Want to have more than fun?
 Faculty, staff, and students
 Important dates
 Birthdays of the month
 Visiting scientists and post-d...
 Former graduate students
 Publications of the month

Group Title: PLP news
Title: PLP news. Volume 3, Issue 2. February, 1999.
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00067320/00002
 Material Information
Title: PLP news. Volume 3, Issue 2. February, 1999.
Series Title: PLP news
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Plant Pathology Department, IFAS, University of Florida
Affiliation: University of Florida -- College of Agricultural and Life Sciences -- Plant Pathology Department -- Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
Publisher: Plant Pathology Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publication Date: February, 1999
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00067320
Volume ID: VID00002
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Table of Contents
    Want to have more than fun?
        Page 1
    Faculty, staff, and students
        Page 2
    Important dates
        Page 3
    Birthdays of the month
        Page 4
    Visiting scientists and post-docs
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Former graduate students
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Publications of the month
        Page 9
Full Text

* From the field: Phytophthora blight of summer squash Faculty, staff, and students
* Who is who in Plant Pathology Who is visiting us


The Newsletter of
the Plant? '
Volume 3 Issue 2
Februa 1999

Want to have more than fun?
by Dr.Liane Rosewich
Post-doc of the Plant P '"..' : Department

PLAN HEALT: Most members
f of this department are
also members of the
American Phy-
topathological Society
(APS). Many of us go
a regularly to the annual
Meeting, where we
present our work, do some sightseeing,
have some fun (don't ask me how much
money I spent gambling in Las Vegas)
and then go home. Many don't realize
that APS provides more than a platform
to get our work known and that among
professional societies, APS is quite
unique. A strict hierarchy governs most
professional societies. Committee mem-
bers are usually appointed, which means
that if you don't have an appropriate title,
e.g. professor or research leader, chances
are that you simply cannot get involved
in any societal activity. This makes it im-
possible for newcomers, i.e. graduate
students and post-docs, to have any im-
pact. APS is different. Though APS is
governed by an elected hierarchy, it also
has features of a grassroots organization,
in which "bottom people" can have great
influence on many activities. I would like
to recommend to everybody, especially
graduate students, staff and post-docs, to
take advantage of this commonly over-
looked feature of APS.
In the February issue of Phyto-
- irl. 1. ._- News, APS President Carol
Windells encourages all members to get

involved in APS as volunteers, and she
specifies the many ways to contribute.
One of the easiest ways to get involved is
by becoming a member of a committee.
There are around 40 committees, which
are open to all members. These standing
committees are divided into two broad
areas, Society General Policies and Sub-
ject Matters. The committee meetings,
which take place during the annual
meeting, are open to the public. This
means that you can just sit in if you are
not sure whether you want to join offi-
I have interviewed three mem-
bers of this department (Dr. Corby Kis-
tier, Ms. Simone Tudor, and Dr. Marga-
ret Smither-Kopperl), and one former
member (Ms. Tammy Plyler) who are
actively involved in one or two commit-
tees about their motivation for joining a
committee and about their experiences.
In general, the most attractive benefits of
being involved in a committee are that all
members, regardless of title, are encour-
aged to be active in the committee, and
also the opportunity to network. The
small group setting (committees have
only up to twelve members), makes it
possible for each person to express their
ideas and opinions. It also makes it easy
to establish contact with other group
members. In Subject Matter committees,
like Virology, Epidemiology or Biological
Control, you will possibly meet people
with similar research interests and you

may establish contacts with relevant re-
searchers in your field of interest. In the
General Policies Committees you may
find a support group (e.g. Women in
Plant Pathology, Cultural Diversity,
Graduate Student), you may learn about
new regulatory issues (Biotechnology
Regulation Impact Assessment, Regula-
tory Plant Pathology) or you might get
information on issues not normally ad-
dressed at a departmental level (Youth
Program, Extension, Private Practice). If
you are interested in obtaining a position
in industry, it might be a worthwhile ef-
fort to visit the meeting of the Industry
committee, which will familiarize you
with relevant people in your area of in-
The main purpose of commit-
tees is the planning of special sessions
(i.e. discussions, workshops, colloquia,
symposia) for the meeting in the follow-
ing year. Committees generally welcome
ideas for these special sessions and it can
be a worthwhile experience to organize
such sessions. For the meeting in Roch-
ester I organized a symposium on behalf
of the Genetics Committee on "Hori-
zontal Gene Transfer". It was a good
experience, as I had the opportunity to
learn about relevant research in this area,
to be able to invite speakers, and to be
greatly rewarded as people enjoyed what
was being offered to them. If you want
to get even more involved in a commit-
tee, you can chair a committee. You will



then have the opportunity to go the
planning session of APS, where all
committee chairs present their sugges-
tions for special sessions for next years'
meeting. An additional bonus is that as a
committee chair you will be invited to a
special leadership workshop, where a
professional consultant clarifies all as-
pects of what makes a good or a bad
So get involved in your society, nominate
yourself for a committee (just contact the
Councilor-at-Large Helen Dillard:
hrdl@(nysaes.comell.edu), or make sure
that you at least visit one of the commit-
tee meetings in Montreal and find out
why APS is so special. Or, in Carol Win-
dells words, "If you want to make a dif-
ference and share your talents, ic .--
and imagination, I urge you to volunteer
and get involved in APS."

Errata: There is a mistake in the editorial
of January's issue of the PLPNews.
Where you read "tomato yellow leaf roll
virus", please read "tomato yellow leaf
curl virus".

Faculty, staff, and students

Dr. E. Hiebert was invited as a consult-
ant to attend and participate in the Bio-
technology Research Development Cor-
poration (BRDC) Geminivirus Advisory
Board Meeting on January 26t at the
Hotel Sofitel Chicago O'Hare. Only a
small group of selected scientists and
private companies were invited for this
meeting. The purpose of the meeting was
to develop approaches that will provide
broad-spectrum resistance to geminivi-
ruses in agricultural crops. The BRDC
expects to fund a number of projects,
which should lead to the development of
geminivirus resistance useful to the agri-
cultural industry.

Dr. R. Charudattan and his lab repre-
sented our department at the annual
meeting of the Weed Science Society of
America. The meeting was held at the
Town and Country Hotel and Resort in
San Diego, California from February 7th
through the 11t. Five people from the
lab submitted abstracts and gave presen-
tations. Jim DeValerio talked about
field testing of Ralstonia solanacearum as a
biological control agent of tropical soda
apple. Gabriella Wyss presented data on
the mass production of conidia of Dac-
tylaia higinsii, a potential biocontrol agent
for nutsedge, on natural and synthetic
media and grains. S. Chandramohan
presented data on field tests of a patho-
gen mixture for the bioherbicidal control
of guineagrass. Camilla Yandoc dis-
cussed her findings about the enhance-
ment of efficacy of Bipo/lani sacchari, a
bioherbicide agent of congongrass with
adjuvants. Angela Vincent discussed
her findings concerning the effects of
formulations of Myrothecium roridum and
Cercopera rodmannii on waterhyacinth un-
der greenhouse and field conditions. Af-
ter a week of attending sessions and
making presentations, some lab members
took some time to enjoy the city as they
went whale watching and visited the
world famous San Diego Zoo.

Congratulations to the members of the lab that
presentedpapers, we applaud your .

Dr. Manjunath Keremane visited Be-
lize in Central America from January 25th
through the 31st. Dr. Keremane was a
Food and Agricultural Consultant at a
one-week workshop entitled Molecular
Biological Techniques for Diagnosing
Citrus Viruses and Viroids. Some of the
methods taught were: RT-PCR for de-
tecting CTV (citrus tristeza virus) and
viroids, detection of citrus blight using
dot blot hybridization, and detection of
citrus greening using PCR. Dr. Kere-
mane also gave advice on using methods
of sterile technique for propagating virus

free plants in citrus nurseries. Dr. Kere-
mane also visited the Mayan Ruins and
did some snorkeling at the beach.
Teaching detection methods to the agri-
cultural community is a great way of
bridging the gap between researchers and
the lay public.

Hats offtoyou, Manjunath!!

Mark Elliott presented a paper at the
111t Meeting of the Florida State Horti-
cultural Society in Orlando, last Novem-
ber. The paper was entitled "Relative
incidences of CymMV, ORSV, and
CymRSV in commercial, private, and
public orchid collections", and it is the
culmination of Brian Siegmann's and
Saad Sebbana's summer special topics

General Announcements

* The 1999 Graduate Student Forum will
be held on the second floor of the Reitz
Union on Friday, April 2, 1999. Call for
abstracts and abstract submission pages
can be found at http:/

* If you are interested in learning more
about UF's Electronic Thesis and Dis-
sertation (ETD) pilot project, you may
want to go to ETD orientation and
training sessions, which will be held in
room G520 of Norman Hall on March
3rd (Wednesday), from 9-11 a.m. and on
March 4t (Thursday), from 1-3 p.m.

* Drs. Carl S. Barfield, Sandy Hayen, and
Tommy Howard will be holding 3 ses-
sions for students regarding the Om-
budsman Office. The sessions will be on
March 18 (10:30am), March 25 (2:30pm)
and March 30 (7:30pm), all in room 328
of the Reitz Union. If you have any
questions, you can e-mail Dr. Barfield at

* The remaining seminars in the Profes-
sional Development Series are "Writing

Grant and Fellowship Proposals" on
March 16th, from 10a.m.-noon in room
233-234 of the Reitz Union and Alterna-
tive Career Paths for Graduate Students
on March 31st from noon-l:30p.m. in
room 286 of the Reitz Union. If you
need more information, you can call the
Graduate School at 392.4646.

* A position for a Research Plant Pa-
thologist to work on viruses of vegeta-
bles and their interactions with vectors
and plants is currently available. If you
are interested on this position, you can
find more information at the USDA-
ARS Employment Opportunities Web
site at: http: //www.ars.
HTM. If you have any questions, you
can contact Dr. David T. Kaplan at

* If you are going to present a paper at
the APS Meeting in Montreal, you can
apply for 1999 APS Foundation Travel
Grants until March 15. A minimum of
15 awards of $350 each will be available.
Students who received an award in 1998
will not be eligible again until 2000. Pref-
erence will be given to students who
have never received a Foundation travel
award. Application packets must include:
1. Abstract as submitted to APS Head-
quarters for the 1999 meeting.
2. One page letter that includes the fol-
a. Describe past attendance and par-
ticipation in any APS meetings (i.e., pres-
entations, committee activities, de Bary
bowl, etc.). If you were awarded a travel
grant from APS Foundation prior to
1998, include the year.
b. Briefly (one paragraph each) de-
scribe how attendance at this annual APS
meeting would be of benefit to you and
suggest three ways to improve APS (in-
cluding meetings) and/or the field of
plant pathology.
3. Supporting letter (one page maximum)
from your major professor. This can in-


a. Reason student is attending the
b. Scientific, academic, and creative
merits of the student.
c. Any special circumstances that make
attendance at the meeting solely depend-
ent on receiving a Foundation travel
Please send 6 copies to: Jeffrey S. Batten,
chair of the APS Graduate Student
Committee, Department of Plant Pathol-
ogy & Microbiology, College Station, TX
77843-2132; jbatten@i
ppserver.tamu.edu; 409/845-7831; Fax
409/845-6483. The awards will be made
by a 12-member Selection Committee
with six representatives from the APS
Graduate Student Committee (not eligi-
ble for an award), and two representa-
tives each from academia, extension, and

* Message from Gail to all faculty, post-
docs, students, and staff, regarding De-
partmental Logs for State Vehicles:
During an audit of our vehicles by an
auditor from the State Auditor General's
office, I learned that the column on our
log for "Driver Certification" should
have the driver's official signature. We,
as drivers, are certifying with this official
signature, that we have a valid driver's
license at the time of driving the State
vehicle. The wording of the information
for this column is vague and most of us
have been using our initials. However, in
the future we will be expected to certify
our valid driver's license with our official

* Lauretta wants to remind everybody
that all the travelling for the University
must be done through one of the fol-
lowing authorized travel agencies: AAA
Travel Agency, Carlson Wagonlit Travel,
Continental Capers, Crystal Travel, Lake
Region Travel, Lorraine Travel, STA
Travel, Travel Center, and Wright Travel.

* On February 16, the new Doctor of
Plant Medicine degree was approved by

the University Curriculum Committee. If
you want to know more about this de-
gree, refer to PLPNews October 1998.

* The new faculty member of our de-
partment, Dr. Song, arrived to
Gainesville on February 15th.

We wish him the best in his

Mushroom sale

Have you ordered
your mushrooms yet?
Remember that the
Annual Mushroom
Sale, organized by the
graduate students of our department, will
take place this coming Friday, February
26th, from 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. at the main
entrance of Fifield Hall. Come buy fresh
and tasty mushrooms and help the grad
student's association!!


We would like to invite everybody in our
department to the baby shower of Dan-
iela Lopes and Pam Kemerait, which will
be held on March 17th, Wednesday, at
noon, tentatively in conference room
1306. For more information, please con-
tact Terry Davoli or Juliana Freitas-
Astua. Hope to see you all there!!!

Increase in circulation of the

From now on, the Newsletter of our
department will be circulated among
IFAS administration, which means that
few more copies will be added to our
monthly 150-copies circulation!

Important Dates

* March 1, Monday, 4 p.m.: Last day to
submit the completed, undefended dis-

sertation for review to the Editorial Of-
fice (168 GRI) to qualify for Summer
* March 2, Tuesday: Midpoint of the
term for completing doctoral qualifying
* March 6-13, Saturday-Saturday: Spring
Break. Classes suspended.

Birthdays of the month

Jerry Bartz
Gail Harris
Vicente Febres
Eldon Philman
Jorge Vazquez
Yi-Qun Huang
Melanie Cash
Liane Rosewich
Michael Mahovic
Guilhermo Catral


Happy birthday to you all!!

Friday's coffee break

The labs in charge of _
the coffee break for
the month of March

March 5th Drs. Bartz's, Berger's, and
Zettler's labs
March 12th Spring Break
March 19h Dr. Hiebert's lab
March 26h Dr. Charudattan's lab

Remember that on March 26 we will be
celebrating the "birthdays of the month".

Who is Who in our Department


Who IS hI..'

Dr. Zettler, a well-known face
in our department, received his B.S. in
botany/plant pathology from Penn State,
M.S. from Comell in plant pathology
with a minor in entomology, and his
Ph.D. from Comell in plant pathology
with minors in entomology and botany.
This overachiever has brought his enthu-
siasm into several projects at UF.
Many of us know Dr. Zettler as
the undergraduate and graduate student
coordinator, or the guy we run to when
our schedule needs fixing, but Dr. Zettler
also teaches several courses such as
Plants, Plagues and People (for which he
published a new book 'Biohistory), Fun-
damentals of Plant Pathology, General
Plant Pathology, and Agricultural Hon-
ors. This is his first year teaching Agri-
cultural Honors, which he describes as a
'colloquium for honors students', and he
is excited about developing the curricu-
lum for this class. Dr. Zettler says his
research role is diminishing as he takes
on more t, i.-hi-, but he still managed to
publish a recent paper on orchid viruses.
His major research interest is directed
towards viral diseases of ornamentals and
foliage plants, especially in orchids and
gladiolus, and he is teaming up with two
former students (Ting-Chin Deng and
Tso-Chi Yang) to publish their work with
lily virus detection.

Mark Elliott is the biological
scientist of the lab. He earned both his
B.Sc. and M.Sc. in ornamental horticul-
ture here at UF. Students will recognize
his name from their classes as the lab
instructor for Fundamentals of Plant
Pathology as well as graduate Virology.
Mark's main research interest is in orna-
mental and orchid viruses and his current
research project is finishing up work on
an orchid virus study. He recently re-
ceived the galley proofs back for a paper
on relative incidences of cymbidium mo-

saic virus (CymMV), odontoglossum
ringspot virus (ORSV), and cymbidium
ringspot virus (CymRSV) orchid viruses
in public and private collections, which
was submitted to the Florida State Horti-
cultural Society. He has been the senior
author on 14 publications and the con-
tributing author on 12 publications. Mark
has been invited as a speaker to the 16th
World Orchid Conference, which will be
held in Vancouver in April.

Dr. Zettler and Dr. Jane Polston
are the advisors for Mariadaniela Lo-
pez's work on her master's degree. Mari-
adaniela received her B.S. in agronomy in
Venezuela in 1994 and came to UF on a
scholarship from Fundayacuduo-Laspau.
Mariadaniela also worked in the flower
industry in the area of phytosanitary
controls. She is currently working with
the growers of Highlands County on
prevalence of viruses in commercial
fields of caladium and the anatomical
distribution of the viruses. She plans to
graduate in the fall of 1999 and hopes to
return to teach in Venezuela. She takes
yoga classes to help her relax from the
stress of being a graduate student and a
Yiqun Huang, or Shelly Wong
to most of us, is finishing her master in
science, non-thesis work in plant pathol-
ogy under Dr. Zettler's guidance. She
hopes to graduates this semester and
continue her education in the MBA pro-
gram at UF. Shelly works in the Shand's
pathology department and is currently
working on a diabetes project. She plans
to work in the biotechnology industry
and she says she may eventually return to
Asia. Her current classes include Plant
Disease Control and Seminar. Shelly
plays tennis and swims in her free time.

Did you know that... ?

*Dr. Zettler enjoys vi ....J. 1 ..,n -, car-
pentry, fishing and ;.w, I.'. .--. He has
four generations of carpenters in his
family and says car-

I ,

carpentry is in his blood. He admits that
his early attempts were bad but that he is
improving and has also moved on to
refinishing antiques. Dr. Zettler con-
fesses his love of working with people
and invites anyone to drop in and say hi!
* Dr. Zettler & Bob Kemerait's father-in-
law, Mr. Melencio Lopes, were students
together at Penn Statte in the early 60s?
*Dr. Zettler owns a pot-bellied pig (not-
housebroken!) named Schaefer who was
named after a bologna factory in Penn-
*Dr. Zettler is travelling with his son's
ecology class to Key West this Spring
*Dr. Zettler has two children who are
both interested in biology and teaching?
*Mark enjoys gardening and travelling
outside of work. He also does volunteer
work for community organizations.
*Mark has been to Ecuador, Panama,
Costa Rica, Mexico, Puerto Rico, Baha-
mas, Japan, Taiwan, Italy, and California
all on business/consulting trips?
*Mark can sing and has been the director
or member for several small ensembles?
*Mariadaniela loves tissue culture?
*Mariadaniela is a very active member of
our Newsletter?
*Mariadaniela has a 2 year 10 month old
son named Simon whom she enjoys
playing cuatro with? (He was in the Alli-
gator Feb. 16t if you would like to see a
*Shelly doesn't like cats but she has a
pekingnese dog?

Visiting scientists
and post-docs

Dr. Thomas Rausch is cur-
rently a visiting scientist in Dr. Prem
Chourey's lab. He is originally from
Frankfurt, Germany, and attended
Frankfurt University for both his B.Sc.
and Ph.D. degrees. He received his
bachelor's in chemistry and biology,
while his Ph.D. project involved the


molecular physiology of clubroot of cru-
cifer disease.
Since 1993, Dr. Rausch has
been a professor at the University of
Heidelberg in Germany. He and his lab
specifically work on the molecular
ecophysiology of plants. All of his lab's
projects relate to the mechanisms by
which plants adjust to environmental
stresses, both biotic (wounding patho-
gens, etc.) and abiotic (salinity and heavy
metals). Dr. Rausch is the advisor of 7
graduate students and also has 3 post-
docs! (That's why he can only spend a
short time here with us).
While here, Dr. Rausch is
working on a very exciting project. For
many crop plants, seed filling is thought
to be regulated by, among other things,
cell wall invertase. This is important for
the stimulation of assimilate partitioning
from the mother plant to the seed, there-
fore, the genetic manipulation of this
enzyme might effect seed development.
In tobacco, this enzyme is regulated by a
specific inhibitor protein that has been
recently cloned by Dr. Rausch's group.
Dr. Rausch hypothesizes that by reduc-
ing the expression of inhibitor protein,
using antisense technology, it may be
possible to have a positive effect on seed
filling and development. It is for this
reason that both Drs. Rausch and
Chourey wish to clone the homologous
invertase inhibitor in com. From a plant
pathology perspective, these enzymes are
of interest because invertases release
hexoses in cell walls, which are perceived
by the cell as metabolic signals (as wound
or pathogen responses), triggering the
expression of several pathogenesis-
related proteins which are part of the
cellular defense program. Dr. Rausch
said that he believes in the invertase in-
hibitor, Dr. Chourey wants it, but Dr.
Rausch's wife, Danca, will
actually be the one to clone
it. (She will be a post-doc in
Dr. Chourey's lab for 6
months, so I am looking
forward to interviewing her

next month).
According to Dr. Rausch, Dr.
Chourey's lab is one of the leading
groups in cell wall invertase research,
while his lab is specializing in plant in-
vertase inhibitors, so the experience of
these two groups complements one an-
When he is not working Dr.
Rausch enjoys hiking listening to classi-
cal music, and reading
contemporary literature
(either European or
American novels).

If you want to
contact him in Germany, you can write
to: trausch@ bo-

We extend a very warm wekome to Dr. Rausch
and hope that his stay here is both an enjoyable
and an enriching one!

From the field

Phytophthora blight
of summer squash

by Bob Kemerait

Squash, Cucurbita pepo L. and C.
maxima L., is an in-
teresting yet per-
plexing vegetable;
one that I believe is
too often taken for
granted. I would
imagine that if you
surveyed every grade school student in
Alachua county 'pI. il',. in the United
States), not a single one would rank it
among their top-ten favorite foods. More
than likely, squash would rate near the
bottom of the list, just ahead of rutabagas
and Brussels sprouts. And yet, as these
children grow, they will leam to enjoy
this vegetable in a variety of dishes and
perhaps come to expect a squash casse-
role at Thanksgiving every year. For
those of us who have reached this stage,

it is comforting to know that squash is an
important crop in Florida and ranks
among the twenty most valuable farm
products produced in the state (1). Sev-
eral varieties of squash are grown com-
mercially in Florida including acom,
butternut, yellow crookneck, yellow
straightneck, white, and zucchini. During
the 1996-97 season, squash was grown
on 8500 acres and 2.4 million bushels
were harvested. This harvest was valued
at 2 2 million. Squash production is
concentrated in the southeastern (6i'.)"
and southwestern (1",'; regions of
Florida, though it is planted throughout
much of the state (2).
Unfortunately for growers,
summer squash (C. peo L.) is an excel-
lent host for a number of pathogens that
can take heavy tolls on yield. One dis-
ease that has become of increasing con-
cem to growers, extension agents, and
plant pathologists is Phytophthora blight
caused by Phytophthora csici. Phytophthora
capsiai is a menace to a number of vegeta-
ble crops including l i iit, pepper,
watermelon, cantaloupe, melon, pump-
kins, and tomatoes (4,5,6). Phytophthora
blight has been of sporadic importance,
normally affecting host crops during
years of unfavorable weather. For ex-
ample, an outbreak in southeastern
Florida on several vegetable crops oc-
curred during the unusually warm and
wet winter season of 1982-1983, though
other factors may have contributed as
well (4). A similar event occurred in a
commercial squash (C. maxima L.) field
in Arkansas that received 25 cm of rain
during July 1994. The crop within one
16-ha field was completely lost (7).
Phytophthora blight on squash
can affect the host in a number of ways.
Planted seeds may rot prior to germina-
tion and young seedlings may become
diseased both before and after emer-
gence. A blanket of white mycelium may
cover the seedlings when there is enough
ambient moisture. Summer squash is
very susceptible to both foliar blight and
fruit rot. The initial foliar symptoms


include rapidly .:..p i' Ji ., irregular, wa-
ter-soaked lesions and a die-back of the
shoot tips. These shoots often begin to
rot. Wilt symptoms ensue and death of
the plant quickly follows. Symptoms on
the fruit include sunken, dark, water-
soaked areas and the fruit may also be
engulfed by mycelium (5,7).
Phytophthora cpsici is not really a
"true" fungus, as many would believe,
but is actually a member of the Kingdom
Chromista which includes among other
groups, the diatoms and golden and
brown algae. For the sake of conven-
ience and tradition, it is considered a
member of the "family of fungi". This
grouping is based upon growth habit and
mode of nutrition, but it is separated
from "true" fungi by cellulose in its cell
walls, the diploid nature of the vegetative
hyphae, and tubular mitochondrial
christae. Phytophthora falls in the order
Pythiales along with the related pathogen
Pythium. Phytophthora cpsii may survive as
sexual oospores in or on seeds and on
host debris remaining in the field. Spores
act as disease propagules and may be
spread by wind and water. Oospores and
actively growing mycelium may also be
carried into a field on infected trans-
plants. Motile asexual zoospores are
produced in sporangia when environ-
mental conditions are favorable, such as
when the weather is warm and wet. The
.itl Ir, zoospores require surface
moisture for survival (5,6). Researchers
in California observed that excessive irri-
gation of squash fields also increased the
severity of Phytophthora blight (3). Dis-
ease symptoms can appear within three
days after infection (5).
Control of Phytophthora blight
focuses on cultural practices and the use
of fungicides as there are no resistant
varieties currently available (3, Dr. P. D.
Roberts, personal communication). Con-
trol practices include the use of treated
seed and sterile potting media for trans-
plant production, and removal of trans-
plant trays containing infected plants
from production areas. Growers should

plant only disease-free transplants. Fields
that are poorly drained or that contain
low-lying areas should be avoided and
weeds and "volunteer" squash plants
should be rogued. "Double-cropping"
with susceptible hosts should be avoided
and workers should take care not to dis-
perse the pathogen further on contami-
nated equipment or clothing (5,6). Pre-
plant and post-drench applications of
mefenoxam (Ridomil Gold) should be
used as a preventative measure (Roberts,
personal communication). Soil fumigants
are also useful in some situations.
Dr. Pam Roberts, who is a
member of our department stationed at
the Southwest Florida Research and
Education Center in Immokalee, has had
a good deal of exposure to Phytophthora
blight on squash in the relatively short
time that she has been assigned there.
Apparently, this disease was considered
to be a minor problem prior to 1993
when a major epidemic occurred. Be-
tween 1993 and 1998, incidence of the
disease was sporadic, but last year it again
caused important damage to the squash
yield (Roberts, personal communication).
Interestingly, the epidemic in 1998 ap-
pears to be tied to the moisture and
warmer temperatures associated with El
Niflo (6). According to Dr. Roberts, most
of the squash growers in her area were
not too worried about Phytophthora
blight until last year and that the severity
of the disease has been a surprise to
them. She describes 1998 as an "epi-
demic year" where some squash fields
had 1(.1",, incidence and other suscepti-
ble crops suffered as well. It is still too
early in the 1999 season to predict the
impact of Phytophthora blight on this
year's crop. Recently Dr. Roberts visited
four fields in the Homestead area and the
disease was already present in each one,
though the growing season should con-
tinue through April. One squash farmer
in the Homestead area has discontinued
harvesting squash early because of dis-
ease severity and decided to plow the
crop under. A pepper farmer in Immo-

kalee did the same based upon 81"" inci-
dence of Phytopthora blight coupled
with low market prices.
Given the challenges and diffi-
culties that can occur in producing
squash, one cannot help but admire
growers who take these risks and find
means to protect their harvest. These
efforts may be lost on children, but one
day they may also appreciate the virtues
of squash.

Literature cited
1.Anonymous. Touring Florida Agriculture.
Florida Department of Agriculture
and Consumer Services Bureau of
Information Services, Tallahassee,
2.Anonymous. 1998. Florida Agricultural
Statistics: Vegetable Summary 1996-
1997. Florida Agricultural Statistics
Service, Orlando, FL.
3.Cafe-Filho, A. C., Duniway, J. M., and
Davis, R. M. 1995. Effects of the
frequency of furrow irrigation on
root and fruit rots of squash caused
by Phytophthora capsii. Plant Dis.
4.Chellemi, D. O. and Sonoda, RI M. 1983.
Outbreak of Phytophthora capsid on
vegetable crops in southeast Florida.
Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 96:69-71.
5.McGovem, R. J., Kucharek, T. A., and
Mitchell, D. J. 1994. Vegetable dis-
eases caused by Phytophthora ctpsii in
Florida. IFAS University of Florida
SP 159.
6.McGovem, Ri J., Roberts, P. D., Kucharek,
T. A., and Gilreath, P. R. 1998. Phy-
tophthora capsid: new problems from
an old enemy. 1998 Florida Tomato
Institute Proceedings. Compiled by
C. S. Varina and P. R Gilreath. Citrus
and Vegetable Magazine and the
University of Florida.
7.Wasilwa, L. A., Correll, J. C., and Morelock,
T. E. 1995. Phytophthora blight of
squash caused by Phytophthora capsid
in Arkansas. Plant Dis. 79:1188.

Former graduate students


Carol P. Miiller, who visited us
last week, graduated in 1983 under Dr.
T. E. Freeman's supervision. He first
started in the Environmental Horticul-
ture Department, but after a year, fol-
lowing advice of Dr. Mitchell and Dr.
Niblett, he decided to switch to our de-
partment because, among other reasons,
of his interest in turf grass diseases. In
this department, he worked on the ef-
fect of overseeding bermuda grass on the
population of certain soil fungi. After
finishing his Master's, he went back to
his beloved Chile to teach two different
courses: Turf Management and Flori-
culture. Besides t, ..!i_. he works as a
consultant for golf courses, cemetery
parks, soccer, rugby, polo, and lawn
hockey fields, and hippodromes. If you
want to contact Carol, his e-mail address
is mulbotachilesat.net

PLP monthly computer review

by Mike Mahovic and Mark Ross

SAs you most
(( > likely have noticed,
we've finally gotten in
E V our latest computer, a
new Pentium II 450.
Before I say anything more, let's all thank
Dr. Agrios for buying us our new ma-
chine! On the new computer, and slowly
being added to the other computers as
well, you may have seen that Mark is
putting up signs with specifications de-
tailing what software is on the computer
and what hardware is attached to it
(scanner, Digital Palette, etc.). Any pro-
grams that are found on the computers
and not on the associated list will be re-
The installation of software on
the computers must go through Mark, in
order to make sure that the programs on
our computers will neither have a detri-
mental affect on the computer's opera-
tion, nor will we have unlicensed soft-
ware that could cause legal trouble for
the department. This concern is raised

because yet again unapproved software
has been installed. When such things
(most notably games) are put on the
computers, small files are put in the sys-
tems that can (and do!) cause severe
problems with the machine's operational
performance. This directly translates into
time that Mark has to spend trying to fix
the affected computer and time he can-
not spend helping us with other prob-
lems, as well as time that we are all down
one terminal. In an effort to stop this,
Mark will soon be putting Windows NT
on the newer machines and, eventually,
on all of them. This new operation sys-
tem (OS) will not change the functioning
of the computers in any significant way
that any of us will notice. All of your
programs will work just as they normally
do. The difference that you will see is
that to use a computer, you will now be
required to use your departmental account
and password; no more bypassing of the
log-in screen. This ensures that only PLP
departmental members will have access
to the computers. Also, Windows NT
keeps a log of each user's activities,
which will record who is abusing our
computers. Make sure no one knows
your account and password; if someone
is using it for unapproved activities, then
you may be blamed for it!
To speed up the computers and
remove excess clutter, Mark has stream-
lined the Windows desktops on the
computers. As a result, some functions
people are used to seeing in certain
places have moved. The old Office task
bar that used to clutter the screen (and
the computer's memory), for example, is
one thing now conspicuously absent.
Another absent item that has been rela-
tively important to us is the Log-Off
short-cut icon. Because it is no longer
represented as an icon, many people are
not logging off of the computers when
they are done. This leads to a security
issue such that when you walk away
form a computer without logging off, the
next person to use the computer now has
full access to your personal space on the

departmental server. From here, they
could move or delete your files, or alter
important things like your next big pres-
entation, or even your thesis! While most
of us are honest enough to log off for
you, do you really want to take that
chance with your data? To log off the
computers, go to the Start menu at the
bottom left of the screen there is a pic-
ture of a key that next to it reads "Logoff
..." Select this option, and
then tell the machine you are sure you
want to log out (click "OK" in the dialog
box that appears). You and your files are
now safe.
Another security issue has arisen
concerning e-mail. On more than one
occasion, people have checked their mail
through programs such as Eudora, Net-
scape, or others which leave your mes-
sages on the computer. Once on the
computer's hard drive, anyone can read
your mail! The new policy of the library
is that there will no longer be any e-mail
programs allowed on the computers.
This is to eliminate this source of intru-
sion on everyone's privacy. Now only
external mail programs will be allowed.
Several people are using telnet, Yahoo
Mail, or Hot Mail, which are all examples
of acceptable external programs. External
programs are those that do not download
your mail to the hard drive of the com-
puter you are using. With the mail not
being saved to the hard drive, there is
absolutely no way for your letters to ac-
cidentally be read by other people later
using the computer.
In order to find an acceptable
program for everyone, we have scoured
the web for a good service to use, and
have decided on Hot Mail. It is a free,
external program that will not save your
mail to the hard drive, and will allow you
to check any e-mail account you have
(.ifas, .grove, etc) in one easy location.
You can use your Hot Mail account from
any Intemet connected computer. This
means you do not have to dial up long
distance to the Gainesville computers
while off in Miami, or at a meeting being


held in Poland. You need only have
Intemet access to read your mail. I have
created my own Hot Mail account and,
while doing so, took some notes for you
to follow in creating your own account.
Please use only this (or Telnet, Yahoo
Mail, or any similar external e-mail pro-
gram) on the library computers!

Creating a Hot Mail Account:

To make your
own Hot Mail account,
you will first want to go
to the address
www.hotmail.com. From this page, click
the button "Sign up here." Read the
terms, then click on "I accept." A form
will appear on the screen for you to fill
out. Note that at the bottom of the page,
it asks two questions. The first one asks
if other people on Hot Mail can see your
address ("Please do/do not list me"); the
second asks if you will allow for anyone
on the intemet see your address ('Yes,
please/ No, do not register me"). These
will determine who is able to randomly
browse and find your address (either only
other Hot Mail users, or any intemet us-
ers). Once you have entered in all the
information that the page asks for, click
"submit registration."
You may have to now alter your
login name. If so, it will ask you to select
from a list of suggestions or try a new
one. This will only occur if someone else
is already using the name you have cho-
The next page will ask you to
retype your name and password for veri-
fication. It will also ask you to make up a
password hint question and answer. This
will be used if you forget your password
and ask Hot Mail for help to remember
it. They will ask you the question, and if
you get the answer right, they will give
you your password. Make this some-
thing you will know, and no one else you
do not want to have your password will!
This does not have to be related to your
actual password.

Once finished with the previous
step, in the next screen you may now
select from several daily news services
that will send you an e-mail once a day
(or so) about the topic you have selected.
You may choose as few or as many of
these as you wish (and can tolerate clut-
tering your e-mail box every day!). Click

You are now the proud owner
of a Hot Mail account. From here, you
will be put in your mailbox service area
where you can see what all mail you have
in your various mailboxes (in mail, out
mail, etc). To read one of your messages,
click on the blue "from" text. Select the
box next to a message (a check will ap-
pear in the box), those messages that are
now checked may be deleted, or moved
to another mailbox (such as a saved box,
or your out box) by clicking on the ap-
propriate button at the bottom of the
mail message list.

To check your .grove, .ifas, or other
e-mail account using Hot Mail:

From your new Hot Mail inbox
page, look for "check for: [ New Mail |
POP mail]" and click on "POP mail."
(If you click on "Hot Mail," it will look
to see if anything has been sent to your
Hot Mail account. After you have set your
preferences, when you come back to the in-
box screen and click on "POP mail" it
will check for POP {.grove, .ifas} mes-
sages). You may now select up to 4 POP
mail servers to check for mail. For each
one, fill in your POP server name (mine
would be gnv.ifas.ufl.edu), your POP
user name (mine would be mmahovic)
and your password (no, I'm not going to
tell you what mine is!). On the bottom
of each box is a check box labeled
"Leave messages on POP server?" If
you want your messages deleted from
your account once you have read them
through Hot Mail, leave this blank. If
you would like to leave the messages on
the server so you can read them again
later from another computer (such as

dialing up to grove from home), then put
a check in this box, and Hot Mail will not
delete them. Note that when you check
your messages again, even in Hot Mail,
any messages you have read before will
reappear as new messages if you chose to
"leave them on the server."
On the right hand side, there are
several arrows and symbols of various
colors. Use these symbols to designate
which messages are coming from which
server. The selected symbol (the one
with a check in its adjacent box) will ap-
pear next to each message from the re-
lated server. Example: if you choose a
red arrow for an .ifas account, and a blue
diamond for a .grove account, then when
you check your mail you will find the
appropriate symbol next to messages
from the designated accounts. There
would be a red arrow next to letters sent
to your .ifas mail and a blue diamond
next to letters addressed to your .grove
Once you have all the informa-
tion on all of the other accounts you
want to check mail on, go to the bottom
of the page and click on "OK."
You will now be sent back to
the inbox for Hot Mail, and you will
there find any messages that were sent to
the other accounts you have just entered,
with the appropriate designator next to
each letter (the blue diamonds and red
arrows, but unfortunately no green clo-
vers or purple horseshoes).


There are also many other op-
tions available to you on the left side of
the screen: you may see what messages
have been sent to your (Inbox, blue);
you may send someone a message
(Compose, purple); you may add ad-
dresses to an address book for easy ref-
erence when you send mail (Address,
gold); you may look in all of the folders
you have to see what messages you
have saved (Folders, teal); you can edit
your preferences, such as the POP ac-
counts you created, change your pass-
word, etc. (Options, green); and you
also exit Hot Mail here by selecting Log
Out (red).
You now should have a Hot
Mail account that you are able to use
from any computer connected to the
intemet to check your mail from any
accounts you may have.

That concludes this month's
"Bytes o' Computer Wisdom." As al-
ways, send any questions to either myself
at: mmahovic@gnv.ifas.ufl.edu, or to
Mark Ross at: maross@gnv. ifas.ufl.edu
and we'll see what we can do to publish
an answer for you next month. Until

Good Computing to you all

Publications of the month

Silva-Acuna, R., L.A. Maffia, L. Zam-
bolim, R.D.Berger. 1999. Inci-
dence-severity relationships in the
pathosystem Coffea arabica-Hemileia
vastatnx. Plant Disease 83, 186-188.

Be part of the news team

Do you enjoy reading the PLPNews? Do
you think you can help us to make our
newsletter even better? So why not be-
coming part of the news team? Being
part of the newsletter is fun and does not
require much time... Just the desire to
do it!! Get involved; you won't regret it!!

Juliana Freitas-Astua
:..F ,, _!i. ...ufl.edu
News Team
Adriana Castanieda
Alvaro Urenia
Angela Vincent
Liane Rosewich
Mariadaniela Lopez
Maureen Petersen
Michael Mahovic
Misty Nielsen
Robert Harveson
Robert Kemerait
Wayne Jurick II

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