm proud of all my threats.
* Propagandize and energize the young, especially radicals in their
teens and twenties who will take risks.
* Institute demonstrations and maximize disruptions and publicity.
Use "comely" people as spokespersons and always appear rational
* Coordinate harassment by any means that destroys key
businesses, business leaders, and other opponents.
* Lying, cheating, destruction, and "anything else" are justified
since society won't listen and the laws are against us.
* The end justifies the means.
* Stress victimhood. Racism equals Sexism equals Speciesism.
* Women and blacks had to chip into men's rights. Now animals
are chipping in also.
* "Person" is not just humans.
* The privilege of "whiteness" equals privilege over animals.
* Attack history notions and focus on our progressive
enlightenment on all matters.
* Break up traditions and change the status quo to where we are in
* Disrupt lawmaking that threatens us at any level.
* European culture is our enemy.
* White males must by suppressed.
* The Huntingdon Life Sciences model from England can serve
American activists as an example of what to do.
* No one owns a pet. We are guardians only. The whole man/pet
relationship needs to be revamped.
NOTE: There were many comments about cockfighting in states that
still permit it, dog racing, meat, eggs, dairy products, animal research,
and other matters that resemble the foregoing but are simply
redundant and too much for this already extensive report.
* Focus on progressive Churches.
* I'm a Buddhist but I speak at every progressive Church that will
* Manipulate progressive Christians, Jews, and others.
* Assert that all early Churches were vegan.
* Identify and support vegan ministers and other religious leaders.
* One humane leader compared himself to Mother Theresa. He,
like she, "could save X many more animals per day or week, if he
had X more dollars."
* Go beyond dogma. Go beyond religion. Enter the circle of life.
* Unity and Unitarian Churches are good bets to turn people to
* We are establishing a vegan-spiritual based society.
* We may soon convert the Dalai Lama to veganism.
* Tell people that we all come to this planet from somewhere.
* Saint Francis and Suma Ching How, support us.
* The religious issue is really the health/ethics/spirituality issue.
* Christian tradition has been adulterated.
* Beware of hierarchical priests.
* Utilize professional animal communicators who engage in
telepathic communication with animals.
* Establish conversations with "the other side" (meaning the
* Animal souls fit with all religions.
* Read Angela Davis.
* Talk about dietary racism.
* Establish solidarity with women of color.
* Be very careful that you don't get a Clarence Thomas.
* Stress solidarity with all progressive movements.
* People of color are at great risk around hunters and trappers.
* Get whites upset, this energized minorities.
* Anti-nuclear protesters share our goals as do people against
slave labor and those against using the third world to grow our
* Always keep an eye out for free floating radicals who can help.
* Globalization is the issue to forge coalitions around. (Cheers)
* Preach solidarity with unions, minorities, feminists, and
* Animals equal the Holocaust equals child abuse.
* New Jersey is running out of kids indoctrinated to hunt.
* Training kids with guns endangers everyone.
* Stress issues that divide hunters like "canned" hunts. Dog
hunting and baiting also divide hunters so use these topics.
* Hunters are already divided; keep dividing them.
* Oppose all right to subsistence hunting by indigenous people.
* Use kites, recordings, bullhors, and "other" things. This last
comment brought a titter of laughs from many of the young people.
* Hunters want to kill bears in New Jersey and we saved the bears.
* Hunter Constitutional Rights at the state level are funny. They
are a placebo to hunters and just put control in state legislatures
which we will soon control.
* The restrictions on ballot initiatives in Utah must be fought
anywhere that they pop up.
* Hunters are getting old. Pretty soon they will just disappear.
* We are successful in getting to children early in school so they
learn to hate hunting.
* We need to work more with the UN to bring more animals under
* PETA has cracked the wholesomeness of fishing. This will deter
families and help us with the wholesome labels of other animal
* Always deal with sport fishing and commercial fishing bans
* Fishermen are tools of international businesses.
* All killing of fish must be stopped.
* PETA is proud to be forcing the Boy Scouts to drop their fishing
and wildlife management merit badges. They are proud to be in
solidarity with others who are trying to change that indoctrination
Trapping and Fur...
* Confront anyone wearing fur and intimidate them.
* Use any tactics to put fur stores out of business.
* Confront people wearing fur trim.
* Embarrass fur wearers in front of their friends and at places
where they wear fur.
* Personalize the animals to children and the public.
* Trappers are dying out.
* The propaganda about animal control is all lies. No animals
need to be controlled.
6 September 2001
* Predators must all be protected and allowed to spread
* Europe and especially England is way ahead of us here. The
Labor Party is very sympathetic.
On Circuses and Rodeos...
* Cowboys are all sissies. Confront them and they run.
* Take concealed videos to circuses and try to get footage of what
* Get local ordinances passed that make it more expensive and
more difficult to put on performances.
* Identify and support local law enforcement vegans and
On Animal Rights...
The NARAL representative described how she is working
with and supporting the Great Ape Project. The only goal is to obtain
legal rights for apes as the crack in the wall for all other animals (like
abortion, endangered species, and gun control).
* Since industry bribes politicians, anything we do to get political
support is good.
* Remember that we have friends who are not Democrat. Senator
Smith (R-NH) and Senator Jeffords (I-VT) are two of our best
* Our new PAC will be an umbrella for all of us to give money
directly to those we favor and to defeat those who are not our
friends We look forward to a large PAC.
* We have eliminated several enemies like Sen. Slade Gorton (R-
* Eighty percent of the people are assholess."
* If we can control 11% of the voters, we can win control.
* Clinton didn't do enough for us.
* Bush is an enemy to us all. (Cheers)
* If 2% of the voters are ours, we can succeed beyond our wildest
On Federal Controls...
* The Animal Welfare Act is the vehicle for expansion and
amendments that we had hoped it would be.
* The Federal Bear Protection Act proposed by Senator
McConnell (R-KY) will transfer control of bears from the state to
the Federal government.
* We control the Federal Congress and the Federal bureaucracy
now. In a few years, we will get supporters in Federal agencies and
* We need federal laws over dogs and cats.
* Training dogs for security, hunting, and performing must be
controlled by the Federal government.
* Most Federal legislators are pro-animal rights and soon most
state legislators will be too.
* Federal controls break the back of the state fish and wildlife
agencies that are pro-hunting.
* State agencies are enemies.
These selected comments are but a few of what I heard
over five days. The more explosive sessions were avoided by the
leaders and lawyers. Often hands were put over microphones and
comments from spontaneous participants were not audible but caused
considerable chuckling. I shudder to think about those things which
they didn't mention but invited participants to ask about "in the hall"
or "after dinner." The sessions held anywhere from 50 to 200 people,
depending on the topic, and not once was anything questioned.
At one point, I felt as if I was attending a communist
training program back in the 50's or 60's for a cadre of insurgents to
be sent into a country to be subverted. Some are trained to control the
media, others to influence politicians and control bureaucracies, still
others to control religion and schools, demonstrators were to disrupt
things, and others to do the "other things" that ultimately underpin all
Frightening is too weak a word to describe what it is to
watch this take place in a luxury hotel in a free country.
We all owe a debt of gratitude to John Jackson of
Conservation Force for having the persistence to have me attend this
Conference. Everyone who reads this should share it with your
family, your neighbors, your associates and everyone else you come
in contact with each day. All of us, whether or not we are concerned
directly with one of these animal issues, should understand what is
happening and protect the traditions and rights of all of us, whether or
not we are an absolute majority. Allowing these tactics and
organizations to succeed threatens all of us in every way.
QUARTER MILLION BUCKS AT STAKE FOR
BEST ANGUS BREED CATTLE
Cattlemen say they will produce high quality, consistent
beef when they're paid for doing so. That time has arrived.
With nearly $250,000 in prize money at stake, the "Best of
the Breed" Angus Challenge will reward superior carcass genetics,
according to a news release. Winners in the contest, organized by
Agri Beef Risk Management Co., Boise, Idaho, will be determined by
the highest beef value on a Farmland National Beef contest grid.
Cattle are enrolled by state of origin, and placed into one of
seven corresponding National Cattlemen's Beef Association regions.
The top three lots in the nation will win cash prizes of $100,000 for
first, $50,000 for second, and $25,000 for third. The three winners
from each of the seven regions will be awarded $5,000 for first,
$2,500 for second, and $1,000 for third. "That's serious money," said
Kevin Hughes, president of Agri Beef Risk Management Co. "But
the contest-dubbed "BoB" for short-is meant to deliver as much
fun as cash."
As if the prize money isn't enough incentive, Merial has
offered to double the cash prize for the grand prize winner. If the
enrolled cattle are Merial SUREHEALTH certified, they will receive
an additional $100,000, bringing the total to $200,000. The
enrollment process begins Sept. 1, and the first cattle will go on feed
this fall. Slaughter data will be accepted until Dec. 31, 2002. The first
"Best of the Breed" winners will be announced at the annual NCBA
conference in January 2003.
For more information, visit the "Best of the Breed" web
site at www.bestofthebreed.com, or call toll-free (866) 262-1160.
Corporate sponsors of the contest include Agri Beef Co., Allflex
USA, Certified Angus Beef, Farmland National Beef, and Merial.
Release August 21, 2001
Reprinted by permission of "Best of the Breed"
September 2001 7
COMPARATIVE INTAKE AND NUTRIENT
DIGESTIBILITY OF THE GRASS FORAGES:
FLORAKIRK AND TIFTON 85 BERMUDAGRASSES
AND FLORONA STARGRASS TO COASTAL
BERMUDAGRASS WHEN FED TO HORSES
Feed normally makes up about 80% of the cost of maintaining a
horse aside from labor. The roughage portion of a horse's diet is
usually from 50 to 100% of the feed expense. Locally grown forages
are normally about 50 to 70% of the cost of those brought into the
state of Florida. Therefore substantial savings can be made in the
overall cost of raising and maintaining horses when a homegrown
high quality forage is fed. Over the last two decades there have been
several new varieties of grass forages developed in the Southeastern
USA, suitable for making hay, which are very productive and are
high in nutrient value. These forages have already been evaluated for
feeding cattle but, have limited or no evaluation for feeding to horses.
The palatability and digestibility of grass forages can vary greatly
between horses and cattle so it is important that these forages be
evaluated for feeding to horses.
The objective of this experiment was to determine and compare the
nutrient digestibility and palatability of Florakirk Bermudagrass,
Tifton 85 Bermudagrass, Florona Stargrass, and Coastal
Bermudagrass hays when fed to horses.
Materials and Methods
Four adult geldings were used in a 4x4 Latin square design (4 hays, 4
periods). Forage was fed at 0800 and 2000 in excess of voluntary
intake during the first 14 d of the preliminary period. The first 2 d of
the preliminary period was to transition from one forage to the next.
Hay composed 100% of the diet, except for a free choice trace
mineral salt supplement. Average daily hay consumption was
determined from the last 12 d of the preliminary period. A 10 d
digestion period followed with the forages being fed at 80% of their
average daily voluntary consumption, and during the last 5 d of the
digestion period total fecal excretions were collected, weighed,
mixed, and sampled. Forage grab samples were taken at each feeding
(10% of amount fed) for the last 5 d of the digestion period.
Feed and fecal samples were analyzed to determine DM, gross
energy, CP, EE, ADF, NDF, ash, and lignin. Cellulose was
calculated as ADF-lignin-acid insoluble ash. Hemicellulose was
calculated as NDF ADF. Nutrient digestibility and % digestible
nutrient value (DM basis) were calculated for each nutrient in each
forage (Figures 1, 2, and 3). The data was analyzed by ANOVA with
multiple comparisons being made using Duncan's multiple range test
with the alpha level set at 0.05.
Results and Discussion
All hays appeared to have similar chemical compositions (Table 1)
but the CP values had a large range with the highest for Coastal and
Florakirk and lowest for Tifton 85 and Florona (13.2, 11.7, 9.1, and
7.6 % of DM, respectively).
Dry matter digestibility was highest for Tifton 85 and Coastal with
Florakirk and Florona being the lowest (Table 2). Tifton 85 had
higher DM digestibility than Florakirk and Florona (p < 0.05) and
Coastal was higher than Florona (p < 0.05). The Coastal
Bermudagrass DM digestibility of 44.7% was similar to the 43.0%
reported by Aiken et al. (1989). However, the DM digestibility of
48.1% for Tifton 85 was slightly less than the 54.1% observed by
McCann et al. (1995). Nutrient digestibilities using horses have not
been found in the literature for Florona and Florakirk.
Crude protein digestibility was highest for Coastal and Tifton 85 and
lowest for Florakirk and Florona (Table 2). Coastal had a higher CP
digestibility than all other hays (p < 0.05); and Tifton 85 and
Florakirk had higher CP digestibility than Florona (p < 0.05). For this
experiment the crude protein digestibility for Coastal Bermudagrass
(54.4%) was less than that observed for mature horses by McCann et
al., (1995) and Sturgeon et al., (2000) who reported 65.4 and 60.6%,
respectively, and more similar to Aiken's et al., (1989) reported CP
digestibility of 50.7%. Tifton 85 had a much lower CP digestibility of
48.4% than the 63.5% previously reported by McCann et al. (1995).
Neutral detergent fiber digestibility was highest for Tifton 85 and
Coastal and lowest for Florakirk and Florona (Table 2 & Figure 3).
Tifton 85 had higher NDF digestibility than Florakirk and Florona (p
< 0.05). Coastal Bermudagrass hay NDF digestibility (46.4%) was
lower than that previously reported for mature horses by McCann et
al., (1995) and Sturgeon et al., (2000) (54.6 and 51.7%, respectively);
however, it was similar to Aiken's et al., (1989) reported value of
45.5%. The Tifton 85 NDF digestibility of 51.4% was also lower than
that observed by McCann's et al., (1995) 57.2% for mature horses.
Hemicellulose digestibility was highest for Tifton 85, Coastal, and
Florakirk and lowest for Florona (Table 2). Tifton 85 and Coastal had
higher hemicellulose digestibility than both Florakirk and Florona (p
For this experiment the acid detergent fiber and cellulose digestibility
values for Tifton 85, Coastal, Florakirk, and Florona) were not
different (Table 2 & Figure 3). The Coastal ADF digestibility of
39.3% was lower than the values reported for mature horses by
McCann et al., (1995) and Sturgeon et al., (2000) (56.3 and 43.5%,
respectively), but similar to the 35.7% value observed by Aiken et al.
(1989). Tifton 85 had lower ADF digestibility than that seen by
McCann, et al. (1995).
Energy digestibility was highest for Tifton 85 and Coastal and lowest
for Florakirk and Florona (50.2, 47.3, 42.1, and 39.4 %, respectively,
Table 2). Tifton 85 had higher energy digestibility than Florakirk and
Florona (p < 0.05). Coastal had higher energy digestibility than
Florona (p < 0.05). In the present experiment Coastal had a slightly
greater energy digestibility (47.3%) than the range of 42.1% to 44.1%
which was previously reported by Ott (1981) and Aiken et al. (1989).
In general, the nutrient digestibility values of Tifton 85
bermudagrass, Florona Stargrass and Florakirk bermudagrass hays
make these forages comparable in feeding value to Coastal
bermudagrass; however, the low voluntary intakes (Figure 4) of these
forages by the four mature geldings during the experiment resulted in
body weight losses (Figures 5). Coastal bermudagrass hay was the
only forage that was consumed in enough quantity to produce
positive weight gains. It was felt by the researchers that some of the
low intake might have been caused by poor forage harvesting and
handling technique which resulted in some of the hay being musty.
However, Heusner et al., (1995) also found lower intakes for Tifton
85 compared to Coastal. Figures 1 & 2 show the comparative gross-
digestible energy and crude-digestible protein levels for these forages
and compared to the line indicating the requirement, one can see how
moderate weight loss is possible on some of these forages when fed
The nutrient and digestibility differences between these four hays are
not substantial; however, the voluntary intake of the three test
forages, when fed alone, were barely sufficient to meet the
maintenance requirements for energy and protein for the mature
8 September 2001
Table 1. Chemical compositionab of Coastal bermudagrass, Tifton 85 bermudagrass,
Florakirk bermudagrass, and Florona stargrass
Coastal Tifton 85 Florakirk Florona
Item bermudagrass bermudagrass bermudagrass stargrass
CP, % 13.2 9.1 11.7 7.6
NDF, % 79.1 81.0 80.5 81.6
ADF, % 39.0 41.7 40.3 43.0
Lignin, % 9 8 9 9
Hemicellulose, % 40.1 39.3 40.2 38.6
Cellulose, % 29.3 33.4 30.9 33.1
Ash, % 6.6 5.4 6.2 5.3
Gross energy, Mcal/kg 4.53 4.51 4.54 4.52
aFor each mean n = 4.
bDrymatter basis: coastal bermudagrass (88.8% DM), tifton 85 bermudagrass (89.1%),
florakirk bermudagrass (88.7% DM), and florona stargrass (88.9% DM).
Table 2. Digestion coefficients of nutrient components of Coastal bermudagrass,
Tifton 85 bermudagrass, Florakirk bermudgrass, and Florona stargrass in equine
Coastal Tifton 85 Florakirk Florona
Item bermudagrass bermudagrass bermudagrass stargrass SEM
Dry matter, % 44.7bc 48.1 39.9cd 37.7d 1.6
CP, % 54.4b 48.4c 46.3c 38.6d 1.6
NDF, % 46.4bc 51.4b 43.3c 40.1c 1.9
ADF, % 39.3 49.4 39.3 36.9 3.0
Hemicellulose, % 53.2b 53.6b 47.4C 43.5C 1.6
Cellulose, % 45.0 55.0 47.9 41.9 3.1
Ash, % 47.1b 45.3b 36.2bc 32.8c 3.0
Energy, % 41.9bc 44.6b 37.4cd 35.0d 1.6
a For each mean n = 4.
bcd Within a row means without a common superscript letter differ (p < 0.05).
Fig. 1. Crude and Digestible Protein
N1RC Req. for %CP
Coastal Tifton 85 Florakirk Florona
a,b,c,d Bars without a common superscript letter differ (P > 0.05)
Fig. 2. Gross and Digestible Energy
ODE E Gross Energy
Coastal Tifton 85 Florakirk Florona
a,b Bars without a common suoerscriDt letter differ (P > 0.05)
Fig. 4. Dry Matter Intake
Fig. 3. Digestible ADF, NDF, Cellulose, and Hemicellulose 2.
B OADF O NDF ECellulose Hemicellulose
I Iton 85
abc Same color bars without a common superscript letter differ (P > 0.05)
a,b Bars without a common superscript letter differ (P > 0.05)
Fig. 5. Horse Weight Changea
Dr. Sandi Lieb and Dr. Paul Mislevy
University of Florida
Department of Animal Sciences
Gainesville, FL 32611
a Fnr p;ah hav in a 94 riav nprinr
tal Tifton 85 Florakirk Florona