• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Title Page
 Front Matter
 Foreword
 Terms in common use
 Table of Contents
 Objectives of education
 Basic understanding for the...
 The school and classroom setti...
 The daily schedule
 Teacher-pupil planning
 Social studies
 Science
 Health, safety, and physical...
 Language arts
 Arithmetic
 Related arts
 Music
 State Department of Education...
 Index
 Back Cover














Group Title: Bulletin - State Department of Education ; 47
Title: A guide
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00067274/00001
 Material Information
Title: A guide teaching in Florida elementary schools
Series Title: Its Bulletin
Physical Description: vii, 130 p. : illus. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- State Dept. of Education
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee
Publication Date: 1958
 Subjects
Subject: Teaching   ( lcsh )
Education, Elementary   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
General Note: "Revision of Bulletins 46 & 47."
Funding: Bulletin (Florida. State Dept. of Education) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00067274
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 05541733
lccn - a 59009002

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front cover
    Front Matter
        Bookplate
    Title Page
        Title page
    Front Matter
        Front matter
    Foreword
        Page i
        Page ii
    Terms in common use
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
    Table of Contents
        Page vii
    Objectives of education
        Page viii
    Basic understanding for the teacher
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
    The school and classroom setting
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    The daily schedule
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
    Teacher-pupil planning
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
    Social studies
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
    Science
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
    Health, safety, and physical education
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
    Language arts
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
    Arithmetic
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
    Related arts
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
    Music
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
    State Department of Education functions
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
    Index
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
    Back Cover
        Page 132
Full Text


















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TEACHING IN FLORIDA

ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS


3 75 o09 759

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/ 98 STATE DEI
C., TH
THOMAS


BULLETIN 47
1958


ARTMENT OF EDUCATION
rallahssee, Florida
D. BAILEY, Superintendent


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UNIVERSITY

OF FLORIDA

LIBRARIES


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TEACHING IN FLORIDA

ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS

BULLETIN 47
(Revision of Bulletins 46 & 47)
1958


[/ STATE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
Tallahassee, Florida
THOMAS D. BAILEY, Superintendent










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Foreword


T HIS BULLETIN is a revision of two 1944 publications: A
Guide to Teaching in the Primary Grades and A Guide to
Teaching in the Intermediate Grades. It has been prepared in
response to requests from teachers, principals, supervisors, and
county school superintendents, who pointed out the need for a
general guide that would be useful to new elementary teachers
and experienced teachers from other states as well as those
working outside their fields of specialization. This bulletin is
designed to assist teachers in obtaining a general overview of the
curriculum for grades 1-6. It summarizes much of the material
heretofore available only in separate bulletins dealing with the
various subject areas of elementary school work. Many of these
bulletins are now out of print and under revision.
The more detailed curriculum guides dealing with teaching
in the elementary school issued by the State Department of Edu-
cation since 1938 and the various teachers' manuals, or teaching
guides, provided by the publishers of the State-adopted textbooks
can be studied profitably by those teachers who wish to have
more complete information.
Charlotte Stienhans, Consultant, Elementary Education, and
Mrs. Minnie Hall Fields, Specialist in Elementary Education,
State Department of Education, were assigned the responsibility
for revising these guides, securing the assistance and counsel of
others as needed. They were guided by the point of view, sug-
gestions, and contributions of a number of people as they pre-
pared the manuscript.
A committee was selected to assist Miss Stienhans and Mrs.
Fields in revising the two 1944 bulletins. It was decided to com-
bine the material into one bulletin so that elementary teachers
could see the scope of the entire elementary school program. The
members of this committee were Mrs. Clara Capron, Director of
Instruction, Palm Beach County; Mrs. Morita Clark, Principal,
Silver Lake School, Orlando; Mrs. Irene A. DeCoursey, Associate








Professor of Elementary Education, Florida Agricultural and
Mechanical University; Aleyne Haines, Associate Professor of
Education, University of Florida; Mrs. Clarice Howell, Caroline
Brevard School, Tallahassee; Laura Leenhouts, Supervisor of
Elementary Schools, Dade County; Faye Kirtland, Associate
Professor of Education, Florida State University; and Dr. Mildred
Swearingen, Associate Professor of Education, Florida State
University.
Other members of the State Department of Education giving
assistance were J. K. Chapman, Mrs. Thelma Flanagan, Howard
Jay Friedman, Victor Johnson, John McIntyre, Sam H. Moorer,
Thomas N. Morgan, Barry Morris, W. H. Pierce, and George
Walker.
Appreciation is expressed for portions of the manuscript draft-
ed by Dr. Julian Greenlee, Professor of Education, Florida State
University; Dr. Pauline Hilliard, Professor of Education, Univer-
sity of Florida; Ivan Earl Johnson, Professor of Education, Florida
State University, and the Elementary Art Curriculum Guide
Committee; Faye Kirtland, Associate Professor of Education,
Florida State University; Dr. Edwin L. Kurth, Consultant, Indus-
trial Arts, State Department of Education; Zollie Maynard, Con-
sultant, Physical Education, Health, Driver Education, and Rec-
reation, State Department of Education; Dr. Edna E. Parker, As-
sociate Professor of Education, Florida State University; Dr.
Mildred E. Swearingen, Associate Professor of Education, Florida
State University; David Wilmot, Consultant, Music Education,
State Department of Education; and Dr. G. Marian Young, As-
sociate Professor of Education, University of Florida.
Appreciation is expressed for assistance with the cover of the
bulletin to Lewis J. DeLaura, Assistant Professor of Education,
and Mary E. Mooty, Associate Professor of Arts Education and
Constructive Design, Florida State University.
The Committee is indebted to Mrs. Lois Coleman, Mrs. Sybil
E. Goodchild, Mrs. Rosalie Y. Kay, and Mrs. Beti Naughgle who
typed the manuscript during the various stages of its preparation.



THOMAS D. BAILEY
Superintendent of Public Instruction












Terms in Common Use


Elementary school-Grades one through six; in some systems
kindergarten and grades seven and eight are included in the
elementary school.
Primary grades-Grades one through three; this level also
includes kindergartens where they exist as a regular part of the
public school system.
Intermediate grades-Grades four through six.
Junior high school-Grades seven through nine. In a few
instances the junior high school is composed of grades seven and
eight or seven through ten.

Senior high school-Grades ten through twelve; sometimes
nine through twelve.

A.D.A.-Average daily attendance, the figure representing
the average number of pupils in attendance over a period of a
month or year. The A.D.A. for the previous year is the figure
upon which, when combined with the training of teachers, finan-
cial aid is apportioned by the State to the counties.

Board of Public Instruction-In most counties, a group of five
members elected to be responsible for the operation of the schools
as a county system. The county board determines policies, adopts
rules and regulations, prescribes minimum standards, constitutes
the contracting agent for the county school system, and performs
those duties and exercises those responsibilities which are as-
signed to it by law or by regulations of the State Board of Educa-
tion.

Trustees-Three members of a school district elected by the
people to consult with patrons, teachers, or principals, regarding
all matters relating to the welfare of schools in their district, to
advise the county superintendent and county board, and to make
recommendations with respect to the general welfare and needs
of their district's schools.








Curriculum-All the experiences of children under the direc-
tion of the school.
Curriculum development-A process by which there is a
constantly emerging curriculum as schools modify their objec-
tives and reorganize learning experiences in the light of study,
observation, and past practice.
Minimum Foundation Program-Florida's comprehensive
school plan, enacted by the Legislature in 1947 and improved,
expanded, and strengthened by subsequent Legislatures and a
Constitutional Amendment. The program is described in a 1957
State Department of Education publication, Florida's Minimum
Foundation Program.
Summer Enrichment Program-Activities provided through
the Minimum Foundation Program during the summer months
for the children and adults of Florida in order to deepen and
broaden their recreational, educational, cultural, and social ex-
periences.
School Lunch Program-That part of the school's program
which concerns itself with foods or beverages, incidental or regu-
lar, which are partaken of at school. It is a vital part of the cur-
riculum. Here children have experiences which help them attain
desirable personal and social growth. Like all other school pro-
grams, school lunch is the administrative responsibility of the
school principal.
School month-The period of time, 20 school days, for which
attendance reports are made.
State-adopted textbooks-Textbooks adopted by the State are
provided in grades 1-12 without expense to pupils. Funds to
defray the cost of textbooks are appropriated by each Legislature
and are credited to the individual counties in accordance with a
definite formula involving the number of pupils and the cost of
books at each grade level. A local school obtains its textbooks by
filing with the county superintendent an annual inventory of
books on hand and an estimate of needs for the following year.
From these inventories and estimates the county requisition for
the following year is compiled. It is apparent that a local school
must anticipate and make known its needs if the books are to be
on hand at the proper time. A teacher may find a list of adopted








books in Florida Textbooks, the supplement of the June issue of
the Florida School Bulletin following each major textbook adop-
tion. This supplement will be found in the library or principal's
office. If a teacher does not find the books he needs in the class-
room, the book storeroom, or some other classroom, he should
consult the principal about the possibility of securing them. When
the books are issued to the pupils, each child signs a book receipt
and is responsible for the return of the book or payment for loss
or damage. Textbooks should be thoughtfully requisitioned and
carefully used and accounted for, not only to provide an example
of the wise use of public property but also to develop desirable
habits of responsibility and thrift.
Experience charts-An experience chart is an informal chart,
usually prepared on large-sized newsprint or the chalkboard,
recording children's stories, plans for class undertakings, original
poems and songs, and other communications related to children's
activities. In the primary grades the children dictate the story,
and the teacher writes it in large manuscript. In the intermediate
grades, cursive writing is often used, and children sometimes take
responsibility for copying the material on the charts. Later the
children read the chart and sometimes refer to it as they plan
the daily work or use it as a guide in evaluating their accomplish-
ments. First-grade teachers find charts indispensable during the
introductory phases of reading. Charts are also used extensively
in all grades and are especially valuable when experiences in
social studies, science, health, and unit or activity work can be
summarized to good effect. This provides a functional approach
to the development of language arts skills and serves to unify
learning in several areas.
Workbook-Consumable material which, if used, must be
purchased each year by the pupils or from local funds. There is
a growing tendency among teachers to be very discriminating in
the amount and nature of workbook material used. Workbooks
may be valuable when used to supplement textbooks or to meet
individual needs of pupils, if the teacher gives careful direction
and help when they are used and checks the results with the
pupils. For this reason, the number used should be very limited,
and the teacher and pupils must recognize a definite purpose for
them. If care is not taken, the workbook may use the time of
the child to the exclusion of practice that arises normally in other








learning situations which are more interesting, stimulating, and
creative.
Homework-Any school activity carried on at home. Such an
activity is not necessarily limited to drill material involving pen-
cil, paper, and books. Making posters, assembling collections,
building models, and wide reading may also be homework. In the
first three grades little or no homework is expected. In the inter-
mediate grades, mass assignments of daily set tasks are avoided.
Instead, the inspirational or appreciative types of activity now
being used include reading, art work, or home projects in such
areas as science and music. A few pupils, because of the slowness
with which they work or because of absence, may need to finish
at home what they have begun at school. Such work ought to
have parents' interest and cooperation and should be corrected
by the teacher with written or oral comments helpful to the
children.
Materials center-The school materials center is that place
within the school from which all materials that are shared by
more than one classroom are circulated. In this center books,
filmstrips, recordings, magazines, reference materials, maps, pro-
jectors, recorders, and similar teaching aids are maintained. It
is a combined school library and audio-visual center. In very small
schools it is administered by the principal or a teacher. In schools
of normal size it is administered, ideally, by a full-time materials
coordinator with training in library science and audio-visual edu-
cation.
The county materials center is the source of materials and
related services which are shared by more than one school. It
provides instructional films, special purpose equipment, and guid-
ance in selection and utilization of materials.













Table of Contents


Foreword .............................................
Terms in Common Use .................................. iii
Objectives of Education ................................ viii



PART I. PLANNING AN EFFECTIVE PROGRAM


Basic Understandings for the Teacher .................... 1
The School and Classroom Setting ....................... 11
The Daily Schedule ................................... 15
Teacher-Pupil Planning ................................ 24



PART II. THE INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAM


Social Studies ........................... ............. 29
Science .............. ..... ....... ..................... 42
Health, Safety, and Physical Education ................... 53
Language Arts .......................................... 60
Arithmetic .............................................. 95
Related Arts (Art, Industrial Arts) ...................... 110
Music .................. .. ........................... 117
Index .................... .... .......... ....... 128











Objectives of Education


FACULTY GROUPS need to clarify for themselves the school's
philosophy if they are effectively to plan and execute the
over-all school program. Several state committees have agreed
that Florida's public schools should provide opportunities for
boys and girls to achieve certain objectives through their experi-
ences. Briefly stated, these are the objectives:

1. To develop boys and girls who are socially sensitive

2. To develop boys and girls who strive for increasing control
over those skills necessary for participation in a democracy

3. To develop boys and girls who strive for increasing control
over the process of reflective thinking and the scientific
method

4. To develop boys and girls who strive for increasing under-
standing and control over self and over the relations of self
to other people

5. To develop boys and girls who will strive to produce and
enjoy the processes and products of creative effort

6. To develop boys and girls who will strive to perform some
useful work and to see the relationship of their work to
democratic living













CHAPTER 1




Basic Understandings for the Teacher

IN RECENT YEARS increasing knowledge from many areas
has led to better understanding of how children grow and
learn, of the community and its influence, and of democratic
principles basic to our society. These considerations are signif-
icant in organizing learning experiences. Greater understandings
in these areas have gradually shaped classroom procedures or
ways of teaching until today emphasis is upon:

Knowing The Child
Children differ from one another. For that reason a teacher
cannot think of her whole class as though it were a single-acting
unit. School records, including health and attendance reports,
are helpful. Regular conferences at school and informal visits to
homes for talks with parents are essential to an understanding of
the individual and to the close cooperation of school and home.

Recognizing Maturation
Children develop gradually in their mental capacities and per-
ceptual growth. Processes and ideas that appear complex to a
pupil at a given age may be readily grasped at a somewhat later
period when his experiences have been more numerous and his
attention span is longer. For instance, some six-year-olds do not
yet have enough experiences nor the maturity to do formal read-
ing, and yet many schools force them into this situation before
they are ready. Skills that an immature pupil attains are gained
through much more drill than would be necessary later and are
quickly lost over the summer vacation period. In the meantime
the child has developed attitudes that make reading difficult for








him. If, however, the presentation of formal reading is delayed
until the child is ready for the experience, he will learn with
relative ease and speed. Well-planned experiences with matura-
tion often succeed where too early instruction fails.


Working With Children As Individuals

Not only do children mature at different rates and with indi-
vidual growth patterns, but they also differ in other respects. For
instance, their backgrounds of experience differ widely. A class
may include children who have had advantages such as wide ex-
periences, plenty of books, and parents who read to them, answer
their questions, and challenge their thinking. Other children lack
such opportunities. Some children will be blessed with good
health, a happy home life, and adequate food and care; others
may have physical or emotional handicaps that make learning
more difficult. Some children have the advantage of seeing the
need for learning because reading and writing are important in
the home; others do not have this advantage. Some children ac-
quire academic skills more readily than others. In any so-called
fourth grade there will be children of first, second, third, fourth,
fifth, and sixth grade achievement in any subject.

A variety of books, both texts and recreational, should be
chosen to meet the needs of these individuals. If an activity pro-
gram is in progress, an outlet is provided for the talents and
abilities of all children. Diagnostic tests are useful in giving the
teacher and pupils indications of areas where additional work is
necessary. Where this is done, children can work on their own
weaknesses and at their own rate without being stigmatized as
failures. These conditions mean that different methods, different
materials, and different expectations are indicated for the indi-
viduals in a class.

There are also vast differences in the social adjustment and
emotional problems of children. For this reason it is important
for the teacher to consider each child as an individual and to work
closely with parents. When a teacher finds that a child's problems
are great enough to cause difficulty which needs special attention,
he should not hestitate to call on his principal, other resource
people, and community agencies which might help the child.








Encouraging Desirable Attitudes
Teachers recognize the importance of helping children make
a positive adjustment to school, since this makes possible greater
ease in learning. Learning may be inhibited by emotional tension
or poor attitudes. These attitudes and tensions often form when
the climate within the classroom is unpleasant or when children
have been plunged into an activity before they are ready for the
experience. Care should be taken that children are aware of a
skill and have a desire to master it, since there must be an urge
to learn before learning can take place. Learning is difficult when
the need for a skill is not recognized, when expectations are too
high, when acceptance or security is lacking. Thus, it is important
for the teacher to help children develop a desire to learn and to
stimulate and guide their interests.

Developing Moral And Spiritual Values
Some basic concepts in our moral and spiritual heritage are
that man is a spiritual being of dignity and worth and that all
men are created equal and must have equal rights and opportu-
nities. Teachers endeavor to help each child develop self-respect
and realize his unique potentialities. As children pursue problems
which they accept as important to them, they learn self-confidence
and respect for others. Through working cooperatively, children
recognize that democratic processes are means of reaching prac-
tical solutions in situations where there are differences of opinion
or conflicting ideas and values. Teachers help children deal with
moral and spiritual problems as they arise daily in the classroom,
avoiding any sectarian slant to the instruction. A Guide to Teach-
ing Moral and Spiritual Foundations in American Democracy is
being developed by a state-wide committee.


Building On Past Achievements
It is sometimes difficult to adjust the teaching situation to each
child's ability, particularly since there is a wide range within
every class. A person can continue learning only from where he
is. A fourth-grader whose ability is at second-grade level should
not have to read in a third- or fourth-grade reader. If he is com-
pelled to do so, he will not learn; in fact, he will probably even
lose ground. It is much more important that each child should








grow according to his ability than that he use the books of his
grade. The teacher will attempt to adjust the program by making
material and experiences available at the child's level of learn-
ing. Thus a sixth-grade teacher will obtain supplementary texts
in science at different grade levels (both higher and lower) in
order to give the child who is not working at grade level an op-
portunity to work on the problems the class is studying at his
own level of ability.


Seeing Relationships
Teachers are expected to help pupils relate in a functional
way the information taught in all areas. Formerly, it was assumed
that children would automatically see the connections among facts
or apply the textbook facts to their own lives. Unfortunately,
however, pupils have frequently failed to make such connections
and applications. Facts learned in the language class about para-
graphing and outlining have not been applied to the social studies
report the child was preparing; nor have the facts learned in
social studies about truck farm produce in his own state been re-
lated in his thinking to what he has just learned in science about
ice or refrigeration in preserving food. An activity program, unit
teaching, and integration of subject matter content represent ef-
forts to relate facts to meaningful experiences. Whatever methods
are used, teachers will want to make a constant and conscious
effort to help pupils see relationships among their learning acti-
vities; otherwise, facts in isolation do not supplement one an-
other and are seldom carried over into pupils' daily living.


Developing Concepts And Skills
Many concepts are complex and need to be developed slowly
through many experiences. Thus, a child needs to meet the idea
of percentage through such common occurrences as daily at-
tendance records or batting averages long before he is called upon
to find percentages in abstract problems. Fundamental concepts
in science and social studies need to begin in the first grade and
be broadened and deepened by the experiences of succeeding
years. Learning to read is developed throughout all twelve
grades and continues into adult life. For example, the third-grade
pupil has not learned all he is capable of knowing later about








phonetic elements and other means of word analysis; he cannot
possibly attach meaning to all the words he is going to need, for
he has not yet had the experiences that permit him to form the
ideas for which the words (printed symbols) stand. As the child
grows, he gradually expands his experiences to form a sound
basis for his learning more complex skills.

Utilizing Problems Of Everyday Living
Schools may make the curriculum meaningful and practical
by helping children recognize and solve problems which they
meet from day to day. Many faculties prepare to do this by
making a thorough survey of the community to gather data which
they summarize objectively. A curriculum planned in the light of
community surveys guides teacher planning because it indicates
areas that need special emphasis. For instance, in one community
a large number of people were depending upon unsafe wells for
drinking water. The teacher might interest children in this prob-
lem, through working with the sanitarian in sampling water from
one of the wells. This experience becomes more vivid for children
when they look at a drop of this water under the microscope.
When children are challenged by such a problem, they are will-
ing and eager to attack it directly. Thus the patterns of everyday
living and the needs of the community will indicate areas that
need specific emphasis, resources that may be used as illustra-
tions, and problems which may become studies. Before a problem
is undertaken, teachers will want to be certain that it is suitable
for study. Its suitability may be determined in the light of these
criteria:
1. Is it a problem which is interesting and valuable to pupils
now and later?
2. Is it a problem which provides new concepts and experi-
ences?
3. Are materials available which pupils can use to study the
problem?
4. Will the problem help pupils to understand the world
around them?
5. Will study of the problem maintain or improve school-
community relations?








Making Use Of Community Resources
The resources of a community are valuable aids to learning.
These include the people in the community, agencies and institu-
tions that serve the people, and physical and natural resources
of the area. A variety of techniques such as interviews with re-
source persons in the community, excursions and field trips to
points of interest, a survey of opinion or specific practices, and
classroom visits by individuals may be used to help children get
information that enriches the curriculum and makes it more
meaningful. When children have experiences related to everyday
living, basic understandings regarding the interdependence and
interaction of resources and community life can be more fully
comprehended. Teachers need to know the community, its mores
and customs, if they are to be effective in working with children.
There are many ways in which schools work cooperatively
with other agencies. Frequently schools, agencies, and citizens
work together on persistent community problems such as pre-
venting forest fires. It is also necessary to have the team ap-
proach when teachers and principals are seeking a solution to
children's problems. Parents, school personnel, public health
nurses and doctors, personnel of the Department of Public Wel-
fare, private physicians, civic clubs, and other organized groups
may work together to help children with physical, emotional, and
social problems. Teachers should ask for the assistance which
they need if they are to be effective in guiding the children to-
ward suitable adjustment to life situations.


Using Varied Materials And Procedures
Variety in procedures encourages interest, appeals to different
senses, and enlarges concepts through permitting a pupil to
recognize the common element in different situations. Not all
students learn equally well, nor economically, from the printed
page. Every avenue of learning should be used.
Carefully designed audio-visual aids make it possible for
children to learn more in less time than ever before. These
powerful teaching tools have many advantages. They add reality
to vicarious experiences. With dramatic reproductions of his-
torical events, they give the learner a much more vivid basis for
thinking and understanding. Because they influence attitudes








so convincingly, it becomes highly important for the teacher
to be careful in his selection of the material he uses.
Selection and use of those materials most appropriate to a
particular unit or activity is a highly professional function which
deserves careful attention. The teacher will find valuable assist-
ance in the local materials center. Familiarity with the offerings
of State-supported film libraries at Florida State University and
the University of Florida will enable the teacher to draw upon
these sources for vivid film presentations directly related to
specific teaching problems. Although the film is a most powerful
explanatory device, its effect is greatly increased by appropriate
and varied introductory and follow-up activities.
To maintain its effectiveness in the framework of modern
living, instruction must keep pace in the use of richly illustrated
communications devices. The chalkboard alone cannot compete
with commercial television in its total impact upon the child's
mind. Only by making the modern elementary classroom more
stimulating than the out-of-school environment can the teacher
hope to capture the child's interest and his wholehearted parti-
cipation.
Textbooks are a tool for learning, but they are far from the
only tool a teacher should employ. Nor is reading the only means
of learning. The child's own experience and observations often
provide the basis for worthwhile discussions that make learning
meaningful. The community offers many resources which can be
drawn upon for these learning experiences. Visual and auditory
aids such as slides, simple museum collections, models, radio,
television, and sound films are frequently used. Library books
and supplementary texts at different levels should be available.
Newspapers and current, well-illustrated magazines are rich
sources of bulletin board material.

Grouping Within A Class
Since all pupils are not alike when they assemble in the
classroom at the first of the year, and, had they been alike, would
not remain so because of the uneven rate of physical and mental
growth, flexible grouping within the classroom is important to
efficient learning. By placing the various members of a class in
two or more groups temporarily, teachers may vary instruction








according to the changing needs, interests, and abilities of the
children. Thus on a given day, in working on writing needs one
group might be engaged in other activities. Since its members
had already attained a high quality of handwriting, a second
group might be practicing for improvement in slant since that
is presently the greatest need of its members, and a third group
might be practicing letter formation to distinguish between a and
i, a and o. Or, in a first-grade reading class one group might be
working at the reading readiness level, another might be read-
ing in the pre-primer, and still another in the latter part of the
first reader. Grouping for instructional needs in the skill subjects
is important, but children are also grouped for other purposes
on the basis of friendship or common interests. They may work
together to read poetry, do research, make a frieze, or arrange
a bulletin board. In flexible grouping, membership in the group
changes as children vary in their growth and as new activities
are undertaken to meet discovered needs. Since a child might
do exceptional work in one area and have a need for extra prac-
tice on skills in another, he works with different groups during
the day. At other times the class might work as a total group.
The teacher will constantly be studying his pupils in terms of
all their needs, in order to regroup and form new groups.

Grouping Within The School
In small schools with only one teacher for each grade, group-
ing within the school is a minor problem. Each teacher takes care
of the wide range of ability by flexible grouping within the class-
room. In larger schools which have two or more sections of the
same grade the problem of classifying children for different sec-
tions of each grade exists. In schools of this type it is more desir-
able to use a cross-section of pupils for each class group. Such
grouping gives children a chance to work and play with those of
varied interests and abilities. Such a situation is more lifelike
and conducive to mental health and to the development of the
individual socially and emotionally. Whatever plan is used
teachers should make sure that pupils do not become pigeonholed
in any one category for a long period of time.

Making The Total School Day Educational
Every moment and every incident of children's daily living
present opportunities for education. Therefore, the school's cur-








riculum is not confined to textbooks, nor is learning limited to
the actual classroom. All the activities of the school day are
opportunities for putting into practice what the pupil learns in
the classroom. Thus, waiting courteously in the cafeteria line
instead of shoving is better evidence of good citizenship than
correct answers in response to a written test given in the class-
room. What children do in the classroom or on the playground
under supervision while they wait for a bus may be the means
of developing wider interests in handcrafts, library reading, and
hobbies. The teacher of today sees playground activities, the
lunch period, and the passing of pupils in the halls not as irksome
periods, when his sole purpose is to prevent disorder, but as
opportunities to reinforce what he is already teaching.

Evaluating Pupil Progress
Evaluating pupil progress is no longer confined to periodic
tests in subject matter but is a process carried on from day to
day by both teacher and pupil. A child's progress becomes evi-
dent as it is shown in his attitudes and in his command or use of
subject matter. A child who does his "spelling lesson" perfect-
ly has not made really satisfactory progress until he has both
the desire and the habit of using the words correctly in his daily
writing. Traditionally, promotion has depended on meeting group
standards of achievement in subject matter. Today it is recog-
nized that other factors are as important-the child's social
adjustment to his age group, his capacity to learn, and his mental
health. Reporting pupil progress in an adequate manner involves
careful analysis of accomplishment in the light of all objectives.
Teacher observation, pupil-teacher conferences, parent-teacher
conferences, pupil self-evaluation, group evaluation, informal
tests, and standardized tests are some of the possible means for
appraising accomplishment.
In the teacher's use of standardized test results as a means of
evaluation some words of caution are necessary. Tests must be
carefully selected to measure the objectives desired. Test results
to be useful to the teacher should be interpreted in the light of
these objectives and in relation to information about the child's
mental and chronological age, physical and mental health, past
progress, and other pertinent data. The test norms supplied by
the publishers are derived from testing large numbers of children








and represent average or median scores. Therefore, in interpret-
ing individual scores the teacher must realize that approximately
half the children upon whose test scores the norms were based
made scores above the published norm, and approximately half
made scores below it. Perhaps comparatively few of the children
tested made scores exactly at the norm. Variation in test results
at any grade or age level is therefore normal and to be expected.
Complete confidence should not be placed in the information
secured by the use of a single standardized test. The child's phy-
sical and emotional condition on the day the test is given or any
circumstances affecting him at that time often determine how
well or how poorly he reacts in the test situation. Results of
series of tests will therefore give a more accurate indication of
ability or achievement than any single test. Standardized test
results may be considered as showing a trend rather than as
being absolute measures. Tests should always be used as a means
to increase understanding about children's needs. They should
never be an end in themselves. Undue emphasis on achievement
tests or teaching for tests will result in a stilted, meager program
which cannot fulfill the objectives of education.











CHAPTER 2


The School and Classroom Setting

CHILDREN necessarily are influenced by their daily sur-
roundings. Furthermore the experiences they go through
repeatedly and the attitudes they form in school toward such
things as cleanliness and beauty shape to some extent their out-
of-school habits. Cheerful, clean, interesting surroundings help
pupils develop into healthy, alert, socially adjusted people.
The teacher must also be aware of the emotional climate with-
in a classroom, for children cannot do their best work when they
feel insecure, tense, or rushed. The teacher can set the tone for
a happy, relaxed atmosphere where people work together coop-
eratively to achieve common goals and show a feeling of respon-
sibility for others.
A school classroom that is clean and orderly is in itself a
desirable learning experience for children. Adequate lighting,
proper food handling, well-scrubbed toilet facilities, and well-
kept grounds also provide opportunities for learning. In addition
to the physical factors of the environment, attention needs to be
given to human interactions. This phase of the school environ-
ment includes all persons who comprise the staff of the school.
Among these are the administrator, teacher, school lunch work-
er, school nurse, custodian, bus driver, and secretary. The per-
sons who come in daily contact with children at school may well
be a most important part of the environment. The influence of
the example they set cannot be overemphasized.
The emotional climate within the classroom is another vital
factor in the environment. If all individuals feel secure, if they
feel adequate for the tasks expected of them, if they feel respect-
ed, they will be better able to work in a relaxed way and respond
positively. There is a good situation for living and learning when
a group appreciates all its members, when it looks for positive








traits, when it laughs often together. When teachers understand
that the expectations for two children are not exactly the same
and operate upon that belief, children will not be held to unreal-
istic standards. Thus, situations that may cause children to drive
themselves too far, push them into dishonest practices, or cause
them to retreat from reality can be avoided. The teacher can
do much to build a favorable emotional climate. How he con-
ceives the nature of a teacher's relationship with pupils, how he
handles his own personal needs, how he feels toward the chil-
dren will all have a bearing on the emotional climate within the
classroom. In a classroom where there is mutual respect and a
feeling of rapport, children will be better able to face problems
and establish good habits of mental health.
In nearly all instances the individual teacher must use initi-
ative and enthusiasm, if his classroom is to be a wholesome,
stimulating, and attractive place in which to live. Anticipating
the many activities to take place, he and the class will need to
find convenient places to keep materials to work with, labeled if
possible. Children need to feel responsible for keeping these
materials in place. There must be a place for wraps and personal
belongings. For matters that pertain to building and grounds,
sanitation and beautification, faculties will need to work together,
enlisting the aid of the school board, Parent-Teacher Association,
homeroom mothers, or community groups. Always, of course,
pupils should assist in planning and carrying out the plans, since
this is an opportunity for them to meet and learn to solve real
problems using learning from social studies, science, art, and
other subjects. The following physical aspects need particular
attention:


I. A Healthful Environment
A. Drinking facilities
Where running water is not available, neither faculty nor
school board should be content until a safe water supply has
been secured.
B. Toilet facilities
Training children in the proper care of toilet facilities takes
persistent and concerted effort on the part of all teachers.
Unless all pupils are trying to establish the right attitude and








habits, the bad example of a few can offset the good work of
many.
C. Hand-washing facilities
Clean facilities and adequate supplies of soap and towels
should be available, and children should be trained in their
correct use.
D. Lighting
Windows, light globes, and tubes should be cleaned at regular
intervals since dust greatly reduces the amount of light
reaching the pupils' desks. Window shades or venetian blinds
should be adjusted during the day as varying amounts of
sunlight enter the room.
E. Heating, ventilation
The room temperature should be between 68 degrees to 72
degrees to promote healthful conditions. If the heating and
ventilating are not automatically controlled, the teacher and
students are responsible for them.
F. Daily cleaning, including dusting
G. Corridors
Posters, large pictures, children's murals, photographs of
school activities and exhibits should be attractively displayed
and frequently changed. With proper attention, corridors can
also teach.

II. Stimulating Classroom Arrangement
A. Seating arrangement
Seating is one of the most important single problems in the
school from the standpoint of health. For general purposes,
in most schools, it is found that the chair and table type is
the most desirable, as it is possible to rearrange this equip-
ment for many different types of groups or activities or move
the furniture out of the room to make way for an area of
diversified activity. The furniture should be of the proper
size or adjustable so that when a child is seated his feet are
able to rest on the floor without the knees coming into con-
tact with the bottom of the desk. Frequent adjustment of all
seating equipment should be made as children grow. The
teacher will be aware of the necessity for good light and lack
of shadows on the working area and will see that no child
faces the light.








A furniture arrangement should be planned for viewing
films, slides, and opaque projections so that it can be set
up with a minimum of confusion when this type of activity
is called for.
B. Library table or shelves
These should contain appropriate books and children's maga-
zines. Wherever possible a slide or stereograph viewer should
be a part of the classroom library center.
C. Special centers of interest
Science, art, music, arithmetic, housekeeping, store, and post
office centers of interest should be changed as new interests
develop. Dioramas, exhibits, topographical maps, models,
specimen collections, and similar devices will help maintain
active pupil participation.
D. Bulletin boards
Attractively arranged displays of all the children's work do
much to improve the appearance of a room and encourage
children to do more careful work.
Free or sponsored materials such as travel posters, charts,
diagrams, pictures, and special maps are valuable bulletin
board illustrations.

III. Attractive Setting
A. Plants (Check local regulations.)
House plants should be in good condition and in attractive
containers. Planting for the school ground include founda-
tion planting, shade trees, specimen planting for beauty,
and hedge planting.
B. Class gardens
Flower and vegetable gardens not only beautify the school
grounds but also contribute to experiences in science, health,
social studies, arithmetic, language arts, and art.
C. Fresh paint (Check local regulations.)
Freshly painted shelves or tables brighten a room.
D. Pictures
Colorful pictures of good quality can be framed and changed
from time to time. (They should be placed at children's eye
level.)












CHAPTER 3



The Daily Schedule

G OOD SCHEDULING of the school day is important to the
health of the child, to the efficiency of his learning, and to
the peace of mind of the teacher. In planning the school day, the
teacher will use the interests, needs, and purposes of the pupils in
order to guide pupils in making wise choices. The daily schedule
will be altered from time to time as a result of pupil-teacher
planning when the purposes of the teacher and his pupils can
best be served by such changes.
All areas of the school program must receive an adequate
distribution of time. The teacher acts as a guide in arranging
time allotments as well as experiences. While there is no set
pattern, certain common elements in schedule-making are note-
worthy.
Flexibility and long blocks of time are important factors.
The schedule must be flexible so that an activity may continue,
an excursion may be taken when it adds to the solution of a
problem, or a period may be planned for discussion, research,
or creativity. Long blocks of time must be arranged so that
children can work effectively on problems.
The schedule must provide for adequate balance between
physical and mental activity. Children are naturally active. The
younger the child the more frequent is the urge for physical
change. There is also a need for a variety of physical, mental, and
social activities during the school day: time for planning, study-
ing, reporting, practicing on skills, creating, playing, eating, and
enjoying music, art, and literature.
Planning the schedule with the children must be done daily
so that children will be aware of the sequence of events. Time
should be allowed for checking how well the plans have succeed-
ed. Freedom in pupil planning must be balanced by guidance








from the teacher and acceptance of responsibility by the pupils.
Good scheduling of the day should make some provision for
three different but related aspects of instruction. There should
be a time to work either in large units or integrative activities
when pupils are helped to see relationships among the things
they are learning, to employ skills acquired in the direct teach-
ing phase, and to see the need for further refinement of skills.
Second, there should be a time for direct teaching, where specific
skills and understandings can be carefully developed through
closely guided instruction. Third, there should be a time for
individual help. All pupils do not learn at the same rate or with
equal ease; therefore, there should be some time for the teacher
to help individuals with their particular difficulties.

Important Aspects Of A Daily Schedule

Opening Activities
Since children are encouraged to enter their classrooms as
they arrive at school, some worthwhile experiences should be
planned for this time. Some teachers prefer to begin the day
with an activity period so that children may work on their own
problems while the teacher attends to routine tasks. When this
plan is followed, devotions may be arranged at a convenient
time later in the day. Others may prefer to start the day with
opening exercises. In this case, it is possible to plan with the
group for the children to conduct their morning program, thus
freeing the teacher to check attendance and to do other neces-
sary routine tasks.
The opening exercises or classroom assembly may include
daily Bible reading by pupil or teacher, prayer, choral reading,
pledge to the flag, group singing, reading, sharing experiences,
telling or dramatizing stories and poems, and looking at and
talking about pictures. Bulletin 60, Suggestions for Bible Read-
ings in Florida Schools (1953) State Department of Education,
presents selected Bible readings that are suitable for children
at different age levels.
Planning for the day can be done at the beginning of the day
or on the previous afternoon following the evaluation of that
day's work. In the upper grades suggestions may be made, and
final plans may be left to a committee. The daily planning period








is an opportunity for teachers and pupils to exchange information
and ideas, refer to previous experiences and unit plans, and write
some specific things to do on a chart or the chalkboard.
The morning inspection of health and grooming may be made
by careful observation of the children when the teacher greets
the boys and girls informally as they come into the room. This
observation should be continued throughout the day.
Social Studies, Science, Health, And Safety
In many classrooms these subjects are grouped in one block
of time, since there is much overlapping in content. For instance,
the problem of safe drinking water would involve social studies,
science, health, and safety; hence, there would be no need to
break up the period into small compartments. A large block of
time enables the teacher to plan experiences that will help
solve the problems of living which children face and to do so
in a meaningful manner. It also makes possible field trips and
activity in unit work within the framework of the daily schedule.
Language Arts
The skills used in communicating thought reading, writing,
spelling, oral and written language--depend on one another
and should be recognized as parts of the same whole. The pro-
gram will include creative experiences in writing, speaking, and
dramatization. Children will also be given many opportunities
to gain an appreciation for poetry and literature. Good teaching
in one phase will stimulate or reinforce work in the other; there-
fore it is wise to place them together in the schedule. Although
a block of time is allotted to this area, teachers actually find
it essential to use every school experience as an opportunity to
teach children to read, spell, write, talk, and listen effectively.

Physical Education
Physical education experiences are educational and essential
in attaining optimum health and social adjustment. By law,
thirty minutes are required daily for this phase of the school
program. This should include planning and preparation within
the classroom, actual participation, and a discussion and evalua-
tion at the end of the period. Ideally, the teacher would place
the physical education program at the time he thinks it would
do the most good. This practice would mean that the time
would vary with the needs and activities of the class. Unfor-








tunately, however, many schools find it necessary to assign
definite periods of time to each class. The physical education
program offers excellent opportunity for the teacher to learn
more about the individuals in his group.

Lunch
The noon period should be a time in which the child develops
the correct pattern of living through daily practice, for he is
given an opportunity to solve basic problems of nutrition, health-
ful living, and citizenship. Washing of hands before meals, giving
thanks, conversing in pleasant natural tones during the meal,
and using good table manners should be a part of the routine.
Sufficient time should be allotted in the schedule of both pupils
and teachers. In the primary grades particularly it is important
to have a period for rest after lunch. In many schools six- and
seven-year-old pupils lie down on mats or blankets for a period
of thirty minutes. During this time many children go to sleep.
After such a rest period, they are so refreshed that they are able
to finish the day with renewed efficiency. In the middle grades
a quiet period, often devoted to music or library reading, is
desirable immediately after lunch.

Arithmetic
Great care must be taken to help children see the place of
arithmetic in daily living. Many opportunities for using arith-
metic occur throughout the day, and the teacher will use them
to make real and more formal instruction and practice carried
on in the regularly scheduled time. This is one of the areas in
which a teacher will work with small groups of children to
accomplish specific purposes.

Creative Arts
Every child should have many opportunities to express him-
self creatively. In all the subject matter areas creative expres-
sion is possible, but the term here is used to denote experiences
in music and art, both fine and industrial. These experiences
will be used as a means to develop aesthetic values and skills
which make beauty a vital part of daily living, offer opportunities
for successful subject areas. The outcomes of such activities in
creative expression and appreciation are usually multiple. Thus,
work in creative arts leads to many satisfying experiences for
the child.








Evaluation
Time should be set aside each day to give pupils and teachers
an opportunity to check on the progress made during the day.
This time should be used to help children become skilled in
looking at their own achievements critically, both as individuals
and as a group. Planning next steps and improvements in study,
work, and social relationships will be a part of this procedure.
Looking at the day's work to see what had been learned will also
help each child recognize his accomplishments and enable him
to interpret his schoolwork at home.

A Guide For Schedule-Making

On the following pages are charts which show how the day
may be divided into large blocks of time in order to include
the types of experiences indicated above. No guide can give
a true picture of what goes on in a classroom, for there is much
integration of work. For instance, more time is actually given
to language arts than the sample schedules indicate, since on
many days the social studies science health period will offer
opportunities to teach spelling, reading, handwriting, and lan-
guage. In this manner other subjects are interrelated and rein-
force each other. No ready-made schedule can be used in its
entirety in a given classroom. Each teacher will want to look
upon any such schedule merely as a guide. He must consider
such points as the following in adapting it to his use:
1. The opening and closing hour of school.
2. The proportion of bus pupils in the room, length of trip
they make, length of time they are at school before and
after regular hours.
3. The possibility of supplemental feeding, as fruit juice or
milk during the morning.
4. The time of the lunch period. (If this is extremely early
or late, adjustments can sometimes be worked out by con-
ferring with the principal.)
5. The size of the room and the space available for group
and construction work. (Cloakrooms, halls, terraces, or
good shade trees are sometimes helpful as space-
extenders.)








6. The number of pupils.
7. The amount and kind of instructional materials beyond
the textbooks.
8. The present attainment and particular interests of the
pupils.
9. The preference of the teacher in choosing topics for large
unit teaching from such fields as social studies, science, or
language arts.
10. The schedule for the use of resource persons, special
teachers, and auxiliary facilities.
Good teaching is facilitated by a well-planned schedule, but
it is never automatically the result of the schedule. The schedule
must remain flexible so that the needs of the class can be met
as they change because of the work in progress. A schedule may
be considered successful when it helps a teacher in developing
relationships among the child's many learning, in deriving leads
from one area to another, and in permitting learning to be
used in normal, purposeful situations.
The following schedules are given as guides to denote approxi-
mate time allotments and subjects which are most often inte-
grated. These are not intended to be ideal schedules. The order
of the suggested blocks may be rearranged as desired and the
time allotment modified in keeping with the grade level and the
local situation.


Schedule I
TIME AREA *SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES
1/2 hr. Opening Activities-Devotions, opening exercises, sharing
news and pertinent events and speci-
mens, reviewing major plans of the
previous day, planning for the day which
includes discussion of class and school
problems, engaging in independent ac-
tivities.
or
-Pupils may enter informally and work
on individual or small group activities.
Devotions may be arranged at a con-
venient time later in the day.
1 hr. Language Arts --A large block of time with provision (1)
(Developmental for grouping according to needs and in-
Reading Program) terests and (2) for change of activity
within the block.
* This listing is neither exhaustive nor restrictive.










A possible way of organizing this phase of the program is
suggested below.


GROUP I
Working on reading
activities, guided by
the teacher.




Working individually
on identified needs
and interests, (1) us-
ing many types of
reading material or
(2) enjoying litera-
ture.
Engaging individu-
ally in activities
planned by group
and teacher in sci-
ence, art, social stud-
ies, creative writing,
or numbers.


GROUP II
Engaging individually
in activities planned
by group and teacher
in science, social stud-
ies, art, creative writ-
ing, letter-writing, or
numbers.
Working on reading
activities, guided by
the teacher.




Working individually
on identified needs
and interests, (1) us-
ing many types of
reading material, or
(2) enjoying litera-
ture.


GROUP III
Working individually
on identified needs
and interests, (1) us-
ing many types of
reading material or
(2) enjoying litera-
ture.
Engaging individu-
ally in teaching ac-
tivities planned by
group and teacher in
science, social stud-
ies, art, creative writ-
ing, or numbers.
Working on reading
activities, guided by
the teacher.


TIME


AREA


1/2 hr. Physical Educa-
tion



1 hr. Language Arts

(Oral and Writ-
ten
Language)







(Spelling)

(Handwriting)


*SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES

-Engaging in games and activities chosen
in advance with pupils participating in
the planning and evaluation. New
games and activities introduced at in-
tervals.
-Providing for individual and group
needs.
-Teaching direct teaching of basic skills
to meet needs discovered in oral and
written expression.
-Practicing and using skills in discus-
sion, conversation, creative writing, and
letter-writing.
-Making oral and written reports: shar-
ing work done in science, social studies,
health, art, creative writing.
-Studying, practicing, and using words
needed in written expression.
-Practicing legible writing through writ-
ing notes, letters, reports, and stories.


-Evaluating activities.

* This listing is neither exhaustive nor restrictive.









TIME AREA



1/2 hr. Lunch
/4 hr. Relax through
Varied
Activities

1%-% hr. Arithmetic


1/4 hr.

3-1 hr.




















2 -%-
1 hr.


Music

Social Studies,
Science, Health,
and Safety



















Creative Arts


1/4 hr. Evaluation of
Day's Activities


*SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES
-Discussing skills learned, Improvements
made, and leads to the next activities to
be done.

-Enjoying good books, stories, poems, mu-
sic, singing for fun; playing quiet games
individually and in small groups; resting
on mats.
-Discovering, exploring, practicing, and
using numbers in everyday situations.
-Providing for individual and group needs.
-Singing, playing musical instruments,
participating in rhythmic activities.
-Discussing current events, group and
school problems in health, safety, social
conduct; exploring and studying ques-
tions and interests pertinent to history
and geography; carrying on experiments
in science and reporting on research.
-Planning how to solve problems related
to school living.
-Sharing with group information gleaned
from research and art work related to
social studies, science, health and safety.
-Working on committees to plan and pre-
sent research findings to the total group
through related activities, such as dram-
atizing, role-playing, constructing mu-
rals, posters, flannel board stories,
rhythms, pupil-made movies, and slides.
-Going on appropriate excursions.
-Discussing films, pictures, filmstrips re-
lated to problems and interests.
-Summarizing and evaluating concepts
and skills learned, improvements made,
and next steps to be accomplished.
-Planning for and engaging in a variety
of activities individually and in small
groups; painting, constructing, model-
ing, drawing, weaving.
-Evaluating activities.
-Looking at today and planning for to-
morrow: summarizing and evaluating
experiences of the day and planning ma-
jor activities for the next day.


The blocks of time for the content area in the preceding
schedule may be rearranged to suit the individual teacher. Two
alternate plans for Schedule I follow:


ALTERNATE 1
1/2 hr. Opening Activities /2 hr.
2 hrs. Language Arts 1/2 hr.
'/2 hr. Physical Education /2 hr.
* This listing is neither exhaustive nor restrictive.


ALTERNATE 2
Opening Activities
Arithmetic
Physical Education









1/2-3 hr. Arithmetic
% hr. Lunch-Relaxation
3-1 hr. Social Studies,
Science, Health,
and Safety
3 hr. Creative Arts
(Music and Art)
/2 hr. Individual Help
Evaluation


TIME
2 hr.


AREA
Opening
Activities


1 hr. Language Arts
(Reading Activi-
ties)


/2 hr. Physical Educa-
tion Activities


1/2 hrs. Language Arts
% hr. Lunch-Relaxation
/2 hr. Individual Work
3/4 hr. Creative Arts
(Music and Art)
1 hrs. Social Studies,
Science, Health,
Safety
/4 hr. Evaluation


Schedule II

*SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES
-Devotions, opening exercises, exchanging
ideas, reporting on interesting events,
planning activities for the day.
-Reading groups based on ability and in-
terests. Remedial work for children with
special disabilities. Independent reading
for enjoyment. Reading research on top-
ics in social studies, science, and health.
-Playing games chosen in advance with
pupils participating in the planning and
evaluation.


1'/4 hrs. General Activities-Reporting of committees or individuals
(Integration of as to the progress of their projects,
Language Arts, evaluating work, planning and discuss-
So c i a Studies, ing problems, appointing committees,
Science, Health, engaging in related art work, and group
Safety, and Crea- or individual research, oral reporting by
tive Arts) groups or individuals to share findings,
writing and presenting plays and puppet
shows, writing letters, stories and poems.
-Illustrated presentations by pupils or
teacher.
3 hr. Practicing Skills-Practicing and using skills in oral and
(Meeting Needs of written expression, spelling, handwrit-
Individuals and ing, and arithmetic to meet the needs
Groups) discovered in the general activities pe-
riod.
/2 hr. Lunch and Rest -Selecting and eating an adequate lunch.
-Conversing informally with classmates.
-Observing approved social habits.
%-1 hr. Arithmetic Activ- -Discussing, exploring, practicing, and
ities using numbers in everyday activities.
-Providing for individual and group
needs.
/2 hr. Music Skills, -Listening, singing, playing musical in-
Appreciations, struments, participating in rhythmic
and Rhythms activities.
*This listing is neither exhaustive nor restrictive.











CHAPTER 4


Teacher-Pupil Planning

E FFECTIVE TEACHING requires careful planning by the
total faculty. Teachers need to understand one another's
purposes and to be acquainted with the materials and procedures
of one another's classes if the educational program of the school
is to have continuity. Some goals, such as emphasizing good
citizenship, are obviously the concern of every teacher and re-
quire cooperative planning. Other aspects of curriculum are just
as truly, if less obviously, problems for faculty-wide study. For
example, good speech habits on the part of pupils can be achieved
if all teachers within a school work together with their pupils
toward this goal, for good speech is the product of careful atten-
tion throughout the entire school life of pupils. Since concepts,
skills, attitudes, and values are developed gradually over a period
of time, it is only through planning together that teachers can
help pupils attain desired goals.

Individual Teacher Planning
In addition to planning with other faculty members, each
teacher will need to consider the scope of the whole year's work
for his class, separate this work into large time blocks of several
weeks, and weigh the relative importance of topics before under-
taking day-by-day plans. He will consider the resources and
needs of the community and the children in his class. He will
find health, attendance, and accumulative records helpful in
revealing the needs and interests of children and will do his
part to keep such records accurate and up to date. He will need
to set aside some portion of the day, before or after pupils are
present, for preparing the next day's work, when he can assemble
pictures and other teaching aids, prepare or select practice ma-
terials suitable to his group, and consult manuals, curriculum
guides, and other professional materials.








Planning With Children
In order to provide a classroom environment for growth, the
teacher must help the class to set up purposes and standards for
doing things together. The first steps in group planning must
be tentative, cover short periods of time, and require teacher
guidance in varying degrees. In working together, pupils assume
responsibility as rapidly as they are mature enough to accept it.
Pupils may help to plan and evaluate the tasks to be accomplished
each day, the time necessary to carry out these plans, ways of
organizing to accomplish purposes, and problems that are worth
investigating. Such experiences give children practice in demo-
cratic living.
It is essential that children have many opportunities to plan
with the teacher and to help make decisions. Desired learning
are more certain to result if pupils participate in the selection of
experiences and in each phase of organization, development, and
evaluation of them. Many suggestions will come from children.
As a member of the group the teacher will add suggestions, and
decisions will be a result of cooperative planning. This procedure
offers children an opportunity to attack problems of everyday
living which are important to them and to our society. It also
helps them to see relationships among their learning and to
develop important methods of problem-solving. It gives children
opportunities to use many skills they are acquiring and to see the
need for additional skills.
Teaching through large unit work has a place in the elemen-
tary school program, for it is one means of working cooperatively
with children. The following suggestions may be helpful to
teachers in illustrating one way of developing a broad unit of
work.

Pre-Planning The Unit
Pre-planning on the part of a teacher is necessary to establish
a sense of direction and to explore possibilities without determin-
ing specific results. It is helpful if faculty members have agreed
upon the general framework within which each teacher can do
successful planning. In pre-planning, teachers usually try to
think through purposes which may be achieved, to anticipate
questions and concerns of the children, to envision activities
which may be carried on in finding answers to questions, and to
examine materials which are available for use. Pre-planning is








carried on so that the teacher will be familiar with many worth-
while possibilities not for the purpose of determining the
specific problems nor exactly how the units will be carried on in
the classroom. Pre-planning helps immeasurably in planning
with children.

The Time Element In Planning
It should be remembered that young children can participate,
listen, and maintain interest for relatively short periods of time.
This is particularly true when the class works together as a total
group. Teachers should plan for immediate results as long-range
projects are difficult for children to grasp. As children become
more skilled in planning, they will be able to plan for longer
periods of time and carry out larger units of work. It is useless
to continue planning when the attention and interest of the class
wane. Many teachers take several days to plan with children
initially, using short periods of time each day. Of course, plan-
ning should be done from time to time as the unit progresses.

Identifying Children's Questions And Interests
Children should be given full opportunity to ask the questions
that occur to them or tell what they would be interested in study-
ing. This may be done through class discussion, questionnaires,
or through meetings of small groups of children. An effort should
be made to determine which questions are of interest to most of
the class. Time should be spent in exploring many possibilities
in order that worthwhile problems serving a real need be selected
for study. Teachers use different methods of developing interests
in new experiences and activities. Some of these are bulletin
board displays, a collection of books and pamphlets, activities
within the classroom, visits to places of interest, experiments,
or use of everyday incidents, remarks, or questions. Special
thought and planning should be given to developing experiences
of real concern to the children. If children do not feel an interest
in and concern for the experience, learning will be impeded.

Setting Up Objectives
In addition to agreeing upon questions or problems to be
considered in the unit, it is important to determine with children
the objectives to be achieved. In the intermediate grades the
teacher might ask, "If we find answers to these questions or








solve the problems, what can we expect to gain or achieve, or
what values may we receive?" Pupils often need help in this
activity as they are prone to suggest objectives based exclusively
upon the acquisition of certain facts. The teacher can serve a
real purpose in encouraging children to suggest specific attitudes,
habits, social skills, ideals, and interests as desirable learning
from the experience.

Planning For Action
It is desirable that some plan of work be developed which will
result in every child's sharing in the responsibility of finding
answers. Some of the work may be carried on by the class as
a whole through reading, discussion, listening to a speaker, or
a tape recording, and the like. At other times committees may
be formed to work on certain problems. There should also be
times when each child is given the responsibility of solving a
problem by himself or with the help of an adult. The organiza-
tion of the class can and should change as the needs vary.
Planning with children for ways to organize themselves to meet
everyone's needs is an important part of the process.

Sharing Experiences And Information
When the work of groups, individuals, or the class as a whole
is completed, the way in which the experiences are shared needs
careful planning and attention. Although oral reporting is an
important way of sharing, continuous use of this procedure
usually results in waning interest and boredom. It is therefore
important that the teacher plan with groups, with individuals,
and with the class as a whole to assure diversification in ways
of sharing.

Making Provision For Evaluation
Evaluation is a necessary part of planning and developing
experiences. Progress should be appraised day by day. In the
primary grades this can be done through informal discussion in
which the teacher may ask, "What have we accomplished today?"
"What did we fail to do today?" "How can we keep from mak-
ing the same mistakes tomorrow?" Answers to these questions
should be in relation to the specific objectives that have been
agreed upon. As children learn to express themselves in writing,
it is well to have them write occasionally their reactions. It is








important for the teacher to help them recognize learning not
only as facts acquired but also as changes in attitudes, habits,
social skills, and other behaviors. As children become more
mature, it is often desirable at the end of each day's work on a
unit to ask the children to look at the objectives and try to de-
termine what growth toward these objectives has been accom-
plished during that day. Continuous, cooperative examination
of the objectives and the extent of growth toward them will help
children to work meaningfully and will keep their interest alive.

Maintaining Flexibility
Although pre-planning and initial planning with children result
in decisions about problems to be studied, purposes, activities,
and procedures, it must be anticipated that there will be changes
as interesting, meaningful experiences develop. Continuous
planning and evaluation must be employed to provide for changes
as needed and to allow for increased understandings on the part
of children. The steps involved in unit work do not always occur
in the same order. The most important thing is to work with
children cooperatively, to maintain a sense of direction, and to
organize effectively to achieve accepted purposes. Unless there
is constant appraisal and adaptation as needed, stereotyped me-
chanical procedures result.











CHAPTER 5



Social Studies

T EACHERS and parents have genuine concern that the chil-
dren for whom they are responsible grow and learn to be
reliable, self-respecting, contributing citizens. They care that
children are learning to understand themselves better and to get
along well with other children and adults. Teachers are seeking
ways in the school program to provide learning experiences which
deepen and extend children's understanding and knowledge of
the problems and resources of their own communities and the
nation. In today's world of high speed and power in communica-
tion and travel, schools realize that they have a responsibility
to extend children's understandings of the relationships of the
people and places of the world. This extension of children's
understandings and other specific learning contributes to help-
ing children become adequate citizens in a democracy. These
social learning are the business of social education-a term used
to designate the school's responsibilities for providing experiences
contributing to children's social learning.
In order to clarify some currently developing concepts in social
studies, it may be helpful to examine briefly the responsibility of
educational institutions as the emphasis has changed with the
changing needs of a nation of people. The following three
paragraphs have been adapted from Henry Steele Commager's
editorial, "Our Schools Have Kept Us Free," in the October 16,
1950, edition of Life magazine.
The earliest schools for children established in the United
States were charged with developing a literate people in order
that citizens might more effectively get and give information and
assume their citizenship responsibilities in decision-making in a
new democracy. Schools still have this responsibility.
A second responsibility given the schools was the task of
establishing a strong national feeling, for our nation was a








loosely held together group of individualistic colonies trying to
become coordinate, cooperative states that would pool their
strengths for survival. In order to promote nationalism, educa-
tors included selections about early historical events and people
in the struggle to create a nation. In the late 1800's elementary
schools began to introduce courses in geography and later in
American history into the school programs for children.
As the country grew and thousands of immigrants poured
into the new country, the schools needed to accept a further
responsibility for social education. This was the task of Ameri-
canizing new citizens from many lands. Certainly some study
of American history and geography was considered important to
accomplish this and the other social education purposes.
At every age and stage in the development of our country
the educational responsibilities of our schools have included the
responsibility for orienting children to those most treasured
values and ways of living together and solving human problems
which seem promising for good living for a people.

New Developments Point To New Emphases
Schools have attempted to help children learn how people
live together in communities, how and why they make rules
and laws, how our country has developed, how people and na-
tions of people communicate, travel, and trade. Units on the
policeman, the fireman, the dairy, the post office, conservation
of natural resources, the Congo Valley, the Eskimos, early colo-
nial days are likely to be stereotyped and frequently are a series
of prescribed experiences which may be uninteresting and un-
realistic to today's boys and girls. But doubtless each of these
and numerous other specific areas of study included in social
studies texts and courses of study had their beginning in genuine
attempts to improve the understanding and living of American
children.
Three important developments have clarified new responsi-
bilities for us as a nation:
1. Following two world wars, the United States has emerged
with a position of leadership among nations.
2. Man's new knowledge of atomic power has in it the po-
tential for great destruction or for creative construction.








3. Man's invasion of outer space is opening up new frontiers.
These developments, in turn, have added new dimensions to
the educational responsibilities of today's schools.
Among other changes growing out of these three significant
happenings has come a new awareness that our elementary
schools can and should help children grow in their understanding
of what our democracy means for living for each of us now-
as individuals and as a nation. A renewed challenge faces ele-
mentary schools to help children grow in their understanding of
the world-a world of people and nations, often different in race
or speech or customs, but increasingly interdependent and alike
in their human needs.

Schools Evolve Their Approaches
As new insights have been gained into how children grow and
learn, schools have evolved new approaches to fulfilling their
responsibilities in education for democratic citizenship. As has
already been indicated, early efforts included teaching courses
in history and geography in the elementary schools. The study
of biography also makes its contributions. At first, each sub-
ject was taught separately according to prearranged and rigid
schedules. Later, attempts were made to correlate geography and
history learning because of the interrelatedness of the content.
New concepts in how children learn began to place impor-
tance on pupil interests, learning through doing, related learning,
and individual differences. As teachers and school faculties ex-
perimented with programs which were organized around units
of teaching and areas of activity, the term social studies was
used to identify those school subjects which draw their content
largely from history and geography and which are included in
the school program for the purpose of helping children develop
citizenship adequacy. More recently, some writers designate
the social studies as those school subjects which deal with human
relationships.
At first the social studies program drew largely from geog-
raphy and history, perhaps because these are the two oldest and
most well-established disciplines of the social sciences. Later,
the social studies began to draw from other social sciences-from
political science, economics, sociology, psychology, and anthro-
pology. These social sciences have been and will continue to be








important and necessary in the teacher's learning if rich pro-
grams are to be provided for children.
As teachers developed ways of teaching which make use of
children's interests and other ideas drawn from research in
human development, they saw clearly that content must be
drawn from other areas as well as the social sciences in order
to help children gain a clearer understanding of man and his
struggles to relate to his world. And so elementary teachers
began also to make use of content in science, literature, and the
arts as they planned learning experiences for children and
developed their programs in social studies.
We know that such learning as respect for one's self and
others, cooperation, and critical thinking cannot be accomplished
through teaching them as subjects in the curriculum. Nor can we
depend upon children gaining attitudes of respect and love for
our country or an understanding of other people and places in
the world merely through a course in geography or history or
social studies units. It is true that facts and information about
people, places, and events are necessary elements of critical
thinking, problem-solving, and building attitudes. The stimu-
lating teacher is continuously growing in scholarship and ex-
tending his own knowledge of people, places, things, and events.
If the purposes of social education are to be accomplished, other
necessary considerations are (1) the reasons which children have
for learning and (2) the ways in which they gain and use their
learning about people and places and events.
Since the kinds of citizenship and personal, human growth
and learning we are discussing encompass more than the ex-
periences which any single subject or group of subjects can
provide, it seems more appropriate today to speak of programs
in social education rather than programs in social studies.

Schools Organize Their Program
The practical problems of selecting and organizing the ex-
periences (and this includes content) for social education must
be faced not only by each teacher individually but also by school
faculties. If the goals of social education are to help children
live well with each other and learn intelligent ways to recognize
and solve problems as human beings, teachers and elementary
schools need to clarify for themselves some guides for selecting








content and experiences appropriate for groups of children at
their various developmental levels. Three sources from which
teachers draw help in establishing these guides are:
1. The knowledge we have of children-how they grow and
learn, what they can understand and are interested in,
and where and how teachers can extend their under-
standings
2. The knowledge we have of the problems, expectancies,
and opportunities in our society-our communities and
the world
3. The varied and interesting materials and resources-both
in school and out-which may be used to help children
gain social learning
Any teacher knows that when children's interest is high in an
activity or enterprise, learning is facilitated. What is frequently
overlooked when social education experiences are selected for
a group of children is that genuine interest of a child or group of
children is related to both the development and the previous
experiences of the child or group of children. For example, chil-
dren who have enjoyed the privilege of travel, near or far, with
adults who answered their questions and discussed the things
they saw or heard are much more likely to respond with interest
to some study of their country or the world than children with
meager experiences in going places.
Research in child development gives evidence that children's
first priority of interest lies in present-day events, then in future
events, and finally in events of the past.
All children are interested in themselves and other people
-children and adults-the stranger as well as the person of
close acquaintance. They want to make friends. They are con-
cerned with the fears, joys, hopes, adventures of people. They
are eager to discover the ways people live and work and play.
How often this personalized interest in people is violated as chil-
dren are expected to learn about the colonists, or the Chinese, or
the products of the Middle Atlantic States long before their
development makes them ready to generalize about countries or
nations of people!
The experiences of social education involve:
1. Helping children grow in face-to-face relationships








2. Helping children grow in understanding current hap-
penings
3. Helping children grow in using man's accumulated knowl-
edge
It may be helpful to consider these three facets as interrelated
aspects of a program of social education. It should be emphasized
that these three aspects are at all times interrelated and are
separated here for discussion only for the sake of clarifying the
importance of each facet.

Helping Children Grow In Face-to-Face Relationships
In every activity at school, children are gaining some kinds of
social learning which-along with experiences in the family and
out in the community-will contribute to their personal and
citizenship qualities and behavior. In no other place in our so-
ciety are so many kinds of differences in human beings brought
together in an environment established to accept children and
help them learn and grow. Teachers know that children come
with fun and laughter, tears and disappointments; that there will
be quarrels to be settled, words of encouragement to be given.
Teachers know there will be the child who is afraid or timid, the
child who is supportive and helpful. All of these relationships
afford opportunities for the teacher to help children learn by
living to be contributing, helpful, thoughtful members of a group.
Teachers know that through the daily living of a group of
children much can be learned if opportunities exist for genuine
choices for planning things children care about, for taking care
of the room, the books, the crayons, the puzzles, and games.
Teachers know that the halls, the playgrounds, the lunchroom,
the library-all of these commonly shared in school-offer oppor-
tunities for children to learn to get along with others and to take
care of and use well the material things our society provides.
When children live together in groups at school, there is need to
learn some of the necessary limits which group living imposes on
us. The ways in which a teacher helps children understand that
certain times in their day will be for rest or play or work, that
sometimes noisy work cannot go on when quiet activities are in
progress, that sometimes each must give up part of what he wants
to do or share his materials with others are all integral parts of
democratic living. As children and the teacher go about the busi-








ness of living together, the teacher helps children build their val-
ues as they talk over their problems and accomplishments, as they
decide that this way to do a thing is good and another is not so
good, as they make judgments of what to do in certain situations.

Helping Children Grow In Understanding Current Happenings
A second facet of the social education program develops as
the teacher helps children understand and become interested
in the current happenings in today's world-within the school
or local community or nation or world. Never before have so
many of our children been exposed to so many facts and so
much information about a vast range of people, places, and
events. Through TV and radio and movies children are hearing
and seeing many exciting truths and half-truths about everything
from travel in space to launching a satellite, to national political
conventions. Excursions into the past have been made through
such TV programs as You Are There. Add to this the informa-
tion available to children through magazines, all kinds of books,
and of course the comics. Moving and traveling families present
to thousands of children new places and people and events,
whether or not they see them with understanding.
But merely being exposed to experiences does not insure
that children understand or interpret accurately what they see
and hear and of which they are often a part. The elementary
teacher needs to be sensitive to these experiences, understandings,
and interests which children bring out of today's living and make
appropriate use of them in the social education program. These
events may be as recurring as the keeping of Christmas or
Thanksgiving or having the annual fall school carnival (which
can be so planned that it offers numerous opportunities for
children to plan and work together, solve problems, and take
responsibility). Or the everyday events may be only intermit-
tently recurring, as elections, or the opening of the new radio
or TV station in town, the visit of a king, queen, or prime minis-
ter to our country, or the launching of a new ship. The events of
today's living which become a part of a social education program
must be those in which children are interested and which touch
the lives of a particular group of children in ways that give
reality for them. No text or course of study or teaching guide
can predict specifically what these may be. A few illustrations








of how teachers have found and used such events for the social
education of children follow.

It may be as it was with the group of seven-year-olds to
which Nancy belonged. Nancy's father was in Japan, and
Mother and Nancy were preparing to join him. Their planning
for the long trip and Daddy's letters and pictures, enriched
and interpreted by stories and pictures provided by the teacher,
helped in a very real and friendly way to introduce to these
children people who were far away and in many ways different
from them.
In sixth grade the issues and concerns in the national
election were compared and studied through radio broadcasts
and news clippings from different newspapers. It soon became
evident that there were differences of opinion and reporting,
and the search for reliable information sent teacher and chil-
dren alike into sources ranging from present news reports to
historical accounts of the development of the way we elect our
president.
Less dramatic perhaps but equally rich opportunities for
extending children's understandings of the world and their place
in it are ever present in the growing, on-going changes in the
ways we live. The following story illustrates how one teacher
who was sensitive to such changes and the interest of her group
made use of change in the community.

The dial telephone system was being installed in a small
town. The many questions of how and why for such a change
became the starting point for an exploration which developed
to include among other interests the story of the struggle of
the invention of the telephone, telephone courtesy, and the
procedures for making a transoceanic call.
Certainly these specific approaches to helping children ex-
plore and learn from an interesting development in their com-
munity will not be present again in the same ways. But develop-
ments are always changing and adding to the experiences of
people in any community setting. The variety of these changes
may range from the construction of a new atomic energy plant
through such changes af the opening of a new highway, a state
or national park, a municipal or a military airport, or a new TV
or radio station.

Or the developments that are inherent in the "ongoingness"
of life in one's community and the world may be given focus in
the concerns of a group of children and their teacher through
such things as the festival and special-day activities of a com-
munity of people-not only the big festivals such as Mardi Gras
of New Orleans, Cotton Carnival of Memphis, or the Gasparilla
of Tampa but also the small town and village festivals and cele-








brations. Add to this the varied cooperative work activities still
maintained in many small communities such as Halloween carni-
vals. Special cultural groups add their contributions to an inter-
pretation of life-Indan ceremonials, Jewish New Year, folklore
festivals.
It is not possible to list all the specific social, economic, and
cultural problems and interests which may be meaningful guides
to selecting and developing the social education experiences for
children. But it is at this point that the creative and understand-
ing teacher continuously explores with children, providing oppor-
tunities that are real in the living to extend children's under-
standing of the people of their world.

Helping Children Grow In Using Man's Accumulated Knowledge
The third facet of the social education program is the empha-
sis on helping children use in today's living learning drawn from
the accumulated heritage of man. As man has lived in the world,
he has learned many different ways to understand and use his
environment. As he has learned, he has recorded his learning
and experiences. In geography are found the records of his
learning about space, distance, climate, the earth's surface, and
the rich resources in and on the earth. In history are recorded
the events that mark man's achievement and failures and adven-
tures as people have lived together in the world. In literature
and the arts and sciences are records of man's search for truth
and beauty and order as he has related to his physical and human
environment. Contributions of all are the heritage of man, and
from all these contributions teachers will draw as they plan the
program in social education.
Frequently this aspect of children's experiences comes into
the program through current happenings, and thus the teacher
helps children clarify, interpret, and enrich the meanings of to-
day's events. At other times, particularly with older children, a
teacher and his group of children engage in more organized units
or group studies which draw on these bodies of recorded learn-
ings. Certainly unless the learning drawn from geography, his-
tory, the fine arts, and sciences touch a child's life in meaningful
and interesting ways, it is highly questionable that he gains much
from the experiences.
Many teachers feel a need for more direction in clarifying
their responsibility in this facet of the social education program.








One point which should be made clear is that it is important for
children to learn geography and history in order to understand
today's world. But teachers need to study their children care-
fully to know when certain learning may best be presented in
what ways. For example, we know that children at about the
fourth grade begin to show responsible understandings of what
is meant by such geography terms as rivers, oceans, lakes, penin-
sulas, continents, and islands. Children who live in Florida may
well recognize their own state on the map long before that time
by its very unusual shape. Quite young children enjoy seeing on
the map where they live and will watch with eagerness as the
teacher traces on a map the route from their home to Tallahassee
or Miami or Jacksonville, when some child has just told of a
trip he has made to that place with his family. Map explanation
can afford many interesting geography experiences from the kin-
dergarten throughout the elementary school. Surely in this age
of rapid travel children want and need to have information about
distances and places and travel.
Teachers also begin early to help children understand history
as they celebrate such events as Columbus Day, Thanksgiving,
and Washington's birthday or listen to stories or records of
Johnny Appleseed or learn the meaning of our flag. During the
early years in the elementary school such geography and history
learning are usually brought to children in ways that touch very
closely their first-hand experiences. As children grow older and
have more experience, the teacher may introduce areas for study
in more organized ways.
For example, considering that it is important that fourth-grade
pupils make some study of Florida, a teacher would first of all
think through some of the learning he believes might be impor-
tant and interesting for the group. Then he would plan ways to
discover and spread the interests of the particular group of chil-
dren. Doing this would involve the teacher himself in selecting
and bringing to children interesting experiences about Florida.
There would be available for the children in his classroom inter-
esting, attractive books and pictures and maps. There would be
discussions of where the children have been, what they have seen
in the State; there would probably be trips to some interesting
places, or people who had done important things that fourth-
graders could understand might come and talk to them. These
interesting and exploratory experiences used with discussions








by the total group would help the children and the teacher estab-
lish ways to give direction for their more specific learning. As
children begin to learn new interesting things about their State,
they become eager for more learning. It is at this point that the
teacher helps them find materials, discover answers, work in
groups or as individuals when it seems appropriate, and share
their learning with each other. There may or may not be a final
big event or culminating activity. Evaluation of children's learn-
ings will be inherent in their discussions and productions as their
exploration of their State develops.
As the teacher guides children's experiences in any area of
social studies, he needs to keep in mind continuously the chil-
dren's responses and interests. It is the teacher who will help
children use the content from history or geography when that
seems important to explain the growth of the State, or science
when that is the source for explaining an answer to questions,
or geography to help children build some understandings of dis-
tance and space. It is the teacher who will know that Strawberry
Girl and Pelican Here, Pelican There are sources in children's
literature to extend their learning of Florida. The teacher will
be mindful that content areas are not neglected nor so unidenti-
fied that children do not know that they are learning some geog-
raphy and science and literature.
The materials schools provide for social education include
texts and other materials which indicate certain areas of empha-
sis at the various grade levels. There will be materials about
communities, about Florida, about our country, and about the
world. There will be some materials that are geography and some
that are history. The school library will afford materials in litera-
ture, health, and science about people and places in Florida, our
nation, and the world. Maps, recordings, films, filmstrips, and
community resource people and places are available to the ingen-
ious teacher. When teachers follow the State-adopted texts as
a guide for the area of emphasis for a particular grade, they will
recognize that such texts are sources from which to draw mate-
rial as needed rather than to be "covered" chapter by chapter.
For example, there is so much about our country that is impor-
tant and interesting to fifth-graders that no text or other book
could include exactly what would be most meaningful to any
particular group of ten-year-olds. But any group is likely to
respond with enthusiasm to exploratory studies of important








people who made our country or of places about which they have
heard and would like to see. As described in the earlier discus-
sions of an approach to a study of Florida, the teacher has the
responsibility for bringing children a variety of interesting re-
sources, materials, and experiences and for helping them decide
how and what they will emphasize in group studies or units. In
all of this the texts and other materials will be useful. For more
extensive discussion on this topic, refer to State Department of
Education Curriculum Bulletin #30, Social Studies in the Ele-
mentary School. If this is not available, scope and sequence charts
may be obtained from the school library or county office. These
are taken from the original bulletin and will be helpful until the
revised bulletin is available.
Teachers will need, of course, to be aware of the range of
reading skills in their groups in order to provide materials with
which children can cope successfully. Results are unsatisfactory
when a total group is expected to read the same chapter in a
social studies text. Individual differences can be handled when
children are reading on a topic of interest. For example, a teacher
can provide several different kinds of books of varying difficulty
on early pioneer life, or inventors who helped make America,
or how farming has changed in the South, or other topics of con-
cern and interest. Some teachers like to arrange a corner or side
of their room with bookshelves or a table on which are placed
the materials related to the study being done. Part of children's
learning is involved in helping them find and use the readings
most appropriate for them at the time.
Children's growth in face-to-face relationships, their growth
in understanding current happenings, and their growth in using
man's accumulated knowledge are three interrelated guides
which teachers can use to build a social education program.
Keeping in mind these considerations, an individual teacher can
plan a program of experiences which will enable his pupils to
become responsible and effective members of the society in which
they are living. These same guides can be used by school facul-
ties and system-wide planning groups in examining and improv-
ing their social educational programs.
It should be emphasized again that only a part of the social
education program, even for upper-grade children in the elemen-
tary school, will be developed through organized units, group
studies, or textbooks. Many learning will come as indicated








earlier through the living of the group and through such planned
continuing or short-range interests as the sharing time, the news
of the day, group projects, or problems.

Some Questions For Evaluating Programs
Lest there be serious gaps or unnecessary repetition in the
social education learning of children in the elementary schools,
the following are questions which individual teachers and school
faculties may ask themselves about their programs in social edu-
cation:
To what degree does each year's program include experiences
and studies:
-which are centered in helping children understand and live
together better in their primary groups-family, school,
play, and work peer groups?
-which are centered in helping children understand, care
for, and manage themselves personally-safety, health, rec-
reation, physical growth and change, courtesy?
-which are focused on exploring, understanding, and work-
ing on some problem of concern in the immediate commu-
nity?
-which extend children's understanding and appreciation of
people and places beyond the immediate community envi-
ronment?
-which have their origin in current happenings and prob-
lems?
-which extend children's understandings and appreciation of
their heritage?











CHAPTER 6


Science

EXPERIENCES IN SCIENCE can make valuable contribu-
tions to the social and personal growth of children. For
their own protection and preparation for successful participation
in life in the United States, children should be thoroughly ac-
quainted with science as it influences the lives of people today.
Children need to accept as a part of their thinking the facts
that our ways of living evolve in part through the application
of scientific discoveries; that change is therefore normal and to
be expected. Such an attitude of open-mindedness and willing-
ness to make adjustments fosters feelings of security, even in the
presence of change. With further developments in such fields as
electronics, atomic energy, and solar energy, children need to
become increasingly skillful in using the scientific information
that is accumulating so rapidly. Because science is so essential
in today's living, it is important in educating today's children.

Purposes Of Instruction In Science
In the broadest sense the ultimate purpose of teaching science
is to promote growth in desirable behavior. The primary con-
cern is to aid children in developing and using scientific pro-
cedures and information as a means of understanding their en-
vironment, of dealing with problems that arise, and of developing
ways of thinking and acting that contribute to the betterment of
living. Some major purposes of instruction in science are to help
children:

1. Develop concepts, principles, and generalizations which
will be of value to them in recognizing, understanding,
and solving their problems.

2. Cultivate such scientific attitudes as critical-and creative-








mindedness and willingness to seek and act upon reliable
evidence.
3. Develop scientific methods of work, including careful ob-
servation, intelligent planning, carrying out controlled
experimentation, and drawing warranted conclusions.
4. Explore avenues of interest which will lead to the satis-
faction of discovery.
5. Develop those skills and techniques necessary to communi-
cate understandings, read science information, carry on
intelligent discussions, and make accurate observations of
events.
6. Develop social attitudes and appreciations needed in a
democracy such as respect for the rights and ideas of
others and appreciation of the values of group effort.
7. Appreciate the extent to which man through his intelligent
and cooperative efforts shapes his own destiny.

Present Trends In Science Instruction
Teachers are including science experiences as a definite
planned part of the school instructional program. Curriculum
Bulletin No. 7, Science for Children in Florida's Elementary
Schools, describes the purposes and values for the elementary
science program. In addition to this source, county school systems
and individual school faculties are developing their own guides.
These local guides can help teachers plan science experiences
that will give continuity and sequence of science content from
year to year and grade by grade.
Teachers are applying known principles of child growth and
development. The study of children's behavior has contributed
knowledge of how children grow, how they learn, and how they
can live well with others. Children are curious, imaginative, and
active. They learn through experiences in which they can observe
and describe, plan and carry out purposeful activities, manipulate
and experiment with materials and equipment. Varied experi-
ences and teaching procedures are necessary to meet the differ-
ent ways that children learn and to satisfy their many interests.
Teachers are extending the scope of science teaching. Science
content for the elementary school program comes from the vari-








ous environments in which children live. Science content is also
considered in relation to several large themes of the universe.
These themes toward which teachers guide children's develop-
mental understandings have been stated as follows in the revised
edition of Florida's elementary science curriculum guide:
WE LEARN AND USE UNDERSTANDINGS ABOUT OUR UNI-
VERSE.
WE LEARN AND USE UNDERSTANDINGS ABOUT OUR EARTH
IN OUR SOLAR SYSTEM.
WE LEARN AND USE UNDERSTANDINGS ABOUT LIVING
THINGS ON EARTH.
WE LEARN AND USE UNDERSTANDINGS ABOUT MAN'S AT-
TEMPT TO CONTROL HIS ENVIRONMENT.
WE LEARN AND USE UNDERSTANDINGS ABOUT SUBSTANCES
AND ENERGY.
Teachers are recognizing the importance of developing scien-
tific attitudes. One of the important purposes in teaching science
is to help children develop scientific ways of thinking. Teachers
purposely plan situations as well as use many opportunities in
the school day to strengthen attitudes of critical-mindedness, will-
ingness to search for evidence, and respect for the opinion of
others. These are some of the elements of thinking included in
solving science problems.
Teachers are helping children develop their ability to solve
problems. Children and adults are continuously solving prob-
lems. Some of the problems are simple; some are complex. Some
are personal, and some are related to ways of behaving in group
situations. Children can learn to solve problems more effectively
when teachers help them define or identify the problem, gather
ideas for the solution, make decisions and carry out their pro-
posals, keep records and check the results of various ways of
working, and then evaluate the final results. Problem-solving
includes accurate observing, experimenting, testing, discussion,
and forming conclusions. These techniques are best learned when
children deal with problems that are significant to them.
Teachers are recognizing the vital quality of content in sci-
ence. Science content comes from the problems that children
face in their attempts to understand their surroundings and the
world. It must be organized so that children can make interpre-
tations on their level of maturity. Children learn science through
vital problem-solving experiences that challenge the urge to find








out and to know. Experiences need to be considered not only in
terms of growth in science content but also for their contribu-
tions to the development of acceptable social behavior.
Teachers are planning the class time in science as a work
period. Science for children should be a time to participate in a
variety of activities such as talking to discuss plans and share
ideas, reading and looking at pictures to find information, experi-
menting and observing to make discoveries, or constructing and
manipulating equipment. A science work period is a time when
individuals work alone, in small groups, or when the large group
works together. Careful planning is needed to define purposes
clearly and to avoid a wasteful use of time. When children set
goals for what to do and how to do it, children experience the
values of budgeting time and then acquire many important sci-
ence learning. Teachers also take advantage of incidents which
arouse children's interest in a particular topic.
Teachers are providing a variety of materials with which
children can work. The teaching of science requires many printed
and manipulative materials. Each elementary classroom should
be supplied with a variety of reference books on different sub-
jects and reading levels. Because of the rapidly accumulating
information and numerous scientific events, daily newspapers,
weekly and monthly magazines are necessary in each school. Ele-
mentary science textbooks are useful as references and as a
means of facilitating common science learning for children.

For experimenting and carrying on different kinds of activi-
ties teachers and children in each classroom will need a wide
variety of materials and equipment. These should be simple and
safe for children to use. Some can be purchased in local five-and-
ten-cent stores, in grocery stores, in hardware and drug stores.
The lumber company is also a source for some supplies. Certain
materials can be secured from homes, and a few will need to be
ordered from a scientific company. Cupboards or shelves should
be constructed in each classroom to house and store science mate-
rials. Their accessibility is an important factor in encouraging
experimentation. Many schools also have a storage room or closet
with additional science supplies or materials. Provision for the
cost of manipulative equipment from money allowed for operat-
ing a school is equally important to the purchase of books for
the teaching of science.








Teachers are planning a variety of types of experiences for
their children. Science for children means observing, discussing,
experimenting, comparing, searching, and finding out. A class-
room teacher acts as a guide and a learner with children. Various
kinds of experiences are necessary to meet individual differences
among children and to enable each child to pursue special inter-
ests and to learn from individual efforts as well as from group
investigations.
Teachers are using modern communications devices to help
children understand scientific phenomena. Available for use are
films which can bring to the primary classroom a clear picture
of the development of a baby chick inside the egg or present to
intermediate pupils an animated diagram of the flow of electricity
through simple circuits. Processes of evaporation, sound trans-
mission, plant growth, and many others difficult to explain with
words can be presented with clarity and precision by films and
filmstrips. Television, radio, and recordings offer a wealth of en-
richment and background materials for the elementary teacher.
In many cases teachers or children can go to the school materials
center and select materials. In other cases, the teacher will draw
upon such professional resources as state film libraries or county
materials services to secure what is needed.

"How" Is Important In Learning
There are many ways of teaching science to children. No one
way is best for all teachers nor for one teacher in all situations.
There is no specific set of procedures or rituals to follow in teach-
ing science to children. The varied interests and background ex-
periences of children, the broad scope of science, and the various
ways for seeking information provide endless opportunities for
teachers and children to use fresh, creative approaches to learn-
ing.

Certain Characteristics Help Children Learn
Certain characteristics of children serve as allies in instruc-
tion. As knowledge of the elementary school child accumulates,
it is increasingly clear that many of the outstanding characteris-
tics of children are the very qualities needed for effective science
learning.
Children are curious and inquisitive. They have been learning








by investigating since they were babies. The inquisitive spirit
needs to be kept alive.
Children are responsive and sensitive to their environment,
reacting to many aspects of the environment that adults take for
granted. This responsiveness needs to be encouraged if the most
effective development is to take place.
Children are imaginative and creative. They like to assist in
planning, trying, and doing. Science offers plenty of scope for
participation, for choices, for formulating and testing hypotheses.
Children need to be prominent and important. The range of
possible science experiences is so great that every child can have
opportunities to contribute to the class effort in some manner
and thus satisfy in a legitimate way his need for being important
in the group.
Children are active and energetic. They should be given many
opportunities to use their energy and direct their activities to-
ward acquiring rich first-hand experiences through experiment-
ing, dramatizing, collecting and constructing simple apparatus,
manipulating objects, and seeking direct information.
Children want results. As they carry on independent investi-
gations, they exhibit characteristics that are in many respects
similar to those of research scientists. They are clever, energetic,
ingenious, and persistent investigators when the concerns are
real to them. They learn so many new things each day that they
do not ordinarily spend considerable time on any one problem.
What the teacher wishes them to deal with while important may
be only a small facet of the desirable goals for the day. They
have to be doing and may be impatient of delays in which they
see little purpose.


Discussions Help Children Learn
Children grow in ability to communicate ideas as they contri-
bute and evaluate ideas in discussions. Attempts to answer their
own questions and those asked by classmates provide many op-
portunities to talk things over. Children's discussions need the
guidance of a sympathetic, understanding teacher who can help
children distinguish between superstitions, hearsay and gossip,
and accurate information. In discussions a wise teacher will be
alert to misconceptions that children may gather from printed








materials and encourage them to challenge the authenticity. The
study of science should help children develop freedom to talk,
ability to listen, and respect for the opinions of others.
During discussions some teachers use the procedure of listing
questions and ideas expressed by children, either on the board or
on a chart. These often serve as a focus for further discussion or
study. When children change their opinions or grasp new ideas
as the result of talking and listening, it is a clue for teachers
that growth has occurred in children.

Experiments Help Children Learn
Experimenting has many values for children. It offers the
opportunity to learn by "doing" as they handle simple, concrete
materials. It is a means of developing scientific thinking as they
identify problems, propose hypotheses, test and repeat experi-
ments before reaching tentative conclusions. Often children dis-
cover that sheer guessing and arguing do not serve as sound
bases for opinions. Experimenting should encourage imagination
and creative efforts when children are free to try out their guesses
with safe materials and equipment.
When teachers plan to help children make discoveries and
find information through their own efforts, experimenting often
leads to new and additional experiments. True experimentation
does not begin until there is a search for the unknown. Many
times an experiment is an "activity" for the teacher because he
knows the possible result, but when children really do not know
the outcome, it is an experiment for them. Experimenting can be
an individual investigation, or it may be a part of group efforts;
it may be a simple experience, or it may be complex with many
interrelationships. Children's experimenting should be based up-
on these principles:
1. Experiments are to be done by children with safe, easy-to-
handle materials.
2. They are planned by the children with the teacher, as a
means of answering questions, testing, confirming, or re-
jecting ideas. If an experiment is used from a book,
children should suggest possible results and have freedom
to vary the procedures.
3. Experiments should be repeated before conclusions are
made.








4. Children should see the purpose of experiments in relation
to larger problems in their science studies.
5. Whenever possible, the conclusions from experimenting
should be applied to conditions and situations in the every-
day living of children.
Instructional Aids Help Children Learn
Field Trips
Science learning can be vitalized by taking field trips to make
first-hand observations in such places as the power plant, a gar-
age, an airport, the telephone exchange, a dairy, or the woods.
Any field trip requires careful planning to identify the purposes,
to establish safety precautions, and to discuss the kind of indi-
vidual and group behavior expected and needed. Follow-up dis-
cussions are essential to help both children and teacher realize
the science and social values of the trip.
Audio-Visual Materials
Films, filmstrips, slides, pictures, recordings, radio and tele-
vision programs can be useful in science instruction. Criteria
for using these materials need to be determined so that teachers
can give wise direction to the science learning of children. The
timing and the use depend on the purposes as well as the maturity
of the children. Some audio-visual materials are more appropri-
ate to introduce studies, others are better during the period of
investigation, and others may be helpful in summarizing a study.
Bulletin Boards
A science bulletin board can serve many purposes. It is a
means of keeping aware of rapidly changing events in the com-
munity, the state, the nation, or the world. Children should be
encouraged to read newspapers and magazines for current hap-
penings which they can share in discussions and place on the
bulletin board later. Some teachers use a science bulletin board
to display charts of children's plans, their questions, names of
committees at work, and other illustrative materials that help
individuals and the group feel a sense of direction and accom-
plishment in their science work.
Models And Collections
The kinds of collections children make often reveal their in-
terest in science. It can be profitable for children to use their








collections to learn ways of grouping materials that are alike and
those that vary, to search for names and pertinent facts that can
be recorded in brief written comments. Collections and informa-
tion about them provide opportunities for individuals to deepen
their understandings and share them with others.

"What" Is Important In Learning
What content or what principles should be taught at particular
age levels is one of the perplexing problems confronting ele-
mentary teachers. It is suggested that each year all children in-
crease their understandings of the larger themes which have been
accepted as the framework for science teaching. These themes
have to do with living things, the universe, our earth, substances
and energy, and control of the environment. Many principles for
each theme are learned as children seek and gain understandings
about their surroundings and the kind of world in which they
live.
Science content is learned through experiences which enable
children to make continuous progress in the following ways:
1. Children should grow in their understanding of living
things. Children can develop an awareness of the endless
variety of plants and animals, differences between those of
long ago and of the present, relationships between charac-
teristics of living things and the environments in which
they live, the interdependence of different forms of life,
and the extent to which man is able to develop plants and
animals with characteristics desirable for his purposes.
2. Children should gain increased understandings of the earth.
All of our material needs are obtained from the earth, its
atmosphere, and energy of the sun. Children should have
experiences from which they will develop an awareness
of the continual changes taking place on and in the earth
and the relationships to his well-being between man's un-
derstanding of the weather and the changes in the earth.
3. Children should have the opportunity to learn more about
the nature of substances. Everything that we make is made
from other materials. Our ability to have things is deter-
mined by the supply of raw materials and the extent to
which we understand and can bring about desired changes
in them. Children gain valuable insights as they experi-








ment with, and gain understandings of, substances in their
environment.
4. Children need continuing opportunities to understand their
universe. Security grows from appropriate knowledge.
Children gain security as they understand that the earth
is a stable thing, that it has been in existence for a long,
long time, that the forces operating now have been doing
so through the ages, that the forces controlling the earth
control the universe, and that much is known about the
extent of the universe. An awareness of the time involved
in the evolution and development of natural resources,
such as good soil and usable mineral supplies, of metals
and fuels, is prerequisite to attitudes of concern for their
wise utilization.
5. Children should have opportunities to learn more about
the ways in which we control and use our energy resources.
Our ability to have a better material life is determined by
the extent to which we make use of available energy sup-
plies. Appropriate experiences with materials and ideas,
with reference, for example, to magnetism, electricity, and
mechanical devices, help children to gain insight and at-
titudes that are significant to them, both for the present
time and in their future.

Social Growth Is Important In Learning
In our society developing understandings and learning in-
formation about science, important as they are, are not our prin-
cipal goals. Experiences for children should help them acquire the
attitudes, appreciations, and skills necessary for living in a de-
mocracy. Children need to learn to respect freedom and accept
responsibility, to make choices and abide by decisions, to make
predictions and accept change, and to appreciate many kinds of
differences. The study of science should contribute to the attain-
ment of these goals.
Children should gain in ability to understand themselves.
Teachers should understand that learning takes place or fails to
take place in terms of how children feel about themselves. As
children have opportunities to plan, carry their plans into action,
make discoveries, and feel the satisfaction from worthy efforts,
they learn the meaning of success and self-esteem. To make mis-








takes, to learn how to correct them, to realize limitations and
accept them are a part of children's learning to understand them-
selves.
Children should gain an awareness of the extent to which
persons are interdependent upon one another. As new technologi-
cal developments are used, we become more dependent on the
intelligent cooperation of others. Children should have exepri-
ences from which they gain respect for the ideas, information, and
intelligence of the many specialists in our complicated society.

Organization For Teaching
Teachers differ in planning for the teaching of science. Some
teach in terms of broad units or problems so that content is de-
veloped by a series of generalizations. Some teachers integrate
science with other content areas. Many teachers recognize inci-
dents and unexpected happenings in daily life at school, or the
questions and comments that children frequently express, and
these are used as leads into a variety of science studies. Other
teachers consider the large universal themes and select with chil-
dren the studies that challenge and arouse their curiosity. There
are other teachers who use a combination of these ways. The
emphasis currently on more and better teaching of science may
help teachers examine their present methods and discover more
satisfying ways to teach the science that is important to children.











CHAPTER 7


Health, Safety, and Physical Education

PROVIDING HEALTH AND SAFETY information approp-
riate and adequate for each child according to his develop-
mental level is a primary responsibility of the public schools.
How successful the schools are in meeting this responsibility is
determined by the extent to which each child lives in a more
healthful manner. Schools should encourage pupils to assume
responsibility for their own behavior patterns. These responsi-
bilities should increase as children grow older and more capable.
Possibly no phase of the elementary school curriculum is more
adaptable to integration with other phases of learning than are
health and safety education. However, this integration cannot be
achieved on an incidental and accidental basis but must be the
result of careful planning and coordination throughout the school
day and grade by grade. Through such careful planning, ade-
quate coverage and proper progression can be achieved. Undue
repetition and omissions will defeat efforts to achieve a well-
rounded program of instruction in these important areas.
As boys and girls are taught sound habits of health, they also
learn to recognize situations involving hazards and to develop
habits of carefulness and obedience to safety rules at home, on
the streets, at play, and in school. Dependent upon their matur-
ity and level of development, they must also learn techniques for
dealing with sudden illness or accident.

Objectives Of Health Education
The following objectives of a health education program will
serve to clarify the point of view upon which a health program
should be based:
1. To develop personal responsibility in health matters based
on accurate, scientific facts








2. To develop an active concern for all health conditions
which threaten the security or interests of others
3. To develop and apply scientific, critical reasoning to indi-
vidual and community health problems
4. To develop physical zest and stamina and a growing sense
of personal effectiveness
5. To promote better cooperation with respect to health
among the home, the school, the community and official,
professional, and voluntary agencies
The teaching of health is more than the mere provision of that
health information appropriate and adequate for each child's
developmental level. It entails understanding each individual
child, his inheritance, his environmental influences, his mental,
emotional, and social problems and adjustments as well as his
physical health; it means motivating him to improve those atti-
tudes and practices which may mean the difference between
whole and partial health for himself and for others upon whom
his way of life has influence. Concrete or abstract, tangible or
intangible, everything with which a child comes in contact affects
his health either positively or negatively. Instructional tools for
health teaching include a healthful school environment and ade-
quate school health services as well as the school health instruc-
tion program.
The environment is a potent influence upon learning in any
field. Especially is this true in the area of health education.
Health teaching is usually more effective when the environment
is used to demonstrate principles helpful in the health of indi-
viduals, families, or communities. The environment and personal
interrelationships of the classroom should promote positive men-
tal and emotional health. Such environmental factors as the
division of the school day, the personality of the teacher, and
the color scheme and arrangement of furniture in the classroom
aid in producing and maintaining good mental and emotional
health. The example of healthful living set by teachers and other
school personnel must not be overlooked as an important environ-
mental factor.
Often disregarded as an aid to instruction in health are the
health services provided by the school and the health depart-
ment. In every such contact with the school-age child unlimited








opportunities are offered to the physician, nurse, dentist, and
teacher for disseminating meaningful, on-the-spot instruction
designed to mold intelligent attitudes toward good health and to
create powerful motivation toward good health practices.
In the primary grades, the most effective program is concern-
ed largely with helping children establish desirable attitudes and
practices. At this time, children should learn to do automatically
those things which will protect their health. Primary school
children can develop positive attitudes towards physicians, nurses,
and dentists. In the intermediate grades, children still need
guidance in building attitudes and practices, but there is a need
and desire for more systematic instruction. The example set by
the teacher is an important factor in developing desirable be-
havior in children.
Each year, children should show growth in these eight instruc-
tional areas of health education: (1) body structure and function,
(2) activity and rest, (3) body care and grooming, (4) preven-
tion and control of illness and disability, (5) eating habits and
favorable attitudes toward food, (6) mental health and personal
adjustment, (7) safety and first aid, and (8) community health.
Teachers will find the State Department of Education Bulletin
4-E, Better Health for Florida's Children, useful in planning ex-
periences in each of these areas.
It should be recognized that all experiences that children have
in and out of school affect their mental health. Schools should be
concerned with helping all children to feel secure, wanted, and
comfortable and to achieve a happy balance between success and
failure. Consideration for the mental health of the child is an
integral part of good health education, for health includes the
mental and the social as well as the physical aspects of the indi-
vidual.
In every school a teacher is designated as the health coordina-
tor and has the responsibility for making the school health
program (health services, health information, and healthful school
living) more effective. The principals and teachers may expect
to work with the health coordinator and related committees to
develop a well-balanced health program. In part, this involves
cooperative planning of instruction; wise use of all community
resources; sharing responsibility with the public health nurse for
maintaining and using a satisfactory accumulative health record;








making a survey to determine present needs; organizing and
maintaining a file of current materials dealing with the field of
health; making reports, referrals, and the like as needed; in-
corporating various projects in their logical place in the school
health program; cooperating with voluntary agencies, civic or-
ganizations, and other groups or individuals.
All teachers are educating for health and safety. Every acti-
vity and every area of the curriculum are involved in health
education. The entire school staff must work together in order
to make this program effective.
The textbooks available at each grade level for use by chil-
dren throughout the elementary school present safety as an
integral part of the health program. State Department of Educa-
tion Bulletin 4-D, A Program of Health Services for Florida
Schools, deals with the health service aspects of the school health
program. When teachers study and plan according to suggestions
in materials mentioned and the many other resources available,
this important phase of our instructional program can be con-
ducted in a way that will be of life-long benefit to our children.

Physical Education
Physical education has a distinct contribution to make to the
physical and social growth and development of the child. In con-
tributing to the general objectives of education, four of the ma-
jor objectives of a well-planned physical education program are:
1. Building organic fitness for today and tomorrow through
activities selected to increase strength, vigor, and functional
organic capacity
2. Developing physical ability and body coordination by pro-
viding a varied program of activities that demand the use
of many different skills
3. Developing among boys and girls of today meaningful,
vitalized, recreational habits and interests that will carry
over into their play outside school hours
4. Educating for behavior based upon the principles of good
sportsmanship, thus building toward good character and
better citizenship
Many different ideas of an adequate physical education pro-
gram have existed in the past. Some people have thought of








physical education as a recess period during which the children
were sent outdoors to play; others have considered physical edu-
cation as a period in which teachers watched children to see that
there were no fights; still others have considered calisthenics and
deep breathing to be all that were necessary. Fortunately, nearly
all school people today realize that physical education is an op-
portunity for achieving many educational goals, including growth
in social behavior.
The classroom teacher should be responsible for the physical
education activities of his group. At times he may feel the need
of assistance from a trained physical education teacher. In some
parts of the State, this assistance is provided through itinerant
teachers. These teachers often work with children, but primarily
they function as consultants to the classroom teacher. In some
situations, the services of a full-time physical education teacher
are provided. In such cases it is assumed that there will be co-
ordination of effort between the classroom teacher and the phy-
sical education teacher so that each may share with the other
his knowledge of the children, their needs, and their progress.
The following points are suggested in preparation for the physical
education class:
1. Make provisions for school-wide coordination of the phy-
sical education activities in order to assure progression, to
avoid undesirable duplication, and to facilitate scheduling.
2. Plan the physical education program as carefully as the
spelling or arithmetic program. There should be a flexible
skeleton plan for the year, supplemented by unit plans
and day-by-day lesson plans.
3. Provide for pupil participation in planning and organizing
activities.
4. Introduce new activities at frequent intervals. These new
activities should be selected on a basis of their contribution
to achieving desirable educational objectives which are in
keeping with the level of growth and development of the
children involved.
5. Share ideas with other teachers in order to provide a pro-
gram which has a desirable variety of activities.
6. Keep such simple equipment as is needed in usable con-








edition. If the school does not already have the equipment
needed, consult the principal about obtaining it.

Program And Time Allotment
A daily instructional period of at least thirty minutes is re-
quired. This should be in addition to recess-type periods. In a
properly planned program, sufficient time should be provided for:
1. Planning the period before leaving the classroom (Time
spent in planning may vary according to the judgment of
the teacher.)
2. Passing to and from the physical education area
3. Participating in the activities of the program as planned
for that day
4. Evaluating the period, including a discussion of any situa-
tions or problems which arose (The discussion may be held
on the playground or after the group has returned to the
classroom. Many teachers consider this the most essential
part of the program.)
The program should include the following types of activity:
1. Directed play
2. Small-group play
3. Large-group play
4. Team games
5. Rhythmic activities
6. Stunts, pyramids, and apparatus activities
7. Classroom games
Some teachers feel that each of the above types of activity
should be in the program each week. Others feel that the list is
a guide which should be considered in attempting to achieve a
balanced program for the year.
Directions for different types of games, music for rhythmic
activities, and aids for teachers in planning a well-balanced phy-
sical education program are to be found in Teaching Physical
Education in the Elementary Schools which is available by text-
book requisition through the county office. This book is based on
State Department of Education Bulletin No. 21, Source Materials
for Physical Education in Elementary Schools, now out of print.








Evaluation in Physical Education, prepared by the Florida As-
sociation for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation and
published by the State Department of Education, provides indi-
vidual teachers with a practical and simplified method of evaluat-
ing their total physical education program. Criteria are provided
for self-evaluation as an initial step toward improving and devel-
oping physical education programs. Teachers using this evaluative
instrument and other materials as guides will find that they can
develop a sound educational program which is a pleasure both
to them and their pupils.











CHAPTER 8


Language Arts

THE SKILLS involved in communication are interdependent
and thus cannot be successfully separated. They are tool
subjects which are used in order to live more effectively and
richly. Relationships among the areas of reading, talking, listen-
ing, and writing should be emphasized continuously.

Reading
The modern world is a reading world. In earning his living,
in carrying out the duties of citizenship, in pursuing leisure-time
activities, a person must read. He must read to follow directions,
to gather information essential to his job, to form opinions about
national and international events, and to serve his broadening
interests as he grows. In spite of a gradual increase in the use
of first-hand experiences, of visual and auditory materials, read-
ing remains by far the most frequently employed means of learn-
ing. If he is to be a successful learner and well-informed citizen,
the child must develop facility in reading and use many skills to
interpret what is read.

What Are The Characteristics Of A Good Reader?
A good reader:
1. Has reliable reading skills so that he can recognize old
words and acquire new ones rapidly and accurately, using
such techniques of word recognition as context or mean-
ing clues, the general pattern of the word, known parts
within words, and sound elements within words.
2. Groups words into thought units, thus aiding comprehen-
sion and increasing speed.
3. Constantly develops his background of experience so that








he will have a wealth of concepts and ideas to give mean-
ing to his reading.
4. Is purposeful in his reading, having a goal in mind and
adjusting his rate to his purpose, reading at one speed to
follow directions in assembling a model telegraph set and
at another speed to enjoy the adventures of Robin Hood.
5. Develops wide interests and gradually improves the quality
of his reading tastes.
6. Reads critically-interpreting, evaluating, and organizing
significant points for recall.
These characteristics cannot be fully developed in the first
three grades. They are the result of good reading instruction by
all teachers from the first grade through the twelfth. In fact,
growth in reading should continue throughout adult life.

What Is A Good Reading Program?
I. A Good Reading Program Insures Readiness at Each Stage.
An important phase of primary reading instruction is the
readiness period since most children are not prepared for formal
reading activities when they first enter school. During the first
weeks of school in their first year, the beginners must adjust to
many new situations such as being with a large group of children,
learning to take directions from a relative stranger, being away
from home, and eating with a group.
Since children need a certain mental and physical maturity as
well as emotional well-being, most first-grade teachers spend a
considerable amount of time in developing reading readiness
activities with their pupils before formal reading is undertaken.
A few first-grade children may be ready to read when school
opens, but they will need several weeks to adjust to the new
world they have entered. Most children will need from six to ten
weeks; others may not need readiness activities until after Christ-
mas. A few children may not be ready for formal reading in-
struction until the end of the year or later.
When we remember that many pupils entering first grade are
not mature enough physically to begin reading, it is clear that such
a period of preparation is necessary. For instance, many children
are farsighted until they are at least seven; their eyes do not
focus steadily on objects as small as print. Furthermore, many








children do not distinguish small differences in sound until their
auditory acuity has increased or until they have learned to listen
carefully. Consequently, the child may neither see nor hear the
difference between such words as this and that.
During the readiness period certain basic attitudes and skills
are developed in the child. These include the attitude of curi-
osity, a desire to read, confidence in his ability to read, the
realization that a printed symbol stands for a known idea, the
habit of looking at a sentence or a word from left to right, the
habit of carrying a sequence of events in mind (associating mean-
ing in logical order with the sequence), and the enlargement of
the child's speaking and hearing vocabulary. It is during these
first few weeks also that the child should become socially adjusted
to his classmates so that he feels at ease during all learning
activities. A child thus prepared for reading makes faster pro-
gress later and develops a better attitude toward reading and
school than if he had begun a formal reading program earlier.
We recognize the economy of waiting until children are ready
to read printed materials, but we cannot forget that it is the
responsibility of the teacher to help them get ready. Time and
additional maturity help, but the child also needs experiences
which will broaden his horizons, give meaning to words, introduce
him to the magic of books, help him learn to control small
muscles, and whet his appetite for learning to read.
The pre-primer, primer, and first-year manuals or teaching
guides which accompany the different reading series in adoption
suggest many activities. Some of these series have separately
bound readiness manuals which need to be ordered in addition
to the other first-grade manuals.
During the readiness period a teacher will give children
many opportunities to hear stories and tell stories to the group.
They will go on many short trips in and around the school, and
they will dictate stories about these trips to the teacher. The
children can make a chart that tells of their activities, and in
doing so develop the following language arts abilities: the ability
to see that printed forms can convey meaning, the ability to think
in sequence and see relationships, the ability to read from left to
right and down the page, the ability to read in sentences, the
ability to use content clues, and the ability to recognize certain








important words through gross configuration, particularly proper
names.
They will also have opportunities to work with puzzles, for
this helps them to notice small details and make comparison.
They will build with blocks and at times will tell about what
they have constructed. They will repeat poetry and nursery
rhymes in unison and become aware of sounds. They will have
many opportunities to express themselves orally. Self-expression
will also come through the use of crayons, paints, clay, and other
materials.
In a readiness program the teacher will provide certain types
of activities each day. These will include:
1. Such activities as reading pictures, making comparisons,
finding differences in pictures, telling a story in sequence,
and other language arts experiences in order to build
language skills
2. Rhythms
3. Planned activities in which children have an opportunity
to make decisions, assume responsibility, and carry out
plans
4. Activities designed to broaden and deepen experience such
as going on field trips and carrying on experiments
As a child's tasks become more complex, he will have the
need for additional skills, background, and understanding in
order to meet new situations successfully. A readiness program,
therefore, should not cease with the first grade but should con-
tinue throughout the child's school years. Thus the teacher is
constantly working on readiness for the next step. Areas in
which there is special need for readiness activities are discussed
later in this chapter. Suggestions are also given on the type of
help the teacher can plan for children in the middle and upper
grades.
II. A Good Reading Program Respects the Individual-His Feel-
ings, His Abilities, and His Interests.
During each day in school children should have opportunities
to work by themselves and with the entire class. There are times,
however, when children work and learn together in groups. Es-
pecially is this true for instruction in reading.








A good reading program will avoid grouping children homo-
geneously by grades according to ability. Rather, an effective
program will attempt to arrange class groups which contain chil-
dren who fall within a given range of ages. A good reading
program will give all children an opportunity to work in a variety
of kinds and sizes of groups as well as some time to work alone.
In the developmental reading program the teacher works with
children in many ways. The class should be organized into small
reading groups within each classroom. This will be done on the
basis of their needs and interests identified through teacher ob-
servation, conversations with pupils, the use of informal tests,
and other means of diagnosis. In the first type of group, working
together, will be those children who need to develop or strengthen
the same specific skill such as locating information or getting the
thought from a paragraph. The groups are changed as soon as
a particular goal has been accomplished.
It is desirable to organize the second type of group for the
purpose of working with children who are reading materials at
the same level of difficulty. Intermediate children need develop-
mental reading and should have the experience of planned in-
struction in the more advanced skills of reading. At times, es-
pecially in the intermediate grades, the teacher may work with
a group every second or third day in order to have a larger period
of time with each group. (See page 19 for information on sched-
uling this work.) An informal test may be used with children
who read books to find the level at which they can read fluently.
Many authorities recommend that when a child misses no more
than one word out of every twenty running words and can answer
three out of four questions about the material read, the teacher
can assume that he is reading on his level. Many times, children
can assist in finding their own reading levels by trying and re-
jecting books until they find the one that meets these criteria.
For children who are in the pre-book stage see page 78 for ways
to determine readiness to read.
In addition to the types of grouping mentioned above a third
type is frequently used. This group is formed by placing together
children with the same interests although they have varying
abilities and require materials on several levels. Such a practice
discourages labeling children according to the groups with which
they read.








In addition to reorganizing reading instruction in groups, it
is also necessary at times to provide opportunities for the indi-
vidual child to work alone on his needs and interests. This is
particularly true for children who are greatly retarded or who
are greatly accelerated. Finally, there are times when the teacher
instructs the class as a whole on a topic of common interest with
materials of varying levels of difficulty.

III. A Good Reading Program Provides the Climate and Experi-
ences That Promote Children's Desire to Read

Children can develop a positive attitude toward reading if
they are given the opportunity. In order to stimulate interest in
reading, the teacher by his attitudes and deeds will demonstrate
that reading is an interesting, desirable, needful, and pleasant
activity. He will share with the class stories, poetry, and-in the
intermediate grades-interesting articles. He might show the
class that he frequently relies on printed matter for pleasure,
information, and direction. He will surround his pupils with all
the interesting books, newspapers, and magazines that he can
collect. He will realize that one cannot expect to generate en-
thusiasm for reading when the only reading materials are text-
books and a few worn, unattractive books. He will also make
sure that there are many other materials which will prove to be
valuable assets to the reading program. These will include art,
music, science, and social studies materials which will enrich the
experience of the child and so encourage reading. The teacher
will know that children need to realize that reading will open the
door to many interesting worthwhile experiences and that it is
not an end in itself.

If a class program is built around reading for reading's sake,
then children often fail to acquire a zest for reading. On the other
hand, in a classroom that has many on-going activities requiring
reading, children will develop a broad background of interest
and understanding. These activities, in turn, will help children
see the new worlds that are opened to them through the printed
page. Interest is diminished by having reading classes which
extend over a great portion of the day, thus depriving children
of other needed activities and experiences. The reading program
is enhanced by wide, rich, and varied activities and experiences.








IV. A Good Reading Program Is Based Upon Careful Planning.
As the teacher studies the group and the individual needs
represented, he plans a well-balanced program, which includes
developmental instruction, guided independent reading in the
classroom, and functional curricular reading in which the re-
sources of the library are used extensively. He makes certain
that all phases of reading skills are included. In order to insure
optimum reading development for all children, teachers will need
to make long-range plans as well as careful, specific daily plans.
A well-planned program will include these three important
phases: (1) presentation of material, (2) enrichment experi-
ences, and (3) development of skills. A discussion of these three
phases of the program will clarify their importance:
Presentation Of Materials
Appropriate introductions should be included for each group
of stories and for each selection. These introductions are based
upon a discussion of the children's experiences which may be
similar to the experiences represented in the reading selection.
New concepts are clarified through the use of pictures, real ob-
jects, and demonstrations. New words are presented in sentences
or phrases which may be written on the chalkboard as the teacher
says the sentences. Other means of presentation are sentence
strips and charts. These sentences should be related either to the
children's experiences or to the previous stories. They should
help to build background for the new story. In addition to this
practice, upper-grade teachers say the sentence and write the
word only, or the discussion may utilize the new words that
have been looked up in a previous dictionary practice period.
At all times the introduction should stimulate a keen interest
in the story and should help the children to understand words
and their meanings as used as well as to set up specific purposes
for reading a given story. Questions should require the reading
of the entire story to find the answers.
The first reading and interpretation of a new story is usually
guided by the teacher. This part of the lesson should be fun
and stimulating for the children. The teacher asks questions
which involve short thought units of a sentence, several sentences,
or a paragraph (one sentence for beginners and for those children
who are reading material which is difficult for them). Silent read-
ing precedes oral reading; "reading round the class" does not








develop careful thinking. The children read silently to find the
answer. The answers may be given by telling, reading orally, or
by dramatizing the thoughts expressed. This procedure is usually
followed throughout the selection in the first and second grades
and for immature readers in the other grades. For children of the
upper grades the teacher may use just enough guided reading to
arouse interest and then ask the children to complete the story
silently to find answers to the questions which have been asked.
After the story has been completed, a check is made to see how
the questions have been answered. A short summary of the
story's events is recalled. Re-reading of the entire selection or
of parts of the selection is usually done for new purposes. If the
selection is a short and easy one, the re-reading may occur im-
mediately after the first reading. Otherwise, the re-reading may
be done silently as independent work or at another period. The
children may be asked to read to find specific answers or to find
the part they like best, the part that is the funniest, or the part
that shows how a character felt. At other times a reading drama-
tization may be done.

Enrichment Experiences
Good planning in the reading program insures a sufficient
number of enrichment experiences. Some important activities
designed to stimulate and broaden interests and to relieve tension
are:
1. Reading related stories and selections from supplementary
readers, other textbooks, library books, and reference
books (It is important to include books which are at least
one grade level lower than the selections read in the basic
reader. Many times, picture books, experience charts,
stories written by the teacher using the words known by
the children, and stories composed by children are utilized
for supplementary reading.)
2. Painting, modeling, construction work, and other art ex-
periences to express various parts of the story (These
kinds of experiences necessitate good planning in order to
provide desirable working space. They also demand an
understanding of where to put pictures and objects made
and where to keep supplies; a knowledge or how to work,
how to clean up, and how to share the work done with
others. This phase of the program requires a variety of







materials, many of which incur little or no expense. Some
of the materials which may be used are old or new scraps
of cloth or paper, buttons, wire, sticks, burrs, pebbles,
cardboard boxes, newsprint, wrapping paper, playdough,
sawdust, clay, colored construction paper, tempera, chalk,
and crayons.)
3. Oral interpretation through creative dramatics, drama-
tizations, puppet and TV shows, telling and reading stories,
choral reading, and saying and reading poems
4. Written expression in the form of charts, booklets, indi-
vidual reports, and creative writing of plays, stories, and
poems
5. Examination of objects which can be observed and handled
to deepen concepts and understandings
6. Observations of living things to create interest and to form
the basis for meaningful reading experiences
7. Other activities involving music, films, filmstrips, record-
ings, excursions, and exhibits

Development Of Skills
Extending reading skills will be a major purpose of the work
done in reading. The teacher will observe the children, note their
needs, and then plan individual and group practice accordingly.
Periods of work with the children should be short, well planned,
interesting, and based upon specific needs. These periods are
followed up with further work which the children can do inde-
pendently. There is usually a need for continued instruction and
practice on the following skills:

1. Comprehension Skills
The following are some of the important comprehension
skills which need specific attention: noting details, noting
main ideas, skimming to locate specific facts or main ideas,
following directions, arranging events in sequence; or-
ganizing for recall, outlining, drawing inferences, inter-
preting and appraising materials, making generalizations
and applications, predicting outcomes and making com-
parisons.








2. Word Meaning
From the beginning when a vocabulary of sight words is
being built, children will be associating the meaning with
pictures and objects. They will be illustrating the words
with pictures and with action. Context clues will be used
later, and they will learn that some words have more than
one meaning. Still later, they will learn synonyms, an-
tonyms, homonyms, prefixes, suffixes, and compound
words. Finally, they will learn to use a glossary and a
dictionary to check meanings of words.
3. Locating Information
From the beginning children will learn to use the table of
contents, unit headings, and story headings. Later, they
will learn to use the index, simple reference books, and
library books to locate information. Finally, they will
learn to use maps, charts, and globes.
4. Word-Attack Skills
There is no one skill which will insure independence in
word-attack. Rather, there are a number of skills which
should be developed. For children in the primary grades
and for the children who have not developed dictionary
skills, the following ways of developing independence in
word recognition are important:
a. Sight Words
A sight vocabulary of at least fifty words should be
established in the reading readiness period or the pre-
book stage before the first pre-primer is started. The
meaning of words is given special attention and the
child's experiences broadened so that he will have an
understanding of them. Vocabulary building is done
through using the words which are to be met in the
pre-primer (a few at a time) in sentences and with many
repetitions in stories on the chalkboard and in experi-
ence charts. The use of sight words is continued
throughout the grades but gradually gives way to the
development of other word techniques.
b. Configuration
The child learns to recognize words by noting the
shapes and heights of letters in the word.








c. Picture Clues
The child looks at the picture to decide what the word
is.
d. Context Clues
The child is taught to read before and after the word
in the sentence and judge the word according to what
makes sense.
e. Structural Analysis
The attention of the child is brought to the beginning
or initial consonant, to endings, compound words, syl-
lables, root words, prefixes, and suffixes. The child
notes the root word and endings (dog, dogs; go, going),
compound words, prefixes, suffixes, and syllables.
f. Phonetic Analysis
The initial work on phonics is done in an informal way
through hearing rhymes and identifying the words that
sound alike. Then, children are helped in listening to
words that begin alike. The formal teaching of phonics
should be delayed until children have a good stock of
sight words. At least fifty to one hundred sight words
are needed to insure success in phonics. Furthermore,
children who have a mental age of less than seven
years show little benefit from drill in phonics. The best
procedure in teaching phonics starts with known sight
words and develops an analysis of the like initial con-
sonants and consonant blends. The next step is a study
of final consonant sounds followed by long and short
sounds of vowels. Finally, the more difficult sounds
and blends are developed. A word of caution should
be added, however; phonics should be taught not as
isolated fragments of words but rather in context and
with material which is being read.
Thus it will be noted that children can use a variety of
ways of attacking new words. As they mature they should
become increasingly independent in word-attack skills.
At any grade level all the word-attack skills which have
been developed in the previous grades should be re-
viewed and retaught when necessary. The use of picture
dictionaries, learning the alphabet, alphabetizing, and








filing lead to efficient habits in the use of dictionary skills
in the intermediate grades. The manuals or teaching
guides which accompany the State-adopted readers give
excellent help in developing the word-attack skills.
5. Oral Reading Skills
Some specific skills in oral reading include appropriate
expression to interpret characters, moods, and correct
phrasing in order to enhance meaning and accurate pro-
nunciation of words. It is necessary that the material be
familiar to the children and that silent reading precede
oral reading. Oral reading is prepared reading. At no time
should slow readers be asked to read orally to a group
when it becomes embarrassing to them or when their read-
ing is likely to become boring to other children. However,
they should read to the teacher and on occasion to an-
other child or to a very small group. In order to provide
audience situations, standards should be set with the chil-
dren for good oral reading and for effective listening.
Many times all children, except the reader, will have their
books closed. At other times, for example, in a reading
dramatization, the children will need to follow the text in
order to get their cues for participation.
6. Visual Skills
Quick visual perception of letter combinations and words
forms can be developed with the aid of a tachistoscope or
simple flashing device used in group practice. A form of
controlled reader or reading pacer is helpful with small
groups in developing increased speed in reading.
V. A Good Reading Program Provides For the Use of A Wide
Variety of Materials.
A wide variety of materials is necessary in developing a sound
reading program. Library books, materials for art experiences, a
duplicating device, primer typewriter, textbooks, chart mate-
rial, puzzles, audio-visual material, and the like are indicated.
A well-stocked library is most important since some children
will not be challenged to read the text but will benefit from many
contacts with attractive and interesting books of all kinds. When
children have access to this type of material, they will be en-
couraged to read. During the beginning of the child's school








career these contacts will be confined to handling and looking
at picture books and to having stories read and told by the
teacher. Later, easy books on many subjects will challenge boys
and girls. Many of these books or pamphlets will be used in addi-
tion to the encyclopedia as reference material by the child who
is doing research on a problem.
Since many reading levels are represented in a class, an ade-
quate supply of materials for teaching the basic skills at these
levels is necessary. For instance, a fourth grade would not have
thirty copies of each of the fourth-grade readers. Instead they
would have the use of readers at the various levels of grades
two, three, and four while some groups might even need first-
grade books. When a school orders books enough for only one
reading group in a class, the faculty will be able to allocate text-
book funds to supplementary readers, that is, books of another
series on the State-adopted list. Books should be so ordered that
a teacher's manual is available with each set of ten. The manuals
or teaching guides accompanying textbooks provide carefully
developed procedures so that adequate developmental reading
lessons can be planned for small-group work. Six or eight chil-
dren working together on common problems can thus be assured
maximum gains. The faculty should order all textbook supple-
ments carefully and wisely. The list of State-adopted reading
series is in textbook supplements of the Florida School Bulletin
available in all schools.
It is wise to have one set of readers that is never used at the
grade level intended, so that, for instance, a second-grade
teacher will have new material at the pre-primer, primer, and
first-grade level to use with slow-starting children. This set could
be used with average and fast readers during the first weeks of
school in order to recapture reading skills lost during the summer.
It must be remembered that the vocabulary for each set varies
so that it is necessary to step down a level lower than the one that
would be used in the basic text.
Most children need a quick review of vocabulary at the begin-
ning of the year and often enjoy a few days of reading favorite
stories from last year's basic text. This review would not mean
that children would be forced through the entire book with read-
ing lessons of the type used the year before. Rather, it would
mean that children would choose a favorite story to read to the








group or stories for a particular purpose. If after a few days it is
clear that additional practice is needed, it would be wise to use
a new supplementary text at a lower level that would give prac-
tice in attacking words and reading for fluency and comprehen-
sion. Thus, children will get a review of the skills they have
already acquired at a level simple enough to recapture them
quickly.
The basal and supplementary texts are not sufficient material
for an adequate reading program. If children are to make opti-
mum development in reading, they must have much additional
reading material available. This material should take care of the
wide range of reading ability in the classroom. It must be remem-
bered that the independent reading level of the child is one grade
below the instructional level. These facts mean that a third grade
usually needs books ranging in difficulty from pre-primer to fifth-
grade level. Care and thought must be given to the selection of
the books, particularly those selected for the slow reader. They
must be high in interest for older children and not appear "baby-
ish." Books relating to social studies, science, and any topic in
which the class is interested often meet these criteria. A variety
of textbooks serves to offer interesting material at the different
levels of ability and also permits both slow and fast pupils to
contribute to a unit or activity up to their ability. The use of this
material will not only contribute to science or social studies, but
it will also improve the child's reading.
Frequently, children need added individualized opportunities
to use the skills taught in connection with things familiar to
them. Carefully prepared, teacher-made materials planned for a
specific child make individual work on particular skills possible
and encourage children to work independently.
Sometimes materials found in the workbooks which accom-
pany all State-adopted reading textbooks may be used to accom-
plish these goals. A word of caution should be given here. Work-
books should be used only when:
1. Each child using the material has a specific need for the
practice involved.
2. The teacher has time to give careful directions and ade-
quate guidance.
3. The teacher can check on the work of the child to keep him
from practicing mistakes or learning to do careless work.







4. The material is on the child's reading level.
Many teachers above the first-year level feel that new material
will insure a better learning situation and give the child a
broader reading experience, more interesting and valuable than
that provided by workbooks.
VI. A Good Reading Program Provides Instruction in Reading
in the Content Fields.
It is neither possible nor desirable to attempt to have all the
experiences in developing reading abilities take place only in the
period devoted to direct instruction in reading skills. Even in
the first grade, children will have need of skills which are not
taught during the reading period. For instance, these children
will need to know how to read pictures and experience charts.
As they progress in the second and third grades additional skills
will be needed, for they will be required to interpret material in
science, social studies, health, and arithmetic.
Since children in the intermediate grades spend a greater
proportion of their day in reading, they must learn many new
reading skills. The content fields are the most expedient place for
acquiring many of these necessary reading abilities. Thus, map
reading can be taught in connection with social studies.
When an adult stops to consider the reading task that con-
fronts a child in the content fields in the intermediate grades,
he is usually amazed that the child has any success. It must be
kept in mind that when a person reads for information, he must
know either the words with which the information is presented
or the general idea toward which he is working. If the words and
the idea are both new, he necessarily fails to get the thought.
This condition is just as true of the tenth-grade pupil studying
biology, the college student studying philosophy, and the adult
reading an article on economics. It also accounts for the fact that
a normal pupil leaving the elementary school does not later auto-
matically read algebraic problems and ancient history success-
fully. He must have further instruction in reading in those and
other particular fields.
Understanding the reading difficulties pupils face as they read
material in the major content fields of social studies, arithmetic,
and science is necessary. The following analysis of these reading
difficulties will enable teachers to understand problems facing
children when they read in these fields:








A. Difficulty of vocabulary
1. Quantity of new words in social studies and science.
Completely new words that offer no familiar clues crowd
the page, in addition to scores of proper names. In
arithmetic are many words with precise meanings rep-
resenting complex ideas.
2. Technical, specialized vocabulary. Many terms used in
arithmetic are not used elsewhere (quotient, subtra-
hend); other common words like improper and mixed
have specialized meanings. In science many familiar
words take on specialized meanings.
3. Abstract terms. Words like democracy and civilization
represent abstract, evolving concepts.
4. Infrequently used words. Many contacts with a word
are usually necessary in order to master it, but many
words in social studies and science are used only two
or three times before other new words are introduced.
5. Words outside children's experience and knowledge.
Many words represent places and activities, remote in
time or space, which the child has never seen and never
expects to see.
6. Abbreviations and symbolization. In arithmetic abbre-
viations and symbols are used extensively and to most
children look like entirely new words.
B. Difficulty of separate, disconnected experiences, particu-
larly in arithmetic and science
1. Brevity of statements. Arithmetic problems are stated
so briefly and compactly that there are no descriptive
elements to give meaning through context; science
material is also written concisely with little elaboration
of detail.
2. Lack of visualization. In other reading, meaning is
cumulative, continuing from paragraph to paragraph,
but in arithmetic each little problem is a unit to be vis-
ualized, solved, and then pushed aside in order to go
on to the next problem. What a pupil visualizes one
moment is of no help to him the next.
3. Interruption of numbers. The reading material in arith-
metic is broken by numbers. The pupil must pause to








consider them, for he knows they are to be his tools
of operation after he has finished reading the problem.
While he is attending to the numbers themselves, he
loses the thought being developed.
4. Frequent use of diagrams. Diagrams ultimately aid in
the understanding of science, but at the same time they
cause an interruption in the text and require particular
reading skills in themselves.
5. Necessity for following directions. Performing experi-
ments helps children understand science material. Fol-
lowing directions requires close attention to reading for
exact details and is a good way of developing that skill.
Stopping to follow directions, however, should be rec-
ognized as another break in the continuity of gaining
meaning from reading.
C. Difficulty of concepts
1. Quantity of concepts. Several new concepts which may
be found on each page and even in each sentence can-
not be sufficiently elaborated.
2. Complexity of ideas. Many concepts are truly complex,
and others appear complex because it is the child's first
experience with them.
3. Partial error in concept. Full understanding would
involve an unusual, extraordinary background of expe-
rience.
D. Difficulty of organization
1. Quantity of ideas to be recalled.
2. Need for evaluation and judgment of relative impor-
tance.
E. Difficulty of reference.
1. Vague or half-forgotten ideas to be recalled.
2. In social studies constant need for recall and use of
map referrals breaking continuity of thought.
F. Difficulty in seeing relationships and forming generaliza-
tions
1. Formulating, understanding, and expressing generaliza-
tions. More than in most areas, science reading requires








seeing relationships, making comparisons, and forming
generalizations.
2. Constant recall. The pupil must keep in mind many
facts and basic concepts, some of them only partially
understood.
These suggested procedures for teachers will be helpful in
improving children's reading in the major content fields:
A. Arithmetic
1. Read problems aloud slowly so that children get the
idea that all reading material is not approached at the
same rate. Good voice inflection and phrasing will also
increase children's comprehension.
2. Encourage the children to visualize the problem, read-
ing it all the way through to complete the picture, be-
fore attempting to work with the numbers.
3. Have pupils compose a few problems of their own.
Some children then begin to see that the purpose of
the problem is to answer a question and that the reader
must know what the question is before he can use
the numbers given to find the answer.
4. Review new terms, abbreviations, and symbols often.
Use new terms in other activities whenever possible.
B. Social studies and science materials
1. Anticipate vocabulary difficulties and strange concepts
and through discussion clarify and expand word mean-
ings for the children. Try to build key words into the
pupil's hearing and speaking vocabulary before he
meets them in print. Deliberately introduce into your
own speech words the pupils will soon meet. Do not
hesitate to teach directly important words. Obtain repe-
tition of new terms and re-use of ideas through com-
bining the development of such language arts skills as
outlining and report-making in social studies and sci-
ence activities.
2. Locate suitable materials for wide reading with rela-
tively light vocabulary burden and enough illustrations
to build the needed background. Carefully selected li-
brary books, certain stories in readers of former State








adoptions, and the current State-adopted social studies
and science textbooks are good sources. It is not nec-
essary to have one copy for each pupil of such material.
Since the time for which it is used is brief, the same
copies can be used by successive groups during the day,
and not all pupils will need to read all selections.
3. Use visual and auditory aids. Include such materials
as pictures, specimens, and collections.

VII. A Good Reading Program Provides For Evaluation.
Continuous evaluation of the child's achievement in reading
is necessary, for the teachers of first-year pupils want to know
when a child is ready to begin formal reading. They will watch
children to find signs which indicate reading readiness. Among
these are an interest in books and reading and a reasonable length
of attention span. These children will also have the ability to
handle themselves with a fair degree of coordination, ability to
handle books correctly, ability to see differences, and ability to
tell a story in sequence. Such observations will tell the teacher
much, but he will augment these understandings through the use
of reading readiness tests. These tests may be obtained from test-
ing bureaus, publishers of fests, or some of the companies which
publish the State-adopted reading series. Some of these must be
bought; others are free. Teachers will use these tests when their
personal observations have led them to believe the children are
nearing readiness to read. They are not to be given to the entire
class at the same time, but rather to groups of children as they
appear to be ready for the next step.
Several of the reading series not only offer readiness tests
but also continue the testing program through the elementary
grades. These are valuable to the teacher as are other commer-
cial reading tests.
There is growing evidence to indicate that learning to read
should be considered a task during the entire school life of the
child, one that cannot be broken into precise segments of so much
for each grade. Many children do learn to read at a rate similar
to that reflected in the traditional grade expectancies; some, how-
ever, start more slowly, accelerating their progress later when
they become more mature. Others may do very little with actual
reading in the first year. Yet all of these children may read








acceptably by the end of the third or fourth grade if each child
is so stimulated and guided that he experiences each stage of
development without loss of faith in his own power to achieve.
Many reading skills have their beginnings at some point in the
first grade and later are greatly refined and used with facility.
Thus, near the end of the first grade a pupil might through care-
ful teacher questioning and directing discover that the compound
word sometimes is made up of two known words. In the second
grade, the pupil might need only a reminder that he really knows
the two words in a new compound word, and at the third-grade
level he should use independently that technique of word recog-
nition. Consideration of reading achievement must, then, take into
account the complexity of the process and the degree of facility
attained by the child.
As with the first grade, several means of evaluation should be
utilized throughout the entire reading program. One of the most
helpful techniques is observation. This technique can be used to
note progress in oral reading, skills, the use of word-recognition
techniques, the development of comprehension skills, the acquisi-
tion of a rich and meaningful vocabulary, and the ability to locate
information effectively. Observations should also be made of the
amount and kinds of reading done for pleasure as well as the sup-
plementary reading done. The growth in expression through vari-
ous forms of interpretative dramatics and oral reading, art media,
and creative writing should be noted. Informal tests constructed
by the teacher help to test growth in the various reading skills.
They are also a part of the work done to diagnose needs and to
note improvement. Standardized tests may be employed to help
with more precise diagnostic work and to determine progress.
The interpretation of test results and their application to instruc-
tional plans should be in terms of individuals or groups rather
than class medians.

Evaluation in reading is an on-going process and a varied one.
Since the reading process involves a combination of many skills,
it is only natural that the evaluation of a pupil's achievement in
reading cannot be simple. Good evaluation should include: (1)
frequent appraisal, since a pupil's rate of growth varies consid-
erably and judgment on any one day might be quite inaccurate;
(2) many types of appraisal; (3) interpretation of progress and
reading needs; (4) the use which the child makes of reading in








other subjects, in the library, in the home, especially his desire
to seek pleasure and information through reading.
A teacher is primarily concerned with evidence that each
child is growing in reading achievement, whatever his starting
point may have been. Many teachers like to keep a folder for
each child-really an accumulative record for the year. In the
folder would be a list of library books read as well as a dittoed
outline of reading skills to be checked. The checklist could be
used for one type of appraisal at intervals during the year and
would serve as evidence of growth.
These attainments are shown by most children and could
serve as the basis for such a check list:
A. Grade I
1. Developing a desire to read
2. Developing an awareness that answers to questions can
be formed through reading
3. Interpreting what is read by telling the story, answer-
ing questions, drawing, or dramatizing
4. Using sight vocabulary derived from experience charts,
pre-primers, primers
5. Recognizing old vocabulary in new settings
6. Using a variety of word recognition techniques
a. Picture clues
b. Context clues
c. General configuration of individual words
d. Basic words in derived words
e. Familiar parts in new words
f. Compound words
g. Beginning use of phonetic elements
7. Using efficient reading habits
a. Scanning words and sentences from left to right
b. Avoiding finger pointing (Use markers when nec-
essary.)
c. Employing fewer regressive eye movements
d. Making accurate return sweep from end of one line
to beginning of next








e. Engaging in silent reading before oral reading


B. Grades II and III
1. Maintaining and refining the skills acquired the previ-
ous year
2. Reading at sight from experience charts and first-grade
material
3. Using a table of contents for finding stories
4. Interpreting a longer thought unit (more than one
sentence)
a. To obtain the central thought of a paragraph
b. To note specific details
c. To anticipate outcomes
5. Searching independently for materials related to activi-
ties, using books as a source of information and recrea-
tion
6. Enjoying reading to others
7. Using clear enunciation, good phrasing, and good pos-
ture
8. Increasing independence in using word-recognition
techniques
(Initial learning in word-recognition techniques will
have occurred earlier for the more mature children.)
a. Recognizing new word forms made by suffixes such
as ing, ed, ly, s, es
b. Applying knowledge of blends such as pl, br, dr,
sh, ch
c. Applying knowledge of long and short vowels
d. Working out the pronunciation of simple phonetic
words when the meaning is already known
e. Distinguishing accurately between words of similar
appearance such as which, what, when, where
9. Beginning to read more rapidly silently than orally
10. Making adjustments in reading speed required when
reading for different purposes
11. Withdrawing and returning library books properly








C. Grades IV-V-VI
1. Maintaining and refining skills of previous years
2. Increasing ability to get thought from the printed page
a. To get general significance
b. To skim for location of specific information
c. To follow directions
d. To observe details
e. To draw inferences and read between the lines
f. To distinguish between major and minor points
g. To organize for recall
3. Increasing ability to use clear enunciation and appro-
priate phrasing in oral reading and to read smoothly
without habitual repetition, addition, or omission of
words
4. Increasing ability to attack new words, using knowl-
edge of:
a. Context clues
b. Structural analysis, including prefixes and suffixes
c. Phonetic principles
d. Dictionary and glossary
5. Learning to adjust speed of reading to the purpose
6. Developing facility in locating information through ref-
erence books, maps, and charts by using table of con-
tents, index, legends, and other aids
7. Developing ability to evaluate, to appraise, and to judge
the validity of material read
8. Developing a positive attitude which promises a con-
tinued interest in reading for pleasure and information
VIII. A Good Reading Program Is Not Isolated From But a
Part of the School Program.
Children learn to read when they have a need for reading
and want to read. When they are a part of a rich, vital program
which concerns itself with the problems of living, science, health,
social studies, and other areas of interest, they will have a real
purpose for reading. Such a program will help them see the value
of reading and thus strengthen their urge to read. The teacher








who keeps the program in balance will be a more successful
reading teacher than one who spends the major part of the school
day on reading as a subject. Children who are part of a group
which has a well-balanced program will have many opportuni-
ties to read that which they need to know in order to carry out
their activities. They will see a real purpose for reading. Their
reading activities along with well-planned lessons will strengthen
skills more than a program which stresses reading for the mere
purpose of reading.
In the first grade, children are unable to concentrate for long
periods. Attention span increases with each year, but teachers
will be constantly aware that long periods of concentrated work
in any subject will be wasteful of children's time. Thus, undue
emphasis will not be placed on certain reading skills like phonics
and word recognition. Lessons should be planned, balanced, and
brief enough to allow concentration throughout the period. The
rest of the day will be planned to give children other experiences
which they need. Many of these experiences will demand skill in
reading and emphasize the fact that reading brings pleasure and
recreation. These additional experiences will serve to strengthen
the reading program. When the program has balance and rhythm,
children are learning to read throughout the day.

Other Language Arts
Oral and Written Language, Handwriting, Spelling
Although the previous section discussed reading separately
from the other language arts, all the language arts are closely
related; learning in one area reinforces learning in the others.
Here the term other language arts refers to speaking, listening,
and writing, which includes spelling. All of these involve lan-
guage skills which are tools needed by the child in his day-to-day
life and are essential for his personal and social development.
These skills are taught most effectively in relation to situations
in which children feel free to express themselves and have the
need and desire to do so.
It will be easy for children to learn to use these tools of
expression, if they have opportunities to:
1. Develop ideas as a result of experiences
2. Think about what is to be said or written








3. Learn to apply the skills needed
4. Know the listener's or reader's reaction to his communi-
cation
It is a normal part of school life to make use of talking and
writing about activities of the entire day. As ideas are expressed
and reacted to, pupils become aware of the responses of the lis-
teners or readers as a part of their success in communication.
To help children develop the skills which they need when
they feel the urge to use them would mean that learning to speak
in complete sentences, spell words correctly, write legibly, stick
to the point, use words correctly, punctuate sentences, and capi-
talize words should be introduced as children need the skills.
Practice in each of these skills should be provided for individuals
or small groups that need help. Gradually teachers help children
to learn to find and correct errors in their work. Textbooks, writ-
ing scales, and teacher-made charts are valuable when used on
the basis of the specific needs of the children.
Handwriting and spelling, two of the language arts, are a
means to an end and not an end in themselves. From the very
first, children should be aware that writing is for the purpose
of expressing an idea. It is only when pupils are conscious of
handwriting, spelling, and written language as serving their needs
that they develop genuine interest in improving their skill and
maintain attention and effort while practicing. Teachers recog-
nize that children who cannot spell nor write legibly are reluctant
to put their thoughts on paper. The more vital and interesting
the total school program is, the greater will be the child's desire
to write and the greater his willingness to improve his spelling,
writing, and written language in order to carry on his activities
more effectively.
At the beginning of the first grade, teachers give children
opportunities to see the importance of writing and to become
acquainted with the written symbol. They provide clearly let-
tered name tags for each child and his belongings, write plans
on charts on the chalkboard, and use other opportunities for
writing as they occur in the daily life of the class. Children are
ready for simple reading activities before they can begin the
writing process. When children show readiness to write (See
Bulletin 34, Experiencing the Language Arts.), they have their








first experiences at the chalkboard. This is desirable because the
teacher can better guide letter formation. Furthermore, the work
of children who have not yet learned to control small muscles
is not restricted by the size of the paper.
In first and second grades, notes written to parents and other
written work occurring in the activities of the day are usually
done from a model. Members of the class usually formulate the
message, dictate it to the teacher, who acts as scribe and puts it
on the board, calling attention to the points on spacing or letter
formation that should be emphasized. From these and other activ-
ities, many of the more mature children absorb or work out for
themselves the spelling of several frequently used words as it,
is, am, all, ball, me, my, I, see. However, the ability to spell a
list of words is not to be required of first-grade pupils. Formal
instruction and practice in spelling start in the second grade.
The teacher will help the child to discover early that he must
be able to write legibly. The child must learn to recall inde-
pendently how the words he wants to use look and sound as to
sequence of letters; that is, he must learn to spell. In any given
school, the child's achievement in spelling will reflect the extent
to which the curriculum provides for both systematic instruction
and the use of correct spelling in the vital activities of the day.
Listening is receiving oral language. This is one of the most
important skills taught in the elementary school; no matter what
the person's occupation or station in life he has constant need
for effective listening habits. The process revolves around per-
ceiving words, comprehending ideas, and using ideas to build
understanding. Primary teachers plan to give boys and girls op-
portunities to develop these skills by first helping them associate
the spoken word with its symbol and meaning. As children ma-
ture, they learn that the sound of words is related to the sound
of individual letters and syllables in a word.
Beginning help in comprehending spoken ideas may involve
selecting specific details and following directions. Later it will
include detecting clues that show the speaker's main points and
organizing into main and subordinate ideas.
Many teachers find that oral reports and discussions as in
social studies, science and health provide situations in which
listening is a vital part of successful participation. This type of








listening situations provides opportunities for children to eval-
uate information that comes to them. They will weigh it in the
light of things they already know and their past experiences.
For example, when a child hears the statement that crops are
planted in the spring, he may be encouraged to contrast the
statement with the fact that fall is the season in which his father
plants many crops. A discussion of the statement may lead to a
broader understanding of seasonal planting.
Another way to develop understandings through listening
involves practice in drawing inferences. For example, children
should learn to listen to facts, judge them in the light of past
experiences and other knowledge, and thus come to sound con-
clusions inferred from what they hear. For instance, after hear-
ing a report on how hookworms enter the body, children may
conclude that they should wear shoes when out-of-doors. This
instruction in listening comes all during the day and in connec-
tion with all areas of work.
Oral and written language is another of the language arts.
Language is so interwoven with reading, spelling, writing, and the
content fields that it is often quite impossible to draw lines of
distinction. Thus, when a teacher is developing with his class
the ideas of prefixes, he is working with language and reading
simultaneously; or when a class or group is outlining a report
on the cave dwellers, he is dealing with social studies, a reading
skill, and language. Indeed, language operates through all the
activities of the pupil's in-school and out-of-school living. Lan-
guage may be defined as the expression of ideas by means of
words; and language, as a school subject, is for the purpose of
helping pupils express those ideas clearly, easily, and effectively.

Questions Teachers Ask About The Language Arts Program
1. How can I teach the left-handed child to write?
Teachers should help the left-handed child develop a legible
style using the left hand. The child should place his paper with
the lower part turned toward the left. Then he should pull the
down strokes toward him as if he were pulling his hand toward
his sleeve. The hand should be kept below the line of writing,
and the child should avoid making backward or upside-down
strokes. In order to secure light from the right, the left-handed
child should sit at a table or a movable desk since many class-








rooms are designed with light coming only from the left.
2. Why do we begin with manuscript writing?
Beginning classes in Florida use manuscript writing. Teach-
ers have observed the following good results:
a. It helps children learn to read. The letters in manuscript
writing resemble printed letters, and the child is therefore
able to use in both reading and writing the clues for recog-
nition that he acquires in either field. He does not have to
learn separate sets of symbols for reading and writing at a
time when he is easily confused. Thus, the manuscript b is
recognizable from the printed b, while the cursive b looks
like a new symbol.
b. It requires little muscular coordination and produces little
muscular fatigue. Even the less mature children can write
for some time without becoming tired. The more mature
children write fluently, free to concentrate on the thought
of what they are writing.
c. It is usually more legible than cursive for immature writers.
d. It usually facilitates writing for left-handed children.
3. When and how do children learn to use cursive writing?
The beginning child in using manuscript writing slowly devel-
ops speed and muscle control as time goes on and later starts to
join the letters with connecting strokes. In this way cursive writ-
ing evolves. Particularly careful instruction is needed as the
pupils make the transition, in order that correct writing habits
will be formed with a minimum of effort. In many schools teach-
ers help most of the children with this transition during the
later part of the primary period. Some authorities, however,
advocate waiting until the upper grades. Some children will never
be ready to make the change. Therefore the teacher will not
force all children to make the transition at the same time. He
will wait to introduce cursive writing until he feels the child
can profit from such instruction. Bulletin No. 34, Experiencing
the Language Arts, helps the teacher judge when children can
make the change successfully by listing signs of readiness for
cursive writing.
During the early part of the transition period, pupils should
continue to write spelling words and other written material of








the day's activities in manuscript writing. They are thus free to
concentrate on the content of what they are writing rather than
being distracted by letter formations. Nor should second- and
third-grade teachers become impatient too early with the mixture
of the two forms.
SThroughout the remainder of the elementary school, children
should have occasion to use manuscript writing, for it is a skill
they need to retain. There are many times throughout their school
and adult life when they will need manuscript writing, as in
labeling or in filling out questionnaires and forms.
The transition is made more easily if all teachers in the same
school observe the same letter formations. Minor differences that
are hardly noticeable to the adult or older child are genuinely
confusing to the young child.

4. When and how are children taught the alphabet?
A child should have his first experiences in reading without
being confused by the alphabet. In the first grade he will begin
reading by learning whole words and should not have his atten-
tion drawn to the individual letters since this will make reading
more difficult. As the year progresses, most children will become
conscious of the sounds of letters; a few may take the next step-
that of knowing the letter names. This knowledge is usually for-
gotten during the vacation period, however.
As the child has more experiences in reading, writing, and
spelling he will learn the letter names. The early primary child will
look up words in a picture dictionary. During the third grade he
will need to know the sequence of letters in order to be able to
carry on his activities more efficiently. In succeeding years he
will have an ever-increasing need for a skill in alphabetizing as
he uses the dictionary, encyclopedia, indexes, library card cato-
logues, lists, and the telephone directory.
In the third year the child should learn the sequence of letters
automatically and have opportunity to alphabetize words using
the initial letter. In the intermediate grades, he should be given
skills in alphabetizing within words and in acquiring skill and
speed in the use of the dictionary.

5. When should children begin using a spelling book?
Many second-grade teachers do not care to have a spelling




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