THROUGH SCHOOL LUNCH
h i '
. 7 85.OS759
SCHOOL LUNCH PROGRAM
FhOREDA STATE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
CBeSNM ImSH, Saw SuwIdmident
SCHOOL LUNCH EXPERIENCES
FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY
Sbo STATE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
COLIN ENGLISH, Superintendent
BULLETIN NO. 33A
TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA, 1948
The Florida Program for Improvement of Schools is based
upon the principle that improvement of instruction is a con-
tinuous process and that it should be carried on through the
democratic participation of all concerned. Such a program in-
cludes the continuous preparation of materials for use as cur-
riculum guides. The plan for the continuing production of
instructional bulletins is a unified one. Almost every field in
the instructional program has been covered. For some time
requests have been received from teachers, supervisors, prin-
cipals, and parent-teacher groups for a bulletin dealing with the
school lunch in the instructional program. These requests are
an indication of the increasing awareness among Florida educa-
tors of the value of the school lunch in an educational program.
To meet these requests, Growing Through School Lunch
Experiences was prepared by a committee of educators at
Florida State University during the summer of 1948. The
membership of this committee included: Mrs. Jessie Hathaway,
Panama City; Mrs. Fern Kraushaar, Lake Wales; Mrs. Bernice
Morrison, St. Andrews; Miss Lorraine Ponder, Ruston, Louisi-
ana; Miss Elizabeth Post, Tampa; Miss Agnes Reedy, Pensa-
cola; Miss Helen Simmons, Winter Haven; Mr. Warren Trott-
man, Cross City. This bulletin gives evidence of the fine
quality of their efforts.
Appreciation is extended particularly to Mrs. Ruth
Dichtenmueller, Supervisor of Instruction, Broward County
Board of Public Instruction, and to Mrs. Thelma Flanagan of
the Division of Instruction of tile State Department who
assumed major responsibility for planning, developing, and
editing the bulletin; and to the secretarial staff who contribut-
ed so much toward its development.
Grateful acknowledgement is also made to Mrs. Dora
Skipper, Mr. E. B. Henderson, State Department of Education,
and to Dr. Mode L. Stone, Florida State University, for con-
tinuous guidance in the preparation of the bulletin. Apprecia-
tion is also expressed to Dr. Angela M. Broening, of Baltimore,
Md., Miss Sarah Lou Hammond, Miss Sara M. Krentzman, and
Mr. A. J. Stevens of the State Department of Education, who
participated in staff planning, met with the group or reviewed
Acknowledgment and thanks are extended to the many
other persons who helped in the production of the bulletin, in-
cluding: Miss Marjorie Badger, U. S. D. A., Atlanta, Ga.; Miss
Ruth Terrell, Mrs. Vera Walker, Dr. Walter Wilkins, State
Board of Health; Miss Lucille Russ, Miss Anna Mae Sikes,
Agriculture Extension Service, Home Demonstration Office;
Mr. Tom Barrineau, Miss Doris Bilger, Mr. W. E. Combs, Miss
Boletha Frojen, Mrs. Pearl 0. Johnson, Miss Lucy Lang, Miss
Sara Louise Smith, Miss Mildred Swearingen, Miss Florence
Wagner, Mr. D. E. Williams, Mrs. Rex Todd Withers, Mr.
Harry Wood, State Department of Education; Dr. Henry F.
Becker, Mrs. Marion Black, Mrs. Jack Brown, Dr. Ruth Con-
nor, Miss Mary Catherine Drennan, Dr. W. T. Edwards, Dean
Ralph L. Eyman, Miss Grace I. Fox, Dr. Marion Hay, Dr. W. L.
Housewright, Mrs. Mary Jane Martin-Vegue, Dr. Robert O.
Moon, Miss Edna Parker, Dean Margaret Sandels, Miss Fannie
B. Shaw, Miss Anna May Tracy, Florida State University; Mrs.
Margaret W. Boutelle, Mr. H. E. Nutter, University of Florida;
Dr. Regina M. Goff, Dean I. L. Hollins, Miss Genevive J.
Wheeler, Florida A & M College; Miss Elizabeth Belt, Mr. Robert
Delson, Mr. William Hodges, Miss Viola Ludwick, Miss Mary
Mooty, who helped with the art material of the bulletin; Mrs. B.
Y. Cook, who prepared the stick figure illustrations; and to Miss
Ruth Anderson, Miss Elizabeth Atkinson, Miss Lucille Avant,
Mrs. Marion Barclay, Mr. John E. Brown, Mrs. Leota Dowling,
Miss Modeste B. Duncan, Miss Sedelia Gaines, Mrs. Ida L. Gunn,
Mrs. Verdell D. Hamilton, Miss S. M. Harper, Mrs. Edna
Hercey, Miss Frances Houchard, Mrs. Lillian Hough, Miss S. E.
Howard, Mr. M. Luther King, Mrs. Verna Knight, Miss Helen
H. Kunde, Miss Ellen McLeod, Miss Alice Nicholson, Mrs. James
G. Reddick, Mrs. Louise Rhoades, Mrs. Thelma Rowland, Mr.
James E. Stevens, Miss Virginia Ward, (Wilmington, N. C.);
Mr. J. S. Williams, and Mrs. Elizabeth Yearwood who contribut-
ed valuable materials and services.
Special thanks are also due bulletin production groups and
education and home economics classes, teachers, principals, and
county superintendents on the campuses of the University of
Florida, Florida State University, and Florida A and M Col-
lege, for their assistance with this project. Deep appreciation
is extended to all those who assisted in the pre-planning work,
in the writing of the bulletin, and in the reviewing, editing and
illustration of the manuscript.
We trust that Growing Through School Lunch Experiences
will provide valuable assistance to all personnel in Florida
schools seeking to improve the quality of their educational
State Superintendent of
i-.i -' .
*. 1 1 .
Workshop Group: Bulletin Production-"Growing Through School Lunch Experiences,"
Florida State University.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
FOREWORD .................................................. .... ... i
CHAPTER I-BASIC CONSIDERATIONS ............................ 1
N eed for School L inches ................................. .............................. 1
Development of Program .................................................................. 4
Point of View and Guilding
P rin cip les ..... ........ ............................ ....................................... ....................... 6
C ase S tu d ies .......................................................... ............. .............. 10
P purposes of B bulletin ................... ......... ...... .................. 13
CHAPTER II-THE SCHOOL LUNCH IN THE
INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAM .................................... 15
H health P problem s ........................................................................ ... ...... 17
Place of Nutrition in Child Growth
and D evelopm ent ........................... .......... ........ .. ................. 17
Learning and Practicing Sanitation
through School Lunch Experiences............................ 24
Emotions and the School Lunch .............................................. 27
How Much Time Should be Allowed
for L u n ch ? ............................................................................................. 3 0
Culture and Character Problems Solved through
Concomitant Learnings .................................................... 32
S p iritu al V alu es ................................................................................... 3 2
A esthetic V alu es ................................ ........................................... 33
S social V alu es .............. .......................... ....................................... .. 33
Solving Problems through Incidental Teaching
and Learning Experiences ......................................... .......... 34
Solving Community Problems through
School Lunch E experiences ........................................................... 35
School Lunch Work Experiences and
Vocational Guidance ........................ ..... .. .. 38
The Packed Lunch and Learning
E xp erien ces ............................................ .... ............ ...... .......... .... 42
Homemaking Education and the School Lunch .............. 44
Agriculture and the School Lunch ........................................... 46
Adult Education and the School Lunch ............................. 46
Public Relations and the School Lunch .......................... 48
TABLE OF CONTENTS-(Continued)
Around the Calendar with School Lunch ................ 49
Art and the School Lunch........ .................................................... 54
M usic and the School L unch ................................. ....................... 58
Learning to Eat Around the World ................................................ 63
U sin g F lorida F oods ..................... ....................................... ... 78
Decorative Plants for the School
D in in g R oom ...................... ................ ......... .......... ........ ............. ... 83
Nutrition Education Activities and
the School Lunch ....... .............................. ......... .. ....... ... 85
Animal Feeding Experiments and the
S ch ool L u n ch .... ............ ... .............. ... .............................. ............ .. 92
Physical Fitness Activities and the
S ch ool L u n ch ... ................ ... ........................... ... ......... 98
R esou rce U n its ............................................................................... ...................1 0 1
The Contribution of the School Lunch to
the Total Growth and Development of the
C h ild .............. ................. ..... ........................ .... ........................ .....1 0 2
P saying for the School L unch ............................................................117
G rade Seven B uys a Lunch ................ .................................... 122
CHAPTER III-BEHIND THE SCENES .........................................129
CHAPTER IV--EVALUATION ........................... .............. ....... 151
Evaluative Criteria for School
L u n ch M en us ...... ......................................................... .................. 158
A Good Lunch Provdies at Least One-Third
of the Child's Daily Food Needs ........................................ 60
Evaluative Criteria for Daily Food Needs ..........................161
Securing Educational Values ...................................... ....162
Persistent Situations for Growth of Ability
To Deal with Economic and Social Needs .........................165
Meeting Persistent Needs for Growth .....................................169
Meeting Some Growth Needs of Young Children
through School Lunch Experiences .......................................... 70
R references for Teacher-Pupil U se ..................................................172
CHAPTER I BASIC CONSIDERATIONS
Need for School Lunches
"But Daniel purposed in his heart that he would not defile him-
self with the portion of the king's meat, nor with the king's
wine which he drank; therefore he requested of Melzar, the
prince of the king's eunuchs that he might not defile himself.
Then said Daniel to Melzar, 'Prove thy servants, I beseech
thee, ten days; and let them give us pulse to eat and water
to drink. Then let our countenances be looked upon before thee,
and also the countenances of the children that eat of the por-
tion of the king's meat; and as thou scest, deal with thy
"So Melzar consented to them in this matter, and proved them
ten days. And at the end of ten days, their countenances ap-
peared fairer and fatter in flesh than all the children that did
eat the portion of the king's meat." (Excerpts from Daniel:
1:Sth through 15th verse).
SINCE the days when Daniel
refused the king's food, and E' E
choose, instead, a simpler diet,
with the result that he and his
companions were the healthiest ....
of all the "children" in the king's court, we have realized that
the food one eats affects in one way or another, the way that
person looks and feels.
We often have opportunities to observe remarkable changes
in children when they are given better food, especially when
that food is provided under conditions which are pleasant and
enjoyable to the child. Much of the story of Heidi, for example,
is the change in her physical well-being when she ate the thick,
dark bread and cheese the Aim-Uncle gave her, drank the
foaming goat's milk, and spent her days in the sunshine, watch-
ing the goats with Peter, the goatherd.
Long ago we recognized certain well-defined diseases as
"deficiency diseases" caused by a lack of one or more specific
food essentials. Today, we may think of scurvy, rickets, and
pellagra as rare diseases, found only in countries where the
people live on meager rations; yet people still die of these dis-
eases in Florida. More recently we have come to recognize
certain minor deviations from normal as indicative of mild
nutritional deficiencies, and to realize that mild malnutrition
is more common than we had thought. A number of surveys
in Florida have shone this to be true in our state as well as
in the nation as a whole.
2 Growing Through School Lunch Experiences
In the matter of personality, and ability to do mental and
physical work, too, we are today recognizing a relationship with
diet which may have been observed from time to time in the
past, but for which we have had no scientific evidence. In
some of the early studies of the human requirement for various
vitamins, it was noted that subjects on an experimental diet low
in Vitamin B become uncooperative, depressed, and irritable,
and complained of constipation, headache, and fatigue. These
complaints were not measurable by devices existing at that time,
and there was a tendency for some scientists to feel that they
were not "real." Since that time, devices have been developed
which do measure personality changes, and a number of studies
have borne out the earlier observation that persons who are
normally energetic, optimistic, and well adjusted socially,
become depressed, irritable, quarrelsome, and fearful, with a
dis-inclination to spontaneous mental or physical activity, when
their diets are restricted in the B vitamins. Moreover there is
a decrease in their ability to perform muscular tasks. The condi-
tions improve when the diet is again made adequate. It is
notable that these minor changes in personality and in ability
to work may precede any measurable change in physical fitness.
SINCE it has been shown that
-"r. people on poor diets do not
C _- work or feel up to their normal
Levels, the question arises as to
whether mental and physical
fitness could be improved by
feeding supplementary vitamins.
o r Doctor Ruth Harrell has re-
2 ported such a study made in a
children's home where the vita-
min content of the food was
somewhat below recommended
"'" allowances. She paired the chil-
C..~'t Ia, +6~~. c ...c.! dren as closely as possible, both
as to mental and physical char-
acteristics. Each child was given a capsule daily. The capsule
which one child in each pair took contained thiamine, while the
capsule his partner took was only a placebo. The children were
given many tests of skill and mental ability as the study pro-
gressed. At each test, the child who was receiving the thiamine
Basic Considerations 3
supplement made a better score than his paired mate whose
supplement was a mere placebo, and better than his own pre-
Further studies have shown, however, that there is not an
increasing increment in mental or physical ability as the size
of the supplement is increased, nor indeed any advantage in add-
ing vitamin pills to a good American diet.
The evidence indicates that there is an optimum level of
performance for each of us, but many may not work at optimum
levels because they are not adequately nourished, and that
better nutrition for many of us might lead to improvement in
both mental and physical performance. These facts are of im-
portance to our school system. To quote Doctor Thomas Parran,
"We are wasting our money trying to teach children with half-
starved minds and bodies."
The school lunch program has been of inestimable value
in improving not only the quality of the diets of the school
children, but in giving the teacher a clearer concept of the im-
portance of diet to physical well being. "That growth can
become a two-way process from more angles than one is illus-
trated by the following anecdote: A visitor looked in upon the
school lunch hour and remarked to a group of youngsters, 'My,
this looks like a well-fed, happy family.' 'It is,' replied Tom.
'And just look at our teacher. She is gaining weight, too be-
cause we see that she eats the right things the same as we do.' "'
The school lunch can be of even greater value when teachers
utilize the school lunch program to help children learn what
foods they need to eat to be well-nourished and to help them like,
and eat regularly, the foods they need. It is imperative that the
food be provided and that the teaching be done in a pleasant
place, under conditions which children can enjoy.
Teachers striving to improve the curriculum to meet better
the needs of the children they teach will desire source ma-
terials from which to secure ideas, vital help and basic informa-
tion. If maximum values are to be derived from the program
all resources must be used. The average teacher's collection of
* Lunch At School. Bulletin o'f the Association For Childhood
Education, 1200 Fifteenth Street Northwest, Washington 5,
4 Growing Through School Lunch Experiences
materials cannot contain the many fine references he needs
from time to time. Valuable helps may be found in county
professional libraries and the libraries of individuals. A few
such helps include: Harrell's Further Effects of Added Thiamin
on Learning and Other Processes (Columbia University, 1947),
Henderson, Wheeler, Johnson, Cogswell, Berryman, Friedeman,
and Youman's "Changes in Personality Appraisal Associated
with a Restricted Intake of B Vitamins and Proteins" (Amer-
ican Journal of Medical Science. Vol. 213, p. 488, 1947), Key's
"Human Fitness and State of Vitamin Nutrition" (Nutrition
Reviews, Vol. 5, p. 129, 1947), the review articles "E'ffects of
Restricted and Supplemented Diets in Human Subjects" (Nu-
trition Reviews, Vol. 5 p. 299, 1947) and "Personality Changes
in Man Following Restriction of the Vitamin B Complex" (Nu-
trition Reviews, Vol. 5, p. 305, 1947).
Other valuable materials that can be easily secured for
each school are Florida Health Notes, Nutrition issues of May,
1945, and July, 1947 (Florida State Board of Health, Jackson-
ville) Fowler, Geiger, and Walker's "What Shall We Teach
Our Children About Food?" a report of a dietary study in
Union County, Florida, January, 1948, (Florida State Board
of Health, Jacksonville), and the bulletin of the Association for
Childhood Education-"Lunch at School" (1200 Fifteenth
Street, Northwest, Washington 5, D. C.).
Development of Program
ORGANIZED school feeding is more than a hundred years old.
It began in Europe when certain groups realized that many
school children were underfed
because of poverty and lack of
parental care. This frequently
resulted from both parents
being employed in industrial
work. The medical profession
and lay groups were concerned
over the evidences of malnu-
trition and the lack of dietary
knowledge among the people.
This concern gave birth to the
idea of providing food at
Basic Considerations 5
In the United States, about 1900 a few of the large eastern
cities set up school feeding programs to meet similar needs.
The development of the program was slow. It was not uniform
as to the type of meal provided or to the groups sponsoring the
program. Official school groups, non-school agencies and other
organizations took part in the movement. In some areas, rural
and urban, the first school lunch programs provided hot dishes
on cold days to supplement packed lunches brought from home.
FLORIDA'S program followed a
similar pattern. Development was
slow and localized until the depres-
sion years when nationwide impetus
was given to the movement through
Federal Aid Programs. At this time
the main purposes were: (1) to feed
needy children, (2) provide employ-
Sment, and (3) dispose of surplus farm
The old concept rapidly changed
as communities recognized that all
children are needy children when it
is time to eat. More and more we are
envisioning the full potentialities of
the school lunch program in child
growth and development. In many
forward-looking schools today, we
see s c h o o 1 lunch experiences
spreading into all grade levels and
subject areas, giving interest and
enrichment to children's learning,
and becoming an effective tool for
helping children grow in wisdom
.and in stature.
6 Growing Through School Lunch Experiences
Point of View and Guiding Principles
1. Every experience in a child's life at school and elsewhere
is a learning experience, good or bad; these experiences consti-
tute his curriculum.
2. Food habits begin to develop the day a child is born, not
after he has memorized the contents of a nutrition text. We are
wasting many valuable years if we wait till a child is old enough
to study health or home economics before we begin to teach
him about food.
3. Children enter school with well-established sets of eating
habits. The school lunch provides an opportunity for develop-
ing and improving desirable practices and for correcting unde-
4. The school should make an adequate lunch available to
every child and should allow him sufficient time in which to
eat it. Foods served in the schools should be those which con-
tribute both to the nutritional needs of the child and to the de-
velopment of desirable food habits.
5. In cases where parents are not able to meet the re-
sponsibilities required by the program, it is the duty of a demo-
cratic society to provide for such needs so that all children may
be adequately fed.
6. The school lunch should be interesting, attractive, and
nutritionally adequate. It should be prepared and served accord-
ing to sound sanitary and nutritional principles under condi-
tions which make eating an enjoyable experience.
7. The school lunch, an integral part of the total school
program, provides many worthwhile learning experiences for
the child in all phases of his growth and development. ,
8. All children and teachers should have the opportunity
to share the pleasure and learning experiences of eating together
9. A period for relaxation should be provided for all chil-
dren and teachers each day.
10. The responsibility for the administration, operation and
supervision of the school lunch program should be vested in
Basic Considerations 7
the educational authorities, who are responsible for all other
phases of the school program. The effectiveness of the program
depends upon the degree of community-school group planning
and cooperation which enters into the program.
11. The adequacy of finance, facilities, and records and
the quality of personnel determine to a large extent the suc-
cess and quality of the program.
The point of view and guiding principles of the school
lunch program as expressed above are consistent with the guid-
ing principles for the total school program as stated in "Ways
To Better Instruction In Florida Schools," Bulletin No. 2, State
Department of Education, Page 47:
"1. The school must become increasingly aware of the
culture in all of its ramifications.
2. The school must recognize the significance of the
conflicts in the culture (especially the immediate
community) of each of its pupils.
3. The school must be concerned with the kind of en-
vironment which it provides for the learning and
growing of its pupils.
4. The school has the responsibility of guiding its
pupils in the direction indicated by the democratic
5. The school must recognize that education is a con-
tinuous process from birth through the entire life
of each individual.
6. Each school must begin where it is and contin-
uously re-make its program in light of the needs
of its pupils as these needs are seen in relation to
the nature of the individual and the demands of a
7. The curriculum of the school consists of all the
experiences which its pupils have for which the
school assumes responsibility.
8. Responsibility for the development of the cur-
riculum of each school must be shared by all those
8 Growing Through School Lunch Experiences
concerned pupils, teachers, administrators,
The desired goals of education for democratic living will
be realized to the degree that these principles are applied.
The implications of these guiding principles may be sum-
marized as follows:
"1. The school should provide a stimulating environ-
ment that fosters many varied interests and pur-
poses on the part of pupils.
2. The school should give special attention to the
physical well-being of its pupils. Health should
be related to the program of the entire day.
3. The school should guide the experiences of the
child in such a way that lie preserves his emotional
balance and at the same time grows in ability to
cope with situations at increasingly more mature
4. The school should provide experiences through
which the child will become increasingly aware
of, concerned about, and active with reference to
the welfare and happiness of his fellows. Care
must be taken not to build up tensions with respect
to social situations which are beyond the matura-
tion level of the pupil.
5. Teachers should utilize the school activities as a
means of giving children direct experiences in the
processes of democratic, cooperative living.
6. Since the individual and the environment are
dynamic, the school should utilize problem-situa-
tions in such a way as to promote ever increasing
ability of pupils to think at the level of their ma-
turation and intelligence.
7. The school should provide for the acquisition of
knowledge, techniques, and skills which have func-
tional value in a life where new problems must
continually be met and solved. Since the individ-
ual's purposes are many, one cannot delimit
Basic Considerations 9
the knowledge that any child or even all human
beings will be likely to need.
8. It seems desirable that instructional activities in
the classroom be organized in large units. In this
way, time is adequate for resolving the problems
with which pupils are concerned. Opportunities
for participation on the part of each member of
the group are greater. A problem may be con-
cerned with some major conflict in man's think-
ing, a desire to understand or appreciate, and
intent to master some skill, or the will to build
9. In planning experiences with pupils, the teacher
has a responsibility for stimulating children to
judge the importance of their undertaking in terms
of their own needs and in terms of group needs,
that is, society's needs.
10. The framework of the curriculum shouJd be
built around needs of pupils which arise in their
interaction with the culture. Experiences with
the immediate natural and man-made environment
should be the point of departure and should be ex-
panded in keeping with the growing abilities and
interests of the pupils.
11. The teacher should be encouraged to plan with
pupils those experiences most essential to the indi-
vidual and society within this general framework
and in accordance with pupil needs.
12. The entire school program should be planned with
reference to a continuous educational process be-
ginning with birth, progressing through life.
13. Character development should permeate the en-
tire school program. Since the organism is learn-
ing all the time, specific and unrelated lessons de-
voted to character education do little good.
14. The curriculum includes all those experiences
of children for which the school assumes respons-
ibility. This excludes special responsibility for
10 Growing Through School Lunch Experiences
15. The success of the school program should be
judged in terms of changes in pupil behavior with
reference to values implied in the democratic way
of life. Skills are only a part of the attributes
necessary for successful democratic living and
should not receive disproportionate emphasis.
16. In order to improve the total living of pupils, the
school must engage and participate in activities
for improvement of community life.
17. The daily program should be flexible enough to
allow modifications in daily planning, but not so
flexible as to be disintegrating."*
Case Study No. 42
"The school lunch department in Pine Bay School was an
afterthought. When the community realized the need for a
school lunch department, it was begun in two rooms which had
once been classrooms. The old blackboards have been covered
with murals made by the fourth, fifth, and sixth grades, with
the guidance of the art teacher. The subjects of one of the
murals is 'How we get our food.' It portrays the many people
and activities involved in transforming seeds into the plate
lunches served in the school lunch department. The windows
have attractive valances of unbleached muslin with a block
print design, made by the seventh and eighth grade
class in home living. Colorful pot plants in the windows are
the property and the responsibility of the first and second
grades. Flowers on the tables came from the school garden
which is the project of the third grade.
THE lunch period is staggered, with
the first and second grades eating
last. The reason for this is that they
have been given a mid-morning
lunch, and also, the smaller children
*.V.cook eat more slowly. By allowing them
to come last, they may take more
time for eating without delaying the older children.
Ways To Better Instruction In Florida Schools, Bulletin
No. 2. State Department of Education, Tallahassee, Florida,
Basic Considerations 11
The high school mathematics classes sell the lunch tickets
and check the number of people served. The home economics
girls act as hostesses, and are responsible for the comfort of the
'guests' and for a pleasant, smoothly-running lunch period.
The school lunch manager adjusts the sizes of servings to the
children's appetites. Food dislikes observed are called to the
attention of teachers.
The school lunch department is used by various commun-
ity groups, such as the P. T. A., Principal's Association, and
Men's Club. These groups feel a responsibility for the success
of the lunch program."
COMMENTS: Here is a school lunch department which has
succeeded because the school and the community feel responsible
for its success, and work together to make it a good school lunch
department. At a glance one can see the effects of joint plan-
ning and of using the school lunch department to help chil-
dren appreciate beauty, and learn money management, and the
Case Study No. 100
"The school system at Lake Lucette is regarded by some as
a good example of progressive, modern education. It has a
school lunch department with better than average facilities and
good equipment, yet poor use is made of the school lunch de-
partment except as a feeding station for the children who do not
go home to lunch, bring their lunches, or eat at the Campus Shop
across the street.
CHILDREN are hurried
through the line, at the request
of the principal, but even so, the
line 'crawls' along, and service
is slow. Students serve the
plates. They have very brief in-
structions on what to serve, and
are then left on their own,
without supervision. As a result,
servings are not uniform in
size, food is 'slapped' on the
plate without regard for appear-
ance or for the mixing of soft
with firm foods. Bread and
12 Growing Through School Lunch Experiences
butter are put on the plates with the hands. These 'helpers' have
had no time to wash their hands before beginning to serve and
they neither wear hair nets nor uniforms. They argue among
themselves and make 'wisecracks' at the children in the serving
Teachers feel no responsibility for the success of the
school lunch program. Those who eat in the dining room push
to the head of the line, and reach over the heads of the waiting
children to get their plates and bottled cold drinks. They fre-
quently complain or make unpleasant remarks about the food.
They eat together at a separate table and pay practically no
attention to the activities of the children.
Pupils have unlimited freedom in the dining room. There
is no attempt to teach or practice social graces. Common courte-
sies are ignored. The noise is deafening. Children hurry
through their meals, take their trays back to the kitchen, and
rush out of doors to engage in unsupervised play until the bell
rings. The school lunch manager is untrained and unsympa-
thetic, with more interest in pleasing the teachers and satisfy-
ing the kitchen help than in understanding children's needs.
Her chief concern is how early she may lock the door and go
COMMENT: It takes more than good facilities and equip-
ment to make a good school lunch program. In this case, there
is a total lack of understanding of the real purposes of a school
lunch department. One wonders if such a school lunch pro-
gram has much real value.
Case Study No. 130
"The lunch period at Orangeberg is a happy and sociable
time. A child is selected to be host or hostess of the day for
each table, and teachers eat at the tables with the children. Boys
and girls are encouraged to carry on a friendly conversation.
which is often related to food, health, or social studies. The day
I visited, I sat with a group of sixth graders who were having
a lively discussion of the best way to catch perch. Their last
class had included a showing of the film 'Clean Waters,' and
this discussion was a natural outgrowth.
In three thirty-minute shifts some six hundred children
eat. Because service is prompt and efficient, little time is
Basic Considerations 13
wasted, and the thirty minute period allows time for eating
without haste. The food is good. It is appetizing as well as
adequate. That the children enjoy the food is evidenced in
little plate waste. After lunch, the children return their
dishes and go to their own rooms for a period of quiet activities
such as finger printing, listening to appropriate music, reading,
or games, etc.
THE school lunch de-
t ii I apartment is housed in a
SA t new brick annex which
is comfortable and at-
tractive. The walls are
of a pastel color, and
Sthe lighting is adequate,
v.co.. which adds to the pleas-
ant atmosphere. The
ceilings are made of sound absorbing material which minimizes
noise, and adds to the charm of the room. No wonder everybody
wants to eat lunch in the Orangeberg school lunch department!"
CoMNLUENT: This case is a good example of a situation in
which advantage has been taken of the social aspects of eating
together. The school lunch has been brought into the teaching
program. Good administrative planning has made possible the
feeding of all children with enough time for eating and for
pupil and teacher relaxation afterward.
Purposes of Bulletin
Teachers everywhere are always interested in receiving
materials that contain new ideas and practical suggestions to
be used in the classroom. It is the purpose of this bulletin to
provide such help. In Florida, school lunches are now being
served from kindergarten through junior college. Teachers of
all grades and special areas, such as art, music, and home eco-
nomics will find in this bulletin many practical ideas, sug-
gestions, and ways of enriching the total school program through
school lunch experiences.
It is recognized that all schools do not as yet have school
lunch departments; however, this bulletin is a most valuable
tool for all teachers. It provides a wealth of vital information
concerning the needs of children.
14 Growing Through School Lunch Experiences
The full educational potentialities of school lunch experi-
ences will be realized only when and where teachers voluntarily
and enthusiastically take advantage of the educational oppor-
tunities the school lunch program provides. At present, many
teachers are not taking full advantage of the opportunities
afforded by the school lunch program. (1) They need a clearer
concept of the purposes and values of school lunch. (2) They
need school lunch integration materials. (3) Teachers should
have a period of relaxation during the school day at some time
other than the noon hour in order that the lunch period may be
a properly supervised, enjoyable, educational experience.
The Florida Committee of the Southern States Cooperative
Study of Elementary Education in 1947 and 1948 conducted
a survey to determine the status of elementary teachers in the
state. A study of 210 completed questionnaires from seven
counties showed that 204 of these teachers supervised the lunch
periods of their classes. One hundred sixty-two of them reported
that they had no free time during the day.
These findings emphasize the need for schools to provide
a period of relaxation for teachers other than the noon hour.
The information herein contained is vital for use by local
,or county Parent-Teacher Groups, countywide teacher com-
mittees, and individual teachers and parents for individual and
group parent conferences. The bulletin interprets the program
to teachers and parents. It answers questions concerning the
how, why, and what of the school lunch phase of the instruc-
tional program, and suggests ways for community-school co-
operation and planning.
CHAPTER II THE SCHOOL LUNCH IN THE
Schools must assume the tremendous responsibility which is
theirs in rendering the proper guidance in child growth and
"The real basis of guidance lies in the planning that facul-
ties must do in order to provide the kinds of experiences that
will develop each individual for life in a democratic culture.
A faculty should understand the nature and influence of the
environment upon the individual and the nature of each child
and his influence upon the environment, and should be con-
cerned that such interaction develop the individual for the good
life in a democracy. Such a faculty will evolve a program of
school living wherein many of the problems to which special
guidance must now be directed in many schools will be solved.
Such problems would be prevented, corrected, or resolved by
the very functioning of the school program." *
In such a school program the whole child is the first basic
consideration. For example, problems related to nutrition and
sanitation, and to the emotional, spiritual, aesthetic, and social
development of the child will become vital and meaningful as
the school plans cooperatively to meet the persistent needs of all
THE school dining room is a
/ O S social laboratory to be used
0 +by boys and girls in solving
many problems encountered
in their daily lives. The ex-
tent to which this laboratory
-S is used effectively to broaden
Sand enrich the child's experi-
ences will depend upon the
intelligent understanding and cooperative planning of the total
school staff and community. The school's responsibility is to edu-
SWays to Better Instruction in Florida Schools-Bulletin
No. 2, October, 1939, State Department of Education, Tallahas-
see, Florida. Page 155.
16 Growing Through School Lunch Experiences
cate the child as an individual and as a member of the society in
which he finds himself.
For his own satisfaction and for the benefit of society he
needs to be physically healthy, to develop a variety of interests,
and to increase his aesthetic appreciation through many types
of experiences. He should develop the understandings and atti-
tudes essential to good physical and mental health.
The child is involved in a multitude of relationships with
persons in his immediate environment-including his family
and community. He is called upon to assume many responsibili-
ties within the family as well as in other social groups, teams,
clubs, and societies. A new world of ever widening contacts
and relationships opens to him as he establishes himself as an
acceptable member of society.
The individual learns by doing. In the school dining room
he should be given the opportunity to participate in activities
which are significant physically, socially, and spiritually, and
which will contribute meaningfully to his total growth and de-
velopment. In such a situation the characteristics as tolerance,
cooperativeness, and social sensitivity may be attained.
The school lunch program, in addition to its contribution
to the individual and social aspects of child growth and devel-
opment, provides experiences which will enable the child to
understand better some of the basic economic problems in every-
day life. He learns the wise selection and use of goods and serv-
ices; he gains better understanding of the interdependence of
man, and the responsibility which a democracy assumes for the
total welfare of its citizens. A school truly concerned with the
broader aspects of child growth and development will adjust its
curriculum to make maximum use of the potentialities of every
phase of the educational program, school lunch being a vital
phase of the total program.
"The heart of curriculum improvement is the individual
teacher's philosophy and method. The first and most im-
portant step is to organize the school in such a way that chil-
dren will have experience in democratic living. It is possible to
organize and operate a school in which democratic living is a
reality only when the faculty members have developed a phil-
osophy necessary for this type of school organization. 'As the
The School Lunch in the Instructional Program 17
principal, so is the school' is a familiar saying. Therefore, the
obligation of guiding the faculty to a fuller interpretation of
the responsibility of the school to society rests largely upon the
The' Place of Nutrition in Child Growth and Development
The food needs of children. A healthy, well-nourished child
looks as if he enjoys living and acts as if he feels like doing the
things he has to do. He will have an alert, happy facial ex-
pression, bright eyes, hair and skin that look "alive."
The healthy child tends to stand erect, and the tissues beneath
his skin feel firm and contain a moderate padding of fat.
In order to be well-nourished, the child must feel that he is
wanted and liked; he should practice regular living habits
which include plenty of rest; he should participate in active out-
door play; he should be free from infections and defects which
interfere with his well being; he should be immunized against
communicable diseases; and he should eat, every day, the right
kinds of foods in sufficient amounts to satisfy his appetite and
to provide every cell with the foods it needs for its best func-
THE child's food needs are much
greater in proportion to his size
than those of an adult. He needs
plenty of food to provide energy for
( his active, busy life, and to build
new tissues, to add length to his
bones, strength and bulk to his
muscles, and weight to his body. If
a child's diet does not supply enough
of the foods which will meet these
R.Y. *ou 1
needs, he will not be adequately
nourished, and will suffer in one way or another from the de-
ficiencies of his diet.
Source Materials For The Improvement of Instruction. Curricu-
lum Bulletin No. 1, April, 1939, State Department of Public Instruction,
18 Growing Through School Lunch Experiences
Teachers have an important part in helping children to
understand their food needs.' The teacher must have a sound
background of basic nutrition information. She does not neces-
sarily need, however, a profound knowledge of amino acids,
calories, minerals, and vitamins, in order to be successful in
teaching children the basic facts concerning their health needs.
A little serious reading of such bulletins as Roberts' "The
Road to Good Nutrition" (Bulletin CB 270, Federal Security
Agency, Washington 25, D. C., 15c), Todhunter's "Everyday
Nutrition for School Children" (University of Alabama, 25c),
and Wilkins' "Nutrition For You" (Florida State Board of
Health, free), and "Nutrition For Every Day Use" (National
Dairy Council, Chicago 6, Illinois) will provide nutrition infor-
mation for the teacher and give conviction to her teaching. These
bulletins are written in very interesting form, with a minimum
of technical data.
The food needs of the average child will be met if he eats,
daily, the following types of foods in the amounts shown.
1. GREEN AND YELLOW VEGETABLES, one or more large
2. CITRUS FRUITS, TOMATOES, GUAVAS, MELONS,
MANGOES, PAPAYA, and RAW CABBAGE, one or more
3. POTATOES and other VEGETABLES and FRUITS, two or
4. SWEET MILK, BUTTERMILK, EVAPORATED MILK or
DRIED MILK, the equivalent of one quart.
5. ONE EGG, or at least 5 a week.
LEAN MEAT, FISH, POULTRY, or DRIED BEANS,
PEANUTS, or CHEESE, one or more servings.
6. ENRICHED or WHOLE GRAIN CEREALS and BREAD,
enough to satisfy appetite and provide for energy needs.
7. BUTTER or FORTIFIED MARGARINE, two or more table-
OTHER FOODS NOT INCLUDED IN THESE GROUPS
MAY BE EATEN IN ADDITION TO THE FOODS SHOWN
ABOVE, BUT SHOULD NOT TAKE THE PLACE OF ANY
OF THOSE LISTED.
Also see section on Nutrition Education Activities of this bulletin,
The School Lunch in the Instructional Program 19
Foods have been grouped in the manner shown above uo
simplify the teaching of foods, and the making of menus. The
plan shown is called the "Basic 7," is the one recommended by
United States Government Nutritionists, and is accepted and
used generally throughout our nation.
A child needs a minimum of three adequate meals each
day. A recent seven day study shows that one-seventh of the
group missed breakfast one or more times during the study and
one-third of the group missed supper one or more times during
the study. The noon meal should supply at least one-third of
the child's daily needs. It is very difficult to compensate for
inadequate lunch even when an excellent breakfast and supper
are served. Studies of the food habits of Florida children have
shown that the noon meal should carry more than one-third
of the child's daily requirements of the protective foods. An
adequate lunch menu should contain at least the following types
20 Growing Through School Lunch Experiences
A main dish of meat, eggs, or other foods from
GROUP 5, above.
One large or two small servings of fruit or
vegetables from GROUPS 1, 2, or 3, above.
Enriched bread and margarine.
Half a pint of milk.
It may also contain a simple dessert and addi-
tional amounts of the foods in the Basic-7 food
Menus should be colorful and interesting. The
food should be tastily prepared and should retain,
as nearly as possible, its original food values. Page
158 contains Evaluative Criteria for School Lunch
S Menu, which children or school personnel may
1 find useful in determining the adequacy of the
ky' menu served. A suggested bar graph form for
comparing the nutritive value of different school
lunches is found on page 160. Appearing on page
161 are bar graph charts which show the nutri-
tive needs of children and adults. These charts are
valuable aids in study of foods at all grade levels.
Simple desserts made from fruit or milk give interest and
satiety value to meals; however, desserts should not take the
place of other foods. Candy has its place in the diet only when
used within moderation as a dessert. It should not be used as
an in-between-meal snack as it tends to sate the appetite and
destroy one's desire for more important foods. Carbonated
beverages are principally sugar and water. The child's dollar
should not be spent for such expensive "sugar and water."'
^- ~ BETWEEN-MEAL eat-
ing takes away the appe-
Stite for essential foods at
meal time. Recent studies
of the reasons for in-
between-meal eating in-
volving 153 students for a
I'-be"' t~~~~e z.ne ?'? seven day period show
Also see School Lunch l'olicies and Standards. Southern States
Work Conference on Educational Problems. Page 15; also see "Edi-
torial," Journal of the American Dietetic Association, Vol 23, No. 6,
June. 1947. (Reprints available.)
The School Lunch in the Instructional Program 21
Hlabit-18, missed a meal-34, Hungry-133, Sociability
-134, Something to do-55, like it-19.
Nutrition application lags far behind our nutrition knowl-
edge. Major causes for poor nutrition in school children include
(a) Missed meals, (b) Candy and soft drinks, (c) Between-
Minimizing plate waste. A certain amount of plate waste is
expected in any program of group feeding. Some schools, how-
ever, have the problem of too much plate waste. There is always
a reason for excessive plate waste. The causes may include: a
need for nutrition education of the children; poorly planned or
prepared food; servings too large; too limited time for eating;
insufficient eating tools; excessive dining room noise; lack of
supervision during the lunch period, and many other causes.
Teachers can do much to help the children like the foods
served at school. A friendly atmosphere in the dining room,
with an occasional remark in a casual manner from the teacher
about the attractiveness of the plate, or how good the food
tastes, often encourages the poorest eater to enjoy his meal.
Good classroom instruction may make disliked or unfamiliar
foods become popular foods. The teacher and the school lunch
manager should work together closely in projects involving food
studies. For example, a study of steam may involve household
as well as industrial uses of steam. The class may steam a few
carrots, broccoli, or green beans. The school luneh menu the
same day should include the item served in honor of Miss
Jones' class which has been studying this item. In the primary
grades, particularly, "tasting parties" help children to like raw
vegetables and fruits. On tasting party days the items tasted in
the classroom should be a part of the school lunch menu. Teach-
er-manager cooperation will avoid situations where school lunch
personnel say, "We don't serve vegetables because the kids
won't eat 'em," and the teachers say, "We don't teach the chil-
dren to eat vegetables because they are never served in the school
22 Growing Through School Lunch Experiences
CLEAN Plate Clubs may be an
S incentive to help children eat
all of their food, but efforts to
get every child to eat every bite
of food on his plate every single
d1 ay may be overdone. Teachers
S.- en,, may become overzealous and thus
unduly stress the importance
of a clean plate, with the result that the child who cannot eat
all of his food feels left-out, or may wrap his food in a napkin,
or otherwise hide it in order to get the teacher's approval-de-
servedly or not. It may be better to have a "Two-Bite Club,"
to which children may belong if they will take at least two tastes
of each item on their plates.
A class study of plate waste may bring to light many in-
teresting facts and reduce plate waste. In such a project the
amount of plate waste may be measured daily for a week or two.
The reasons for excessive waste should be determined. Maybe no
one ate the greens because there was no corn bread to go with
them. The menus planned should have taken into consideration
the community food pattern.
Another means of creating child interest in the food served
in the school dining room is to give them a part in planning the
menus; at least an occasional menu. The third grade may want
to plan the menu on a certain day because it is teacher's or
Jane's birthday. The fourth grade may plan the Thanksgiving
menu, while the fifth and sixth grades make turkeys out of
apples for table decorations, and the seventh and eighth grades
make enough cookies to serve everyone that day. At Boulevard
School, classes take turns planning the menus for an entire
week. They make attractive menu posters which are hung in
the main hall outside of the dining room door. Experiences of
this type help children to like many foods and develop an un-
derstanding of what constitutes an adequate lunch.
If a little attention is given to the seating of the children
in the dining room, it may make a big difference in the way
certain children eat. Many children are naturally slower eaters
than others. Teachers find it helpful to seat the slow eaters to-
gether, giving them ample time to eat all of their food. Some-
times slow eaters are encouraged by sitting next to children
The School Lunch in the Instructional Program 23
with heartier appetites. Observant teachers soon learn which
plan works better for their own children.
Differences in food needs, and in dietary practices. Children
need to understand that their food needs and those of adults are
somewhat different, and that they need more proportionately of
the bodybuilding foods than do adults. Children are copiests,
therefore teachers should be good examples. They should drink
milk and eat all the food on their plates. The size of the servings
of certain foods as related to the appetite and food needs of the
person being served should be considered. The 12-year-old boy
needs more bread and more potatoes, for example, than his teach-
er does. The physical education teacher who has engaged in ac-
tive sports all morning may need more food than the teacher who
is less active physically.
There are a few children who may be allergic to one or
more foods. Obviously, if a child is actually allergic, certain
foods must be avoided. It is important that the parents or physi-
cian bring to the attention of the teacher such allergies. Some
people are inclined to use "allergy" as an excuse for not tasting
any food which is unfamiliar to them, or which they do not like,
just as some people declare they are "allergic" to work. If the
problem of food allergy arises, it should be treated in a casual
manner, so that a child will not feel self-conscious or superior
because of his condition.
OCCASIONALLY, too, children
nmay notice that Sammy doesn't
eat ham, or that Ramon doesn't
S eat meat on Fridays. How our
religious beliefs and our super-
_-_--- o.__ stations affect our food practices
should make an interesting topic
Sypitions for discussion as a part of a unit
on "Eating Around The World," or another on "Americans
All-We Come From Many Lands."
A study of dietary practices of children makes an inter-
esting project. It serves to give pupils a keener interest in
foods, and helps to improve their food habits. Determining the
quality of diets of school children gives incentive to teaching.
The pamphlet "What Shall We Teach Our Children About
Food: A Dietary Survey in Union County" by Fowler, Geiger,
24 Growing Through School Lunch Experiences
and Walker (State Board of Health, free) tells of a simplified
method for checking the diet records kept by children in an
entire county. These same methods may be used for a single
class. Teachers and older children will enjoy reading this
pamphlet. It may inspire them to undertake a similar survey.
In whatever way the teacher makes use of a school lunch
program in the instructional program, he will find a multitude
of good materials to help and many ways to accomplish his goals.
Hle needs to be critical of materials, to be certain that they are
sound, and that they are suited to the needs and age levels of the
Learning and Practicing Sanitation Through
School Lunch Experiences
The school lunch department is an excellent place for chil-
dren to put into practice the sanitation and hygiene knowledge
which they learn from day to day.
For the past several years much emphasis has been placed
upon sanitary facilities and practices in food handling in the
Florida School Lunch Program. As a result, many school lunch
departments have developed good facilities. Sanitary practices
have been greatly improved. The school lunch personnel and the
communities in these areas may be justly proud of these accom-
Occasionally there may be a tendency for people to think
that the sanitary standards as set up by the State Boards of
Health and Education may be too stringent or "a lot of red
tape." Teachers and school lunch workers have an excellent
opportunity to help children and community members to under-
stand that there are good reasons for each item in the sanitary
code, and that every item is necessary to protect the health of
those who work or eat in the school lunch department. Every
school should have a copy of the Florida State Sanitary Code,
especially Chapters IX and XXIV, which deal with the sanita-
tion of eating establishments, and the sanitation of school build-
ings and grounds, respectively. In addition, teachers will find
helpful, U. S. Public Health Service Bulletin No. 280, "Ordi-
nance and Code Regulating Eating and Drinking Establish-
ments." (Federal Security Agency, Washington 25, D. C.).
This bulletin clarifies and justifies in an easily understood man-
ner, the reasons for the items in the code. A helpful book of
background information for teachers is Milk and Food Sanita-
The School Lunch in the Instructional Program 25
tion Practice by H. S. Adams, (Commonwealth School Publish-
ing Company, 105 6th Avenue, Dayton, Kentucky.
The first items in the Code deal with the construction
and sanitation of floors, walls, ceilings, doors, windows, light,
and ventilation. A study of good housing for the community
might include the school lunch department and ways to keep it
sanitary, adequately lighted, and free from pests.
A study of the school, home, and community water sup-
ply is an interesting and informative project. Included in such
a project might be a trip to a city water department, arranged
through the District Engineer of the State Board of Health.
Local sanitary officers are able to give information on safe
home wells and to make arrangements for the class to inspect
an approved type well. Seeing the State Board of Health film,
"Clean Waters," will suggest many activities for a study of
local water supplies and sewage disposal.
A discussion of. proper toilet and handwashing facilities
and practices for the school might well be a part of a unit on
communicable disease control in science, health, or home nursing
classes. Proper handwashing before eating should be practiced
at school, not only for its immediate value as good sanitation,
but to help establish habits of cleanliness.
NOTE: Photograph from the "Florida Education Association
Journal," Febrnnry, 1948.
26 Growing Through School Lunch Experiences
Correct washing and handling of dishes is one of the
most important factors in sanitary food service. The local sani-
tary officer may be asked to demonstrate correct dishwashing
procedures, including a test of chlorine strength of rinse water,
and temperatures of wash and rinse waters. He may also discuss
the spread of disease through improper handling and use of
dishes. The State Board of Health has a limited number of films
on sanitation in food handling. Film lists from the State Board
of Health, and the Film Library of the General Extension Divi-
sion are available upon request. Such bulletins as "From Hand
to Mouth," U. S. Public Health Service, and "Food Handling
and Disease Prevention" from the Texas State Department of
Health, Austin, Texas., should prove helpful.
A unit on refrigeration and safe food storage in school
lunch departments and in homes may well be included as a part
of science, health, or home making education content. The chil-
dren may inspect the school lunch refrigerator to learn how it
operates, parts that are coldest, and why and how foods are
stored. An interesting film on this subject is "Twenty Million
Enemies." This film may be borrowed from the Westinghouse
Company. School lunch personnel'may explain the care and
cleaning of refrigerators. Children should learn why refrigera-
tion is important for all perishable foods, especially for foods
containing eggs, milk, meat, and poultry. These foods are ex-
cellent media for the growth of bacteria and other organisms.
Milk sanitation offers many possibilities for study at any
grade level. Children of all ages enjoy a trip to an approved
dairy. The local sanitary officer should be consulted before
arrangements for such a trip are made. Older children may be
interested in comparing hand milking with mechanical milking,
in learning the hows and whys of pasteurization, why milk
should be served from individual bottles, why bottles should
be double capped, why they should not be stored in a manner
which allows water or ice to cover their tops, etc. A discussion
of the time and temperature element in milk pasteurization and
dish sanitization should prove interesting.
There are branch laboratories of the State Board of Health
in the following cities: Jacksonville, Daytona Beach, Orlando,
Pensacola, St. Petersburg, Tampa, and Miami. The University
of Florida has a milk laboratory in Gainesville. Dairies in a
The School Lunch in the Instructional Program 27
number of towns maintain laboratories of their own. Children
may consult the local sanitary officer to arrange a field trip to
a laboratory to see tests for pasteurization, bacterial count,
butter fat, and total solids.
The personal cleanliness of food handlers, and the proper
handling, storage, display, and serving of food and drinks are
also important topics for the study and practice of all children,
especially those who help with the serving of meals, the handling
of clean or used dishes and utensils. Learning the reasons for
health certificates, for uniform and for hair nets or other head
coverings, as well as for personal habits of cleanliness, helps
children to want to follow the approved practices.
Emotions and the School Lunch
Various emotional reactions of boys and girls affect their
food practices. Leaders in education and public health recog-
nize this as a matter of major importance to those concerned
with the education and feeding of children. For example, Dr.
Charlotte G. Babcock, in an article entitled, "The Emotions and
Food" states: *
"Food is one of the primary human requisites. Every day
homemakers, teachers, nutritionists, physicians, and the host of
individuals concerned with the preparation and sale of food,
meet attitudes which people have toward food and which in-
fluence their behavior in its use. People express themselves
strongly and frequently regarding food. Often these attitudes
are formed as a result of the individual's experiences with
people rather than as a result of his intellectual understanding
of the nutritive value of the given food.
A child who tends to be afraid of everything that
is new or strange, may respond with anxiety and refusal
or with joyous acceptance when the mother offers him
solid food. This will depend to a large extent upon the feelings
she communicates as she offers food to him. Also in his first
year the child must meet one of his first frustrating experiences.
He has to be weaned to give up the bottle or breast which has
come to represent security, comfort, sucking and gastronomic
An article which appeared in Food & Nutrition News, Published
by National Live Stock and Meat Board, 407 South Dearborn Street,
Chicago 5, Illinois. Volume 20, October, 1948.
28 Growing Through School Lunch Experiences
pleasure for the more arduous task of drinking from a cup or
eating from a spoon. These are processes that lead presently
toward the civilizing of the primitive impulses in accord with
the demands of society.
When we reflect upon these modes of behavior in the child,
it is not surprising that people have reactions toward food;
that they associate it with nostalgic memories; that they have
food preferences and that they refuse to change diets even at
the request of the nutritionist or the physician.
Beginning of Food Patterns.
Psychological attitudes greatly influence the pattern of
food habits throughout life. If the relationship between the
child and mother is disturbed, the reflection of this disturbance
in the eating behavior appears very quickly. Concomitantly,
children recognize early that food is used by the parents to
communicate their ideas and attitudes (to reward, cajole,
threaten or punish). This is well established in the non-verbal
period of the child's life. As the child grows up he may use
food in an effort to retain control over his mother by refusing
to conform to the family food pattern.
Dr. Olga R.,Lurie, in her studies of a number of children,
found that many disliked the foods which they had been told
would make them grow 'big and strong.' The child may use his
refusal to eat as a form of revenge for the lack of love and atten-
tion on the part of his mother. Dr. Lurie found that the child
may use eating behavior to serve other functions: (1) to compel
the mother to supervise his feeding, thereby postponing the
normal development of independence, (2) to repay the mother
who has been, or is, neglecting him, or (3) to overcome his feel-
ing that his affection is not wanted by the mother.
Emotions of Adolescence.
When the child is seriously disturbed emotionally, attempts
to change eating habits are unwise. Adolescents, confronted with
the modern social pattern, often lack security within themselves.
Food may be used as a defense against their feeling of uncer-
tainty. It is at this age that food fads are so likely to develop.
Dr. Elizabeth F. Hellersberg, in a study at an eastern woman's
college, found that food habits were definitely related to the
Adolescent's general adjustment. Adolescent maturity was not
The School Lunch in the Instructional Program 29
related to any particular family pattern but depended upon the
parent's adaptability to the need of a changing younger gener-
Emotions of Obesity.
Onset of obesity often occurs in adolescence when the indi-
vidual feels in conflict over the demands made upon him by
approaching maturity. He feels as yet inadequate to participate
in a highly competitive and complex world. He may eat sur-
reptitiously because he is somewhat ashamed of his needs of which
he is often only partially aware. He may go on an eating binge
when he feels rejected, inferior or in other ways unhappy. Some-
times the overeating has more positive value. The person obtains
immense oral gratification by eating and prefers this method
of pleasure to others less easily obtained.
The Emotions and Education.
In the modification of food behavior patterns, education
regarding the food and its use is of prime importance. How-
ever, education alone is often not enough because of these
meaningful feelings about food. Often helping the individual
to understand that his attitudes toward food are an indication
of his positive or negative feelings toward important experi-
ences in his life will encourage him to change. Patient, firm
understanding, rather than condemnation of someone who has
strong feelings regarding food should do much to promote a
nutritionally adequate diet."
THE child may be disturbed by
confusion in the classroom, a
disorderly food service line, or
undue noise in the dining room.
An atmosphere of quiet relaxa-
Sf tion is conducive to the enjoy-
V. cooF ment of food and to proper di-
gestion. Knowledge that a period
trinhapt of leisure will follow the meal
may beneficially influence this
relaxation. If a child hurriedly finishes eating in order to par-
ticipate in an exciting game, frequently he does not eat a suffi-
cient amount, thereby deriving only partial benefit. This prac-
tice results in malnutrition. A lunch period which is too brief
30 Growing Through School Lunch Experiences
will have a similar effect. Waiting too long, or eating too early,
are also factors which affect the amount of food that a child
may eat. An overcrowded dining room tends to develop unde-
sirable habits and attitudes in boys and girls. Such situations
many times cause the child to become more interested in pupils
around him than he is in eating his food. Tables and chairs
should conform in height to the child's needs. Sitting at tables
which are too high or too low for his stature may prevent the
child from adequately eating his meal and enjoying it.
The keynote of food acceptance by any age group is its
appearance. Therefore, it is not surprising that frequently one
look at a plate is sufficient to discourage a child from eating.
Which would appeal to him more-a plate with a cool, crisp,
bright colored salad, and a steaming meat and vegetable pie or
a plate with wilted lettuce salad, creamed beef and creamed peas
all running together? One has contrasting color and texture;
the hot foods served hot, and the cold foods served cold. The
other has none of the requirements of an ;l,[,,ti/ii,_ meal.
FELLOWSHIP and friendliness
at the table are conducive to better
eating. The teacher who dines with
his pupils and enters into conversa-
w tion with them aids materially in
broadening the scope of the school
lunch program. No other one period
in the school day teaches guidance
in child growth and development
.v.co, o better than does the lunch hour.
It is here that everyday living is
actually taking place; concepts,
o p understandings and habits are
being formed in this laboratory of
experience. Will we, as teachers make the most of this oppor-
tunity in rendering proper guidance to the boys and girls with
whom it is our privilege to work?
How Much Time Should Be Allowed for Lunch
How long should the lunch period be? In what activities
do the children engage immediately after eating?
The School Lunch in the Instructional Program 31
ME DICAL ex
Sperience and ex-
on the physiology
a V:oo prove that time
-e, ps eson are two essential
es+t heps estor factors in the
processes of di-
gestion and good food utilization. Sufficient time for leisurely
dining should be provided. The period should not be long enough
however, to encourage dawdling. (For elementary-at least twen-
ty minutes and for all at least fifteen minutes at the table.)
A brief period of quiet relaxation is needed during which the
children throw off the classroomm atmosphere" and enter into
non-strenuous activities just for fun. Physiologically, this gives
the process of digestion a chance to get well under way, and give
the mind relief from the fatigue produced by several consecutive
hours of class work. This type of fatigue is more easily relieved
by a change of activity than by its complete cessation. The ac-
tivity should be such that it would not draw the blood away from
the digestive tract, where it is most needed immediately after
There are many types of suitable activities in which the
children may participate. Finger painting, making trays and
engaging in other forms of arts and crafts, and story telling are
interesting and worthwhile activities. Some schools provide
music for listening, singing, and rhythms; space and equipment
for playing croquet, jack stones, marbles; hobbies; clubs; or
browsing in the library
Whether the children carry on group activities such as
those described in both Physical Education Association Bulletins
5 and 21, State Department of Education, or the more or less in-
dividual activities, they need supervision and guidance. Children
should have a major part in the planning of this period. In some
schools two or more grades are supervised by one teacher assisted
by older boys and girls. This gives these children experience in
child care, while some of the teachers have "time off" for their
32 Growing Through School Lunch Experiences
own relaxation. Such a plan makes it possible for children and
teachers to return to class with renewed vigor and refreshed
minds, as well as better nourished bodies.
Culture and Character Problems Solved
Through Concomitant Learnings
SPIRITUAL values, their contribution to cultural and char-
acter development, must be considered as a vital part of the edu-
cational program in all areas of learning. Some spiritual values
which may be emphasized through the school lunch experiences
are: generosity, gratitude, courage, kindness, fellowship, respon-
sibility, .integrity, and an appreciation of the aesthetic values.
Gratitude is a quality which opens the way for the devel-
opment of spiritual values and desirable character traits. The
school curriculum should provide opportunities for developing
in the child a true sense of gratitude for our common heritage.
In cooperation with the home the school should strive to give
the child a background of understanding and an appreciation
of the world about us-how we live, and of our responsibility
for, and dependence upon each other. Boys and girls should be
led to think in retrospect of the Heavenly Father who is the
"giver of all good and perfect gifts." In so doing they should
acquire a feeling of gratitude and reverence for the food shel-
ter, clothing, and the many blessings which are shared by Amer-
ican children daily.
For example, a study of foods affords an excellent oppor-
tunity to illustrate the interdependence of man, and of nations.
As children understand how food comes to us, the many people
who have had a part in its production, preparation, and service,
they will develop a feeling of gratitude and appreciation. Chil-.
The School Lunch in the Instructional Program 33
dren will enjoy composing poems, songs, and blessings. They
may want to illustrate them or set them to music, or frame them
to hang on the dining room wall.
Where conditions permit, children will enjoy singing or
saying a blessing in the dining room. In situations where class-
es are coming and going during the lunch period it might be
well to have the blessing before the children leave the classroom.
This practice is used in schools that are crowded.
Aesthetic values may be developed through experiences
carried on in a favorable atmosphere. Therefore, it is most im-
portant to give careful consideration to the environment in
order to develop appreciations on the part of the child. Boys
and girls may share in making the dining room attractive.
Classes may take turns in arranging flowers and growing pot
plants for the dining room. Pictures, posters, or murals repre-
sentative of the pupil's work may be displayed. Special table
decorations may be made for the holiday. Older girls may make
curtains for the school dining room. Appropriate music may be
provided at times to create an atmosphere of serenity and re-
Social values may be developed through experiences which
lead to the practice of good citizenship, good manners, and a
feeling of genuine fellowship. The school lunch period provides
situations for the development of these qualities. Some of the
educational aspects of the school lunch depend upon student
participation in the management of the enterprise and in the
shaping of its policies and programs.
THE practice of inviting par-
ents and friends to eat in the
S school dining room will aid in
the interpretation of the school
program. The parents and chil-
dren will enjoy this period of
.'." genuine fellowship.
T In some communities such
groups as Boy and Girl Scouts
and 4-H Clubs hold their regular meetings, special dinners, and
-banquets in the school dining room. Such practices afford an
34 Growing Through School Lunch Experiences
excellent opportunity for cooperative effort on the part of prin-
cipal, teachers, manager, pupils, and community as they work
together to promote growth and development in attitudes and
Solving Problems Through Incidental
Teaching and Learning Experiences
Planning and carrying out an adequate program of in-
struction in the school is a responsibility involving the entire
school staff and community. Each must have his share in the
The responsibility of leadership rests primarily with the
principal. He should understand the needs of the whole school,
and make it administratively possible for a cooperatively planned
program to be carried out.
The ultimate responsibility lies with the classroom teacher.
He has daily and hourly contact with the children. He aids in
determining their school program, helps establish their ideals,
and directs their interests. He should understand how to adapt
the content material to the needs, interests, and achievement
level of his pupils. Instruction should be practical and keyed
to functional everyday life situations. By his interest or lack
of interest, the teacher can make or mar the success of the
rt^^-^'^ ^ -- ------ --- ----
Te.lcler tLrT Yup r oe o- p\%p nuose
The alert teacher will be aware of ways in which he may
help the child. He will avail himself of every opportunity to
further learning through incidental situations as they occur.
For example: little thoughtless remarks or reactions on the
The School Lunch in the Instructional Program 35
part of the principal or teachers may be the means of .l.v-t']I-
ing in the child improper attitudes and reactions. A teacher may
"turn up her nose" at the plate lunch, take a sandwich instead,
or ask for specially prepared foods. Children observing her as
they follow through the line may likewise "turn up their little
noses" and refuse the plate lunch.
Another example is that of the principal who remarked of
the food in the dining room, "This plate lunch is highway
robbery! A complete meal at noon makes me groggy anyway.
Just give me a sandwich."
School years are the formative years, during which life-
time social and cultural practices take root. For this reason, due
consideration should be given the planning of all school ex-
periences in which the child will participate. For example, a
knife, fork and spoon should be provided all children in the
school dining room, since we do not wish to have a generation
of "spoon eaters." There is no such thing as two sets of man-
ners-a Sunday set and an everyday set. We learn by doing;
hence, "Sunday manners" must become everyday manners.
Class discussions and demonstrations in the classroom and prac-
tice in the di niii room will serve to give the child a better under-
standing of the desired social amenities. Many times teachers
help children learn to hold their forks, to say "thank you,"
"please," etc., by a quiet word or by example as they dine with
Fred came in with a broad grin on his face and announced
to the teacher and his classmates he had all the "seven basic
foods" for lunch. The class questioned Fred and found that he
had eaten a hamburger at a neighboring cafe. He e( l;iini'd] that
his lunch included meat, tomato, lettuce, onion, bread, and milk
(in the bread). This little incident provided motivation for an
interesting class discussion on food requirements for adolescents.
The class convinced Fred that his hamburger was not an ade-
quate lunch for him.
Solving Community Problems Through
School Lunch Experiences
Tlihtr are many local and world community problems, in-
cluding economic, social, civic and cultural, to the solution of
which the school lunch program may contribute immeasurably.
36 Growing Through School Lunch Experiences
If we are to take the aim of education in a democracy as
transmitting, developing, and improving human learning, and
at the same time making sure that each member of society is
growing and developing to the highest and fullest extent of his
ability, then we also subscribe to the goal of a sound mind
in a sound body." We must then accept the task of making sure
that every child receives the foods needed to develop a sound
In order to do this we must tie our thinking to the soil.
The nutritional adequacy of food is directly related to the min-
eral content of the soil on which it is grown. The foods grown
in any given area are nutritious only to the extent that they
contain those nutritive elements necessary to sound physical
grow..th. Soil deficiencies contribute to human deficiencies.
A few centuries ago this nation was covered with a top
layer of soil several inches deep upon which abundant crops
might have been grown with a minimum amount of effort, once
the forests were cleared away.
Much of this top soil has been lost. The denuding process
will continue until we learn to control the destructive forces
still at work.
These conditions are reflected in our food, our clothing,
the houses in which we live, our social relationships, the quality
of our schools, and the extent of crime and juvenile delinquency.
Economic problems such as soil erosion are not peculiar to
any one region. Schools everywhere should be interested in
teaching the solution to these problems because of their direct
effect upon us and on generations to come.
Much of the food consumed in Florida comes from other
sources. Of necessity, much will always need to be secured
from outside the state. In the interest of self-preservation and
economic well-being, we must always be ready to join with other
areas in a common effort to check soil waste, conserve food,
and solve our economic p:,ih:l-ij.
One of the major responsibilities of the schools is to teach
the conservation and development of Florida's resources. For
example, 11th '.iA dairy farming is included among the industries
of the state, the quantity of milk produced does not meet the
The School Lunch in the Instructional Program 37
Note: Photograph from "Florida: Wealth or Waste?" page 139.
needs of the state. This shortage has been met through the
use of fresh milk shipped in from other states and through the
use of dried and evaporated milk.
Florida's deficiencies directly influence the health of our
children. In 1947-1948, 14.8( of the school lunches served in
Florida did not include milk, principally because of lack of
supply in certain areas of the state.
Fresh fruits and vegetables are shipped from Florida pro-
duction centers in great quantities, yet dietary surveys show
that the diets of Florida children are deficient in green and yel-
low vegetables as well as citrus fruit, one of our major food crops.
Florida's citrus surplus, as concentrated juice, is distrib-
uted throughout the country to insure a more adequate Vitamin
C intake among the school children. Although we have this
citrus surplus many Florida children seldom see an orange or
grapefruit, or have the juice to drink.
An aggressive, intelligently planned educational program
will insure more adequate diets for the school and home, and
will increase the material wealth of Florida's communities.*
The school lunch cannot solve, nor is it intended to solve,
these problems. Nevertheless, day by day school lunch experi-
See also page -16 of this bulletin.
38 Growing Through School Lunch Experiences
ences may supplement classroom activities leading to their solu-
There are many references available for use in planning and
carrying on a program of instruction aimed toward the solving
of community problems. Some particularly helpful references
"Florida: Wealth or Waste?" Florida State Department
of Education, Tallahassee, Florida.
"Building a Better Southern Region Through Education."
Southern States Work-Conference on School Administrative
Problems, Tallahassee, Florida, 1943, No. 3.
"Science in General Education." Report of the Committee
on the Function of Science in General Education, Commission
on Secondary School Curriculum, D. Appleton-Century Com-
pany, New York, 1938.
"Social Studies in the Elementary School." Bulletin No.
30, Florida State Department of Education, Tallahassee, Flor-
ida, September, 1942; Reprinted March, 1947.
"How Great Was Our Bounty." Association for Supervi-
sion and Curriculum Development, National Education Associa-
School Lunch Work Experiences
and Vocational Guidance
The school lunch program offers opportunity for a wide
variety of valuable work experiences for boys and girls, if
carefully planned and supervised. Sharing in the responsibil-
ities of the school lunch program should be regarded as a
privilege and duties should be chosen which provide interesting
learning experiences. The manager, teachers, principal, and par-
ents should cooperatively plan if student helpers are to be used
in the school lunch department. Duties to be performed by chil-
dren should conform to Child Labor Laws and be so carefully
planned and supervised that likelihood of injury is eliminated.
Those boys and girls who are to help in the school lunch
department should be carefully trained as to personal hygienic
standards, sanitary food handling practices, and skill in the
duty to be performed. Pre-service training should be given by
The School Lunch in the Instructional Program 39
a qualified school lunch manager or teacher. In-service training
time should include a period for discussion of problems and
progress. A teacher should keep in close contact with her stud-
ents while they are assigned to school lunch duties and should
be alert to any evidence of fatigue or exploitation. When a task
has been mastered, a child should proceed to another duty. If it
is necessary for him to continue in the same job at the lunch
period due to inadequate lunch personnel, then his work should
be given recognition as a service of good citizenship.
Work in the school lunch department might prove more
interesting if the student helpers were organized into a club
sponsored by a faculty member, a P. T. A. group, or other com-
munity groups. Attractive club uniforms would solve the prob-
lem of inappropriate, and, at times, insanitary clothing being
worn by students while on duty; such a plan would keep the
children's own clothing clean and, if wisely chosen, could help
to place the club on a par with other student clubs. Training
meetings, social activities and service badges or pins would help
to popularize the club.
work in the school
during the meal
--should have at least
twenty minutes for
~ -- relaxation; this time
may include the
time spent in eating.
3 .y.C.k Definite provisions
----. should be made for
student helpers to
rope e have the same com-
SA plete meal that other
Wor'tV ,n \un room children enjoy, eith-
er by serving them
early, or by reserving food for them. A pleasant place should be
provided where the students may sit comfortably and enjoy
their meal. The manager in one small school sets a table care-
fully and she and the student helpers sit together, and the
blessing is said before they begin eating.
40 Growing Through School Lunch Experiences
One of our serious problems is unemployment. With our
great progress in social and economic changes it is still the re-
sponsibility of every individual to select and prepare for an
In order for an individaul to progress and be happy he
must select as his life's work an occupation that will stimulate
his interest and provide satisfaction for him. Factors other than
"just a job and money" should be major factors in selection of
The school should bring to its pupils an understanding of
the changing patterns in modern vocations. Intelligent plans
for a career can be formulated only through wise instruction
Some boys and girls may be guided in their choice of a
.career through proper use of the school lunch program. The
alert teacher can glean information from his pupils that will
.enable him to guide the pupils wisely. He may find boys and
girls interested in foods work. Some may want to become
*dietitians, cafeteria workers, camp counselors or cooking school
-directors. Others may be interested in hotel management, res-
taurant work or in specialized areas such as cooking or baking.
Boys and girls may, as a work experience, assist in the school
lunch department. School lunch work can do much for the
'pupils by giving them some practical experience. This would
enable them to find out for themselves if they have interest that
:is real and if they have the necessary qualities to embark on a
foods career. They must have a keen interest and sound back-
ground in the science of nutrition as one of the chief problems
'will 'be feeding people. They also need courses including work
in all the sciences related to food and nutrition. These include
chemistry, physiology, bacteriology and food preparation. They
need to learn how to get along well with people and for this
they will take work in psychology, sociology and education.
Their job has a business side, too, so the dietetic program includes
work in accounting, budgeting and business administration. It's
:an interesting and quite varied program leading to a bachelor's
.degree. After that they need a year's internship. This is a
'supervised practical application of a knowledge of food, nu-
-trition and management.
The School Lunch in the Instructional Program 41
THE term dietitian
----- to many people means
--'-,,, .- ? a hospital dietitian.
n.., SO However, new posi-
9 < ,,, tions in the food field
Sa r e opening every
9 day. Administrative
dietitians are con-
stantly in demand.
This branch of the
field includes posi-
-9.o.t tions as dietitians in
college and univer-
sity food service de-
tuuCt, a.f'Ow o~o;sB t; s apartments and school
lunch programs. Bus-
iness concerns have seen the advantage of an administrative
dietitian in their industrial cafeterias, restaurants, hotels, and
tea rooms. Dietitians are also needed on steamship lines, rail-
roads, airlines, and wherever people eat.
Dietitians are being attracted to still other fields, for ex-
ample, that of food consultant work with food and equipment
manufacturers and food processors. In this position, the dieti-
tians consult with and advise manufacturers. They participate
in advertising programs, public relations, and bulletin writing.
Community nutrition and research work are other inter-
esting branches of the profession. Nutritionists are usually em-
ployed by federal, state, city and private health agencies and
in editorial work. The chief concern of the nutritionist is the
improvement of health in a particular community.
The field of dietetics has grown so rapidly that the demand
for dietitians has far outstripped the supply. It is the school
counselor's responsibility to guide pupils to the non-crowded
fields of employment. Until there are enough dietitians to fill
all needs, we can't do the best job of helping to maintain the
national standard of good nutrition and good health.
42 Growing Through School Lunch Experiences
Dietetics is only one of the fields related to the school lunch
program. There are many more. A partial list of these would
1. Purchasing agents
If the teacher has a sincere desire to help the pupils he can
do much toward guiding them into the choice of a career for
which each individual is suited and one that will insure future
security and satisfaction.
Valuable references for teachers and guidance counselors
include "Dietetics as a Profession," "A Bibliography of Diete-
tic Careers," "S .-.,-.-i,:,i, for Using Careers in Dietetics in
Speaking Engagements," and "Sample Radio Script 'Careers
in Dietetics'," published by the American Dietetic Association,
620 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago 11, Illinois.
Local dietitians or a representative of the State Dietetic
Association will welcome the opportunity to talk on the subject
"Careers in Dietetics" or to confer with individual students in
need of such information and help.
The Packed Lunch and Learning Experiences
Today many children in the nation's schools must carry
packed lunches because some schools still do not have organized
school lunch programs. Occasionally, too, the limited family
budget makes the packed lunch a necessity. If the child must
bring a packed lunch, regardless of the reason, eating lunch at
school should be an enjoyable experience filled with positive
In schools having an organized school lunch program, the
dining room should have ample facilities for the child who
brings his lunch, thereby giving him an opportunity to dine in
suitable surroundings. He may then supplement his packed
lunch with milk or other food from the school lunch department.
In situations where dining space is limited, other space within
the school should be adapted where the child may dine in a
The School Lunch in the Instructional Program
favorable atmosphere. These children should also be able to
supplement their packed lunches from the school lunch depart-
In schools having no organized school lunch program, it may
be possible to prepare one hot dish to supplement the child's
packed lunch." Children and teachers will enjoy reading "Let's
Cook Lunch," a bulletin from the West Georgia College, Carroll-
ton, Ga. (25c). It tells in a charming manner the way in which
the children in a rural school in Georgia planned to set up a sim-
ple school lunch program.
If it is not feasible to provide a hot dish at school, it may
be possible to provide citrus and other fruit juices, fresh fruit,
or milk to supplement packed lunches. Where fresh milk de-
liveries are not possible, milk drinks may be made from either
dry milk powder or evaporated milk. The bulletin, "Milk for
Health and Growth" by Gardiner and Narigon (obtainable free
from the Evaporated Milk Association, 307 North Michigan
Avenue, Chicago 1, Illinois) describes several "food parties"
in which the children prepare and drink a number of bever-
ages made from milk.
WITH minor adaptations,
most of the suggestions in
this bulletin may be used
equally well in schools
having no facilities as in
those with more or less
elaborate school 1 unch
1 Equipment. Whether the
children and their teachers
eat together in a classroom* or in a school dining room makes
little difference. They may decorate their class room with plants,
flowers, and murals, make place mats of paper or oil cloth to
use on their desks while they eat, make a screened cupboard to
keep their lunch boxes away from pests and eat their lunches
together in a leisurely, friendly manner. They should "tidy up"
the room, and wash their hands before eating, just as they would
if they were eating in a dining room. (Hand-washing may be
See page 65 of this bulletin for further information on packed
** See page 13 of this bulletin for further information.
44 Growing Through School Lunch Experiences
done with water from a bucket, one child pouring water over the
hands of the next, using a hand basin to catch the water.)
There are many opportunities for teaching foods. For ex-
ample, the children may read the section on the packed lunch
in "The Story of Johnny and Mary" by Durrance (Project in
Applied Economics, University of Florida, Gainesville, 15c.).
They may want to plan some good packed lunches, prepare one or
two of them as a demonstration, and then eat the lunches at
school. They may take home copies of the packed lunch menus
they have planned.
Special occasions should be celebrated, such as birthdays
and holidays, or if there is no reason for celebrating, they may
have an "unbirthday party," to quote Humpty-Dumpty from
"Alice In Wonderland." This may be an outdoor picnic, or
simply a hospitality day when each child brings some little extra
piece of food to share with other members of the group.
Where there is the problem of a few children who bring no
lunches, it may be met by asking different mothers to pack an
extra lunch from time to time. All children should be encour-
aged to bring a lunch, however simple, lest a few get the habit
of depending upon others to give them some food.
Homemaking Education and the School Lunch
Since homemaking education and school lunch activities
are probably more closely related than any other two school
programs, there are many ways of integrating the two. Below
are a few suggested integration activities involving school lunch.
i45. y. K
I" str%#.J I n ov, ScV~eol Lwnc,es~
The School Lunch in the Instructional Program 45
The homemaking education teacher or advanced students
1. Act as advisors to the school lunch manager; aid in
the interpretation of the school lunch program to the
school faculty-aiding the individual teachers in
understanding how they may utilize the school lunch
in their instructional program.
2. Help plan simple, inexpensive school lunch menus.
3. Plan and prepare one or more items on the school
lunch menu, using school lunch materials on certain
days when studying food.
4. Help introduce new recipes and new food combina-
tions. Homemaking education classes can prepare
new dishes and encourage pupil acceptance of these
5. Give demonstrations on table manners to groups in
school. Follow up with guidance by homemaking
6. Quantity cookery classes use school lunch depart-
ment as laboratory.
7. Check lunches to see that (1) they meet nutritional
requirements of children served, (2) meal pattern
requirements of type of lunch served are met, (3)
school lunch and home menus properly balance and
supplement each other.
8. Give guidance in determining amounts to be served
to different age children.
3. Work with elementary teachers and their pupils
in keeping a record of the food eaten. Homemaking
education girls may help check records and make
summaries showing what food groups are lacking.
10. Plan a food budget for the school lunch department
including a food preservation budget.
11. Work with the school and community in preserving
food for school lunch use.
12. Sponsor plays, assembly programs, radio programs,
poster contests, and exhibits on the school lunch.
13. Serve as dining room hostesses.
46 Growing Through School Lunch Experiences
Agriculture and the School Lunch*
The school lunch uses many of the products with which the
agriculture program is concerned, including the products of the
school farm or land laboratory area and of shop classes. Such
a close relationship makes for natural integration possibilities.
Below are a few suggested integration activities involving school
Agriculture teachers and advanced students may:
1. Work closely with school and community in planning
and producing foods and other farm products for the
school lunch department.
2. Prepare food production and preservation budgets
based on school lunch needs.
3. Work with school and community in helping to pre-
serve surplus foods for school lunches.
4. Help with food storage problems and pest control.
5. The teacher of Agriculture may help in making
available to the school lunch manager information
concerning local surplus commodities and their uses.
Shop classes may improve school lunch departments by
painting, screening, or by making such items as stools, tables,
dish trucks, storerooms shelves, and pot racks.
S cool Go.Te*sS
Adult Education and the School Lunch
Americans were startled during World War II to learn
that our nation had not greatly improved the nutritional condi-
tions brought to light in World War I.
See also page 37 of this bulletin.
The School Lunch in the Instructional Program 47
Military statistics also revealed an alarming amount of
illiteracy and insufficient formal schooling. Efforts are now
being made to reach the mass of people who, for one reason or
another, have escaped the opportunities offered in the public
schools. Night classes in adult education are being offered in
many communities with a curriculum sufficiently flexible to
take care of many of the needs of individuals. Here is an ex-
cellent opportunity for giving instruction regarding proper
nutrition, drawing into the pattern of instruction the philos-
ophy, purposes, and values of the school lunch program. Pro-
vision should be made for such classes to have a part in the
planning of the school lunch program and in the solving of
school lunch problems.
Schools are also providing education for the G. I., the young
husband, and the young father, perhaps, who is now taking up
where he left off and is attempting to complete his education.
It is very important that his be a well rounded and practical
preparation for taking his place in society.
There are other adult groups studying in our public schools.
These groups include vocational education classes, junior col-
lege students, P. T. A. study groups, and citizens working to
solve community problems*, particularly those dealing with
child health and nutrition.
Florida has a rather large foreign population studying to
meet citizenship requirements. Schools should take advantage
of the opportunity to acquaint these people with Florida's re-
sources, including an acceptance and use of our native foods.
This is a part of good citizenship training. Such knowledge will
encourage the parents to take advantage of the educational op-
portunities afforded them by the state and nation in prepara-
tion for life in a democracy.
Every program of nutrition education in the school should
be designed to reach parents, in order that they may receive
nutrition information and approve and reinforce the instruction
given their children. When parents are uninformed, or not in
sympathy with, the efforts of the school in helping the child
Establish good food practices, they may nullify the efforts of the
See also page 35 of this bulletin-Section on Solving Community
48 Growing Through School Lunch Experiences
school by their indifference and lack of cooperation. To be effec-
tive, the program of instruction must have "carry-over" into
rie practices involved in the everyday living of boys and girls
and in improved practices in the home and community. The
school lunch affords excellent media for such "carry-over."
Public Relations and the School Lunch
The very existence of public education depends to a large
extent upon good will-born of the faith that people have in
their schools and in the teaching personnel. Parents are very
likely to form their opinions of the teacher and the school large-
ly in terms of both verbal and written reports that their chil-
dren bring home. The teacher may supplement this common,
continuous "word-of-mouth" public relations process with an
effective publicity program regarding school activities, includ-
ing the school lunch program. Because so many changes have
taken place which make the public school a far different institu-
tion from that which adults of today attended a generation ago,
a program of educational interpretation is essential to acquaint
citizens with the school organization, purposes, and procedure
in order for them to understand its contribution to the social
MENU Monthly Meeting
The meal you are being served is typical SUNNYLAND ROTARY CLUB
of the lunches offered to children under September 28. 1948
the National School Lunch Program.
Baked Meat Loaf
School Lunches for Children
Mashed Potato Green Beans
Roll & Butter
A/ Pint of Milk
Ginger Bread & Whipped Cream compliments of
Sunnyland School Department
County of Polk
(Dessert optional Department of Education
in meeting meal pattern) John T. Stone, Supt.
The School Lunch in the Instructional Program 49
COMMUNITY SCHOOL LUNCH
School lunches are a community affair.
It's simple to start a school-lunch
program. Any group that is interested,
such as a parent-teacher association,
service club, or other civic group,
can co-operate with school officials
in initiating one and can become a
The school lunch should provide nu-
tritive value as well as satisfaction
and enjoyment to the student. It
should also help In the development of
good eating habits. As an incentive
for providing a wholesome lunch, the
highest rate of reimbursement is given
for the complete lunch. This is known
as Type A and consists of the follow-
1. One-half pint of whole white milk
as a beverage.
2. Two ounces of lean meat, poultry,
fish, or cheese, or one egg, or
one-half cup of dry beans or peas,
or four tablespoons of peanut
3. Three-fourth cups of vegetables
or fruit or both.
4. One or more portions of bread, or
muffins or other hot bread made
of whole-grain cereal or enriched
5. Two teaspoons of butter or for-
Schools that have no lunchroom facili-
ties may wish to provide milk for the
pupils. Type C consists of one-half
pint of whole white milk as a beverage.
Good food, plenty of it and the right
kinds, is particularly important dur-
ing the growing and development
The underlying purpose of the school
lunch program is to serve our school
children the very best food that our
farms can produce. The end results are
improved national health and in-
creased consumption of the products
of our farms.
For further information, contact your
Superintendent of Schools or write to
The State Department of Education.
Above is a sample of civic club interest in the school lunch
program. This inexpensive school lunch was served to the club
members at their regular luncheon price. The difference between
the cost of the luncheon and the sale price was donated to the
local school lunch department.
Helping the community to know its schools has a fine in-
fluence upon citizens and in their participation in the work of
school boards, parent-teacher associations, and other groups
studying educational needs and problems.
All citizens in the community need to understand and be
in sympathy with the philosophies, purposes, and values of the
school lunch program. They need to have a part in planning the
school lunch program and in solving school lunch problems.
Around the Calendar with School Lunch
Holidays are highlights in the lives of children, and they
can be made of special significance and great learning value
where there is close cooperation between the classroom teachers,
school administrators, and school lunch personnel. The school
lunch program is especially adaptable in the observance of
50 Growing Through School Lunch Experiences
Total pupil participation should be encouraged in school
holiday activities, as much as possible. Although schools,
or classes within a school, may wish to celebrate or recognize
holidays in different ways, elaborate or expensive programs are
unnecessary; simplicity is effective and desirable.
H o.1o W ewtt
The following is a list of some of the holidays which have
implications for the effective use of school lunch in integration
with the total school program:
September, First Monday Labor Day
October 12 Columbus Day
October 31 -Halloween
November 11- Armistice Day
National Book Week
November Red Cross Drive
December 25 Christmas
January 1 New Year's Day
January Arbor Day
February 12 Lincoln's Birthday
February 14 Valentine's Day
February 22 Washington's Birthday
March 17 St. Patrick's Day
March 17 I Am an American Day
March 18 World Good Will Day
The School Lunch in the Instructional Program 51
March 21 First Day of Spring
March or April Easter
April 14 Pan-American Day
May 1 May Day
May Mother's Day
May 30 Memorial Day
June Father's Day
This list is by no means exhaustive; it is intended simply to
offer suggestions as to when school lunch might be used most
effectively in the observance of special days. It is not expected
that any class or school would give special attention to all the
holidays of the school year. That would not be desirable, since
celebrations would lose some of their "flavor" if made a com-
Besides those listed above, some other special occasions
which might be used in the school, as presenting many varied
learning situations, are fairs, circuses, and camping trips. In
each of these, the school lunch should play an important part in
making the event meaningful.
In the observance of holidays, it is desirable that school
activities be closely correlated in order that the full signifi-
cance of the day be understood and appreciated by the pupils.
The observance of Mother's Day offers excellent opportunities
for developing in the pupils such desirable qualities of char-
acter as thoughtfulness, unselfishness, appreciation, etc. At this
time, the pupils may have a special menu, make place cards,
decorate the dining room, select napkins, and make guest favors,
appropriate posters, and art work for the bulletin boards. An
appropriate program might be arranged and presented by the
pupils. Language arts classes might study the origin of Moth-
er's Day. A study of the well-known mothers of the nation,
state, and community should be interesting. The social studies
classes might study the special days celebrated by other coun-
tries. Christmas and Thanksgiving lend themselves easily to
52 Growing Through School Lunch Experiences
TOTAL correlation in the ob-
servation of a special day is not
always feasible. The alert
teacher finds it possible, in
,'i a most instances, to correlate
school lunch, music, art, and
language arts. The school
-0v.cooI lunch menu should include
foods appropriate to the oc-
Tha~Ksg~v; n casion as regards color, type
and appearance. The dec-
orating of the dining room, making of place cards, favors, ap-
propriate posters, and drawings, may be delegated to art classes.
Music classes should supply songs and appropriate music. The
school band, orchestra, single instruments, or rhythm band, may
contribute. The language arts activities are many and varied,
including stories, articles, reports, plays, discussions, etc.
THERE are many occasions
when certain groups may wish
to use the school dining room
for special activities, such as
Boy Scout or 4-H Club exhibits.
Social studies classes may
C(hsrts .*.' wish to celebrate March 3 as the
day on which Florida became a state of the Union (March 3,
1845). The occasion may be the culmination of a unit, in which
the pupils may have done broad reading, research, and investi-
gation on the subject. Scientific collections of Florida products
may have been made, field trips enjoyed. The pupils may pre-
sent an original play, building the scenery, making costumes,
designing the program, making posters, fixing bulletin boards,
decorating. Appropriate music and songs may be woven in.
Folks games or dances pertinent to the time and place studied
may be enjoyed during physical education classes. The pupils
may decorate the school dining room with pine branches, palm
branches, or other foliage native to Florida. They might like to
help make an All-Florida menu, using home-grown or home-
canned fruits, vegetables, etc. The blessing before this meal
might be composed by the pupils to express gratitude for all the
blessings they enjoy in Florida.
The School Lunch in the Instructional Program 53
Particularly in the observance of the patriotic holidays, the
school lunch program can make a functional contribution. There
are many variations in the way in which a red, white, and blue
color scheme may be carried out. Small flags make an attractive
center piece for the tables.
A few suggestions which have been effectively used in school
lunch programs follow:
Halloween-The dining room shades were drawn. Black and
orange candles on the tables were lighted.
Christmas-The school lunch manager wrapped each
child's dessert ( a fancy cookie) in Christmas paper and placed
them under the Christmas Tree in the dining room. Each child
passed the tree and received his "present."
May Day-The school lunch manager gave each child a
packed lunch and the children went out under the trees for a
lunch manager made a
birthday cake one day each
A month. This was used as a
centerpiece for the "spe-
cial" table. All of the chil-
/ dren and teachers who had
S birthdays that month sat
S at the special birthday ta-
/- ble. At the appropriate
S ~ < o time everyone sang "Hap-
M The responsibility of
Making a holiday rich in
meaningful experiences for
the children rests mainly upon the classroom teacher. He will
find "Making Holidays Functional"* a valuable reference.
The foregoing suggestions are offered in the hope that they may
help the teacher to see that any holiday presents abundant pos-
sibilities for learning experiences to be gained through close co-
ordination of all phases of the total school program.
*Florida School Bulletin-December, 1947.
54 Growing Through School Lunch Experiences
The School Lunch Program, State Department of Educa-
tion, Tallahassee, Florida, will be interested in receiving from
any school a description of any way in which the school lunch
program of that school has been used with particular success.
Art and the School Lunch
One aspect of spiritual growth is appreciation for aesthetic
values. The school dining room, like the auditorium, hallways,
and school grounds, is a part of the school plant used by all
the students, and therefore, offers splendid opportunity for de-
veloping the aesthetic growth in children that takes place when
they are exposed to attractive surroundings. The school lunch
department, in providing an attractive atmosphere, can actu-
ally promote better physical health, since a calm, well ordered,
happy place reduces nervous tensions and aids digestion.
Possible Art Activities for Beautifying the School Dining Room
Paint wall attractive
Paint or refinish furni-
ture (preferably light
a~.r.cor, Hang pictures, decora-
tive maps, wall hang-
O..q.Ce ,c,,,.T5 ings.
Design and make curtains
Paint a large mural.
Make and arrange posters on bulletin board.
Make menus, table decorations, favors, and place cards
for special occasions.
Arrange tea table appointments for special occasions.
Arrange an art exhibition in the dining room.
Underlying Philosophy in Carrying Out These Activities
In order to accomplish these activities we should consider
these art education aims:
1. The development of personality through art as a
democratic ideal. Every child in the school, no matter
The School Lunch in the Instructional Program 55
how crude his results, should have some part in
beautifying the dining room, not the talented few
2. Art is creative expression-unless work is original
and childlike it is not art. This means we must throw
out the hectographed pictures, discourage children
from tracing and copying while encouraging them to
express their thoughts in their own way of drawing.
We must cease to expect adult standards such as per-
spective, accurate proportions, and literal color in
the work of children. Don't be surprised or discour-
aged if children color strawberries or tomatoes blue.
Only in this way can we help children to grow in vis-
It is not necessary to have an art teacher in a school in
order to use art to beautify the school dining room. The class-
room teacher will feel more secure in helping children if she has
had experience in creative art herself, but she can do an ade-
quate job if she will remember to:
1. Provide a variety of materials.
2. Make art fun.
3. Encourage everyone equally.
4. Recognize the differences between the work of children
5. Motivate his work through discussions of foods served in
the dining room. These will set his imagination working.
Integration of Art and School Lunch
Art and School Lunch may be integrated in the classroom
in many ways. A few possibilities for this type of work are:
1. Drawing and painting ideas which explain the
effects of good health and poor health, memorable
occasions where school lunches played a part, activi-
ties seen in the handling of food on field trips, or in
the school dining room.
2. Modeling from clay or paper mache decorations for
the school lunch tables, characters from stories read
concerning health and the effects of good nutrition
56 Growing Through School Lunch Experiences
3 Posters, bulletin board arrangements, health booklet
illustrations, and covers may serve to integrate
school lunch, art, language arts, and health educa-
From The Drawing Teacher, September-October, 1948, Binney &
Smith Co., New York. N. Y.
A word of warning should be given in this connection. Re-
member that learning in all areas and especially in aesthetic
areas takes place on an emotional level.
Therefore, drawing a picture of a carrot, a bean, a bottle of
milk, or modeling from clay a banana, an orange, an apple is not
an art activity. Neither is it good health education. In such a
situation no emotion has been provoked in the child; no creative
expression has taken place; and no desirable learning will result.
The activity must express how he feels about food, and its effect
upon him personally.
Some suggested art activities pertaining to school lunch are:
1. Puppets-Making puppets and dramatization of nutri-
Heavy wrapping paper
Cream manila-for making
figures out of crayon
Assign each student to area
Cut out completed work
Paste on wrapping paper
Put in background with
The School Lunch in the Instructional Program 57
III. Painting decorative paper plates.
Smooth finish paper plates
Brush-No. 9 or 12
Valspar varnish or white shellac
Put design on plate with crayon.
Use very heavy with a clear
If background is going to be
dark, use light figures, etc.
Use brush and apply paint liber-
ally over entire plate.
Apply 2 coats of varnish or
shellac, to make impervious
IV. Tent Cards for table decorations.
Oak tag paper to be cut in
V. Paper Mache figures.
Paint brush No. 9
Shellac or varnish
1. Olive bottles or any bottles
with an attractive shape
similar to a vase.
2. Empty No. 10 cans.
Score on 14" side at 7" point.
Mount seasonal decorations -
original designs by children
should be used.
Take 1 page of newspaper.
Cover one-half with paste.
Fold down other half on top
Put paste on half and fold again.
This yields 8 layers of paper
Original design is then cut out
Shape with fingers.
Punch holes while damp in order
to be able to sew other pieces
Paint with tempera and shellac
Clean bottle first.
Apply coat of flat paint of light
or dark color, depending
upon color of enamel.
Apply coat of enamel.
For design, cut out portions of
Decorative cards, glue on
bottle with library paste.
Apply enamel trim, top or bottom
edge with royal edge shelv-
ing papers. Strips of creased
cellophane may be used for
Use for parties, banquets, etc.
58 Growing Through School Lunch Experiences
VII. Vegetable arrangement.
Bean hamper for horn of plenty.
VIII. Spatter paint.
Plants, weeds, or interesting
Construction paper 9"x12" in
Tempera paint or shoe polish
All wire screen and a tooth
brush or flit gun.
Cover hamper with crepe paper
of desired color.
Place largest vegetables at
mouth of hamper (pumpkin
or eggplant) smaller spilling
out, such as apples, oranges.
Place leaves on table.
Pin leaves to colored construc-
Put thinned paint in flit gun
(white is prettiest on colors)
Spray on specimen and back-
ground with flit gun or wire
screen and tooth brush to
Allow to dry.
Music and the School Lunch
Music is considered a vital and integral part of all educa-
tion. In a flexible and adequately planned school curriculum
music achieves its rightful place throughout the school day. In
music, as in other areas of learning, we are concerned with the
development of favorable attitudes and growing interests on the
part of children, as they are given an opportunity to share in
various types of pleasurable music experiences.
SCHOOL lunch offers
t~.ln opportunity for music in-
/ tegration through the cre-
o ? J J ative song approach,
through giving thanks in
song, and through listen-
W ing to appropriate music
during the dining hour.
Recognition of the desir-
able effects of appropri-
O.y.coc ate music during the
lunch hour is becoming
increasingly widespread. When properly adapted, under favor-
able conditions, music aids in relaxing tensions and serves to
create a pleasant atmosphere. Careful planning, however, is
The School Lunch in the Instructional Program 59
essential to the success of this phase of the program. Due con-
sideration must be given to the kinds of music, equipment, and
length of listening periods. Teacher-pupil planning in this in-
stance will achieve the greatest degree of success. The pupils
should be made to feel that the project is theirs, and they should
have a real share in the planning and development of the
"Children in the elementary schools enjoy the rhythm, the
words, and the fun of singing. Some teachers, realizing this,
have felt that health knowledge can be acquired by putting the
basic health facts into rhythm and exchanging the standard
words of some of our best loved songs for verses about washing
your face, or eating carrots. It is doubtful if children improve
their health habits this way, and on the other hand, spoiling the
traditional association of fine music by accompanying it with
simple health jingles, seems almost a sacrilege and may arouse
undesirable health attitudes. There are, however, many songs
about the various phases of health which are suited to children's
voices and vocabulary and which they like."'
Of paramount importance is the selection of the kind and
variety of music used. Soft melodious music tends to lend a
quiet, cheerful atmosphere to any dining room. Recordings are
better for use than radio because the type of music is more easily
controlled. String ensembles and small concert orchestras are
more effective than some other combinations. Vocal quartets
are very good. Teachers and school administrators will find
most interesting and helpful the bulletin, "Music While We
Work," a publication of the United States Department of
Labor, July, 1947, which contains a compilation of vital informa-
tion on the value of music in industry. The data therein
contained was revealed through a survey of one hundred war
plants, conducted by the War Production Committees in their
efforts to examine and increase production efficiency. Perti-
nent excerpts from the bulletin follow: "Of the 76 plants
using phonograph records, 87 percent claimed that music
improved morale To the question, Do you think music
increases production?, 57 per cent of the answers were yes .
The survey shows that music is as successful in noisy depart-
From "Health Songs for Primary Grades," Federal Security
Agency, United States Office of Education, Washington 25). 1). C.
60 Growing Through School Lunch Experiences
ments as it is in quiet departments. It appears that if enough
of the right type of loudspeakers are obtainable and properly
placed, there is practically no machinery noise loud enough
to render a music program ineffective The success of a
music program depends upon mechanical as well as psychological
factors. On the mechanical side it appears that two note-
worthy improvements could be made. They are: First, increased
efficiency in the quality of the sound equipment and the placing
of loud speakers. Secondly, the use of phonograph records
maintaining a fairly constant level of sound The psycholo-
gical attitude of the workers to the music program is important.
For example, in one or two plants the programs were rendered
relatively ineffective because the workers suspected that they
were guinea pigs for a music experiment. On the other hand,
very effective programs, such as one in a Vermont plant, were
carried out under conditions where the workers were reminded
daily that-this is your program; tell us what you want and
we will try to give it to you. This attitude, provided care is
taken to secure sufficiently large samples of opinion, seems to
produce the best results The kind of music played is of
paramount importance. A number of plants have issued ques-
tionnaires to ascertain what the workers like. A comparison
of answers shows that Strauss Waltzes are first in popularity;
Hit Parade numbers second; patriotic music third; semiclassical
and light salon music fourth; classical music fifth; hymns and
Negro spirituals sixth; with hot swing and jitterbug last
Without variety, the music program bogs down.
"Music with meals is generally accepted and liked by the
workers if it is not too forceful .. It also serves to bridge the
after-lunch fatigue period The principal value of music
in relation to efficiency is not in speeding up the workers to
greater effort, but in relaxing unnecessary nervous tensions
and creating a pleasant atmosphere for work fatigue and
boredom can in some degree be forestalled with a well-timed
program of music Lunch music reaches its lowest ebb in
the use of juke boxes installed in cafeterias. In installations
of this sort the sound issues from only one point, the juke box
itself, with the result that due to the clatter of dishes, conversa-
tion and other noises, the music has a very limited range and
somehow seems only to add noise and confusion to the cafeteria;
The School Lunch in the Instructional Program 61
conversely, music from the right number of properly placed
speakers has just the opposite effect.
"What should be avoided in starting such a program?
S. .avoid starting a music program without careful planning
in all particulars, both mechanical and musical avoid
amateur mechanical installations avoid boogie-woogie, hot
swing, jive, vocals and all forms of bizarre music which arrests
the attention of the workers."
Other helpful references include the state adopted music
texts, the song book, "We Will Sing One Song"*, Marie Good-
win Holbert, Bureau of School Service, University of Kentucky,
and "Health Songs for Primary Grades," Selected Reference
No. 8, available from Division of Elementary Education, Federal
Security Agency, U. S. Office of Education, Washington, D. C.
The latter reference lists songs which are useful in instilling
good health habits and contains a list of appropriate song books.
Some of these are given below:
Author Bool and Publisher Songs
Jean, Elsie Sing A Song of Good Dear Fairy Good
Health. New York, G. Health, Clean Hands--
Schirmer, Inc. Clean Face, Bathing,
Growing Straight, Out
of Doors, Vegetables,
For My Supper, Chew-
ing My Food, Happi-
ness, Good Food, Meat,
Resting, Drinking Wat-
er, Cleaning My Teeth,
LeBron, Marion, 01- I Love To Sing. Cin- Brushing, Breakfast,
son, Grace Martin cinnati, Willis Music Yes Please, What Shall
Co. I Wear, Rest, Little
Boys Cry, Washing,
McCarteney, Laura Songs for the Nursery Warm Hands, Resting
Pendleton School. Cincinnati, Wil- Time Has Come For the
lis Music Co. Children, This Is the
Way We Wash Our
Parker, Horatio; Me- The Progressive Music Eating
Conathy, Osbourne; Series Teacher's Man- This Is the Way
Birge, E(dwvrd Bai- ual, Volume I. A. Air and Sunlight
ley, and Miessner, W. Four Boys
Otto. A Frown and A Smile
Night and Morning
*Also available through the University of Florida Project in Applied
Economics, Gainesvllle, Fla.
62 Growing Through School Lunch Experiences
Growing Up With
Music, Book I. Complete
Edition. Chicago, Neil
K. Kjos Music Co.
Poulsson, E m lie; Songs of a Little Child's
Smith, Eleanor. Dny. Springfield. Mass.,
Milton Bradley Co.
Song of the Leafy
Rows and Rows of
Song of Beans
Song of Cabbage
Song of Lettuce
Song of Tomatoes and
A Suggested List of Recordings for the lunch hour is given
Arabian Dance, Nutcracker Suite
Auld Lang Syne
Ballet Music, from Rosamundle
Barcarolle, from Tales of Hoffman
Berceuse, from Jocelyn
Caprice Viennoise (violin)
Dance Chinois, Nutcracker Suite
Dance of the Happy Spirits
Dance of the Sugar Plum Fairy,
Evening Star, from Tannhauser
Indian Love Call
Intermezzo, from Cavalleria Rusti-
La Golondrina (Spanish)
La Paloma (Spanish)
Land of the Sky Blue Water
March of the Little Lead Soldiers
Meditation, from Thnis
Melody in F
Morning, from Peer Gynt Suite
Song of India
Songs My Mother Taught Me
The Calm (3rd movement) from
William Tell Overture
The Last Rose of Summer (Irish)
The Music Box
Waltz of the Flowers, from Nut-
The School Lunch in the Instructional Program 63
Learning to Eat Around the World
Since the school is concerned with educating the child
in such a way as to equip him for properly taking his place
in society, it seems reasonable to assume that he should have
not only a wealth of background in subject matter but in
social and food practices as well. By the time a pupil graduates
from high school, he should have such a well rounded set
of educational experiences that he will feel at ease when coming
in contact with many life situations. The school, through the
school lunch program, can and should prepare him for many
eating situations likely to occur d(lr;nx his lifetime.
Cognizance must be taken of the fact that food habits are
being developed from babyhood to school age, and when a
child enters school he is already the possessor of a well estab-
lished set of practices-good or bad. By eating with the
pupils, the teacher will notice any undesirable practices or
prejudices related to that situation. Through a continuous
process of classroom instruction, together with practical experi-
ences, a child must be "reconditioned" where it seems necessary
and led carefully and persistently into the establishment of
The school lunch ]ipro:irani offers a basis of concrete appli-
cation in connection with classroom teaching acquainting the
child with real life eating situations and at the same time
developing in him an understanding of why many of these
cannot be followed in the school lunch program.
Learning to eat around the world is a broad area, but the
following situations point out that the school program should
be so practical as to prepare the child for them.
The average home has a single menu which allows for no
selection as far as the child is concerned. In this respect
it resembles the "plate lunch" type of service offered in the
school dining room. At home all members of the family must
be considered in each day's plan. The nutritional needs of
the family are determined by the number of members, their
age, and their activities. These needs in turn are governed
by the amount of money which may be spent for food. Here
64 Growing Through School Lunch Experiences
again the home meal is similar to the plate lunch served at
school. The same factors are involved-the nutritional needs
of the children and the amount of money which may be spent.
Wise use of money to cover needs adequately is necessary in
each case. This makes limited choice of food desirable. Alsu
the space and time necessary for preparing the food are to be
THE school dining room provides an
ideal situation for developing prac-
tices which will carry over and fit
into the home pattern of living. The
S well planned plate lunch automa-
*. tically provides an adequate meal.
sAll that remains is to provide the
S 0 same type of atmosphere and the
same situations that will be (or
should be) found in the home. Per-
ove.eR haps, occasionally each grade or
room may be allowed to set their
own tables in advance. The center-
( ot orn piece or table decoration, silver, and
glasses will be placed. Each child will
bring his own plate from the service counter and place it on the
table. One child will act as host and another as hostess. Still
another will be the waitress to pour water and attend to any other
needs. The blessing may be said or sung, polite table conversa-
tion carried on, and good table manners put into practice.
Instruction in all of these things has been given in the class-
room prior to their use in the dining room. The teacher will
sit with her group at the table as a part of the "family" and
will use this situation as an opportunity for further guidance
and incidental teaching in the classroom later.
The situation as described is ideal for daily use in the
school dining room. Perhaps the table decorations or festive
preparations will need to be limited to holidays or special
occasions but certainly the other procedures of eating together
can be carried out every day.
The School Lunch in the Instructional Program 65
Educational Possibilities of a Lunch Eaten at Home
1. Urge children not to go home if they live so far they have
to run or walk rapidly. Rest a few minutes at home or
school after lunch.
2. Remind them of toilet and hand washing after they get
home. Encourage hair combing.
3. Ask them to sometimes report in the afternoon on table
manners used at home during lunch.
4. Let them plan something interesting to tell at the family
table during the meal.
5. Children plan some menus of adequate lunches which their
mothers might like to use for lunch (or supper).
6. Help with the school garden. Help prepare and serve
vegetables at mid-morning lunch.
7. List foods which mother does not serve, but which are good
for boys and girls. Ask her to serve them sometimes.
8. Bring a packed lunch to school or secure lunch at school
occasionally in order to eat with the other children.
The Packed Lunch*
Even though the child may not ordinarily carry his lunch
to school, there are occasions when he will use and enjoy a
packed lunch. Perhaps Johnny is going on an all day fishing
trip with Daddy, or perhaps Sally is going to spend the day
at the beach with a friend. In any such event the child
should know what food to put into the lunch box and how to
pack it. The lunch to be carried in a box or pail is very
difficult to manage for several reasons. Foods dry out unless
carefully wrapped, making variety difficult to provide. Things
that should be crisp are not easily carried. However, most
of these difficulties can be overcome by careful planning.
Each packed lunch should contain something substantial,
something crisp and juicy, something sweet and something
hot. Substantial foods for the lunch box include sandwiches.
Juicy fruits, such as oranges and apples are suitable. Fresh
tomatoes are easily carried. Celery and lettuce may be kept
by wrapping in a wet cloth and then in heavy oil paper.
Cookies and cake are easily packed. Custards, puddings, or
*See Page 43 of this Bulletin for further information on packed
66 Growing Through School Lunch Experiences
cooked fruits can be carried in a small screw top jar. Figs,
dates, raisins, or a few pieces of candy make a wholesome
dessert. Hot cocoa, soups, and other liquids can be carried
satisfactorily in a thermos bottle. Paper napkins are a "must"
in the well packed lunch. "The key to the adequate lunch
box is in the packing thereof." Instruction and demonstration
should be given in the art of lunch packing.
As a concluding activity each child may plan, prepare,
and pack his own lunch, bring it to school, and participate in
a "packed lunch party." This activity will naturally enlist
the cooperation of the parents.
Some special activities and adaptations involving packed
1. Plan menus for adequate packed lunches suitable for school
2. Pack some adequate lunches as a demonstration. Children
will usually provide a lunch kit with a half-pint bottle, wax
paper, sandwich bags, napkins, small jars with screw on
lids, and some suitable foods.
3. Plant a small plot of quick growing salad vegetables-
radishes, lettuce, mustard. Prepare vegetables to eat raw
with lunch brought from home.
4. Make oil cloth place mats; wash and dry daily. Paper
napkins may be used, however the cost is sometimes prohi-
bitive. Children do not always have napkins in their lunch
5. Arrange flowers for table.
6. Provide for special occasions:
a. The children may draw names and each child make a
favor, or place card, and decorate a napkin for person
whose name he draws.
b. Make special room and table decorations.
c. Prepare menus for special occasions.
7. Plan outdoor picnic occasionally.
8. Plan a hospitality day when everyone brings something
extra to share with others.
9. Arrange for half pint bottles of milk to be delivered just
before lunch to sell to children who can buy it. The school
should provide for children who cannot afford to buy it.
The School Lunch in the Instructional Program 67
Many churches occasionally promote some type of activity
involving eating. The most common type is the so called "poi
luck" supper which offers in reality the type of selective
service found in commercial cafeterias. Here is another life
situation calling upon a knowledge derived from experience-
that of choosing foods from a large array to make a balanced
Instruction in the classroom is of course necessary to
"setting up" the situation. The pupil must be given a back-
ground of knowledge which will help him to choose wisely
from a large variety of foods. A typical church supper menu
should be discussed and the foods listed on the board. This
will point out that there is always a large variety of different
types of food such as meats, vegetables, salads, and desserts.
A wise choice would not permit taking three or four kinds of
meat, three or four kinds of desserts, nor three or four kinds
of any type of food. Work out sample well balanced plate
menus from the foods listed on the board. As a culmination
to this study and discussion of a real life situation, and in
cooperation with the school lunch manager, "a church supper"
may be planned and set up in one corner of the school dining
room. Perhaps many of the foods could be brought from
home, according to a plan worked out by the group following
the pattern of the usual church supper as would be the case in
the real life situation. Perhaps some could be supplied by the
school lunch department, or, ideally, the children could be
allowed to help prepare some of them the day before. A
schedule might be worked out that would not interfere with
the efficient working of the school lunch department and
class room schedule. When the time comes all foods will be
arranged on the table. Each child will take a plate and
proceed to make what he thinks is a wise selection. When all
have finished and are seated at a table, the "choices" may
be discussed while eating, or preferably later in the class room.
In other words, each choice will be evaluated according to
certain standards previously discussed.
68 Growing Through School Lunch Experiences
The School Picnic
The same problem is involved here as in the church supper
-a large variety of foods from which the individual is expected
to make a wise choice. On the other hand a well balanced
picnic lunch may be planned in the classroom, prepared with
the help of the school lunch manager, or prepared entirely at
home and brought to school. Such a plan need not involve a
large variety of foods. Where time and convenience permit,
the picnic lunch should be eaten out of doors.
The automobile and good roads have made pienicing
popular. Florida has many state parks, wayside parks, and
every community has some favorite picnic spot. Many people
have special picnic equipment and use the picnic as one of the
ways of entertaining their friends. Elaborate equipment is
not needed. Picnic menus may be worked out by the pupils
which involve no great amount of time or expense. Here is
an opportunity for teaching good citizenship in observing "no
trespassing" signs, buliding fires only where permitted, observ-
ing the Boy and Girl Scout rules, putting all refuse in con-
tainers provided for this purpose, leaving the picnic grounds
neat and clean.
The same Boy and Girl Scout rules should apply to the
school and home dining room. Certainly the dining room
should always be left clean and orderly.
at ^ %-cn;-
The Soda Fountain and Booth
A SODA fountain is a very busy place. For that reason
one does not linger endlessly, nor does one pile wraps, parcels,
or books on an empty stool or booth table: It is not necessary
to leave a tip. Food served here, as a rule, is not intended to
take the place of a home meal. In most drug stores there is
merely short order refreshment service.
AS far as conduct is concerned
in a booth, one does not be-
come loud or boisterous simply
because the booth seems to
offer comparitive privacy. Tip-
Sping is customary if an order
has been taken and the filling
of that order has necessitated a
trip to the kitchen. Soda foun-
tain service involves no trip
CL +B :Drua Store, to the kitchen, hence no
The food served and the practices at "Drive In" stands
may be compared to those of the soda fountain.
The Afternoon Tea or Reception
The term "tea" may indicate a very informal gathering
of a few intimate friends for fireside refreshments, or it may
mean a rather formal gathering of a large number of people.
A reception is a formal affair. Frequently it is held in
the evening and requires full dress. Engraved invitations are
used. The occasion is either the visit of some distinguished
guest, or the presentation to society of a debutante, a bride, or
some other significant person. Receptions are also given as
the formal entertainment of clubs, colleges, fraternal, or social
groups. The country clubs or a hotel is more frequently used
for receptions than the home.
AT a formal tea the hostess
and a few of her friends greet
J---. the guests as they arrive. After
.- passing this group the guests
chat with their friends. One
goes to the dining room upon
a -. invitation. The tea table usual-
ly contains candles, attractive
dishes of nuts, candies, sandwiches, and cakes. It is customary
for one or two friends of the hostess to sit at the table and
serve. The guest may be asked whether she prefers tea, coffee,
or fruit punch.
Teachers and pupils may plan, prepare, and give a tea
for their mothers in the school dining room.
The School Lunch in the
70 Growing Through School Lunch Experiences
The School Banquet
Proper dress, table manners, decorations, menus, and
entertainment will all be involved in this unit. This requires
careful planning. The committee on arrangements usually
consults with someone who has charge of food preparation. This
may be the school lunch manager, the home economics teacher,
or perhaps a committee. In most schools the facilities are
such that banquets may be given in the school dining room.
Serve a simple meal of not more than three courses. Some
foods are better adapted for serving at banquets than others.
The appetizer should be such that it may be on the table when
the guests arrive. All foods should be chosen from the point
of ease in preparation and in serving and with the thought in
mind that any delay in serving will not seriously affect the
Tea Rooms, Inns, Clubs, and Road Houses
These may be classed together although there is some
difference in them. They serve one or two meals a day with
little choice of menu and generally have a "house special" such
as chicken, spaghetti, pastries, etc. They usually serve special
orders anytime. They cater to groups and private parties for
dinner, bridge, etc. There will be a choice of only one or two
The Cafe or Restaurant
Many people must eat all of their meals in cafes, restau-
rants, and cafeterias. If they follow desirable food practices,
they go to such places and select from the menu, foods
The School Lunch in the Instructional Program 71
which will meet their body needs and keep them healthy. When
the housewife wishes to get away from meal preparation in her
home, the family goes down town for a meal. When guests come
unexpectedly, it is convenient to take them out for dinner. In
cafes and restaurants the menu is table d'hote or a la carte, or
both. The table d'hote meal is one in which the menu is
planned at a fixed price. The guest usually has the choice of
two or three kinds of meat, vegetables, beverage, and dessert.
The a la carte menu is one from which one chooses each food
for his meal separately. There is a fixed price for each item.
The cost of the meal depends upon the number and price of
THE menu cards in restau-
~ rants and cafe often contain
club meals. In such meals the
food combinations are already
c made and one has little or no
Selection. There is usually a
3 choice of meats in combina-
tion with some vegetable and
.** ;choice of beverages. Then, of
course, there is the a la carte
Oat" e C- fe- menu. The pupils should col-
lect restaurant and hotel
menus for class study. Attention should be called to the cost of
a la carte items. Suitable lunches may be chosen from the a la
carte menu and the prices totaled. Why is this type of ordering
more expensive than ordering the club meal or plate lunch ? Dis-
cuss the reasons fully. Also, when a number of choices are
allowed, plan two or three possible lunches from the given club
menu. Consider the kind of foodstuffs necessary to balance the
meals for the day.
Discussion should involve the type of service given in a
restaurant. A practice situation may be set up in one corner
of the school dining room or perhaps in the classroom if there
are movable seats and tables. Some pupils may set up the
tables, menus may be prepared by the class beforehand (club
type menus) using foods prepared in the school lunch depart-
ment. Quantity cookery classes may wish to help prepare
these meals for the following reasons: (1) It affords an
72 Growing Through School Lunch Experiences
opportunity for them to prepare items more elaborate than
those usually served in the school lunch, and (2) The occasion
provides a party when the entire school can consume the
product, thereby justifying the expenditure. Some pupils will
act as waiters, etc. Toy money may be used for "tipping"
and for "paying the bill."
Lunch at School
SCHOOLS generally offer one of
,P three types of service. These are:
S(1) No choice plate lunch service. (2)
Limited choice plate lunch service.
(3) Combination service consisting of
(a) plate lunch, (b) a la carte items,
principally sandwiches and fancy
.. desserts, (c) Resale package goods.
The no choice plate lunch service is the most prevalent
type because it is generally recognized as having more merits
as compared to demerits than either of the other two types.
The combination service is used less and less where the real
purposes and values of the school lunch program are fully
A discussion of the types of school lunch services should
help children to fully understand the purposes and values of
the school lunch program. They should also find it interesting
to contrast school lunch services with a la carte and table
d'hote services available in cafes, restaurants, and hotels.
Where there is a good school lunch service provided,
children who eat elsewhere are denied an important and essential
part of the school's educational program.
Hotels are run on either the American or the European
plan. An American plan hotel offers meals, but the guests
may eat elsewhere. In European plan hotels the charge per
day includes both room and meals.
Instruction should be given in how to register at a hotel,
tips involved and how much, types of services offered, how to
dress when eating in the hotel dining room, how to enter the
dining room, etiquette involved, ordering, tipping, paying the
Acceptability to child
Cost to child for value
Chart: Types of Service Used
needs of children met, if menu
develops habit of eating ade-
child learns to eat a greater
variety of foods and to accept
that which is served.
profits from vicarious learning.
more suited to maturity level
of lower grades.
does not provide for individual
requires less time for serving
because children don't hesitate
in line while decisions are being
in School Lunch Departments
Limited choice Combination service plate
plate & other items
provides for needs of children, many children do not select
develops habit of eating ade- many do not develop the habit
quate lunch, of eating an adequate lunch.
does not teach the child to eat those not taking plate lunches
a larci :'.' -ir of foods, because do not learn to eat many items
he "I :' his favorites from needed in daily diets.
the items offered.
profits from vicarious learning, the purchasing of a la carte
items does not profit from
more suited to maturity level more acceptable to upper
of upper grades, grades.
provides for guided choice, except for those selecting plate
lunches there is maximum in-
more time consuming than service is slower in direct pro.
single menu lunch, portion to the multiplicity of
more expensive than single cost is highest.
74 Growing Through School Lunch Experiences
bill, etc. Classroom instruction takes up the gentleman's
duties and what is expected of the lady. Much more is
involved in this study of a real life situation than just food
selection. The purpose is to help the pupil to become well
adjusted by giving him a background of functional knowledge
and practice so that he will feel at ease when he meets with
this situation at any time. He should also understand that the
time involved and the type of service naturally results in a
Again, the situation may be set up in the classroom or
the dining room. Perhaps the homemaking education dining
room may be "borrowed." As a result of teacher-pupil plan-
ning, a complete project may be worked out.
At noon we may eat a "business man's lunch" in the
coffee shop or grill room; the Fountain Room may tempt
us; or we may prefer a nearby tea room. If we eat in the
Fountain Room (a pretty place with shaded lights and soft
music) we have some difficulty in choosing our lunch because
the list is so tempting. Perhaps we choose an individual
chicken pie, a toasted sandwich or a delectable salad. Maybe
we also order hot chocolate with whipped cream and a hard
roll, and an ice for dessert. The tastefully garnished food
pleases us immensely but our check is larger than if we had
eaten in the coffee shop. Usually the special menu for the
day is one's best selection if he is in a hurry. The kitchen has
the food prepared and ready.
The Dining Car
This may be presented as an imaginary journey some-
what as follows: "After the first few hours of comfortable
riding, we realize that we are hungry. Soon a waiter in a
white coat comes through the car, announcing, .'First call to
luncheon, dining car forward.' After washing our hands and
smoothing our hair we go forward to the dining car. The
steward, or manager of the dining car service, seats us at a
table for two and leaves us with a menu card and a card and
pencil for writing our order.
The bill of fare is well assorted, but offers only a limited
variety. We note that the prices are higher than those at
any local eating place at home, but we observe that our neigh-
The School Lunch in the Instructional Program 75
bors have generous servings and have ordered only one or two
dishes; that the linen, silver, and china are attractive; and
that the service is excellent.
From the bill of fare we quickly select, perhaps, a combina-
tion dish that will give us both meat and vegetables, a pot pie,
for example, bread and butter, sliced tomatoes, and a glass
ABOVE the hum of the
train the noise of dishes
may be heard occasionally,
ing or boisterous conduct.
Everyone is quiet, attentive
ensg to his own affairs, and
considerate of others. Al-
i though we do not know
/any of the other travelers,
we feel a friendly air in
.Y.CYoo the dining car, perhaps
because the stewart has
On +hi T'ror asked us is everything suits
our taste and if we have
any further wants.
We did not order dessert because we were not sure that we
wanted it. Our meal has satisfied us so well that when the waiter
presents the card for us to choose a dessert we tell him that we
do not care for anything more. The man across the aisle seems
to want dessert but is undecided what to order. The waiter sees
his indecision and suggests that the apple pie is very good, and
the order for apple pie and coffee is given.
Our waiter has meanwhile removed all of our dishes and
placed a finger bowl in front of us. He presents the check
and we pay him promptly. He returns the change on a small
silver tray or a folded napkin. Perhaps we leave one or two
coins as a tip for the waiter; in some states, however, tipping
is prohibited by law. The waiter thanks us, pulls out our
chairs as we rise, and we find our way back to our seats in the
pullman or to the observation car, leaving our places in the
diner to other hungry travelers."*
From Everyday Foods-Harris and Speer. Houghton Mifflin Co.,
2500-Prairie Ave., Chicago 16, Illinois.
76 Growing Through School Lunch Experiences
In setting up the practice situation many ideas can be
worked out by the teacher and pupils.
Eating on an imaginary boat trip across the ocean is an
interesting experience for school children. Everyone is excited
and happy. You look for the deck steward and find that he
is completely surrounded by many other anxious but courteous
travelers. Finally your turn comes and you are assigned a
steamer chair which you find is located in an ideal spot away
from the winds and the noise. A busy time follows in which you
visit the bath steward for an appointment (unless you can
afford your own private bath in connection with your cabin).
At the hour assigned to you, you will find the tub filled and
ready for you. You must also learn where you are to be placed
in the dining room. It is a privilege to be at the Captain's
table, but you will find enjoyable companions wherever you
are placed. When the time comes to eat, you may choose some
flowers from among the many in your cabin and carry them
to the dining room to adorn your table. You are glad to find
when you arrive at your table that some of the people you
became interested in earlier in the day are your table com-
panions. Formal introductions are dispensed with; greetings
are exchanged with your "family" friends.
The food is good and well served. The same rules apply
here as at your home table or as when dining at a hotel. You
do not tip, as all tips are included in a final bill at the end of
A Bon Voyage party may be planned by teachers and
pupils. Games suitable to carrying out the idea may be played
and refreshments served around the "Captain's" table. One
child may be chosen to be the Captain and other childern chosen
to act the part of fictitious characters from different places.
Planned table conversation can prove to be very entertaining.
Meals are included in the price of a plane ticket. Specially
prepared food is put on the plane by catering companies at
certain stops during the flight. The food is already arranged
in containers and hot foods are kept hot. There is no choice
The School Lunch in the Instructional Program 77
of food and so this may be considered a "plate lunch" type of
service as we find in most of our school dining rooms. When
dinner time approaches, the hostess or stewardess will bring a
pillow to put in the lap over which she spreads a napkin. She
perhaps will then ask if you would like some fruit juice. This
will be served first and the cups taken up. The remainder of
the meal will be brought on a tray to be placed in the lap. This,
if a dinner, will consist of a meat, a vegetable, a salad, dessert
and beverage. On short runs, box lunches are sometimes supplied.
Longer runs have the full meal with all the trimmings.
AN airplane party may
be planned by the pupils
S with teacher guidance. In-
-*vitations in the form of
tickets may be made. For
S entertainment games may
be played with names such
as the Takeoff, the Flight,
S..o the Tail Spin or the Nose
Dive. Suggestions for these
are given in "Fun Fare"
On trhtoe Ola which may be obtained
from the National Dairy
Council, 111 N. Canal St., Chicago 6, Ill. Each person's lunch is
served on a tray as in an airplane.
In Foreign Countries
Due to our modern methods of transportation the people
who live in other parts of the world have come to be regarded
as neighbors rather than strangers. Because people in various
parts of the world travel about and become acquainted with
each other their customs change. Nationalities have different
ways of eating, expressing courtesy and hospitality. For
example: it is the custom for Chinese children to use chopsticks
and hold their bowls of rice. We need not regard any rules of
etiquette as final because good manners in any situation will
probably always be an expression of kindness and consideration
The study of eating in foreign countries has countless
possibilities for learning and integration. Teachers and pupils
78 Growing Through School Lunch Experiences
working together can work out a project culminated in a "for-
eign neighbor" banquet. Children may plan the menu, make
costumes, and make decorations. Interesting suggestions are
given in "Fun Fare" (National Dairy Council, 111 N. Canal
St., Chicago 6, Ill.) for a Travelers' Dinner which takes the
travelers on a tour of several foreign countries. Invitations are
written as passports. The dinner is a progressive one served
in courses. Each course represents a different country, and
each country is portrayed in an appropriately decorated home
and served by hostesses appropriately costumed.
Using Florida Foods
Because of its location in relation to the sun, Florida has
a tropical climate. It is surrounded on three sides by water
and has many fresh water lakes within its boundaries. Because
of these two conditions and its soil, our state is particularly
adapted to the growing of many fruits and vegetables. But
like most other sections of the world, Florida does not produce
all of the food products it needs. Florida is deficient in some
of the basic foods-for instance, milk.
It is important that Florida boys and girls understand
the food problems of our state. They should know to what
extent the state supplies foods to other states and other parts
of the world. They should know to what extent Florida is
dependent upon other sections of the world for essential foods,
Surveys are all important in familiarizing the pupils with
their community food resources. What foods are raised in our
family gardens? What could we plant in our school garden
that we do not have in our home gardens so that we may taste
fruits or vegetables we have never before eaten? How much
of each food would we need to plant to supply the school lunch
with enough of these new vegetables to provide a taste for all?
What crops are raised commercially in our county and in
nearby counties? What are the market outlets for these prod-
ucts? Are they shipped out of the state? How many of our
fathers make their living by working in some phase of food
production or merchandizing?
The school lunch program offers many excellent integra-
tion opportunities at the various class levels and in many subject
areas as our boys and girls learn about Florida's food products.
The School Lunch in the Instructional Program 79
NOTE: Photograph from "Can Surplus Fruits and Vegetables," bul-
letin No. 114, June, 1943, State Department of Agriculture, Tallahassee,
It takes but a little imagination on the part of the teacher to
devise units of study which include the school lunch department.
By familiarizing our youth with the products of their
counties we are creating a need for them and by using our
locally grown products we are supplying an outlet, thereby
helping our entire community economically. This affects all
of us directly or indirectly.
Many of our locally produced foods may be purchased
more cheaply than products shipped in from other sections of
the state or from another state. Florida products may supply
many of the foods required to complete our basic seven food
80 Growing Through School Lunch Experiences
needs for the day. In this connection the menus served in the
school lunch department may be checked regarding the source
of the foods served. Ways of introducing new foods on the
school lunch menu may be discussed through cooperative effort
between students and the school lunch manager. Through such
discussions, children will learn valuable lessons in economics,
nutrition, and resource education. These may also be lessons
in diplomacy and citizenship.
There is no better way to alter a community's eating
habits than by changing the eating habits of "the young fry."
This is ideally done through the school lunch program.
Many Florida teachers can remember the day when an
orange was seen only at Christmas time. As the public has
become educated regarding the use of oranges our demand for
these Florida fruits has made the growing and marketing
of them one of our chief industries.
Florida foods are important sources of minerals and
vitamins; nevertheless, the diets of Florida's school children
have been found to be deficient in these items. For example,
many children eat too few Vitamin C rich foods, yet our fruits
and vegetables form excellent sources of this vitamin.
Below are charts listing some of the better Florida sources
of certain of these minerals and vitamins.
Calcium Phos- Iron A B C
scallops bluefish shrimp clams halibut
clams croker oysters herring oysters
shrimp lobster oysters trout
Calcium Phos- Iron A B C
broccoli lima beans collards beet greens green limas broccoli
mustard mustard broccoli cauliflower cabbage
greens broccoli greens green pea green and
collards cauliflower green lima carrots red pep-
turnip collards beans pers
greens beet greens spinach collards
green corn chard chard mustard
mustard green peas endive greens
greens spinach mustard tomatoes
green peas potatoes greens
The School Lunch in the Instructional Program 81
Calcium Phos- Iron A B C
blueberries figs bananas persim- avocado grapefruit
figs limes blueberries mons mandarin guava
limes plums figs avocado bananas lemons
mandarins grapes guava figs limes
tangerines straw- limes oranges
berries mangos mandarins
How may Florida products bring variety to our menus,
variety in color, in texture, and in flavor? In many cases new
foods are but waiting for the opportunity to make their contri-
butions to our menus.
There are many exotic and exciting fruits that only Florida
children are privileged to enjoy. Our school children should
become familiar with them by sight and taste in order to know
and utilize our natural resources!
The yellow, green, purple, orange and red of our Florida
fruits and vegetables would enhance any school lunch menu.
Colors may be studied and used to every advantage. Below are
a few of the ways to glamourizee" our local stock in trade
as well as offer ample opportunity for artistic development
by the children.
Picture bright red radishes on the salad plate, the luscious
green lime beside the fish, melon balls in the fruit cup, a
shiny red scuppernong in the center of a cool yellow grape-
fruit, a head of cooked cauliflower surrounded on a platter by
steaming green beans, cucumber slices on our potato salad, a
slice of bright red tomato on the cold plate, necklaces of green
and red peppers on our meat platters, a tender green onion on
the school lunch plate, a display of bright vegetables or fruits
to lend cheer to the dining room, a display table of little known
Florida foods for all to sample.
82 Growing Through School Lunch Experiences
Below are listed some typical Florida vegetables, where
they grow and some interesting comments about each. To
become familiar with these foods should be a part of the educa-
tion of every Floridian.
Beans, lima October-May
Beans, green & October-May
Cabbage, chinese November-April
Green and red
Practically all year
Harvested largely in
April & May. Dry
most of the year
Almost all year
Available almost all
of the time
Available almost all
of the time
November to April
Both pole and bush beans
Florida leads in production of
market green beans
Tops and roots good
Closely related to cauliflower
Good in Vitamin C
Has characteristics of both
lettuce and cabbage. May
be used cooked or raw.
One of the few vegetables
which is really a flower
Important truck crop in
A variety of beet; thick broad
leaves and succulent stems.
Semi-sweet large ears known
as "roasting ears"
Grows very rapidly
Believed to have originated in
Universal salad plant
Requires cool weather to
Closely related to the cotton
Young, green onions used raw
or cooked. Dry onions used
for seasoning and also as a
Vines now considered a valu-
able by-product for feed
Good source of Vitamin C
Grown from slips or cuttings
Grown from seed potatoes
Cool weather plant. Attrac-
tive for garnish.
The School Lunch in the Instructional Program 83
Spinach January-May Requires very short cooking
time therefore retains its
vitamins. It may also be
Tomatoes Almost all year Good source of Vitamin C
Turnips All year except Both roots and tops used
Pupils should enjoy developing similar charts on fruits
and other products.
Some helpful bulletins are:
"Florida Crops-What and When to Plant"-Bulletin No.
1, Florida State Department of Agriculture, August 1941
"Some Florida Truck Crops"-Florida State Department
of Agriculture, August 1945
"Grow Your Own Vegetables"-Bulletin No. 52, Florida
State Department of Agriculture, October 1947
"Florida Fruits and Vegetables in the Family Menu"-
Bulletin No. 46, Florida State Department of Agricul-
Decorative Plants for the School Dining Room
The joy of watching a plant burst into bloom is a thrill
every child should have. Pot plants may well be used as a
part of the plan of decoration for the school dining room.
Common plants such as carrot tops, avocados and sweet
potatoes, when set in attractive containers, may be very
decorative, but a sweet potato vine in a rusty tomato can adds
little to the child's appreciation of the beautiful. Inexpensive
containers of good design may be purchased, or children may
make attractive pots as a handicraft project. Every school
lunch department has suitable containers such as: number
10 cans, gallon jars or jugs. These may supply classrooms and
dining rooms. Glass containers may be used for plants which
grow well in water without soil, such as avocados, philodendron,
ivy or sweet potatoes. Plants grown in this way give children
an opportunity to watch the development of roots as well as
stems and leaves and may add much interest to the biology or
Growing plants for the decoration of the classroom or
school dining room provides excellent opportunities for chil-
84 Growing Through School Lunch Experiences
dren to learn that plants, like children, need air, sunlight,
water and proper food and that their leaves need washing to
keep them free from dust and insects.
THE plants to be used as part of
a classroom activity should be
Chosen with care. It is easy to
Ssee the disheartening effect that
S might be the result if, after care-
.... fully feeding, cleaning and
pruning a plant, the final prod-
T ....vv. \. ... ,a .<. uct is a wilted, dejected looking
specimen instead of the bright
green sturdy plant, which is the result of "right food and good
care." Hardy plants are needed with special thought given to
the amount of sunshine available, which plants grow well in
small pots, and the length of time needed for growing, etc. The
nephythtis, for instance, grows so rapidly that actual growth
may be seen almost overnight. No waiting four weeks to see
It is desirable that children establish schedules for caring
for plants. This shows that responsibility is taken for certain
duties and planned activities result in a creditable final
The children may obtain outside help from local agencies
such as: Members of the local garden club, the county agricul-
tural agent, the home demonstration agent, the librarian, the
state department of agriculture, local horticulturists and
interested parents and friends who are well versed in the care
of familiar plants.
A trip to a local greenhouse or to a well-kept private
garden might be a part of a plant project. An initial visit of
this type may help the children to plan wisely.
The following lists of easily grown and suitable indoor
plants are taken from "The Book of Indoor Hobbies" by Eman-
uele Stieri, a book which teachers and their pupils will enjoy
The School Lunch in the Instructional Program 85
Types of Plants Suitable for Indoor Gardening
I. For Windows with Light but II. For Windows Having Two or
No Sun Three Hours of Sun
Aloe Asparagus fern
Dumb-cane Cape bulbs
Grape ivy Dutch bulbs, tulips, etc.
Hen-and-chickens Flowering maple
Iron plant Peperomia
Living-vase plant Pothos
Philodendron Spider plant
Pineapple plant Coleus
Rubber plant (chinese) ITI. For Windows Having Full
Sedum Sunlight (5 or more hours daily)
Snake plant Cactus
Swiss cheese plant Cape bulbs
Wandering-jew Dutch bulbs
Nutrition Education Activities
and the School Lunch
Elementary teachers frequently ask for help in planning
nutrition activities for their classes. The "Teachers' Guide-
book"* gives excellent background information and suggests
ways of integrating nutrition education in classroom teaching.
For other helps, see the bibliography at the end of this bulletin.
During the summer of 1946, graduate home economics students
at Florida State University prepared a guide for teachers of
grades 1 through 6**. Following are four samples at different
grade levels adapted from this material. It is hoped that they
*General Mills, Minneapolis, Minn.
**Prepared by Mrs. Fern Kraushaar, Mrs. Marion Barclay and Miss
Ellen McLeod under the supervision of Dr. Ruth Connor.
86 Growing Through School Lunch Experiences
will show some possibilities for teaching nutrition in the elemen-
tary grades. If teachers desire additional help in the develop-
ment of plans, they may secure all of the materials prepared for
any specific grade level from the School Lunch Supervisor, State
Department of Education, or from Dr. Ruth Conner, Professor
of Home Economics and Child Development, Florida State Uni-
versity, Tallahassee, Florida.
Subjects treated at the various grade levels include:
Raw Vegetables are Good to Eat
A Raw Vegetable Salad
A Simple Vegetable Sandwich
Plans for a Picnic
What Teeth do for Us
Caring For Our Teeth
Foods Our Teeth Need
A Luncheon at School to Feed Our
The Meat We Eat
Milk and Cheese Build Muscles
Eggs are Muscle Tissue Builders
The Food Plan For the Day
Preparing and Cooking Vegetables
Plans for a Party for Parents
Party for Parents
What Cereals Are
Cooking a Whole Grain Breakfast
Start the Day With a Good Break-
Green and Yellow Vegetables
Citrus Fruits and Tomatoes
Potatoes and Other Vegetables
Milk and Milk Products
Meat, Poultry, Fish, and Other
Bread, Flour, and Cereals
Butter, and Fortified Margarine
The Food Plan for the Day-
The Food Plan for the Day-
The Food Plan for the Day-
The carrying out of activities involving the preparation
and serving of food affords excellent opportunities for coopera-
tive planning and work. This is especially true where schools
do not have equipment needed for carrying out activities in the
classroom. Advance planning should be done so that: (1)
The school lunch manager will have on hand the foods needed
for the activity. (2) The school lunch menu for the day may
include the same items the children prepare. For example; all
the children in the school would especially enjoy a cottage
cheese salad on the day when the third grade children had
made cottage cheese as a class activity. (3) The children may
The School Lunch in the Instructional Program 87
use such items as bowls, paring knives, and other necessary
equipment at a time when such items are not needed in the
school lunch department. (4) When class activities are carried
on in the school lunch department, they should not retard the
food production schedule, or interfere with the effective opera-
tion of either program.
First Grade-An Introduction to Raw Vegetables
Procedure: Carrots are scrubbed with a brush and washed well.
They are then sliced and each child given a piece
Discussion: The children are shown a bunch of carrots and
asked questions about them, such as, how they grow, what
color they are, why they have to be washed well before they
are cooked or eaten raw, and the like.
Points Emphasized: Hands must be washed before carrots are
eaten. Carrots are sweet and crisp. They have to be washed
well because they grow under the ground. Everyone is
served before anyone starts eating. Vegetables are good for
us and help us grow. We need to eat some of our vegetables
raw. Raw carrots are good.
Third Grade-A Cheese Party
Procedure: A bottle or jar of sour milk is displayed by the
teacher. It may be warmed slightly in water, or may be
placed in a sunny window. The "curds" are then separated
from the "whey" by straining through fine cloth. The curds
are collected, stirred well to break up lumps; salt is added
and mixed in well. The children prepare for eating; crackers
with small portions of the cheese are passed, and the children
again give their teeth some food that is good for them.
Discussion: Do the children know what sour milk is? Is it
good food? What does mother make from sour milk? How
can we make cheese from it? What did Miss Muffett eat in
the nursery rhyme?
Points Emphasized: Cheese is made from milk. Cheese is
good food for teeth.
Fourth Grade-Start the day with a good breakfast
Objective: To teach the value of a good breakfast. To prepare
a simple breakfast.
88 Growing Through School Lunch Experiences
Procedure: How many of you ate breakfast this morning?
Do you know what the word "breakfast" means? It means
to break the fast. After twelve hours or more without food
it is wise to break the fast with a good meal. We mustn't
let ,A.fiiz' up late be an excuse for not eating breakfast.
There is always time for important things and breakfast is
important. There are several reasons why it is important.
First, the body really needs plenty of fuel for the morn-
ing's work and play; second, if the breakfast is a good one,
the next meal (if it is eaten away from home) need not be so
heavy or expensive. Also it is important because it is one
time of the day that we can get in several of the "must"
What are some of the foods we usually have for breakfast ?
List these on the board as the children name them. Be sure
the list includes fruit, cereal, toast or bread in some form,
and milk or cocoa made with milk. A good breakfast might
include all of these things or just some of them. The impor-
tant thing is to eat at least a few of them so that we will
not have so many "must" foods left for the other two meals,
We feel better, too, if we have given our body some energy
before g,'iln. off to school.
Breakfast is a good time to get in some fruit such as
orange or tomato juice, banana on cereal, or berries. Fruits
are appetizers and we need them to "pep up" our appetites
in the morning. Then we certainly need a "Go Food." Who
remembers what the "Go Foods" are? Cereals. We need
a "Go Food" to get us started for the day. We will need
some milk in order to get in that whole quart for the day,
and this is just the time to have your daily (or almost
daily) egg, unless you plan to eat it at some other time
during the day.
We need not eat the same kind of breakfast'every morning,
but an example of a good breakfast might be; orange juice,
whole grain cereal with milk, buttered toast, and cocoa made
Today we are going to prepare a delicious drink that has
several of these foods in it. It serves as a good "quick"
breakfast if you oversleep some morning and are afraid of
The School Lunch in the Instructional Program 89
being late for school, or if mother is ill and you will need to get
your own breakfast. The name of the drink is Orange-nog. The
recipe for this delicious drink is written on the blackboard.
1 cup water
1 cup evaporated
1 tablespoon sugar
chipped ice (if
1 cup of orange juice
The ingredients are measured carefully and put into a
quart jar. A jar rubber and cap are placed securely on the
jar. Several children take turns shaking the jar to mix the
ingredients well. This recipe makes three cups of beverage.
What three foods mentioned as good to serve for breakfast
do we have in this drink? Milk, fruit, egg. What would
be a good food to serve with this? Whole grain toast. There
we have a complete simple breakfast. What kind of milk
have we used in the drink? Canned. Is that as good for us
as fresh milk? Yes. How much water did we use with the
canned milk to make it like fresh milk? Equal parts.
The children may make several pieces of toast, butter the
slices, and cut each slice into fourths. Paper squares are
passed; also paper cups; the toast is passed and some of
the orange-nog is served to each child. When all have been
served the "breakfast" is eaten.
Points Emphasized: Breakfast is important. A good break-
fast might include fruit, whole grain cereal, milk or cocoa
made with milk, and perhaps an egg. Some of these foods
may be combined in one appetizing dish.
Materials Needed: A work table; a quart jar; pitcher; orange
reamer; sharp knife; canned milk; electric toaster, or some
other means of making toast; measuring cup; measuring
spoons; strainer; wash basin; paper towels; oranges; sugar;
water; paper cups; paper squares; whole grain bread; butter
Suggestions: If time permits, the teacher may have the class
prepare rolled oats and include it as a part of the breakfast.
90 Growing Through School Lunch Experiences
Explain that this makes an even better breakfast as it
furnishes another whole grain cereal and it is something hot.
To do this, the cereal should be put on to cook before
preparing the other foods. The work table may be set as a
breakfast table with attractive cloth and colorful dishes. The
breakfast may then be placed on the table (one place setting)
before being served so that the children may see the "good
Sixth Grade-Potatoes and other vegetables and fruits.
Objective: To teach the importance of these foods in the diet.
Procedure: The next group of foods which are important to
us are potatoes and other vegetables, and fruit such as
bananas, peaches, apples, and pineapples. Show attractive pic-
tures of each. These foods are important for the'minerals
they contain-iron, which makes rich blood; calcium and phos-
phorous, which make strong bones. They also contain some
vitamins. Other vegetables and fruits which might be
included in this group are: beets, cauliflower, celery, corn,
cucumber, eggplant, onions, radishes, summer squash, white
turnips, apples, apricots, avocados, berries, cherries, pears,
mangoes, prunes, plums, and raisins. The teacher should
have pictures of these to show, or in using the food models,
have them set up on the table for all to see.
In what form do we commonly buy these in the market?
Raw. In what other forms can some of these be bought?
Dried, frozen, canned. You see, then, that we not only need
to have a citrus fruit or some other food from that group
but we also need another fruit besides. What is the main
reason for eating citrus fruit, tomato, or raw cabbage? To
get the Vitamin C. What is the main reason for eating some
of these other fruits and vegetables? For the minerals and
other vitamins which they contain.
Most any of these foods can be eaten raw or cooked. We
like some things better when they have been cooked, but we
should be careful not to throw away the water they were
cooked in because some of the minerals and vitamins are
dissolved in the cooking water.
Does it matter what time of the day we eat these foods?
No, just so they are eaten every day. What are some common
The School Lunch in the Instructional Program 91
ways in which we eat white potatoes ? Mashed, boiled, baked,
-reamed, and as potato salad.
It is nice to know how to make some tlings ourselves.
Suppose some friends asked you unexpectedly to go on a
picnic and your part in the preparation was to take some
potato salad. If mother was not at home, or if she was
unable to make it for you, here is a simple recipe that you
could make yourself.
4 boiled potatoes
1 tsp. vinegar
2 tablespoons chopped
pickle or cucumber may
2 hard-cooked eggs
Salt & pepper
1 teaspoon scraped onion
mayonnaise to moisten
While the children are washing their hands the teacher
writes the recipe on the board. The ingredients, which the
teacher has already prepared, are taken from the basket and
placed on the table. Also have a bowl, paring knife, and a
wooden spoon The potatoes are cubed and put into the bowl;
the eggs are peeled and diced and added to the bowl; the
vinegar is measured and added; if onion is used, it is scraped
and added; add the pickle or cucumber. These last three
items are entirely optional. Sprinkle with salt and pepper
and add enough mayonnaise to make it moist. Mix lightly,
but well. Someone may be allowed to taste a bit of the salad
to see if it is salty enough. Small paper dishes are passed
and a teaspoon of salad is served to each.
Points To Be Emphasized: Potato and other vegetables and
fruits not included in Group 2 of the "Basic 7" food groups
are important for the minerals and vitamins which they con-
Materials needed: table; a cover for the table; mixing bowl;
wooden spoon; ingredients for the salad; paper dishes; paper
spoons or forks; food models; other pictures.
Suggestions: Any vegetable salad may be made.