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A GUIDE TO
IN FLORIDA SCHOOLS
BULLETIN NO. 34A
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
DIVISION OF INSTRUCTION
Joe Hall, Director
/ll/ STATE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
Colin English, State Superintendent
The purpose of this bulletin is to serve as an aid and a guide to the
teaching of speech on a local and statewide basis. The basic philosophy,
objectives, requirements, and planned core areas present a unified picture
of the concept of speech education in the modern school on all levels from
Kindergarten through the twelfth grade. The bulletin is intended to help
administrators and teachers who plan to inaugurate a speech program in
their schools as well as those who already have such a program,
A supplement on speech correction has been included to help the class-
room teacher give assistance to students with speech irregularities not
severe enough to require the service of a specialist. Recommendations for
referrals are made for pupils with severe speech conditions.
When consulting the plans for six possible core areas of organized
speech at the secondary level which are included in this bulletin, the
user should remember that they are flexible, adaptable, and comprehensive,
The plans are not designed to adhere rigidly to any particular text but
are so constructed that they can be used as an aid and a guide with any
modern speech text or group of texts within the respective areas.
The a trials and procedures, although not exhaustive, are inclusive
enough to suggest more than can normally be included by any one class.
They are so drawn up that the administrator and teacher can through
selection as to sequence, type, and number for use adapt them to any
period, any class size, any special pupil need, and any particular situa-
tion. In schools offering no formal speech training the process of lift-
ing units to correlate with courses in other fields such as English or
language arts can be used to advantage.
Acmnowledgments are made to the following who prepared the materials
contained in this bulletin: Dr. Howard Townsend, University of Texas,
Consultant; Mrs. Beverly B. Adams, Andrew Jackson High School, Jackson.
ville;.Miss Alma Barkemeyer, Bay County High School, Panama City; Miss
Mary E. Boyd,.Putnam High School, Palatka; Mrs. Clarice Brown, Marion
County, Ocala; Miss Eunice A, Home, Lee High School, Jacksonville; Mrs.
Irene Lighthiser, Orlando Senior High School, Orlando; Miss Elaine Parra-
more, Landon Junior-Senior High School, Jacksonville; Mrs. Lulu Roth,
Martin County Highi School, Stuart~ Mrs. Catharine Selle, Gainesville High
School, Gainenville; r. E'ohel Chpvers Thompson, Chiefland High School,
Chiefland; Miss Marjorie Alice Wood, Ponce de Leon High School, Coral
Gables, Florida; Dr. Clara M. Olson, University of Florida, Coordinator.
Thanks are also extended to the following members of the Department
of Speech, University of Florida: Mr. H. P. Constant, Head of Department
and Director of Bulletin; Dr. Dallas 0, Dickey, Public Speaking and Debate;
Dr. Delwin B,.Dusenbury, Drama; Dr. Wayne C. Eubank, Interpretation; and
Mr. William B. Steis, Radio; and to Hirs. Dora Skipper and Mr, J. K.
Chapman of the State Department of Education. Appreciation is extended
to Miss Christine Drake, Instructor in Speech, Florida State University
and part-time Consultant, State Department of Education, and Miss Mildred
Swearingen of the State Department of Education, who served as editors
for the tentative issue of the bulletin. The original manuscript was
abridged slightly in a few places to facilitate immediate mimeographing.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Foreword ........... ...,. ....************.. .....**************** ii
I. Speech education in tho school program .................. 1
A. Meaning of speech education ........................ 1
B. Place of speech education ........................... 2
C. Aspects of speech education ..................... .... 3
1. Subject matter o.......*............*...*........ 3
2. Adjustment of students ......................... 3
3o Activities ************************************** 7
4 Factors .......****.****.. .. **..**************... 9
D. Objectives of speech education ...................... 10
II. Resources and materials ......e....o.,.. e........*. .. 13
A. Textbooks o.o.o...,.....,,..,,o...........o........ 13
Bo Libraries *..,e....e.......e.... ....o. ..* ....**.... 14
1. Books and periodicals .....** .................*.. 14
2. Audio-visual aids oo*.**.*****.****o. *******O 15
C. Speech and hearing clinics .c....1.. ........e... 21
D. Drill laboratories ,.. ,,...*o.......,......... 22
E. Community resources ...*....*............,......*** 23
III. Steps in speech education ............................... 24
A. Preparation *ee ..****** e,*************************** 24
1* Reading ................**,....* ...** ....... ... 24
2* Writing .*....* ... .., .....o***********.*********** 25
3. Observing and listening .o*...................... 25
B. Participation o ,. .... .... .,**,********************** 26
1o Pupil **0,.***o****************0,..*********** *** 27
2* Teacher *oo*.*** *.,******* *****************.* 29
C* Evaluation ..,,,...o..o-,o..e....oe..... oee........-. 27
T. TMa section dsletad I tn itentirty thirg eaitag
V. ............... ......... 30
....... ...... ........ .. ... .... 3
.. ..... 30
B .. ............... 31
3 ..... 37
a. T 3 ................. 36
4. 3 .. :- 33
A. V ............ ...... .... .... 4
Saae oif ativlty fr inst" tion .......l
iurnee f-r Iii cenden Pre igreBnw ^^"; 4$
.. ...... .. .1 ...: .... i
".'" ... .... ". "'. .. 55
I, SP ECH EDUCATIONN fN TES SCHOOL PROGRAM
A, I MEING OF SPEECH EDUCATION
The over-all purpose of education is to train the individual so
that he rnma adjust himself to a desirable node of living Speech, the
fundamental nmens of communication, is significant to this adaptation,
The progress of our civilization is narked by the evcr-changing, everT.
increasing complexity and flexibility of the world. lngunages and speech.
Our democratic way of life calls for an intensified and expansive-spee"i
program which will facilitate hu a n progress
Educators recognize the denands for concontra.toc effort on the .prt-
of all teachers to assist the pupil in his 'peech er'i.cation fror h1-dcrn
garden through college On the clenentarJ level tho teacher shou.ld"co-
stantly emphasize those aspects of speech which con-r -iuto to the Ic a
ing processes required in the fundanontal subjects, In simple dranatiza..
tions, pantonirLe, and story telling, the pupil .has the opportunity to..
develop the personality, an expressive and pleasing voice, and ito"erctate.
the desire for good speeches Of inportanco would be the contributions
which speech and its related activities nake on the various levels of
learning. This gradual adjustnont of speech knowledge to the 'lveol~ lt
learning aids in the preparation of the pupil for participation in
formalized speech, which is offered ns a laboratory situation on.. tht
secondary lovel and in life situations as a reality.
Secondary speech education includes fundamentals, public speaking,
radio, interpretation, dramatics, debate, and speech correction, This
broad field of subjects offers a reservoir of opportunity for the human
resources which may be developed by speech training Speech education
is the organized method of accomplishing this purpose by training the
pupil for his everyday speech needs and developing his potentialities
for the most effective adjustment and participation in all phases of life.
B. PLACE OF SPEECH IN THE s0HO0 PR-OGRAM
In this speech conscious age, the place of speech in the school is
evident. There exists now the realization of the need of having a speech
course apart from the other prescribed courses in which not enough of
this vital subject can be presented to supply the speech needs of the
pupil, because the teacher does not have time enough to teach both sub-
ject matter and speech skills. Educational progress demands that train-
inl be provided in those activities which promote facility of expression,
adaptation to the group, and social ease,
No longer are speech activities considered extra-curricular frills,
but they are now considered as an intra-curricular requisite for the
personal development of the pupil. This statement is made with the
understanding that speech is a means for the release and development
of human personality and provides an opportunity for self discovery,
Speech education finds a place in the total school program because
it contributes to the fulfillment of the'basic purposes of education.
It guides and assists the pupil to make the best use.of his inherent
abilities through systematic and scientific training. It helps the
pupil to learn how to adjust and cooperate with other people in various
situations. It gives training in those aspects which are of vital impor-
tance in earning a living, Finally, it helps train him to be a good
citizen in a democratic society.
O. ASPECTS OF SPEECH EDUCATION
1. Subject matter
To mako the process of learning in speech one of association and
integration of knowledge, the pupil should be encouraged to integrate
the subject natter of the various courses with that of speech. Not
only will the pupil be asked to use information from other courses,
but he will be guided also in securing information front other varied
sources. He nay prepare a speech in speech class, which he nay use
in social studies class as a report, thereby getting practice
necessary for the developnont of speech skills.
2. Adlustnent of students
a. In school activities
The introduction of speech education into the school curricu-
lun has proved to be an excellent nothod of quick adjustnont
into the many school activities in which the pupil is allowed
Because of the versatility of the training offered in speech
education, a pupil is prepared in the capacity of a.leader as
well as a cooperative nonbor of any school activity. Thoso
qualities nay be developed on the elementary level through
participation as monitors and noubors of safety patrols who in-
vite cooperative support from the troup. Thus the pupil is pro-
parinc for future secondary levels of leadership and participation
in such positions as class and club officers and active nonber-
ship in organized groups,
b. In daily living; situations
All educational subjects and activities are designed to pro-
pare the pupil for successful living. Because of its diversified
nature speech is prominent in the composition of every subject.
The complex situations peculiar to everyday living nako it
necessary for the program of speech education to include those
phases of study which deal with the continuous dovelopnent and
proficient exorcising of the various factors in the physical,
mental, and cultural nakoup of the individual. There can be no
seorogation of those factors. The nero uttering of a word, the
nod of the head, or a smile involves their combined activity.
Life is conposod of human relationships and hunan exper-
iencos: speech is the coordinator for those. The purpose of
spooch education is not confined to the noro developnont of the
nodiun of expression, but it involves also the sinultanous
development of other human resources, For instance, while one
is acquiring bodily polso for effective speaking, he is contri-
buting to his personal alpparance and health
Lif. situations offer an opportunity for cdevclopment of speech
ability. A casual .rooting of a friend, an introduction, or an
informal conversation such as those found in everyday life serve
as activities for the dovolopment of ones speech powor.
A survey of the business, civic, and social phases of life
will reveal the necessity for acceptable speech in each, An
individuals economic security is dependent upon his application
of speech skills to business situations; his contribution to
society is governed by his civic participation; his social relat-
ionships are established by self realization and the understand-
ing of the personal traits of others,
Because of the increasing trend toward interdoepndonco in
hunan relationships throughout the universe, onphasis nay be
duly placed on the educational purposes which endeavor to ostab-
lish in the individual an enlightoned attitude toward the nec-
essity for cooperation,
c. In develorinr lpecrsonalities
Speech activities nay be considorod a laboratory for persona-
lity development. It is in the study of speech that pupils bo-
cone awaro of their own potentialities enabling them to recog-
nize and develop their desirable features. Likewise, help is
given then for recognizing and overcoming handicaps. It is a
decided advantao to begin this training as soon as possible,
(1) The submissive pupil, who is characterized by repressed
emotions, unagArossive behavior, and lack of initiative
is encouraged by participation in choral reading, group
discussion, acting, plawriting, directing, and stage
design to forgot self when he becomes interested in the
activity. Soon this type of pupil will have the courage
to perform alone after his self-confidence has been in-
creased and his self consciousness forgotten.
(2) The neurotic pupil finds great help in creative dramatic
work, pantonino, marionette shows, and choral reading,
Participation in these activities give hin nore stable
conduct, serenity, and self-control.
(3) The nontally retarded pupil finds satisfaction in inter-
pretation of simple roles, in the construction of simple
scenery designed by more talented classmates, in making
costumes uncdr direction, working on the stage crew,
pantonino, choral reading, and story tolling.
(4) The average pupil nay need personality development in a
lessor degree; nevertheless he benefits to a large extent
by learning cooperation, spontaneity of expression, con-
sideration for others, and courteous behavior.
(5) The superior pupil, in addition to the benefits mentioned
previously, nay be trained for leadership in debate,
group discussion, parlianentary procedure, and dramatics,
The talented student may often be assistant director in
(6) The pupil with a speech defect nay be helped greatly by
participation in speech activities such as choral reading,
group discussion, marionetto shows, and dramatic activi-
ties, because in participation, he will become less self-
conscious and will gradually show improvement.
Pupils should be encouraged to participate in all civic or school
activities in which they can get actual practice in using their speech
skills. In addition to local, school, and civic activities, such as
assneblies, civic clubs, and community programs, there are many state
and national organizations which provide speech opportunities.
Some of which arc listed below$
a. American Legion Oratorical Contest, Indianapolis, Indiana.
This contest included six separate contests school, county,
state, regional, and national. The subject is on some phase
of the constitution. The winner receives a.$4,000 scholarship,
b, nights of Pythias, Public Speaking Contest. This contest is
of national scope, Details nay be obtained from the local
c. ITational Forensic Loa:,ue, State and NTational Contest,
Extcepore spealdin, debati:ng humorous declaration, dramatic
doclanation, oratorical doclanationp and original declamation.
Information concerning this contest may be obtained from
E~ocutivo Socretary, sTational Forensic eaiuoe, Ripon College,
d. Florida Spooch Association contests in deobating and the one-
act play. Details concerning this contest nay be secured by
writing Tho Executive Secretary, Florida Educational Associae
tion, Tallahassoo, Florida.
o. Southern Speech Association, High School Division of Contests.
Information concerning this contest may be secured from:
Editor of Southern Spoech Journal, University of Xlorida,
f, Junior Chanmbr of Connorce, "I Speak for Dmnocracy" Contest.
Information may be obtainoc from the local organization.
g. National Thespian Society, Colloege ill Station, Cincinnati,
h. Future Farrcrs of America Speaking Contest. Consult local
i* Diversified Cooperative Training Contest
Information concerning these and other approved contests are listed
in the bulletin for the Secondary Principals' Association which will have
a calendar of contests. Write: President, Secondary Principals1 Associa-
tion,.Florida Education Association, Tallahasseo, Florida.
4, Factors in seoch education
There are four intcr-rolatce factors in speech education which
must be developed to produce the well-rounded individuals nind, body,
voice, and lancuaroe
a. Zeo nind nust cornunicato ideas. The ability of concentration,
organization, and evaluation can be developed in debate, group dis-
cussion, public speaking, dramatics, and interpretation,
b. The acquiring of bodily poise and the use of adequate gestures
are two of several requisites for effective speech, Training in
speech activities should eliminato such objectionable personal
mannorisms ast teetering on the toes, fingering a watch chain,
thrusting the chin out, looking toward the coiling, rubbing the
hands together, folding and unfolding a handkerchief, sticking one's
hands in his pockets, or strokdng onols chin, Useless and noaningloss
gestures should beo elinlnatod because they are the earnark of the
speaker who is ill at case, unnecessary bodily movenont also tends
to attract attention to the speaker and takes awty the attention
fron the soccch,
c. The voice nust bo trained to express in a distinct and pleasing
nannor the thoughts of the speaker, ;vryone has oxzprioncod the
fooling of inadequacy and insecurity which results front participation
in conversation when his speech is stunbling and monotonous instead
of clear and intcrcstin,. Speech training aids in the improving of
the voice by givin; the pupil anple practice.
d, ITo natter how pleasing the voice or how profound the thoughts
oxpressed, seooch loses sono of its effectiveness if the language
used is not accurate and vivid, Roeg.rdlcss of the economic status,
cnvironncnt or family backlround, good clear effective speech should
be included in the caucational opportunities of every Anerican child,
D, OBJECTIVES OF A SE~OH EDUCATIOiT PROSAM
1. The sppoch noods and abilities of every student should be tested
2. Students who possess speech defects such as stuttering, lisping,
dialects, or speech, maladjustnnts should bo provided opportunity
ties for correction.
3e The great froup having "inadequate" and normal speech should be
given the chance to profit front systematic education in such
fund.eontal speech processes ast
a. Adjustment to the speaking situations of everyday life so
that social adaptations of this type can be nade without
fear and with confidence and poise.
b. Development of a speaking personality characterized by
Attitudes of sincerity, friendliness, and connunicativenoss,
c. Skill in dvoyloping a subject, in using ones ideas, and in
Imowing how to find sources of information that will extend
d' Study of the audience which is being addressod,
o. Organization and arraneonont of content to insure the desired
response front the audience.
f4 Mastery of an effective technique of delivery,
g. EMrossing onets ideas in single, acceptable, and effective
h, Articulating and pronouncing words intelligibly,
i, Using the voice effectively,
J. Connunicating ideas with expressive and woll-coordinated
Sgeostures and novenonts,
k. Cultivation and acquisition of suitable listening habits
that will enable the individual to ;ivo respectful attention
to speakers for purposes of learning, evaluating, and criti-
e. Students who are sumorior in basic speech skills should be given
opportunities to develop special skills directly associated with
their life interests, and in keeping with their needs and abiliL
5. Basic srpolkin skills should bo inplonontod through a balanced
program of functional speech experiences. Thseo should be
directly rolatoa to school and connunity problons, practical
situations, an! educational oxpeoroncos which form a framework
for participation in a donocratic society. .
6. Evaluation of growth an'? fcvelopnont in basic speech skills
II. ESOUCrOES AI.D 1ARIA=IALS
The speech textbook is a valuable aid. in any course insofar as it
can serve as a g;uido in planning the work, Many high school speech
textbooks include necessary discussions and definitions, and have nany
su:v-ottions for presentation of the natcrial. Most of the texts include
surf;ostions for topics of speeches of all kinds, explain the nothods of
outlining, diacran the various arranornents for the different kinds of
speech activities, and offer other source natorial,
In addition to the state adopted textbook it would be helpful to
supply a number of different textbooks to serve as a reference shelf,
Thus the pupils can have access to materials offered in several of the
latest and best textbooks for use in high schools.
Class discussions based on the textbooks should conpriso only a small
portion of the total class tine, but it is essential that basic under-
standings be acquired by the class as a whole, The illustrations, dia-
Crans, and sugested class activities should prove helpful to the pupils
and teacher, but those should be inspirational and point the way to utili-
zinf the experiences and ina;ination of those in the group in working out
Their own plans for individual and group activities, The recently
adopted speech textbook in Florida is Anorican, ooch (Revised) by
Hoddo and Brifaanco (J. B. Lippincott and Conpany). At the close of
this bulletin is a suwested list of some of the best books available
for use by pupils and teachers in the different core areas and on the
1* Books and :? periodicals
The public, school, extension, and hone libraries can contribute
a grcat deal. One of the nost essential needs of adynamic speech
class is an abundant supply of reliable information. Reference
natorials, ma-azines, newspapers, government lullotins, and other
written materials will holp the students to select and proparo
speeches, discussions, and debates on timely topics. The speech
class should give opportunity for the pupils to becono acquainted.
with and to sono extent skillful in the use of the library. Package
libraries containing information on specific units of study, includ-
ing debate topics, nay be secured through the Extension Department
of th$ University of Florida, and most local librarians are very
cooperative in helping to provide such natorials.
2, Audio-visual aids
The nany audio-visual aids can and should play an important part
in speech instruction. The impression one nakes on others is the
result of what they SEE, what they E&AR, and, finally, what they.
ISL and ~HINK about the person. The ability to "see yourself" and
"hear yourself" as others see and hear you is an invaluable aid in
speech instruction and inprovoneent. Audio-visual aids provide
sensory eoeriencos which will help the pupils to analyze their
faults and note their improvonent from time to tino, The use of
audio-visual aids should be so much a part of the speech class that
they servo as ossontial tools and their use becomes an integral
part of the class procoduros.
Textook illustrations: This simple visual aid is one which
every teacher has but which, unfortunately, is often not utilized to
advantage in class instruction. A study of the illustrations in the
textbooks will convince one that they have boon selected with a pur-
pose in nind and that they will contribute to an understanding of the
situations which they illustrate.
Pictures: Pictures from na azines and other publications can
sorvo as a means of inroessing certain facts upon the ninds of the
pupils and of illustrating many situations, such as good and bad
posture, seating arrangcnents for grgup discussions, the use of
various gestures, platform actions, stage settings, and costuming.
Such picture collections nay become a part of a class file for re-
view purposes or nay be a part of individual notebooks.
Posters and charts: Both bought and pupil-mado posters and
charts nay servo as a neans of teaching. Good posturo.posters,
costume design charts, diagrans of the vocal apparatus, and stage
settings, for eCamplos, can be secured from various connercial
sources or can be.nade by sono of the pupils for class use,
Models: Lifo-sizo plaster of Paris models of the head, jaws,
throat, vocal apparatus and other parts of the body may help the
class in their study of how speech is produced. These may be avail-
able to the speech teacher through the science or health departments,
Models of stago settings, furniture, and dolls dressed in certain
period costumes can also be very helpful in the class work,
Bulletin Boardst The classroom bulletin boards should be an up-
to-the-ninute nid in the speech class. Thoroon should be posted
pictures, cartoons, clippings, class outlines and assignments. In
most situations a pupil committee (changed frequently) nay be given
the responsibility of makiing the bulletin boards a constant aid to
instruction by keeping then varied, fresh, attractive, and usable.
Blackboards The blackboard is especially useful in speech
class when the group is outlining or organizing their thoughts
together, The class secretary may be given the responsibility cf
seeing that a class record is made of those outlines or notes which
the class may require for future use,
Mimeopraph .and dittos These teaching aids are in almost constant
use by the teacher of speech and her pupils. Class exercises, drills,
desired quotations, outlines, summaries, bibliographies, word lists,
original plays, radio scripts, and many other materials for use by
the class can be reproduced for each member of the group at extremely
low cost and with immense saving of time,
MaIeotic and disc recorders: Some means of recording the voice
of the pupil is especially useful in helping him hear the tone
quality, vocabulary, pronunciation, and enunciation, and to help him
note the need for variety in tone, rate, sentence and paragraph
structure, etc. For ordinary (almost daily) temporary recordings,
the wire or tape recorder is perhaps the easiest and loss expensive
to use because the recordings can be used for immediate instruction
and then erased, For permanent recordings, the disc recorder is more
often used, although it is possible to use a wire or tape spool for
such recordings and file the spool for future playings, (The danger
in this last procedure is the possibility of someone accidentally
erasing the recordings before their usefulness is realized*)
Magnetic or disc recorders can also be used to "take off" radio
programs, speeches, or musical programs to present to the class.
Class programs for radio presentation can be recorded and presented
from the studio by transcription. This is especially advantageous
when a large number of pupils are used in presenting the program and
the studio space is small, or when the program is to be presented at
an hour when it is difficult to get all of the pupils together.
Phonograph: A good play-back machine with clear, accurate tone
production is very useful, Almost all record companies offer the
teacher special albums of records of dialect, modern languages, poems,
orations, and vocal exercises. Accurate recordings of the work done
by the group is also a valuable means of inspiring the pupils to im-
prove their work.
Radio: The use of the radio in speech instruction has many bene-
fits both when used for broadcasting and for listening. When programs
are broadcast, the pupils are encouraged to greater efforts to improve
the quality of their work and the school is brought closer to the
community. It is not difficult to arrange for broadcasts from the
school since a telephone line run from the station to the school
is all that is essential, A school studio set-up through which the
pupils may broadcast from studio to classroom, or to the entire
school over the intercommunication system, is interesting for the
pupils; and more nearly resembles an actual radio broadcasting situa-
tion. When the radio is used as a listening aid, the pupils have an
opportunity to hear and analyze different dialects, pronunciations,
and styles of speaking.
Silent and talking films and filmstrips: Silent films and stills
are valuable aids in studying facial expression, posture, and gestures,
Sometimes members of the group are adept at taking pictures which can
be used to advantage. The pupils usually enjoy making their own pict-
ures and in this manner they can really see what they do on the plat-
form or in front of the group. Often a movie reel of a short program
will provide an excellent opportunity to criticize the performance,
Many excellent films are available for classroom use and a careful
study of the parts of the film most helpful to the group can be made.
When properly motivated so that the pupils know what to look for, the
local theatres and stage performances can be used to advantage in
Slides: A great variety of slides may be secured through the
Extension Pivision of the University of Florida, purchased at low
costs, or made by the pupils themselves, Stage settings, costuming,
lighting diagrams, postures, gestures, and many other specific phases
of study may be introduced through this medium.
Public Address Sys teams; This medium is particularly helpful in
giving the pupils an understanding of microphone technique* It is,
therefore, an excellent means of starting the group in radio speaking.
It is also an important type of training for the pupil because it is
probably the form of speaking which he will be called upon most often
to do as almost all auditoriums, churches, club houses, and public
speaking situations rake use of this medium.
Opaque pro.Jector: This form of projector which makes it possible
to project a page from a book, a map, or any type of opaque object to
the screen for study is particularly useful when the group is study-
ing together. A quotation from n book or magazine can be easily pro-
jected or a stage setting can be pictured, thus saving time and making
it possible for groups to "see" and to discuss at the same time.
Mirrors: The use of mirrors in the speech class makes it possible
for the students to see their own expressions, gestures, and actions.
Both a full length mirror, and smaller mirrors for each student can
be used to advantage.
0. SPEECH AND HEARING CLINICS
It has been estimated that from one-sixth to one-fourth of all
elementary school children have speech that is in some measure
defective. Society, although it readily makes provision for those
handicarned by blindness, deafness, and lameness, has until recently
neglected speech rehabilitation, It should be recognized that defect-
ive speech has just as devastating an effect on a child (or on society
as a whole) as any other abnormality, That it is a source of thwarted
ambition, undeveloped capacity for service, and human unhappiness is
basis enough for an extensive program in speech correction.
Speech and hearing clinics are now rendering a great service
throughout the country, For a nominal fee or, in some cases no fee
at all, pupils can be brought to these centers for diagnosis and pre-
scribed treatment, A school system can either take its oseech cases
to a clinical center or arrange for the clinic staff to visit the
school to make examinations and diagnoses,
Most speech and hearing clinics are located in universities and
colleges, Here they are often overloaded with patients and are under-
staffed. The clinics can readily offer remedial treatment to those
who live close by, However, recommendations for patients who live
at a distance are useless, if there is no one in the home community
to carry out the treatment. In some sections the work of the clinics
is sunnlemented by that of trained correctlonists who are employed by
county boards of public instruction. A county board Is authorized by
state law to employ a correctionist if there are as many as ten handi-
capned children in the county.
D, DRILL LABORATORIES
For clinical training to have any value there must be follow-un
practice in the classroom. To carry out this practice, the school program
should provide a special time and place for drill in corrective work, A
room should be set aside for this purpose and a schedule arranged so that
each nuil will have a definite period of time in which the teacher can
work with him individually.. In most cases the county eseech correctionist
will handle these drill laboratories. Where classroom teachers, working
under the direction of the correctionist, assist in conducting the drill
laboratory a larger number of -ouils can be taken care of,
In many schools, especially the smaller ones, where the services of
clinics or correctionists are not available, the role of speech corrects
ionist must fall uvon the classroom teacher. Much can be done by a
teacher who has a knowledge of and insight into the problems of speech
rehabilitation. Suggestions for the work of the latter are made in this
bulletin in the section dealing with speech correction.
E. COMMUNITY RESOURCES
Opportunities for pupils to develop and improve their speech
abilities and to make completely functional those skills and theories
learned and practiced in class are found in all communities with the
number and variety of such opportunities increasing, of course, with the
increase in size of the community, town or city. These opportunities for
expression and active narticination range from the more formal situation
in which a pupil is invited to read for a woman's club to the less formal,
total participation in a school club which is conducted entirely by pupils
Any and all situations and meetings offering onwortunity should be investi-
gated as possibilities. Some of these are; church programs and organiza-
tions, Community Chest, Red Cross, school clubs, civic clubs for youth,
civic clubs for adults, Women's Clubs both civic and social, civic cam-
paigns, community entertainments, recreation program, festivals observing
special days or occasions, radio broadcasting, Little Theatre Productions
and other dramatic events.
In addition to using any or all of those listed as avenues for
student narticiration as a performer, they all offer excellent opnortuni'
ties for listening and observing, To this phase of the work must be
added the moving picture theatre and the professional stage as onoortun.-
III. STEPS IN SPEECH EDUCATION
In setting up basic requirements in speech education, one must hloe
in mind not only the immediate needs and interests of the pupils but also
the farther reaching objectives of all education the development of the
individual to the limit of his potentalities for effective participation
in democratic community life.
An intelligent program of speech improvement for each pupil is made
un of adequate rrew~.rtion; rarticination in class and additional activi-
ties; and proper evaluation in growth and development,
1. Suggested reading rrearption
a. Knowledge of the use of the library cannot be too strongly
stressed for preparation for speech activities. The pupils
should become familiar with the use onf he Reader's Guide as
a valuable source of suggested current speech material,
b. Background reading for style should include current and
classic examples of the particular subject matter being studied
such as speeches, vlays, discussions and debates, and other
forms of literature suitable for oral interpretation,
c, Source reading for speech material should include subject
matter reading, current events, and textbook reading for theory,
2, Listening and observing as a means of preparation for speech
activities enables the pupil to articirate in the discovery of
guides and principles of effective oral expression. Conversely,
he discovers what not to do. These situations may be used for
this tyne of preparation,
a, Dramatic performances (stage and movie)
b, Informal speech situations
c, Grouo speaking by fellow students in the classroom
d. Individual sneaking by fellow students in the classroom
e. Guest sneakers of clubs
f. Auditorium speakers
g. Outstanding civic speakers
h. Radio programs
i. Pupills own voice recordings
j Pulnit speakers
3. Written preparation is highly desirable and frequently necessary
for life-talking situations, Transfer of training often results in
an automatic tonical grouping of subject matter in impromptu speaking
Recommended examples of written preparation includes:
a, An outline or plan of every speech performance
b. Evaluation of sneaking situations and speakers
c, Self-evaluation in speaking situations
d. Precis or analysis of source maaterital speechess, drama, dise
cuasion, et'u and theory) read
e, Some creative work (original seeethes, lays, radio programs,
The truism "we learn to do by doing" an-lies especially in speech,
and each nuil should be given the ornortunity, as often as Oossible,
not only to take nart in group sneaking situations but also to talk
before a ground.
It is often unfortunately assumed that because vocal sounds are used
by human beings as a reaction to their environment and as a means of
communication that formalized speech training as such is unnecessary.
Actually, effective speech is an intellectual endeavor,
Since effective sneech is not a "natural" phenomenon and since it
demands a smooth integration of the sneaker's emotional, intellectual
and physical capabilities, it is well to plan a program from the simple
to the complex. Experience is bringing body movement under control
through pantomime naturally precedes a combination of voice and body
movement. Similarly, narticination in group activities such as conversa-
tion and ground discussion nuts less strain on the emotional system and
should recede individual speaking situations, Individual speaking
activities should begin with the. most simple tyne to execute such as
story telling, announcements, introductions, and demonstrations,
Much enrichment in sneech education can b.e obtained through observing
and listening to sneakers outside of the classroom; but the appreciation
and evaluation of such speech activity is in direct proportion to the
meaningful experience and instruction provided within the classroom.
,Tith a basis for judgment observing and listening to local ministers,
statesmen, visiting lecturers and even informal interviews with local
merchants become valuable illustrative speech material. Likewise, radio
sneakers, movie actors, guest sneakers for auditorium and school clubs
are vital sources of speech education. Assignments requesting written
and oral evaluation of such sneakers stimulate meaningful observation
and listening and becomes sound nedagogical experience,
Student narticination in extra.curricular speech activities should be
encouraged and ought to grow out of the s-eech program. It is the most
talented students emerging from class activities, contests and advanced
speech courses who are usually sent out into community sneaking activities;
however, such onportunities should never be reserved for talented studentsi
only but made available for all.
Such a program, when handled educationally, can serve as an excellent
means of acquainting the public with the schools and can -rovide excellent,
realistic speaking ecreriences.
Speech evaluation assumes a twofold responsibility on the Dart
of the speech teacher. First, he must be trained to recognize
and diagnose speech irregularities, He should be aware of the
speech problems (such as stuttering, pathological voice defects,
distorted speech due to hearing losses, cleft palates) which he
should channel to the speech correctionist or speech clinic, He
must also be aware of the irregularities resulting from poor
habits which he can definitely improve or eradicate.
The second responsibility of the speech teacher is the evalua-
tion of the speech performance of the "garden variety" of students.
This is not a simple process because of the complex nature of
sneech. Speech Performance is a combination of the use of the
voice with all of its variables in Pitch, loudness, timbre; of
the posture, facial expression, and bodily movements of the
sneakers; and a background knowledge and understanding of narti.
cular subject matter and the way in which it is selected and
organized for presentation,
Simple judgment of a speaker by a discerning teacher, well-
trained in the analysis of speech performance is reasonably sound,
Rating scales, check lists and standardized testing material,
which overcome a judge's tendency to any biased opinions are
available. The use of sound recordings on phonograph records,
and wire and tare recorders provide another type of testing pro-
Subject matter evaluations may be made at the completion of
each unit, and at the end of the semester, It is suggested that
these be both written nd. oral in form, but that major emphasis
be placed on individual oral activity.
The good speech teacher is constantly seeking ways and means of
improving his instruction, An occasional self-evaluation based on
questions of the following tynes should be of help to him in this
a, Am I keening in mind the immediate speech needs of the pupils?
b, Am I relating speech to the vocational needs and interests of
c, Am I helping the nunils to apsreciate the best in speech work,
and instilling in them a desire for growth in speech achievement
in post-school years?
d. Am I making provisions for all tynes of punils, the normal, the
talented, the handicapned?
e. Am I merely following a textbook?
f, Am I providing creditable activities?
g. Do the runils seem more at ease and poised in ground and invidi-
dual speaking situations?
h, Do I see that all nunils narticinate adequately?
i. Are the Dunils enthusiastic about speech work?
j, Am I keening up-to-date in sTeech education by reading recent
publications, n~rticinating in professional speech meetings,
and taking advanced college courses?
k, Am I setting a good example for my runils in my sneech habits,
manner and appearance?
1. Am I contributing through my own and my pnuilsl participation
to community activities and progress?
m, Is my work nronerly integrated with other fields in the curricu-
n. Am I developing personalities or robots?
o, Am I making the most efficient use of materials available in my
V. PLANNING THE SPEECH PROGRAM
1. The problem
How shall the speech program be organized? What should
it include? Where should it be placed in the secondary
The answers to these questions will vary, depending upon
the needs of the students, the size and type of the school,
the training of the teachers, the general organization of
the curriculum, and the educational philosophy of the school.
Organizing an effective speech program is largely a local
problem, one which can best be solved through joint planning
of administrators, speech teachers and other faculty members,
pupils, and lay personnel. They should be guided by the
experience of others and yet left free to make choices which
best meet their individual needs. For that reason the
outlines of suggested speech courses at the secondary level
were purposely made flexible. They are so arranged that
any school or teacher may choose material from which to
build a good program, whether speech is taught only as a
part of English, whether it is offered as a separate subject,
whether it is integrated throughout the curriculum, or
whether it is a combination of all these.
2, Speech as English credit
Some Florida high schools are substituting speech for a
part of the required English courses. This usually ranges
from twelve to eighteen weeks in the sophomore year. Other
schools are allowing pupils to elect speech instead of the
fourth year of English; and some are experimenting with
teaching speech for twelve weeks of the fourth year of
English, thus dividing the course into units of reading
(literature), writing (composition), and speaking (speech).
3. Speech as separate credit
In addition many schools have elective courses in speech,
varying from one semester to two years over and above the
required work in English. Regardless of where the first
course in speech is offered, the suggestions in the Funda-
mentals unit were formulated with the idea that this course
should offer the basic skills on which all advanced units
would be predicated. The unit was also designed to be suffi-
ciently all-inclusive so that those who are not privileged
to continue in speech may receive practical training for
real-life speaking situations. If a full two years can be
given to speech training, the units in Public Speaking,
Debate, Interpretation, Dramatics, and Radio are arranged
in their probable logical sequence; however, no teacher should
be bound by this arrangement or hesitate to choose the units
or even parts of units which best fit the individual need of
h. Speech as a supplementary activity
Where it is impossible, for the time being, to offer speech
under a well-qualified teacher, activities from these units may
be integrated with the total school program so that all pupils
can receive some speech training, inadequate though it may be.
Some schools have an activity period during which pupils may
participate in club work which appeals to them. This offers
an excellent opportunity tc practice the rudiments of parlia-
mentary law incorporated in the Fundamentals unit. Some train-
ing in play production may be gained through the dramatics
club which can draw heavily for suggestions from the unit on
Dramatics. Social studies clubs and classes may turn to the
section on group speaking for suggestions on how to develop
town-hall programs and discussion activities. The home economics
club may find suggestions from the special occasions speeches
which can be used in planning after-dinner speeches and pro-
grams for banquets. School assemblies offer limitless oppor-
tunity for guided experience in making introductions, campaign
speeches, nomination speeches, and pep talks as suggested in
the Fundamentals unit.
It is evident that there is a place in general education
for speech not just speech for the handicapped or those with
special talent but speech for all American Youth. Every
school should recognized this need and, with eyes to the future,
should start now on as broad a speech program as feasible. No
matter how humble the beginning, the program will grow and
improve if given the blessing of a sympathetic administration
and the untiring efforts of a capable speech teacher.
B. ADMINISTRATIVE RESPONSIBILITY FOR AN EFFECTIVE SPEECH PROGRAM
1. Selecting the speech teacher
No speech program can long remain better than the teacher
who directs it. This is not intended to imply that the sole
responsibility for the success or failure of speech depends
upon the teacher administrators, faculty members, and student
body must bear their share but it does mean that the first
responsibility of the administration is to secure competent
Too often speech is taught by those with little or no special
training in the field. Although this may be a temporary neces-
sity, every encouragement should be given to those teachers to
continue their training and become certified in speech.
Specialization belongs to the graduate field; for secondary
teaching, the training of the speech teacher needs to be broad
and varied, including experience in the many activities which
the high school speech teacher is called upon to supervise.
These include such tasks as producing the school play, helping
with the operetta, coaching the debate team, preparing programs
for women's and civic clubs, directing student forums, prepar-
ing radio broadcasts, and directing assembly programs. Speech
for the handicapped is the province of the speech correctionist
rather than the regular speech teacher; a wise administrator
will see that such cases are referred to the proper channels and
not loaded on his speech teacher unless that teacher is particu-
larly trained in the field and is given special time for the
No matter how broad or extensive the training in speech, a
good speech teacher must possess the personality traits typical
of all good teachers: a sense of humor, patience, tact, ability
to control the classroom situation, and an interest in and love
for young people. In addition, there are certain characteris-
tics in which a speech teacher should be particularly strong.
They include the following:
a. The ability to get along with people.
b. An enthusiasm for speech work.
c, A depth of emotional capacity balanced by a high degree
of emotional control.
d. A sense of civic responsibility and a willingness to
participate in worthwhile community activities.
e. An understanding of the place of speech in the total
school program, a willingness to cooperate and an appre-
ciation of the cooperation given by other faculty members.
E. C. Buehler describes the special qualities of a good
speech teacher in this challenging way: "An able and wise
teacher recognizes that oral expression is enveloped by the
personality of the speaker, and that the entire speaking process
will bring the human relationships into sharper focus. In a
speech class the speaker puts his whole personality on parade.
Every time he gets up to talk, his mind, his heart, and his
soul step into a show window, in which so many parts of his
total personality are dramatically revealed before his fellow
classmates. The teacher's job here is much greater than to be a
mere instructor in the usual sense. He must be a friendly
counselor, a gracious host, and an inspirational leader of
young men and women. He must be an able master of ceremonies
and have a fine sense of humor. Above all, he must be a kind,
tolerant person and a shrewd judge of human nature. Such a
teacher fulfills the highest aims of education, namely to build
character and to enrich the makeup of the human personality.
A good speech teacher is professionally minded. He belongs to his
local, state, and national education associations; he is a member of those
professional groups which represent his najor interests; such as, the
Florida Speech Association, the Southern Speech Association, the Speech
Association of Amnrica, the American Speech Correction Association, or the
American Educational Theatre Association. He subscribes to professional
periodicals and attends professional meetings and conventions.
2. Setting un the seeoch pro,,ra
After securing a competent speech teacher, the next responsibility of
an administrator is to cooperate with that teacher in organizing faculty
connittcos for setting up a speech program to moot the needs of his particu-
lar school, Every nombor of the staff should understand the place of speech
in the total curriculum and feel that he has a share in the planning and an
obligation in carrying out the plons. Speech is not just a classroom sub-
ject, It cannot be taught effectively during one hour a day for five days
a week any nore than.health education can be confined to the single class
period devoted to it. The fundamental principles of effective speech need
to be observed in very class and a program of co-curricular activities
'Buehler, E. C., Outline of Su,-estions for Hi:h School Teachers of Speech,
The Allen Press, Lawrence, Kansas, 1947?
such as plays, radio programs, and interscholastic speech meets is
just as essential to the success of the speech program as football
games and track neets are to the athletic program. Under ideal
conditions this co-curricular program will exist along with a
comnloto curricular program of speech and afford an opportunity
for the talented to receive additional training. It would re-
semble the interscholastic athletic program in a school which
has an adequate physical education and sound intramrural pro-
gram, This can be achieved only through cooperative faculty
planning under the leadership of an enthusiastic administra-
tor and speech teacher.
3. Organising and cqui-rpin the speech class
Insofar as possible, the administrator should see that the
speech class is organized and equipped so that it can achieve
the best results. Oblong rooms with the speaker at one end are
better than square rooms. Movable desks allowing for a variety_
of arrangement are an advantage. A raised platform, a speaker's
stand, blackboards, cabinet space, magazine racks, and book-
cases are assets,
Special equipment should include speech charts; a classroom
library of speech magazines and books; collections of readings,
debates, orations, and plays; a good phonograph with records of
selections from plays and famous speeches; a full-length mirror;
and a portable magnetic recorder.
It is true the quality of the speech program is not deter-
mined by the equipment in the speech room, but a good speech
teacher can do a better job with good equipment, and a wise
administrator will cooperate in every way possible to see that
it is forthcoming. Profits from plays and other speech activi-
ties should be returned to the speech department to buy equip-
ment and not allotted to the basketball team for uniforms or
given to the annual staff for expenses of the yearbook as is
done in some schools.
Where there is a conflict in the use of the auditorium, the
administrator should arrange so that the time is fairly distri-
buted among the various groups and that the speech activities
have their share along with the music, athletic, or other
departments which may need the stage.
To insure the best work speech classes should be kept small.
Under no circumstances should the class exceed the recommended
maximum for. laboratory classes which is twerity-five. Since in
the ideal speech class every pupil participates actively every
day, better results may be obtained if the number in the class
can be restricted to fifteen or twenty
Just as the teaching load of the athletic coach is usually
lightened to allow for the long hours after school required by
the athletic program, so the teaching load of the speech
teacher should be proportionately smaller where the extra-
curricular program necessitates hours of work in addition to the
regular school day.
The speech class should be inviting. That does not mean
speech should be a "snap course"; on the contrary, it must
involve real effort and study, but best results are obtained
under enjoyable circumstances. Working intimately with person-
ality problems such as those handled in a speech class necessi-
tates pleasurable contacts if there is to be any degree of
success. Administrators should strive to see that speech
classes are as free from unnecessary interruptions as possible
and that the teacher has every opportunity to develop a class
spirit characterized by:
a. Attention and good listening habits.
b. Teamwork and group consciousness.
ci A spirit of tolerance and open-mindedness.
d. A willingness towards effort.
4. Setting speech standards for the classroom teacher
Finally, the administrator owes it to himself and to his
school to see that all his teachers exemplify good speech
habits and encourage them in all of the pupils. The teacher of
mathematics, English, social studies, or science has a major
background in his special field, but he should confine himself
solely to the subject matter of his course. Any teacher deals
first with boys and girls and second with academic materials.
An individual may conceal to a great extent his ignorance of
most subjects, but never of the spoken word; therefore, because
every teacher is a model after whom students pattern, every
teacher should speak correctly and effectively. A students
standards of speech is no higher than that of his various
teachers, who should have enough professional pride to keep
that standard high. A teacher with personal pride watches
carefully his personal appearance; since his speech is the
"clothing" of his thoughts, he should be equally as fastidious
about clothing his thoughts in the best oral language as he is
about his personal grooming.
The need for speech training is also definite if the teacher
is to participate in community activities such as PTA programs,
meetings of civic clubs, and public discussions on community
problems. All are dependent upon a speech background.
In view of these facts, it is recommended that teacher
training institutions include speech training as a part of the
preparation for any teaching position and require prospective
teachers to pass a speech proficiency test. Basically the
training recommended includes (1) a course in speech funda-
mentals with special emphasis on correct usage, clear and dis-
tinct speaking, pleasing voice, speech composition, and parlia-
mentary practice; (2) a basic course in speech correction to
give the teacher enough background so that he may guide speech
defective to the proper speech correctionist and assist them
in making social adjustments.
Although administrators may not be able at once to demand
this training from all the teachers they employ, a high standard
of proficiency in speech should be expected of every classroom
VI. ELEMENTARY SCHOOL SPEECH TRAINING
By the time the pupil reaches the junior high school, he will
have developed many speech skills; and, equally important, he will
have acquired definite attitudes toward speech and its value. Speech
education on the elementary school level is an integral part of the
language arts; but, in recent years, its place in this program has
become more clearly recognized, and the objectives, procedures,
and evaluation of the teaching is now receiving considerable atten-
It is so obvious that sometimes .re fail to recognize the fact
that by far the greater number of contacts and impressions which
one makes are by SEA KING. It has been indicated that over 90% of
the contacts made by even the majority of adults are made by the
use of the voice, and the percentage is even larger in the case
pre-high school pupils and among those adults with less than high
A consideration of these facts emphasizes the fact that the
speech training the pupil receives before high school is of particu-
lar importance to him in his adjustment to others, in his vocational
adjustments, and in his efficiency as a citizen; especially is this
true of those hundreds of pupils who never go beyond the elementary
or junior high school.
B. AREAS OF SPEECH ACTIVITY AND SPEECH SKILLS WHICH EVERYONE NEEDS
In a recently published bulletin, Experiencing the Language
Arts, a Guide to Teachers of Kindergarten Through Grade 12, (availa-
ble through the Florida State Department of Education), Part VII
deals with the scope of speaking and listening. For convenience
'. f .- I P 11, hIn
.4 l V, -t- lt b- -.11
- lld -hf tli I. I 'I-
th-old M -ity t,, t-Ch It
II 1 u 1 I .-. III-
TT. 1 1 ttl-tiy'
*h t -t. v- --
Areas of Speech
2. Asking and Answering
Speech Skills Everyone Needs
1. To use proper inflection of the voice in
asking the question.
2. To speak pleasantly and politely.
3. To use specific words for accurate inter-
4. To listen respectfully to the person
answering the question.
5. To answer questions directly, accurately,
3. Giving and Following 1. To speak clearly and slowly enough for
Directions the listeners to follow.
2. To use words precisely.
3. To use only necessary explanations.
h. To use gestures when they will help to
clarify the meaning.
5. To use rough drawings or diagrams if they
will help the listeners.
6, To listen attentively when receiving
I. Reporting and 1. To speak directly to the audience.
Summarizing Reports 2. To speak in a pleasant voice.
Heard 3. To speak distinctly in a pleasant, well
4. To use gestures when they contribute to
5. To stand easily erect.
6. To listen attentively and accurately when
a part of the audience.
7. To use a clear-cut, easily followed out-
line from Grade 5 through Grade 12.
5. Utilizing Parliamen- 1. To follow the accepted rules of parliar
tary Procedure to mentary procedure.
Affect Group Decision 2. To speak pleasantly, yet effectively.
and Action 3, To respect the rights and opinions of
4. To show a cooperative attitude toward the
_ __~ ~ __
_ __ __ ___
Areas of Speech
6. Planning Through
7. Introducing People
8. Utilizing Specialized
Skills as a Speaker
and a Listener
Speech Skills Everyone Needs
1. To speak so that all may hear.
2. To speak in a pleasant voice.
3. To look directly at those to whom you are
h. To maintain an easy and polite posture.
5. To speak only when others are not speaking.
6. To give others an opportunity to express
7. To listen respectfully and attentively to
8. To appreciate the opinions of others and
be willing to follow the wishes of the
majority in a sportsmanlike manner.
9. When serving as a group discussion leader,
encourage all to participate in the discussion,
1. To speak pleasantly.
2. To follow the rules of proper introductions?
3. To pronounce names distinctly and
4. To listen carefully so that the name may
1. To pause a moment after taking speaking
position before beginning to speak.
2. To stand well forward, center of the
platform on most occasions.
3. To speak audibly, distinctly, and as
deliberately as the occasion requires,
4. To use facial expression effectively.
5. To speak directly to the audience, in-
cluding all of the group.
6. To use posture and gestures appropriate
to the occasion.
7. To use a variety of sentence and para-
8. To adapt speech and platform behavior to
9. To respect the feeling and opinions of
others and to be open to conviction.
10. To be a polite, attentive, and responsive
_~__~ _._____ _____ __~__
1___ __ __
__ __ ~_____
Areas of Speech
9. Broadcasting and
Listening to the
10. Taking Part in Play
Production as a
Player and as
Speech Skills Everyone Needs
1. To use proper microphone technique.
2. To use a conversational tone of voice.
3. To pronounce and enunciate words
4. To appreciate the time element in radio
5. To use simple sound effects,
6. To listen to radio programs discriminat-
7. To appreciate the special contributions
of radio as a means of communication.
1. To work out dialogue and stage directions
in group rehearsals.
2. To use tones and inflections, postures
and gestures appropriate to the characters
and situations portrayed.
3, To deliver speeches audibly and distinctly,
yet with a conversational effect.
4. To use the voice, body, and facial expres-;
sions to portray feelings and emotions,
5. To listen and observe the players with
attention, understanding, and responsiveness.
11. Participating as a 1. To speak distinctly and in unison with
Speaker and a Listener others.
in Choral Reading 2. To follow the parts accurately and come
into the speaking part exactly on time.
3. To blend your voice with others when it
is not a solo speaking part.
4. To appreciate and to hear accurately the
various types of speaking voices.
5. To appreciate variety in tone and rate of
I C --- -- .
Speech Skills Everyone Needs
Areas of Speech
12. Making and Listening
to Special Occasion
1. To speak to the audience, not merely be-
fore the group.
2. To speak audibly and distinctly in a
3. To cause the voice to express feelings.
b. To use spontaneous, effective gestures.
5. To stand at ease, erect, but not stiff.
6. To speak in a natural, conversational
7. To pronounce names with particular
8. To listen appreciatively.
__ __ ____
__ ___ ___ __ __ __
The fundamentals speech course, a means to an end and not an end within
itself, has as its aim cooperation in the moulding of a well-adjusted indivi-
dual earnble of assuming the role of a responsible citizen in a democracy,
In this course the nunil will he guided and trained in ground and indivi-
dual activities which will aid in developing the whole personality for effect,
ive narticiration in daily activities both personal and public, He will
narticinate in activities which emphasize correct, distinct, and courteous
speech. He will he taught to listen, to think logically, to express himself
clearly and to substantiate his views with reason and understanding. He will
learn the art of working coo-eratively with others. He will be made aware
of the four basic factors in sneecht action, voice, language, and thought.
1, To develop the nersonality of the individual
2. To develop skill in everyday sneaking situations, both public and
31 To develop the ability to locate and organize suitable materials
for various kinds of sneaking situations
4. To develop effective production in voice, body and language
51 To develop the ability to think logically and to express ideas
with clarity and conviction
6. To develop noise and discrimination in thinking, sneaking, and
Voice and Diction
Individual Sneaking Situations
UNIT I CONVERSATION
Conversation is the first form of speech used by an individual; hence
it naturally takes first place in a fundamentals course in speech, Although
everyday conversation is the form of oral communication most often used,
this informal exchange of ideas, news, plans, and experiences is a snontan-
eous and unprepared activity, Skill in the art can be developed by the
acquisition of conversational material coupled with practice in correct
application, Conversation skill is an indirect method of developing all
I, To develop the art and enhance the value of conversation through
a. Developing interest through establishing background material
and proper attitudes for conversational situations,
b, Selecting suitable materials and adopting correct techniques
for various situations.
c, Learning to adant to situations and individuals,
d, Participating in conversational situations,
2, To develop the art of listening.
qi Developing the conversationalist
b. Principal sources of materials
c, Selecting materials
2. Developing conversational skill
a. Adjusting to situations
b, Conversational etiquette
3. Topics for conversation
4, Special forms
1, Developing the conversationalist
a, Have each unoil leep a speech diary for one day, which should
include the conversation occasions narticipated in, the sub-
jects of the conversations, and an estimate of the amount of
time spent in conversation,
b, Use the above activity as a basis for a group discussion having
as its objective a listing of the rrincinal sources of conver-
c, By means of ground discussion have the pupils deduce how back-
ground material for conversational situations may be acquired
by the following activities
(a) Fiction and non-fiction books
(e) Radio programs
(a) To determine the key thought of what is being said
(b) To understand the personality of the sneaker
(c) To think of questions relating to the subject
(d) To stimulate the sneaker
(4) Discussing iterials read and heard for better understanding
d. Groun discussion arising from the above activity should produce
(1) Good judgment in the selection and use of suitable mater-
ials for conversation
(2) Conduct of conversation
(a) With new acquaintances
(b) With adults
(c) In public and private places
2. Developing conversational skill
a, The teacher should discuss with the group ways and means of
adjusting to conversational situations such as;
(1) How to change the subject
(2) How to talk about one's e-xeriences without seeming to
talk about one's self
(3) How to make use of the anecdote in conversation
(4) How to take a joke
(5) How to be a good listener
b. Have the -unils look un the correct rules of etiquette in con-
(2) Resnonse to introductions
(3) Responsibilities of the host and hostess
c, Have each member of the ground trenare to introduce at least
four pairs of people such as
(1) Mother and a school friend
(2) Uncle and the school -rincipal
(3) Assembly speaker and president of the class
(4) A boy and girl both of whom he has just met
(5) A girl and a boy
d. An informal tea may be planned, with members of the class
taking nart as guests, hosts and hostesses,
3. Topics for conversation (The needs and interests of the group
will suggest tonics for conversation)
a, Have each student prepare a list of 3 subjects which he would
like to talk over with several other members of the class,
The subjects may be sports, hobbies, radio programs, after
school occupations, questions on etiquette, etc,
b. Have each student list the names of classmates with whom he
would like to talk,
c. Have the runils gather in groups of 3-5, in various arts of
the classroom for narticination in conversation activity based
on activities a and b, When a subject is exhausted, individuals
may join other groups, provided the number participating in
each group does not exceed 5 or 6.
4. Special forms of conversation
a. Have the pupils look up the etiquette of telephone usage.
b. Have each nupil place and receive calls in various situations
(1) Ordering merchandise
(2) Sending a telegram
(3) Inviting guests
(4) Asking favors
(5) Taking messages for others
(6) Reporting a fire
c, After each telephone conversation in the above activity, have
the members of the class point out the good and bad features
which have been revealed,
d. The teacher and the group will compile a list of principles to
be followed in every interviews
e. Have each nupil plan and carry out an interview to obtain in-
formation, The following suggestions, or others serving the
needs of the group may be used for this activity;
(1) Confer with a citizen living near the school regarding a
complaint he has made to the school officials
(2) An interview, to find out what some prominent person in the
community thinks on some lively public situation or question
(3) Interview the fire department about its campaign to prevent
(4) Interview a famous person for a news report
(5) Interview an old-time settler for'historical information
(6) Interview a teacher for help on a problem or project
f. Have each pupil plan and carry out a business interview.
Suggestions for the activity include:
(1) Applications: Plan an interview in which you apply for a
position as salesman, truck driver, office clerk, etc.
(2) Solicit funds
(3) See the school principal in regard to changing or revising
some school policy
(4) Request a faculty member to make some change in class policy
or in homeroom management
(5) Discuss rith your father the possibility of increasing your
allowance, borrowin' the car, or some similar problem
UTTIT II BODILY EXPRESSIOCT
The development of an expressive and responsive body is a necessity for
effective speech. Most people are more impressed by what they see than by
what they hear. Bodily action while speaking should be a natural occurence,
which is a result of an intense desire to project thought and information to
the audience. Although natural body activity may be adequate, if it is kept
under control and used for a purpose, it is more effective. The body communi-
.cates many ideas before there is any oral speech for "actions speak louder
than words "
I* To develop poise
2. To coordinate muscular movement
3. To make bodily movements meaningful
1. To develop poise
a. Discuss with the pupils the meaning of poise and how it is
related to good speech
b. List with the class the factors which contribute to poise
c. Have the pupils suggest means by which poise may be developed.
Throughout the course, encourage the pupils to develop poise
and commend them on the progress made
2. To develop good posture
a. Study with the class various standing, sitting, rising, and
listening postures, pointing out the disadvantages of poor
b. Have the pupils collect pictures illustrating good and bad
posture. Criticize these together
c. Assume different postures and decide together which ones are
relaxed and comfortable, but not slouchy or impolite. Encourage
the pupils to try to form the habit of using these positions.
Be sure to commend them for improvement made
3. To coordinate muscular movement
a. Using a comedy film, or by training members of the class, study
various muscular movements. Try to discover what characteris-
tics of the movement are graceful and pleasant, or ungraceful
and unpleasant to the observer.
b. Have the pupils suggest ways to relax: to make a movement
smooth, spontaneous, effective. Practise these exercises and
movements in class and encourage the pupils to do so at.home
c. If possible, attend lectures or show newsreels in class in
which prominent speakers appear. Analyze the movements made
by these speakers with the pupils
d. Discuss with the pupils the relationship between bodily control,
correct breathing, and effective movement, gesture, and speech
4. To make bodily movements meaningful
a. Study with the pupils the different kinds of gestures, and
classify them. Illustrate these through pictures, pupil
activity, and newsreels or films
b. Select sentences and paragraphs depicting certain actions and
expressions and have the pupils suggest and illustrate various
gestures, etc., which may be used effectively
c. Encourage the pupils to use an effective number and variety of
gestures in their original speaking. Commend them for improve-
UNIT III VOICE AIND DICTION
The voice is a true mirror of ones personality, and his speech is a
relatively accurate index of his character; therefore, too much emphasis
cannot be placed on the cultivation of a pleasing voice which is at the sane
time effective in accomplishing its purpose. The state of mind, the culture,
the outlook on life, and even the character are all reflected in part by it.
Onets standard of culture is often judged by the manner in which he conveys
his expressions vocally to others; therefore, his accuracy in correct usage,
his choice of words, and his pronunciation are vital in speech development.
Note: Drills in the speech correction supplement may be used with this
1, To develop an appreciation of anda desire for an effective apeak-
2* To cultivate correct and effective speech habits
3. To develop a well modulated quality which can be adapted to any
4. To increase the vocabulary
5. To develop poise in all types of speaking and listening situations
1. The voice
a, Vocal mechanism
c. Developing vocal variety
a. Word choice
b. Vocabulary building
(1) Areas of American speech
(2) Co;mon errors in pronunciation
1. The voice
a. Vocal mechanism
The beginning pupil should be required to have a knowle dge of
only the largest divisions of the vocal mechanism:
(1) The motor which pumps the air the lungs, 'bronchial tubes,
trachea, ribs, and chest muscles
(2) The vibrator which produces the sound the larynx
(3) The resonators which give quality the throat, (pharynx)
nasal cavities, sinuses, and mouth
(4) The modifiers which for the sounds the tongue, teeth,
lips, jaw, and palate
The teacher should explain through reading assignments, lectures,
and audio-visual aids the process of breathing, explaining the
part played by the diaphracp in inhaling and exhaling; the
value of deep breathing for good health and good speech; the
process by which a breath of air becomes a sound or work; the
irortance of free, flexible, energetic use of the modifiers.
After the pupils have become acquainted with the speech organs,
those who need practice should use the following exercises:
(1) Pant like a dog
2) Count aloud to six or eight in one breath
3) Read aloud long sentences on one breath
c4 Developing vocal variety
The teacher must not overlook the importance of pitch in
vocal expression. Cite several voices to show how some
people speak in high-keyed voices, while other voices are
generally low-pitched. The teacher should find the pupil's
optimum pitch and give any necessary help to improve the
pitch by following this procedures
(a) Use the piano to find the note which matches the pitch
of the pupils voice,
(b) Explain to him that he will have a wider range of pitch
if he can comfortably reach several notes below and
(c) Use a recorder so that the pupil can listen to the
pitch of his voice. After several months, repeat the
(d) Encourage the pupil to consider resonance, timbre, and
force in developing the desired pitch.
Teach the pupil how to group his words, when to speak rapidly
or slowly, how to pause and why; in other words, teach him
the element of time.
(a) Illustrate this by using sentences and paragraphs from
orations and stories,
(b) Teach pupils that ideas should be separated from each
other by pauses, and illustrate this by reading poetry
By demonstration show that inflection is the sliding of the
voice up and down the speech scale. Show the difference
between the rising, falling, and the circumflex inflections
by expressing these words and sentences in many different ways:
(d) "nWy, that is what you think."
Volume refers to the strength and energy of the voice.
Inadequate volume is a common fault which may be corrected by
the following exercises:
(a) Take a deep breath and in normal conversational tempo,
count to twenty. Then without taking in any more air,
expol the remaining air emitting short, jerky hisses
until the air is gone. Do this six to ten times,
(b) Hiss in short, jorky hisses six times and say the follow-
ing sentence, making it carry as far as possible by merely
whispering: "The whispering wires whispered wistfully."
(c) Practice the following military commands and imagine
that the tone cones from the level of the hips to the top of
",1Tuber one, fire! 'TNumbor two, firol
munber throe, fire! Company haltj
Explain to the pupil
(a) The importance of proper onphasis in speaking.
(b) Show by example that emphasis on a certain word may
change the meaning of the entire sentence.
(c) Explain by changing emphasis, one may avoid monotony,
(d) Have the pupil say with a variety ofemphasis and
"Good morning, Mrs. Fitzgerald."
"Where are my books?"
Quality is not easily defined, One meaning pertains to the
individual characteristics of one voice compared to another,
horo is another factor to consider when we define quality
as the over-all pleasantness or unpleasantness the voice has
for the listener.
a, Word choice
Good cliction includes a discriminating choice of correct
words, a clearness and distinctness of speech, and the pro-
nunciation of words according to the standard of accepted
(1) Use of simple expressive words,
In choosing the appropriate word for the expression of a
thought, one should choose from simple, specific, vivid,
and dynamic words,
(2) Provincialisns and localisms
Certain words are acceptable in some localities, Tbut
the pupil should be encouraged to use the ones most
generally used by the educated people of that locality.
Although slang has its place in expressing a thought
colorfully and appropriately on certain occasions, the
b. Vocabulary -uiilding
Since words arc the tools of e:xression, using the correct
word in the appropriate place facilitates the accurate oe-
pression of one's ideas.
Pupils should be encouraged to increase their vocabularies
by iooping a note book of new words and using as their notto,
IA now word a day keeps ignorance away."
(1) Areas of anorican sfcoch
It is generally recognized that there are three types
of pronunciation in the United States: Eastern, South-
orn, and general Anorican. Since Florida has pupils
of all sections, we have the problem of eliminating
nis-pronunciations characteristic of the various regions;
howrover, the teacher should assuno an attitude of toler-
ance in understanding the specch pattern peculiar to
the different regions of the United States and the
world, and try to teach his pupils the same tolerance,
Pupils should bo warned against takin- pride in using
the extrono pronunciation of any rcion. Pupils should
be taught diacritical markings and accentuation, and
should be given anrle practice in the use of the dict-
(2) Com3on errors in pronunciation
(a) Substitutions) Wat for what, wif for with, pres-
piration for perspiration, git for got, windar for
window, chimley for chinney.
(b) Omissions Final g, t, and d. Exanplos: goine
for going, ac for act, worl for world, kop for
(c) Additions Attacted for attacked, drownedod for
drowned, onct for once, postsos for posts, and
onliest for only.
(d) Other mispronunciations: Coupon rhyne the first
syllable with who, not few* Data and status -
rhyme the first syllable with day and sta, not at.
Hoof and roof rhyne with -roof. Gesture G is
pronounced as in ren,*
(o) Indistinctness Much mispronunciation is due to
laziness in speech by not using correctly the
speech modifiers; avoid such errors asi cidy for
city, baddle for battle, budder for butter, and
wadder for wator, For clarity and relaxation use
tongTue twisters, word drills, sound drills, and
oral reading for -ractice.
UTTIT IV GROUP DISCUSSION
Group speaking is a process of cooperative thlninkng and exchange of
ideas, It occurs when twto or nore persons talk over a problon systonati-
cally with the ain of pooling their constructive experiences and judgments
in an effort to arrive at the best possible solution. It is democracy work.,
ing at its best.
The underlying purpose of group speaking is based on the assumption
that 'Ttwo heads are better than one." Howover, it must be recognized at
the outset that uninformedopersons mootin( to "pool their ignorance" results
in nothing but tine wasted., Even the most informal type of group-speaking
requires preliminary individual study, investigation and thinking.
The value of the total gain will depend upon the completeness and
accuracy of the work investigated. A sense of responsibility and specific
study techniques for group speaking must be developed in each individual
to bring the discussion to its highest level of attainnont,
The fundaomntals course is designed to emphasize group speaking. It
should include the daily functional forns of group discussion and.an intro"-
duction to the technical types of public discussion. (Those forms aro
taken up in detail in the unit on public discussion and debate) A simpli-
fied presentation of parliamentary practice is included as it is a basic tool
for promoting fair and efficient group. action, and it is the framework in
which nost group discussions functions,
1, To reach a solution to a problem through cooperative exchange of
information and ideas.
2. To develop a sense of responsibility in individual organization
and prosontation of material employing accurate investigation,
logical thinking and effective presentation of ideas.
35 To develop leadorship in a democratic process.
4. To develop listening attitudes which are attentive, tolerant and
1. Development of an organized pattern of procedure,
a, Definition of problem
b, Analysis of problon
c, Possible solutions
d. Tentative conclusions
c. Suggestions for putting conclusions into practice
2. Developnont of connon typos of group speaking
a, Glassroon discussions
b, Cooopratiov group investigation
3. Introduction of systematic forms of public discussion
4. Introduction of parliamentary practice
a, Realizing purposes
b, Organizing the group
c. Conducting the mooting
do Making the notions
1. Development of an organized pattern of procedure,
a. Have pupils develop an organized pattern of procedure such as
(1) Definition of a problem
(2) Analysis of the problem
(3) Possible solutions
(4) Tentative conclusions
(5) Suggostions for putting conclusions into practice
Be sure the group realizes that such an orderly procedure
would result in greater efficiency, but that the group should
in no way be hold rigidly to the pattern. Such modifying
factors as the groups familiarity with the problem, past
experience and the groups specific purpose would have to be
taken into consideration.
b, Have pupils do individual thinking along the lines of the
pattern of procedure, Lot the pupils nako broad general
outlines following this pattern to bo modified by the dis-
cussion of the group.
2. Dpvclopnont of conron typos of group speaking
a, Classroon discussion
(1) Have pupils analyze the techniques and value of class
(2) Have the pupils evaluate classroom discussion with other
forms of group speaking,
(3) Have a pupil lead a group discussion working towards
widespread intelligent participation which would involve
previous individual preparation.
b. Cooperative group investigation
(1) Have the group work out a cooperative group investiga-
(a) Havo.group decide on a general topic to discuss
consistent with their innediato needs and inter-
(b) Assign phases of the general topic to individual
pupils to investigate,
(c) Have students bring the fruits of their investiga-
tion to class to pool their knowlodgo.
(d) Choose a leader to direct the discussion who will
generate widespread, intelligent participation,
keep the discussion to some general organized
pattern of procedure, and will be able to sumnar-
ize the results of the groups activity,
*~ ~ iva I iii v
dinesslon. Try to work *
(1) Bisii with m le ti -
(2) Disma~s possible penaonno of onalinea incluling
Ivi hirr tl ioorn c t clar a rg
Ially rcii~tfld t" nia tfco problo at iiiin
(3 ) rnv hr uc
*h lak tho
C1-) ~ --isoe. f"- uhlcSi will offi-
3, Introduction of systematic forns of public discussion,
a. An introduction to the panel discussion
(1) Discuss with the pupils the characteristics of a panel
discussion which are
(a) Usually has from 4 to 8 members
(b) Has a loader
(c) Utilizes spontaneous exchange of ideas a give
and take process
(d) Has planned speeches
(2) Preparation. Discuss with the pupils the preparation
necessary for a panel discussion.
(a) Group chooses and narrows problcn
(b) Chaiman lays out agenda
(c) May or nay not have preliminary practice
(3) Discuss with the pupils the order of procedure of a
(a) Introduction of speaker by chairman
(c) Brief summary by chairman
(d) Audience participation (forum)
(4) Allow each pupil an opportunity to act as chairman of a
(5) Invite a faculty nombor to serve as chairman of one or
nore panel discussions.
(6) Allow students to surest problems that they would like
to discuss because the teacher nay not always list what
night be a vital problon to the pupil. Incluie such
(a) Parental restrictions
(b) Senior privileges
(c) Ideologies of the "isms"
(d) Human relations course in high school
(o) Teena-age driving habits
(f) Teen-.ce recreation
(c) Teen-aoIe punishment
(h) Student Goverment
(i) Financing the high school annual or forensics
S() Improving; the school paper
k) Limiting the school honowork
(1) The single standard of social behavior
(m) Discussions on this problem: Seven people are
stranded on a desert, your can be saved and three
must die. Select the ones you will save and give
reasons for your choice.
An old scientist
A younj scientist
A young army captain
A twelve year old boy
A wealthy niddle-aged woman
b. An introduction to the synnosium
(1) Discuss with the class the characteristics of a symposium
(a) Usually has from 2 to 6 members
(b) Must have a chairman
(c) Must have planned speeches
(d) Speakers are so-called specialists or exports on
their phase of the problem
(2) Discuss with the class the preparation necessary for a
(a) Chairman assigns topics
(b) Members prepare speeches in advance after investigan
(3) Discuss with the class the order of procedure in a syn-
(a) Introduction of speakers by chairman
(b) Speeches by various members
(c) Surmary by chairman
(d) Audience participation (forum)
(4) Cormare the panel and the symposium including such
factors as the possible occasions in which each would
most efficiently function
(5) Prepare a symposium to be presented before the class,
student body, civic organization or over the radio,
Choose a subject nooting the needs and interests of the
class, Have students with special knowledge or access
to additional knowledge on the subject act as the men-
bers of the symposium
c. An introduction to the forum
(1) Discuss with the class the characteristics of the forum,
which is the audience participation stop of the panel
(2) Conduct a forum after a panel, symposium or debate
4. Introcdction of rparlianmntary practice
a. Rnelizing purposes. Help pupil to understand that parlia-
nontary practice is a basic tool of democracy, a method by
which the opinions of the minority may be considered but the
will of the majority must prevail. It is a moans of facili-
tating group action.
b, Organizing the group
(1) Help the class organize their club or organization in
the following manner
(a) Call the mooting to order
(b) Select temporary officers
(c) Discuss the purpose
(d) Draw up a constitution
(2) A cood way to teach parliamentary practice is to
organize the class into a club, proceeding through tho
various stops Decide upon a purpose which lends itself
to further nootings and then use the club as much as
possible during the ensuing class periods.
(3) In order to give the constitution committee tino enough
to do its work well, it night be wise to schedule the
second meeting for a few days later. The temporary
officers preside during the second meeting, Naturally
the first order of business is the adoption of the cone
stitution. Providing each member with a mimeographed
copy will facilitate intelligent discussion and serve
to impress on each pupils nind the content and order of
a model constitution:
Article I Name
Article II Purpose
Article III MQnbership
Article 17 Officers
Article V Standirn comittoos
Article VI Meetings
Article VII oAendments
As soon as the constitution has been adopted, the
election of pornmanont officers can take place. Succeed-
ing nootings should occur as set up in the constitution.
c. Conducting a eooting
(1) Discuss with the class the duties of the presiding
(2) It is well to give as many students as possible practice
in acting as presiding officers. This practice should
dispel the popular misconception that being president of
a club is all honor and no responsibility..
(3) Discuss with the class the order of business. Any club
may sot its own order of business; however, an accepted
form can be found in any English or speech text.
(4) Pupils should understand and gain experience in the
following common practices of voting:
(a) Quo ru the percentage of nonbership which must be
present before business can be transacted. (Often
designated in the groups constitution)
(b) The difference between a majority and a plurality
(c) Motions which require a majority vote and those
which require a two-thirds vote
(d) Methods of voting
Favor say "Aye", opposed say "No.n (The
negative vote must always be called for)
Show of hands or standing (When the division
of the house has been called for)
Connon consent (most rapid)
Voting by ballot
(1) Discuss with the class the steps in the procedure of
(a) Monbor rises and addresses chairman
(b) Chainman recognizes member by calling his nano
(c) Momber proposes notion using form, mnovo that".
(d) Another nombor seconds notion
(o) Chairman repeats notion
(f) Chairman calls for discussion of notion
(g) Motion is put to vote
(h) Chaiman announces decision of group
(2) Discuss with the class the types of motions and their
(3) Discuss with the class the precedence of motions. A
chart showing the most connonly used notions and their
characteristics is very useful.
(4) Procecds slowly in teaching the principles of parlianon.
tary procoduro, Add something now to each lesson and
give pupils plenty of time to practice each new notion_
before moving to the next. Consistent use of the class;
club is an excellent teaching devise, ITosnsno notions
may servo sometimes to enliven the lesson and at the
same time teach the procedure effectively. Student con-i
grosses, mock conventions and city council noetings
afford good motivating devices.
U1IT V SPEECH OOMPOSITION
The value of every oral connunication, regardless of type, rests on
content (the thotuht conmunicatod) and presentation (the means and.nannor
of communication). Both are important; each complemonts the other,
Every student should be made to realize that the basic essential of
good speaking is having something worthwhile to say; therefore, the student
should acquire a knowledge, through study and practice, of what.material
to select, how to select it, and how to organize it effectively. Turning
the speech class into a laboratory for preparation and delivery pays big
dividends, whether the activity includes simple reports, class recitations,
preparation for extra-curricular activities or for participation in connun-
This unit of work is designed to give suggestions which will aid the
teacher in helping the pupil to acquire a knowledge and practice of the
basic essentials of speech cormosition, whether the situation be a small
informal group or one involving an audience.
To develop the ability to gather and organize natorial for speech
situations in relation to the purpose, occasion, speaker, and audience.
1. Choosing toe subject
a, Occasion for speech
b, Type of audience
c, Speaker's interest and ability
d, Availability of material
o. Exact purpose of speech
f. Central idea of speech
2. Selecting the material
(1) Observation and experience
(2) Conversation and interviews
(4) Radio prograns
(5) Letters to informed persons
(1) Using personal knowlodco
(2) Reading for a specific purpose
(3) ITote taking
3. Organizing the speech
a. Outlining the body
(1) Discarding ideas irrelevant to central thaeo
(2) Grouping relevant information under main topics
(3) Arranging nain topics in logical order
S (4) Adding sub-topics hero necessary
b. Planning the type of conclusion
(1) Rounding off the subject
(2) Summarizing the theme
(3) Stimulating response
c. Developing the introduction
(1) Gaining favorable audience attention
(2) Explaining essential background material
(3) Building a bridge to audience interest
4, Making the speech vivid
a, Using specific words
b. Providing ample illustrations
c, Using direct quotations effectively
d, Making use of thought-provoking questions
e, Using effective repetition
f, Securing variety in sentence and paragraph structure
g, Striving for concise, clear meaning
I, Choosing the subject
a, Discuss with the pupils the factors or circumstances which
guide one in the selection and limitation of a subject for
b, Take various broad subjects suggested by the members of the
group and limit these for possible pupil talks,
e, List a number of situations which provide opportunities for
speaking, Have students suggest different subjects suitable
for talks on those occasions,
d. Help the pupils realize that the subject matter, as well as
topic, must be suitable for the occasion by having them
suggest possible nain heads for a speech on the same topic
to be given, in one case, at a football banquet, and, in
another case, at a meeting of the Big Brother's Club,
e, Encourage the pupil to select topics he is really interested
in and about which he has some knowledge and experience
through discussing the advantages of so doing,
f, Help the student to recognize the value of thorough prepara-
tion by giving him opportunity to present a short talk after
only a brief time for preparation, and after an additional
amount of tine for improvement,
g, Analyze different types of audiences with the pupils and
help then to see how such an analysis aids in the preparation
and delivery of the speech,
h. Guide the pupils in the selection of topics on which a
sufficient amount of material is available, Suggest a
number of topics and allow the pupils time to visit the
library and to chech classroom materials to locate avail-
able subject matter. This investigation may result in the
necessity of eliminating some tonics suggested for talks
because of lack of subject matter,
i. Have pupils state in a few words the central idea of the
speech, Afterwards check and see if the others in the class
grasped this idea correctly as the speech was presented.
2. Selecting the material
a, Instruct pupils to consult numerous sources for needed
b. Train.the student to apply to life situations the ideas he
has accQired, thus utilizing his own observation and oxper-
c, Post an up-to-date list of available printed materials in
the school and local libraries.
d. Make a list of source materials found outside the classroom -
in the home, church, community, movies, radio, travel, etc.
e. Urge the pupils to take local trips for observation purposes,
f, Encourage -upils to listen to stimulating talks and radio
programs with idea. of finding material for future talls,
g. Ask pusils to interview or write to people who are espec-
ially qualified to give interesting and correct information
on certain subjects.
h, Visit local radio stations and write to network radio
stations for lists of informative and helpful radio broad-
casts. Keep a current list posted on the bulletin board.
i, IKeen -rofessional and speech magazines in the eseech class-
room as a helpful source of information,
J. Direct pupils to have note cards or some writing material
with then as they read or as they encounter materials which
might be useful, The regulation 3" x 5" card to be used
later in debating might be adopted early in the course, and
the classes should be instructed how to take and file notes.
3 Organizing the speech
n, With one pupil working at the board, have the class outline
a well-organized speech as it is road aloud from "Vital
Speeches,n the "Congressional Record," or other reliable
periodicals and books,
by Discuss the central theme of the speech outlined,
c, Decide upon a subject of interest to the entire class, and
working together, select the central theme. Outline the
composite speech on the board together,
d. Discuss the conclusions of several good speeches, noting
(1) Round off the subject
(2) Sunnarize the thene
(3) Stimulate response
c. Ask each pupil to write a conclusion for the speech which
the class outlined together, Discuss and choose the best
f, Discuss speech introductions, noting:
(1) Tho purpose of the introduction
(2) Why the introduction is planned last
(3) What ferns it nay take
g. Have pupils bring to class examples of spooches which begin
in various ways; such as, an anecdote, an apt quotation, a
question, a startling statement, a teaser, etc,
h, Ask each pupil to write an introduction to the composite
speech which the class outlined together.
i. Using the class as a laboratory period, have each pupil
outline the body of an original speech, write an appropriate
conclusion for it, and formulate an effective introduction.
4. Making the speech vivid
a. Hold a vocabulary natch to see which pupils can suggest the
greatest number of specific words for such general words as
bird, flower, tree, color, etc.
b. Ask pupils to contrast some short, well-known speech, such
as the "Gottysburg Address" and a well-written essay, such
as Enorson's essay on "Friendship", noting how in contrast
to written language, oral language is characterized by:
(1) Short sentences, so clearly organized that the meaning
can be understood at once.
(2) Frequent use of purposeful repetition.
(4) Words which attract and hold the attention at once.
c. Encourage pupils to listen to dynmnic speakers and report
to the Class their use of illustrations, quotations, and
da Give the class an example of a dull speech of generalities
and have pupils re-write it, substituting specific for general
words, adding apt illustrations, putting in appropriate
quotations, using purposeful repetition, and securing sentence
variety which is clear and concise.
oe Assign original speeches which illustrate the use of quota-
tions, helpful questions, and meaningful repetition,
f. Criticize all class speeches, commending pupils for skilfull
use of specific oral language skills,
g. eeop a scrapbook or file of illustrative stories individually
or as a class.
h, Arrange for bulletin board displays of stories, quotations,
and cartoons on special subjects such as hunor, education,
politics, love, Encourage pupils to incorporate those illus-
trations in their speeches whore appropriate.
,. Hold class discussions analyzing the style of current well"
1nown speakers with colorful vocabularies and a wealth of
NIT VI INDIVIDUAL SPEECH
It is the purpose of this unit to acquaint the individual with the
various forms of occasional speaking, The extent to which this may be devel-
oped depends upon the organized course of speech in the particular school,
These are fundamental in nature, and they have boen so organized that the
teacher may use his own discretion in presenting the material either in part
or as a whole, Individual speaking is the foundation for public spealdng,
1. To develop the ability to respond properly to calls for individual
speech services in various situations.
2. To create an understanding of the acceptable form of selected
individual speeches as to both content and delivery.
3. To motivate the desire for using ones own potentialities as far
as individuality in speaking is concerned,
1, 0lass situations
a, Impromptu speeches
2. Cronpus situations
a, Oanpaign drives
b, Pop talks
3. Auditorium and club situations
c, W'elcono; pooeches
d. Farcwoll speeches
.0 Prosont-ation and acceptance speeches
4. Social situations
a, Master of cororonioc
b. Dinner spoochos
Individual speaking situations help to shape thought, develop the
vocabulary, and improve the language used. To speak effectively the pupil
should choose a subject that is suited to the group and to the occasion.
The use of the voice, facial expressions and gestures, and the choice of
words combine to help connunicate the thought. Clarity is maintained by
using the sane tense, person, and point of view throughout the speaking
1. Class situations
a. Impromptu spoochoes Each pupil should be given the oppoi-
tunity to introduce himself and to toll things about his
personal life, his hobbies, and other things of interest.
If possible the speech should be recorded. It should be
played back for interest as well as for information. The
teacher will gain valuable information as to the needs of
the pupil, such as.his choice of words, diction, organiza-
tion of thought, and composition. Other types of subject
matter nay be used. The teacher nay supply the student with
a word or situation about which he is to give a complete
descriptive picture of his reaction toward it. The pupil
should be encouraged to keep infornod about a wide variety
of subjects and should frequently be given an opportunity
for the presentation of subject matter. The flash card
nothod is rccoroondod for use near the end of the period,
when time pornits.
b, Reportss Reports of conventions, official duties, trips,
observattion, and projects should give the pupil opportunity
for adequate, concise explanations, Reports on books,
essays, magazine articles, current events, plays, radio
programs, and lectures may be developed according to the
need and may be used at the discretion of the teacher as
a stopping stone for the unit in public speaking,
c. Diroctionst Careful consideration should be given to the
clarity of directions. One should have a thorough under-
standing of that about which he is attempting to give
directions. Ho should also renonbor that the oprson who
is receiving the directions is hearing them for the first
tino, The pupil should be afforded much practice in the
giving of directions.
2, Canpus situations
a. Campaign drives Since the high school elections offoerone
of the first opportunities for making campaign speeches, it
is suggested that an accepted form should be introduced.
In developing those annpaign speeches an opportunity is
offered for logical constructive reasoning in which one can
develop a wholosono attitude toward his follow nan.
b. Pop talks: Pupils nay be given an opportunity to mako pop
talks for athletic events, student elections, and club
3. Auditorium and club situations
a. Introductions: Introductions of friends can be mado a very
helpful and pleasant experience for the pupils. iTis expor.
once may load to the introduction of a speaker to an
b. Announcononts: Special stress should be placed upon the
making of announcements that are clear, concise, emphatic,
and to the point.
c, Wolcono speeches: Have the pupil welcome a now club memnbor,
a former classmate, or a returned veteran,
d. Farewell speeches: Give the pupil experience in making a
farewell speech to a friend who is moving away, going into
service, or leaving for college,
oe Presentation and acceptance speeches: Develop situations
in which the pupil presents a gift or a trophy to an individ-
ual or to an organization. Have a pupil respond with an
acceptance speech for each situation.
4. Social situations
a. Master of ceremonies: Give the pupil an opportunity to
oxerciso his ingenuity and originality by acting as master
of ceremonies or toastmaster at imaginary affairs. Entor-
tainncnts, radio programs, banquets, luncheons, teas, and
group activities in which one person represents the group
offer hin the opportunity to develop his ability for an
actual situation, Wherever possible this should be coordinat-
ed with activities of this nature in the school program.
b. Dinner speeches Have the pupil prepare a speech to be
given at a school or community affair before, during, or
c. Storicos As a.noans of acquiring social ease and establish-
ing happy relationships betwoon people, story-tolling is
very effective. It also cultivates a taste for bettor liter-
ature and aids greatly in developing personality. Sono
suggested activities in storytelling are as follows
Have the pupil
(1) Listen to a radio story and retell it to the class.
(2) In folk tales look for quaint words, old-fashionod
words, coined words, and picturesque expressions.
(3) Have story-telling contests.
(4) Divide the class into groups of six or eight, Give
each group a type of story to create,
Sono types of stories and story collections for use are as
"The Four Million," by 0. Henry
"Weo Willio Winkio," by Rudyard Kipling
Stories for the Bible
OBravo Men," by Ernie Pylo
"Myths of ITorthorn Lands," by H. A. Guorber
"Life Story of Thomns A. Edison," by F. A. Jones
"The Bottle Inp," by Robert Louis Stevenson
"The Masque of the Red Death," by Edgar Allen Poe
In planning this course in public speaking, it is assumed that the
student has completed fundamentals of speech and will review the basic
principles.before beginning actual participation in public speaking
In adapting this course of study to noet the individual situation, the
previous training of the group and the individual differences of the pupil
will be the basic factor in determining the exact procedure.
Public speaking offers opportunities, not only to learn workable
theory, but also for practice, which is by no means limited to the classroom,
1, To recognize the importance of public speaking in a democratic
2. To learn the characteristics of the various typos of public
3. To develop the ability to prepare and present those speeches in
the light of special audience situations,
4, To cultivate the habit of good listening,
Importance of Public Speaking
Listening to Spooches
Types of Speeches
MUIT I IMPORrTANCE OF PUBLIC SPEAKING
As modern inventions and institutions have made this a speaking age,
the ability to speak effectively in public is a valuable asset. In parti-
cular, the talking pictures and the radio have shown the powerful effect a
public speaker may have in molding public opinion.
1, To help the pupil recognize the importance and value of public
2. To create in the student a desire to use public speaking as a
means of self-development.
1. Importance of public speaking in life situations
a, Pupil organizations
b. School assemblies
c. Business and professional life
d. Civic organizations and institutions
2. Benefits of training in public speaking
a, Developing the habit of purposeful reading and listening
b, Developing the ability to discriminate between important
and unimportant facts
c, Developing the ability to think logically and to organize
d. Developing effective self-exopression
1. Importance of public speaking in life situations
a. Have pupils list and discuss school organizations and clubs
in which the ability to speak well before the group is a
b, Encourage the pupils to address their clubs and organizations.
After each speech have a discussion evaluating the effect of
the speech, if possible*
c. Have pupils discuss recent assembly programs involving public
speaking, noting the effectiveness of the speech or speeches,
d. Have pupils make a list of occupations or professions in
which ability to speak well in public is essential,
e. Have the class discuss why public speaking is an asset to any
business or profession.
f, 'Have the class discuss the need of effective speakers in civic
g. Have tho class discuss the role of radio and public speeches
in molding public opinion;., .
h, Have the class discuss the part public speaking plays in the
government ofa democracy,
i. Have the. class listenn in" on a political convention or a
lawmaldng group, noting the important part played by effective
2. Benefits of training in public speaking
a. Through study.of effective speeches emphasize the fact that a
good speaker must become well-informed by purposeful reading
b, Have pupils listen to a speaker and take notes on the speech,
Note whether the speech was well organized. Discuss how good
organization and effectiveness are related.
c. Haveopupils discuss speeches they have recently heard, com-_
paring the speakers as to fluency and as to ability to express
ideas clearly. Compare untrained and inexperienced speakers
with the trained and experienced,
d. Have pupils listen to several radio speeches, noting whether
the facts given were necessary to develop the subjects dis-
o. Have pupils listen to an assembly speaker, jotting down on
paper in separate lists the important and the unimportant
f. Havopupils make talks in class, using outlines. Emphasize
the importance of logical thinking and of effective organiza-
UNIT II LISTTIING TO SPEECHES
Speaking is only part of the communication cycle; listening completes
it. In any public speaking class, as in life, people will spend more time
on the listening end of the cycle than on the speaking end. Attention should
be given to cultivating good listening habits, for attentive listening is a
valuable asset in speech improvement.
1, To develop attentive and discriminating habits of listening.
2. To holp pupils understand that the responsiveness to communication
dotominos largely the compotonco of communication.
1. Inportanco of good listening habits
a* To speaker
b. To audience
2, Obligations of the listener
a, Tolerance of attitude
b, Freedon from distraction
C, Attention to content ind organization
d. Oooporation in questioning period
e. Evaluation of conclusion
3. Responses of the listener
a. Courteous responses
(1) Attentive facial expression
(2) Dignifiod body posture
(3) Appropriate laughter and applause
(4) Silence of disapproval
b. Discourteous responses
4~ Listening for entertainment
5p Listening for information
6. Listening for propaganda analysis
a, Tse of loaded words
br Appoal to inpolling notivos
Co Use of xnmc calling
d. Insinuation of false dilcnma
1. Ipportance of good listening habits
a. Have pupils deliver speeches to a courteous audience, Lot
them try to cornunicato the sane idea to a discourteous
audience. Record both and analyze to show how good listening
produces bettor speaking.
b. Have pupils attend a club or organization meeting and note
errors in parliamentary procedure or tine lost because of
poor listening on the part of the audience.
c. Ask pupils to evaluate the listening habits of the audience
when they offer class criticisms on their speeches,
2, Obligations of the listener
a. Ask pupils to listen to a speech by sonoone of an opposite
political, religious, or racial group. As a test of their
tolerance roequost then to write a criticism of the speech
and the audience, showing the good as well as the weak points
of the speech,
b. Have pupils analyze audience reaction at a debate or public
speaking contest between schools that are traditional rivals.
c, Hold class discussion about distractions in a given speech
situation such as, overheated roons, poor ventilation,
inadequate light, inability to hear. Have pupils suggest
what a courteous listener could have done to correct those
d. To chock their attention to content and organization, ask
pupils to nake outlines of a speech given before the school
assembly. Do not toll pupils in advance that this outlining
chock will be mado,
e, Ask an outside speaker to talk to the class, and without
previous notice to the class, invite pupils to join in a
f. Have pupils listen to two radio or public speeches on opposite
sides of a public question and nake a written evaluation of
the conclusions reached in each case,
3. Responses of listeners
a, Arrange for a class panel discussion followed by a forun on
courteous and discourteous audience habits. This night be
put on later before the entire school if the opportunity can
b, Have the pupils.nako notes on all the audience responses
observed for one week. Classify these responses as courteous
c. Ask pupils to analyze a discourteous audience situation and
try to find the cause with the idea of olininating it in the
d. Ask pupils to deliver a speech before the class and allow the
class to hecie.
e. Encourage pupils to collect pictures which show various
audience responses. Ask then to study the attitudes of
individuals and connent on the responses indicated,
4. Listening for ontcrtainient
a. Ask pupils to observe and discuss audience attitudes at a
banquet speech or a humorous lecture.
b. HTav pupils naked self-analysis charts on the types of speeches
they enjoy nost,
c. Ask pupils to naked an inventory of the listening habits of
their families to see what radio programs they prefer and
the approximate amount of tine spent in listening for enter-
d. Assign a number of the class to give a speech of entertainment
before the school assembly and have other nembors observe and
discuss the audience reaction, Follow later with a speech to.
inform and let the pupils compare and contrast the difference
in audience attitude,
5. Listening for information
a* Assign expository speeches on how to make some article,
Ask various pupils to dononstrate by following the directions
given in the speech.
b. Make an oral assignment with specific directions, Ask the
pupils to repeat the directions exactly,
c. Havo pupils listen to a five-ninuto newscast without taking
notes. Ask then to write a brief summary of the most impor-
d. Invite an outside speaker to talk to the class. Ask pupils
to write a precis of the talk at the conclusion without warn-
ing then beforehand that they are to do this,
e. Road a peon to the class, preceding the reading with facts of
the lifo of the writer that have no bearing on the content of
the poem. Have the pupils sutmarizo the content of the poemo
Chock then on their ability to grasp and give the content of
the poem rather than the facts of the author's life.
6, Iistoning for propaganda analysis
a. Have the class listen to and analyze a congressional debate
or a partisan radio program and nake a list of loaded words
b. Ask pupils to listen to radio cormorcials and bring examples
of appeals to the impolling motives of self-preservation,
wealth, power, or prestige. Discuss whether these appeals
wore based on the nerit of the product advertised.
c. Have pupils listen to a series of campaign speeches and list
all examples of nane-calling.
d, Ask pupils to analyze local or national partisan speeches for
examples of false dilcnna, insufficient proof, and illogical
oa Have pupils stage a nock political campaign using all the
tricks of propaganda, Follow through with a campaign on the
sane issues stripped of false propaganda.
UNIT III. PREPARING SPEECHES
Speeches lose their influence for better democratic living when parti-
cilants present only personal opinions instead of clarifying issues object-
ively, The subject natter,.as well as the presentation, must be given care-
ful consideration in speech,
If the group has already had the Fundamentals Course, a brief review
of the unit on Speech Composition nay servo as an introduction to this unit.
Otherwise a rather detailed study of basic principles of speech preparation
must be made,
To develop the ability to organize And present an effective platform
speech suitable for a given audience situation.
1 Doetomine the purpose of the speech, whether to entertain, inform,
impress, convince, or secure action.
2, Analyze the audiencoand occasion.
3, Choosing the subject.
4k Collecting the material.
5, Making an outline..
6. Wording the speech.
1, Detormine the purpose of the speech
a, Discuss thc purposes or general ends of speech
b. Lot the pupils hear several speeches and discuss the general
end of each.
2. Analyzo the audience and occasion
as Havo the group discuss different audiences to whom they
I night speak and analyze each
b. Let the pupils make a list of occasions for which a speech
niFht be prepared
c, Bavo u-w.ls sunmarize the steps so far discussed and select
a sub-oct and suggest ways of adjusting the subject chosen
from one situation to another
3. Choosing the subject
as Give the pupil a particular audience situation and a definite
occasion for which subjects must be chosen. Show how a
s-ooch for a certain occasion would havo to be adjusted to
b. The following questions may help the pupils in selecting a
Is the topic worth attention?
Is there a definite purpose foi the speech?
Is the speaker interested in the subject?
Is suitable subject natter available?
Is the subject of interest to the specific audience?
Will it be appropriate to the specific occasion?
c. Eave the class select an occasion for making a speech and
list several possible subjects.
4. Collecting the material
a. Encourage each pupil to begin the collection of material
suitable and helpful in speech preparation. This nay be
filed in the speech classroom for use by all
b, Give opportunity for each pupil to learn the proper method
of selecting natorial and taking notes through practice
c. Suggest that each pupil keep an individual speech notebook
containing class notes, and helpful material and biblio-
5. Making an outline
a. Review steps in outlining given in Fndamentals Course on
b, Have the class discuss the importance of an outline
c, Listen to various speeches for the purpose of outlining them
d. Read with the class various short speeches,holping pupils to
e. Have pupils choose a subject and outline a speech for a
6. Tording the speech
a. Have the pupils fill in the outline, keeping in nind the
importance of simplicity, grannatical construction and an
b. Clip advertisements front a current magazine; for each one
list the types of imagery employed; explain how they made
use of this
c. In the library find speeches by eminent men. Conpare the
wording of these on the basis of (1) simplicity, (2) vivid
imagery, and (3) the use of loaded words