*SING MAPS A, 1
N FLORIDA S
p6364-STATE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
0. 22 Tollahssee, Florida
S* SITHOMAS D. BAILEY, Superintendent
Pl' 6-6 rTATE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
lO. 22,- Tallahassee, Florida
C 3 THOMAS D. BAILEY, Superintendent
USING MAPS AND GLOBES
IN FLORIDA SCHOOLS
STATE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
THOMAS D. BAILEY, Superintendent
io 22. -G-
N 1955 the State Board of Education approved the recom-
mendation of the Courses of Study Committee that a series of
instructional materials pamphlets be prepared. State-wide com-
mittees of teachers, supervisors, administrators, and university
personnel were appointed to accomplish the assignment. This
publication, Bulletin #22-G, Using Maps and Globes in Florida
Schools, is one of that series.
Before making any recommendations or reaching any con-
clusions, the Committee explored ways in which teachers and
pupils might use maps and globes. They also considered criteria
for selecting maps and globes to be purchased. They discussed
the steps necessary for developing map understandings. From
teachers in the State they collected ways in which maps and
globes had been used successfully as part of on-going classroom
learning activities. This Guide is the result of their discussions
and careful study.
In 1958, the Committee members submitted their tentative
workdraft to university professors, instructional materials per-
sonnel, teachers, administrators, and supervisors for examination.
The material in the Tentative Guide has been revised in terms
of comments and suggestions received.
It is important that today's Space Age children learn to
use maps and globes with understanding. Children must learn
to read and interpret these representations of the earth's surface
just as they learn to read the printed word. Concepts that
children develop through using maps and globes are basic in the
educational program. Teachers will, I believe, find this guide
helpful in teaching children to use them effectively.
THOMAS D. BAILEY
State Superintendent of Public Instruction
PUBLICATION of this Guide is due to the untiring and pro-
ductive efforts of many persons. Serving on the state-wide
committee charged with the responsibility for developing a guide
for using maps and globes were: Miss Mary Bostick, the Uni-
versity School, Florida State University, Tallahassee; Dr. David
Christensen, Assistant Professor, Geography Department, Florida
State University, Tallahassee; Mr. Luther King, Principal, Canal
Street Elementary School, Milton; Miss Jean Matheson, Elemen-
tary Supervisor, Sarasota County, Sarasota; Mr. Ray F. Rillings,
Jr., Clearwater Senior High School, Clearwater; Dr. Raymond
Schultz, School of Education, Florida State University, Tallahas-
see; Mrs. Mary Williams, Leon High School, Tallahassee; and Mr.
Henry F. Becker, Professor and Head, Geography Department,
Florida State University, who served as chairman.
A special expression of appreciation is due the members of
the State Department of Education who assisted with the develop-
ment and publication of this Guide. Dr. Sam H. Moorer, Director
of the Division of Instructional Services, Mr. W. H. Pierce,
.Manager of Publications and Textbook Services, Miss Audrey
Newman, Consultant, Instructional Materials, and John P. Mc-
Intyre, Curriculum Specialist, are due special recognition for their
helpful contributions and strong support of this project. Other
members of the State Department of Education who assisted with
editing, layout, illustrating, and preparing the final copy for pub-
lication were J. K. Chapman, Joseph W. Crenshaw, Howard Jay
Friedman, and R. W. Sinclair.
Appreciation is also due the county boards of public instruc-
tion, the county superintendents, the principals of the schools,
and the university officials who made it possible for the Commit-
tee members to have the time to meet and write this bulletin.
Special recognition is made of the contributions of those
teachers, principals, administrative and supervisory personnel,
and university staff members who helped with the work of the
Committee. Especially helpful have been suggestions and ma-
trial received from Mrs. Madolyn Brown, Supervisor of Social
Studies, Dade County Board of Public Instruction; F. Edgar
Lane, Supervisor, Instructional Materials, Dade County Board of
Public Instruction; Lester W. McNabb, Leisure City Elementary
School, Homestead; Miss Eleanor E. Matteson, Kinlock Park
Junior High School, Miami; Mrs. Tim Murphy, Hartsfield Ele-
mentary School, Tallahassee; and Dr. Calvin Billman, Assistant
Professor of History, Florida State University, Tallahassee.
Florida State University generously provided materials and
facilities for meetings of the Committee.
The Committee greatly appreciates the suggestions for im-
provement and revision of the tentative edition of the bulletin
made by Florida educators and map publishers' representatives
to whom it was submitted for review.
Introducing the Guide
MAPS ARE instructional materials of vital importance to
many aspects of the school program. Better than any other
media, flat maps and spherical maps (globes) give for the entire
world, or its parts, clear concepts of relative position (location);
distribution of innumerable cultural and physical phenomena;
shapes and approximate sizes of various natural and man-made
features on the earth. Maps, then, are essential whenever these
concepts are involved.
Unlike pictures, maps are composed of abstract symbols which
represent reality upon the earth. This Guide outlines ways to
develop an understanding of the complicated language of maps,
based on the relationships between landscapes and maps, and
suggests a sequential development of map-use skills.
Wall maps and globes are expensive materials. For this reason
and to insure their greater effectiveness in use, they should be
thoughtfully evaluated, selected and purchased, and well cared
for. This bulletin has been prepared to aid school personnel
in carrying out these functions.
In preference to a list of specific recommendations, the Com-
mittee has set up criteria for evaluation and selection based on
the most pertinent technical facts concerning maps. A list of
recommendations could soon become outdated; sound criteria
should better stand the test of time. An effort has been made to
indicate minimum requirements for well-equipped classrooms on
each grade level. Sources of free and inexpensive maps and of
commercial wall and desk maps are listed. The value and sig-
nificance of pupil-constructed maps are recognized.
Realizing that telling people to use maps is infinitely easier
than telling them how to use maps effectively, the Committee
has made every effort to draw upon actual school experiences
and practices in the successful selection, use, and care of maps.
The examples described should serve to bring alive and clarify
the criteria and principles advocated in the Guide. Study of these
practices led the Committee to conclude:
1. That the best results in evaluating, selecting, and using
maps and globes have been obtained by cooperative plan-
ning on the school or county level by administrators, su-
pervisors, teachers, curriculum assistants, and librarians;
2. That it is the responsibility of the school administrator
to encourage and lead his teachers to more effective use of
maps as essential educational tools;
3. That responsibility for effective instructional use of maps
rests finally with the classroom teachers;
4. That the sharing of experiences on the school or county
level is a successful way to improve evaluation and selec-
tion of maps and globes, to increase their effective use,
and to insure their proper care.
Table of Contents
FOREWORD .................................. i
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS .......................... iii
INTRODUCING THE GUIDE .................... v
I. INTERPRETING MAPS ........................... 1
A. Developing Landscape-Map Understanding ... 1
B. Developing Map-Use Skills .................. 11
II. USING MAPS IN ACTUAL SITUATIONS ......... 19
A. Elementary School ........................ 19
B. Junior High School ........................ 25
C. Senior High School ........................ 30
D. Junior College ............................ 32
III. SELECTING AND PROCURING MAPS ............ 35
A. Characteristics Common to All Maps ......... 35
B. Special Characteristics of Particular Types of
M aps .................................... 37
C. Free and Inexpensive Maps ................. 44
D. Major Map Publishers ..................... 47
IV. EVOLVING LONG-RANGE PLANS ............... 53
A. Sharing Responsibilities ..................... 53
B. Co-ordinating a County Program ............. 54
V. HANDLING AND CARING FOR MAPS ............ 48
A. Inventory and Circulation ................... 48
B. Storing Maps ............................. 49
C. Caring for Maps ........................... 50
VI. LOCATING MORE INFORMATION ................ 60
EARLY IN LIFE, children in our culture come into contact
with maps. Throughout this Guide the term maps will be
used in a general way to include both flat maps and spherical
maps, commonly called globes. Maps are everywhere. Even the
pre-school child sees Dad use a road map on a vacation trip.
He sees weather maps and news maps on TV. In paging through
newspapers and magazines, he sees maps of many types. With
these many contacts, youngsters cannot avoid learning some map
concepts. However, until they enter school, few youngsters re-
ceive any help in developing skills in map use, and most do not
appreciate the full potentialities of maps for answering ques-
tions and clarifying concepts. We need maps to understand our
physical and cultural environments and the relationships of
events and conditions to places where they occur. In addition, as
a person comes to understand maps and develop skills in using
them, he produces his own maps as a means of grasping rela-
tionships and communicating these relationships to others.
This chapter has three purposes:
1. To develop an understanding of the relations between
landscapes and maps;
2. To show how relationship understandings may be
gained through comparing maps;
3. To consider map-use skills to be developed at different
levels of instruction.
Developing Landscape-Map Understandings
Because the earth and even its minor features are so large,
they can never be seen or studied as a whole. Without some
special device a person can scarcely perceive or understand the
myriad factors that are represented even on the landscape in
his home area. For thousands of years man has employed maps
to represent local and nearby landscapes at a reduced size that
he could perceive and has used them to portray selected features.
The idea that globes and flat maps are small-sized representa-
tions of all or some part of the earth's surface is the essence of
scale. It is obvious that a doll is a small-sized model of a person
and a toy airplane is a simplified miniature of a real one. In the
same way, a globe is a miniature, highly generalized earth, and a
flat map is a miniature reproduction of selected features in a
Scale, which can be expressed in any of several ways, always
indicates the size ratio between a true measurement on the earth's
surface and the corresponding measurement on its mapped repro-
duction. Some scale representations use a ruler-like device to
show the number of miles, kilometers, or yards in a given linear
measurement. Other scales simply "tell" the map user that an
inch on the map represents so many miles, yards, or other meas-
urement on the earth's surface. A less commonly used but very
effective scale form is the "representative fraction" type which
is expressed as a fraction or a ratio. For example, a representa-
tive fraction scale of 1/63,360 or 1:63,360 means simply that actual
measurements on the map are 1/63,360 of their true size on the
This simple idea, that maps can represent selected features or
conditions in the real landscape at a reduced size, is the key to
map making and should be the most important key to using
maps as well.
Globes and Maps1
Early map users needed well-developed imaginations to vis-
ualize the area represented on a map of almost any area. They
had to imagine themselves viewing this area from a point in
space. "Air-age" citizens do not have as great a problem in
perspective. Many of them have looked down upon their home
town and other areas from an airplane, and most people have
seen photographs taken from high-flying aircraft or rockets. Al-
'For simplicity, the term "Globe" is used to refer to spherical maps, the term
"map" is used to refer to flat maps.
Figure 1. An example of perspective.
though they could theorize about it, early map users could never
hope to "see" that their earth home was actually round. The mod-
ern citizen, on the other hand, has available photographs that
were taken from rockets and show the curve of the distant
Every flat map is constructed on one of the many different
projections which have been devised to depict the spherical sur-
face of the globe on a plane. However, few people realize that
in the transfer of data from a sphere to a plane surface some com-
promises must be made in representing areas, shapes, distances,
and directions accurately. One or more of these four basic char-
acteristics are compromised or distorted on all maps. The globe
represents the whole earth more accurately in all of these char-
acteristics than any map and should be employed as a corrective
when using all maps.
Selectivity of Information
The idea of selectivity is another concept that is basic to
making and using maps. Its importance cannot be overstressed.
Aerial photographs are now almost indispensable for many pur-
poses, but they can show only visible features and usually in-
clude only a tiny portion of the earth's surface. Maps, however,
are not so limited. They can represent large or small areas and can
eliminate unwanted details and point up selected features. The
larger the area that is shown on a map, the smaller the scale and
the fewer the details that can be represented. Most world maps
and globes, therefore, are highly selective. They show only
outstanding features such as large land and water areas, major
elevation differences, main rivers, and great cities. Maps of small
areas can show many more features, but they too are very selec-
tive when one considers the almost infinite detail of a real
It is generally understood that maps can depict selected sub-
jects that are visible in the landscape. However, few people
realize that the map is unique in being able to show, as photo-
graphs cannot, the distribution of many non-visible features and
conditions and those which were visible in the past. Geological
maps show underground rock formations and mineral deposits,
and historical maps depict routes, features, and distributions
which are no longer visible in the landscape. Maps can also
show statistical averages and abstractions. Although we can visu-
alize rainfall, we cannot see the long-term average rainfall for an
area in the landscape. Only a map can show such an abstraction
as average rainfall which is based on detailed data collected over
a period of time. Examples of additional statistical averages and
abstractions that are not visible in the landscape but can be
portrayed by maps are: climatic phenomena, population changes,
crop yields, per capital income, literacy rates, nutrition condi-
tions, and level of living or productivity summaries.
Accuracy of Information
A problem to be faced in the use of any map is the accuracy
of the information portrayed. Maps look so precise and complete
that few users would doubt them. However, there are many ways
in which maps can be in error. The most obvious possibilities for
error arise from the simple fact that maps are made by people
and machines. Mistakes can be made at each of the stages of prep-
aration, drafting, editing, and reproduction. Considering the
myriad details that are on most maps, it is surprising that there
are not many more errors! A little known fact is that many map
publishing companies build small inconsequential errors into their
maps in an effort to protect their copyright.
A more subtle possibility for error lies in the availability and
accuracy of data on which the map is based. Equivalent data are
simply not at hand for all countries. Even in the United States,
equivalent data are not available on all items for all states. Thus
the cartographer can base parts of his map on quite complete
Figure 2. A simple map showing streets, a river, a school, a church, and other buildings
by the use of symbols.
and reliable data while data for other areas may be completely
lacking, sketchy, out-dated, or otherwise less sound. The general
lack of many kinds of production and level of living data for the
USSR and its satellites is a case in point. World maps of such
subjects will be more accurate for some parts of the world than
for others, even though to the uncritical user the map may ap-
pear equally correct throughout. Climate maps offer another kind
of example. World maps showing precipitation or temperature
conditions or climate regions are based on data which have been
gathered at thousands of weather stations throughout the world.
There are many hundreds of long-established weather stations in
the United States and Europe but only a relatively few widely
scattered and usually recently established stations in Africa and
Asia. World maps on these phenomena, however, make no dis-
tinction as to the validity of the averages or the completeness
of the data on which different parts of the map are based.
The language used to portray selected features on all maps
is a symbolic language. Some common map symbols, it is true,
actually resemble the features they represent. Water features
are commonly shown in blue; a solid line may represent a road;
and a line with "cross-ties" may represent a railroad. Other
map symbols are truly symbolic and do not suggest the features
they represent. For instance, a circle or a square may repre-
sent a city-even though the actual city limits are more likely to
have an irregular shape; a broken line may represent a political
Figure 3. Common railroad and road symbols.
Common symbols for cities.
boundary which in fact may not even be visible in the landscape;
a "dot" may represent 500 cattle or 1000 acres of corn; and the
color green may depict areas of low elevation-areas which may
actually be any of several different distinctive landscape colors.
Whatever the symbols employed, they become meaningful only
when the map user sees through them the real features or condi-
tions they depict.
Comparing Maps to Develop Relationship Understandings
As valuable as a single map can be in studying a subject or
an area, consulting several different maps can often provide addi-
tional understandings and insights into possible relationships.
Several types of comparisons and correlations can be made. These
can be illustrated by consulting several maps of Florida.2
Map F shows clearly that the average income per person in
the peninsular portion of Florida is much larger than in most of
the rest of the state. Other maps and sources must be consulted,
however, to find the reasons for this important difference.
As would be expected, there is a high degree of similarity and
"correlation" between Maps F and J and between Maps F and I.
People with larger incomes would be expected to provide them-
selves with better housing and would be able to pay more money
in taxes to support public services like schools than people with
2All maps except "K" in the following section are from Florida Reference Atlas,
by H. F. Becker and D. E. Christensen, published by Dixie Publishers, Tallahassee,
The pattern on Maps E and F do not "match" or show sim-
ilarity or "coincidence." Some of the counties with the largest per
capital income levels have a high proportion of non-white citizens.
Conversely, some counties with the lowest per capital incomes
are among those with the lowest proportion of non-whites. It can
be concluded that the per capital income level of a county is not
directly related, if at all, to the proportion of non-whites.
There is a "reverse similarity" or "inverse coincidence" be-
tween Maps F and A in that the areas with the greater propor-
tion of children and young people have the smallest per capital
incomes. This is more than mere chance because total county
income, however large or small, would have to be divided in
North and West Florida among a population with a larger por-
tion of non-productive members. A greater burden in supporting
children (Map A) can also help to explain why more North and
West Floridians have poorer homes (Map J) and need more out-
side aid to operate their schools at Minimum Foundation levels
Maps A, B, and C show a high degree of similarity or coinci-
dence, and yet there is no clear-cut direct relation between any
two of them. They are "indirectly related" because each is re-
lated to the per capital income distribution shown in Map F. The
reciprocal relationship between Maps A and F already has been
described. The concentration in North and West Florida of corn
and pulpwood producing areas relates partly to soil and climate
conditions but also to historic and economic factors. North and
West Florida have been settled longer, much of it was involved in
the plantation system of the "Old South," and today general
farming and forestry are the basic economic activities. Neither
of these activities is as profitable as the citrus, winter vegetable,
and tourist industry in Peninsular Florida.
It would be expected that the tourist industry, the State's
economic mainstay, would exert a strong influence on the distri-
bution of income. A comparison of Maps F and G bears out this
positive and direct correlation. Florida's most developed tourist
areas, in turn, are located where mild winter conditions prevail
(Compare Maps G and L).
Specialized farming is also very important to the State's
economy, particularly citrus fruit and vegetables (Map D).
The great concentration of citrus trees throughout Peninsular
Map B Map E
0 -1-- I
EB "*''" *
aaltnuar~lalsa reitsnui f-tllor
Figure 4. Twelve maps which may be used to show comparisons and correlations.
* r.. ,' .. I -
Bor;IPIt Ho *qlllbr ~ Yllo~rnI~
eotmCT anrp^^^ u^^B *-i^ lgo.
IV I,- -
Map H Map K
Map I Map L
7=11 L =1 -%4 BleN
?-;3si *'s g ^ *..: v
wenr ow. vJn C
H murasllra ^ *^-S
Florida (Compare Maps D and H) is directly related to certain
climatic factors, particularly conditions relating to the severity
of winters (Compare Maps H and L).
Manufacturing based on citrus fruits and vegetables in Penin-
sular Florida and on forest products in North and West Florida
has been important for decades. The recent expansion of in-
dustries in the chemical, electronic, aircraft, and missile fields is
confined almost exclusively to Peninsular Florida (Map K). This
recent growth is related to the attractiveness of this part of the
State to skilled workers as well as to tourists (Compare Maps G
and L) and to the establishment of the government missile center
at Cape Canaveral.
The following outline summarizes these and other major types
of relationships that might be discovered in comparing maps.
A. NO COINCIDENCE: Little or no similarity is dis-
cerned in the patterns of distribution depicted on the
two maps being compared. It therefore can be concluded
tentatively that there is little, if any, relationship between
the subjects of the two maps. (Compare Maps A and E,
E and J.)
B. COINCIDENCE: A high degree of similarity is apparent
between some or all aspects of the patterns of distribu-
tion shown on two maps being compared. Coincidence
does not necessarily indicate any reciprocal relationship
between the subjects of the two maps.
1. POSITIVE COINCIDENCE: The patterns of distri-
bution on two statistical maps being compared have
corresponding places with high numerical values and
vice versa. (Compare Maps A and B, A and C, H
2. INVERSE COINCIDENCE: Same as B-1 except
that there is a complimentary or reciprocal similarity
between the patterns on the two maps being com-
pared, with places of high numerical value on one map
corresponding to a large extent with places of low
numerical value on the other. (Compare Maps A and
F, F and B.)
C. RELATIONAL COINCIDENCE OR CORRELATION:
Same as B plus a reciprocal relationship between some
or all of the factors shown on two maps being compared.
(Compare Maps G and L.)
1. POSITIVE CORRELATION: A correlation with
patterns corresponding as described in B-1. (Compare
Maps F and G.)
2. INVERSE CORRELATION: A correlation with pat-
terns corresponding reciprocally as described in B-2.
(Compare Maps B and D.)
3. DIRECT CORRELATION: A direct interrelation-
ship between some or all of the factors or distribu-
tions shown on the maps being compared. (Compare
Maps F and G.)
4. INDIRECT CORRELATION: Patterns of distribu-
tion on two maps being compared show a high degree
of coincidence (as in B-l) and the subjects are re-
lated to each other in meaningful but round-about way,
perhaps by each having a direct correlationship with
a third subject. (Maps D and K do not have a direct
relationship but each is related directly to Maps F
Seeking information and interrelationships on any subject
from many diverse maps in this manner is the most rewarding
use that can be made of maps. This habit of comparing maps
should be developed beginning with the earliest map-use experi-
ences. It should be broadened and deepened through the years
as interests, knowledge, and skills expand.
Developing Map-Use Skills
The ideas presented in the foregoing sections should help
teachers to appreciate more fully some of the characteristics of
maps and globes, how they are related to real landscapes, and
how relationship understandings may be gained through com-
paring maps. Most youngsters are fascinated by maps, and they
are eager to learn about their own communities and more distant
places and people. Skillful use of maps and globes will help stu-
dents develop both of these interests. It is important that map
study be considered as a means to an end, rather than an end
itself. Map study helps pupils acquire and practice skills essen-
tial for interpreting and representing man's present and past life
In helping youngsters to learn to use and understand maps, we
must follow in rough sequence the same steps followed by man
in expanding his map concepts through the ages. Man's first map
needs and experiences were confined to his local area; young-
sters' first contacts with maps should be focused upon their home
town. Early in his history man began to contemplate the shape
of the earth and to consider his location on it. Children should be
introduced early to the globe as a representation of the earth
and should learn to locate familiar places on it. As man's knowl-
edge and interests expanded, he broadened his horizons and con-
tacts to include finally people and places the world over. Young-
sters' horizons expand as they study areas and people more dis-
tant from their home lands, and their need for maps as aids
to learning expands simultaneously.
This second portion of this chapter considers in detail the
sequential development of map-use skills at different grade levels.
It also suggests class and student projects which might be used
to promote the development of these skills.
Readiness is essential. The ability to use maps and globes
effectively develops gradually over a number of years. It in-
cludes an appreciation of the importance of maps as reference
materials and the habit of using them when certain kinds of facts
and ideas are needed. Work in mathematics and other phases of
the curriculum areas can and should develop concepts needed for
understanding and reading maps. Competence in map reading
comes from actually using maps as sources of information and
records of experience.
Map readiness involves gaining the minimum skill for un-
derstanding and using maps, essential as a starting point at any
level. Thus defined, such readiness is important at all levels and,
if absent, must be developed. It begins when reading and using
maps begin. Because the results of planned experiences for chil-
dren are cumulative, skills in reading and using maps are intro-
duced and practiced in the elementary grades and must be
continually reintroduced, developed, refined, and used at levels
beyond the elementary grades.
To interpret and use maps fully and well, children must be
1. Read directions and orient maps with reference to their
2. Understand the scale of a map;
3. Compute distances on a map;
4. Find places on maps by using latitude and longitude;
5. Read symbols and translate them into the realities for
which they stand;
6. Discern and describe the location of features with ref-
erence to one another;
7. Discover similarities in patterns of distribution on sev-
eral maps showing a variety of cultural and natural
features and conditions;
8. Recognize and analyze correlations (relationships)
among patterns of cultural and natural features and
conditions as opposed to mere coincidences.
Educational experiences which establish these abilities will
place the map in a central position in many vital learning situa-
tions involving the use of knowledge in rational thinking. Ob-
viously, the process of achieving some degree of proficiency in the
abilities listed is one of growth and development that will proceed
at different rates on different levels and for different students at
all levels. Realization of the complexity of this process makes
necessary general suggestions of the type made in this Guide con-
cerning plans for developing map skills on various grade levels.
The teacher's judgment will determine the extent to which these
suggestions are helpful in a given situation.
Primary Grades (Kindergarten through Grade Three)
At these levels much can be done to develop readiness for
map reading. Increased exposure to maps and world news on TV
and the widespread use of maps in travel and advertising give
children in the primary grades an awareness of maps and some
experience in their use. The task of the primary teacher, there-
fore, might be conceived of as clarifying basic concepts and
giving students direct experiences in map and globe use. Con-
cepts of cardinal directions related to the sun and of relative dis-
tances can grow out of children's experiences. They can learn
to give and follow directions in going from one place to another
in the community; they can gain knowledge of distance by walk-
ing and traveling from place to place in the community or be-
tween communities; they can compare experiences concerning
distance and direction. Simple community maps showing features
already visualized can be drawn by the teacher. These provide a
start in understanding scale and should have reality in terms of
direction and distance as well as in terms of such solid features as
streets and buildings.
Children can start developing simple community maps. The
examples cited in Chapter Two suggest ways. Only a few sym-
bols such as lines for streets and squares or rectangles for build-
ings will be used at this level. The simple maps show where places
in the community are with reference to one another, e.g., the
school, the post office, and the home but do not involve more
General concepts of the shape of the earth, the shape and
position of the continents, the oceans, and the home area can be
gained through experience with the globe at this level. Under-
standing of the globe will increase through several years.
Intermediate Grades (Four through Six)
If proper attention has been given to map readiness in the pri-
mary grades, rapid progress can be made in map skills in grades
four, five, and six. In grade four, social studies units are more
highly organized than in the primary grades. They involve life in
various communities past and present, both in Florida and else-
where in the world. Simple maps based on concepts previously
acquired or introduced at this level are necessary to such study.
A limited number of typical home regions extending from the
equator to the poles and involving a variety of physical features
and conditions show differences in ways of living and using re-
sources in different environments. These regional studies pro-
vide the basis for the first real world understanding. Maps for
this initial world concept evolve from the still simpler ones of
earlier levels. They start with only a few symbols necessary to
depict such features as land masses, large bodies of water, rivers,
and cities. Pictures should always be used to provide visual con-
cepts of the features for which each symbol stands. Only when
imagery has been built into a map can pupils "see through" it to
the reality for which it stands. Much practice in translating the
new map symbolism into visual landscape imagery results from
using the maps as a source of information. At this stage, practice
in reading simple maps with few symbols is more effective if
legends are omitted or ignored. Using pictures and the newly
learned symbols, pupils can draw simple maps on various scales
to show some of the features and conditions they are studying.
Thus the map becomes a record of experience and an aid to
learning. Directions and a general idea of scale come into play
constantly as study shifts from place to place in the world. Slate
globes and maps are useful aids for pupil participation.
The globe is used more often at this level and, because it is
round, becomes understood as the only accurate map of the entire
earth. Concepts of up and down as related to gravity and the
center of the earth are introduced. North and south directions in
relation to the Equator and the Poles become clear. Northeast,
northwest, southeast, southwest are added to the cardinal direc-
tions. The importance to the people of temperatures, seasons,
and earth relations to the sun becomes associated with the dis-
tance north and south of the Equator. The reversal of seasons
in the northern and southern hemispheres is introduced. All of
these concepts are global in character.
Quantitative comparisons are not involved on the fourth grade
level, but fairly obvious relational connections among cultural
and natural features are stressed. As type regions are studied,
they are built into the world map until it symbolizes a wide va-
riety of ways of life, all of which make sense in the environments
where they exist. These finally add up to an initial or skeleton
world concept, a major understanding developed in the fourth
In grade five heavy emphasis is placed on the home country,
and American neighbors to the north and south are studied.
An inspection of good elementary and secondary textbooks, es-
pecially in geography, will bear out the assertion that fifth
graders meet more new kinds of maps than do pupils at any other
level. The groundwork in map skill presumably laid prior to this
time serves as a springboard for the fairly rapid introduction of
these many new kinds of maps. These provide information
needed early in the fifth grade for the somewhat more mature
understandings involved in the historical and geographical as-
pects of social studies at this level. Quantitative measure-
ments related to the number of concepts now understood by
the children involve numerical scale and such items as numbers
of people; inches of rainfall; elevation of land; numbers of
cattle, sheep, swine; and bushels of corn. Other concepts involve
the historical spread of population and changes in political boun-
daries as nations were carved from the North American conti-
nent. All of these items and many more are effectively shown on
color contour maps, dot maps, and statistical maps in black and
If fifth graders have the necessary map readiness, the problems
involved in introducing these new maps are minimized. Even
then, great care should be exercised to insure that symbols on
maps represent clearly understood concepts and not just some
thing to be read from a legend or key. The same careful atten-
tion given earlier to visual imagery as the basis for symbolism
must continue as new concepts are introduced. For the somewhat
more complicated maps used, legends are essential. Children
should understand how important they are and how to use them
correctly. Probably the most difficult as well as one of the most
useful maps frequently referred to on this level is the color-
contour, physical-political map showing land elevation. The con-
cept of sea level and its use as a starting point for measuring the
height of land must be understood. Pictures, drawings, and even
models will be needed to supplement firsthand experiences of
children. A sand table or box can be very useful. Fifth graders
need to work with distance, direction, and scale in more difficult
contexts than in the primary grades. East-west lines should be
used to determine directions; the term latitude should be
In grade six, maps like those used in the fifth grade are em-
ployed in similar ways. The study of many more countries in
parts of the world less well known to Americans assumes
greater student facility in map reading and gives ample oppor-
tunity for practice. As more complex relationships are encoun-
tered, pupils are expected to use information from maps in
more difficult ways. Simple elements of map projection will be
needed. Longitude in addition to latitude (previously introduced)
should be used for locating places.
Junior and Senior High School
and Early College Levels
Many maps used at these levels are the same as those used
earlier and involve the same reading skills. If effective experi-
ences in map reading have been provided previously, seventh
graders should with minimum assistance be able to obtain infor-
mation needed from maps. At this and higher grade levels, only
a few new kinds of maps will be needed, and these can be easily
introduced. Further study of map projections will make possi-
ble a more mature understanding of the globe as the only accur-
ate representation of the earth. Students will need to understand
and use the concept of the arc of a great circle as the shortest
distance between two points. They will need to learn what kinds
of information are best obtained from maps and which map
best provides a fact needed for a given purpose. They thus learn
to rely on maps as valuable references.
If high school and beginning college students could read effec-
tively all maps commonly used in the fifth and sixth grades, few
problems involving the use of maps would exist on these ad-
vanced levels. In many instances so little use is made of map skills
beyond the seventh grade that high school and college students
need much help in understanding maps. It is well to remember
that at any level students must start where they are and build
up skills from that point. Reteaching of needed skills may be
necessary at any level. Fortunately high school and college stu-
dents are sufficiently mature to learn quickly how to use maps.
Map use on these more advanced levels involves employing
the information they provide in more difficult contexts. Relational
thinking (recognizing and analyzing correlations among pat-
terns of cultural and natural features and conditions) becomes
increasingly complex on these levels. A few new maps will be
needed. Examples include the topographic sheets of the United
States Geological Survey and maps showing types of climate and
rates of population growth.
In summary, these major ideas might well be restated:
1. Maps are sources of much valuable information which
can be obtained only by people who know how to read
2. No hard and fast rules can be made for when and where
various map skills should be introduced; nevertheless,
a general plan for developing these skills on various
grade levels is a valuable guide.
3. The foundations for map reading skills should be laid
in grades one through four; in grade five the largest
number of new kinds of maps is introduced; at higher
levels a few new kinds are added.
4. If students lack requisite basic map reading skills at
any grade level, opportunities for their acquisition
and practice should be provided.
5. The process of achieving proficiency in map reading
abilities is one of growth and development that will
proceed at different rates on different levels and for
different students on all levels.
6. Studying many kinds of maps and using them more
intensively broaden and deepen students' learning
experiences. Gradation in map reading involves two
aspects: increasing difficulty in the maps themselves
and increasing difficulty in the context of ideas in
which they are used.
Using Maps in Actual Situations
IN THIS SECTION are given examples of successful learning
experiences involving the use of maps and globes in Florida
classrooms. These experiences were selected as typical of the
grade levels indicated. No attempt is made here to define the
program of studies in Florida's schools. Sometimes these selected
learning experiences have been in specific subject matter areas;
some experiences have been parts of units that involved many
different aspects of living. Teachers will recognize similarities to
their own classroom experiences.
The beginning school program emphasizes living at home and
at school. First grade teachers plan opportunities for pupils to
participate in many activities as part of a broad readiness pro-
gram. These activities include many experiences which are basic
to the development of map skills and understandings.
The emphasis on local community for the primary grades in
the following examples does not preclude interest in or atten-
tion to other places. As increasing numbers of Americans move
about in their own country, travel abroad, and participate in
American military, economic, political, and social activities over
the world, children become curious about many places. A simple
globe then becomes essential equipment.
(Example A) In a lower East Coast school, the making of an
aquarium for some guppies donated by two girls led to experi-
ences involving map readiness. Many science concepts were in-
volved, and the activity included a trip to the beach, two miles
away, to obtain sand and shells. In recording the trip, the
children decided to picture their route on the floor of their large
classroom. The school is on a small hill, and the trip involved
crossing a lake and an island before reaching the ocean beach.
In making a map of this trip, the children and teacher explored
many concepts basic to an understanding in higher grades of
road and bridge mapping and symbols on physical and topo-
Another group with limited classroom space might put this
type of map project on wrapping paper and display it on the
bulletin board, use a sand table, or use an outdoor work
area adjacent to the classroom or a little used corner of the play-
ground. Most teachers develop ingenuity in making the best pos-
sible use of existing facilities and materials.
(Example B) One first-grade class had been disturbed or in-
terrupted many times by low-flying planes from a nearby air field.
Some children had direct knowledge of the situation because
their fathers worked at the field; many children did not. On
one of the open house days, the children visited the field and
interviewed the father of a classmate. They saw planes from dif-
ferent countries. Flight schedules showed that planes travel to
other parts of the world. In later classroom discussion of con-
cepts of time and space involved, the teacher used a simple
globe in explaining plane flights. From these experiences pupils
developed readiness for understanding day and night, sun
behavior, polar projections, flat maps, and other concepts.
One first-grade teacher introduced simple map concepts
when her class made a picture of safe routes to follow when
riding bicycles or walking to school. The route was chalked on
the board and then placed on a chart by the teacher.
As the emphasis from the first grade to the second grade usu-
ally shifts from incidental acquaintance with persons rendering
service to the home and school (postman, milkman, meter read-
er) to a variety of workers contributing to neighborhood living
(repairmen, firemen, patrolmen, truck drivers, supermarket
clerks), units of work related to many phases of neighborhood
living are developed.
(Example A) One second-grade teacher used this center of
interest in the many phases of neighborhood living to develop
map understandings and skills. One record of the many studies
and trips was a large wall map made of brown wrapping paper.
Another record that the class kept was a log of its daily activi-
ties. A map, depicting the neighborhood in relation to the school,
gradually developed. A copy of the plan of the school, used in
orienting children new to the community and to the school,
was placed on the brown wrapping paper as the beginning of the
map. When the class visited the post office, it too was added to
the map and at the same time a description of the trip was
recorded in the log. As the grocery stores, bakeries, hardware
stores, community center, dairy farm, hospital, and concrete
products plant were visited, they, also, were added both to the
map and log. Additions were made by using many different ma-
terials. During the spring semester, pupils' homes were added
by placing red or black dots. Red indicated that they rode the
school bus. Their map assumed new significance when they dis-
covered that it contributed to the mapping for a survey being
made by the school board.
This map activity enabled the children to become more skilled
in translating the landscape to flat maps, in determining proper
kinds and sizes of symbols, and in estimating, measuring, and
comparing distances. The teacher helped children realize the
value of being able to show this type of information effectively
in graphic form. The class compared this map experience with
their daily activity log and evaluated the processes involved in
both. Out of this evaluation a very important concept evolved:
collecting attractive items for display can be a haphazard pro-
cess; to make a map that tells a story well requires careful
selection of items.
(Example B) During the pre-school planning period several
second-grade teachers planned a resource unit which included
concepts they felt were basic for helping their pupils achieve a
better understanding of the community in which they lived.
One unit concerned the post office and the people who used its
services. Later as the teacher and pupils planned together they
decided to write letters to parents and friends inviting them
to a school program. What happened to these letters after they
were given to the mailman at the school office was of prime in-
terest to one group. At this point, using crayons and cardboard
from a large carton, they developed a simple map showing the
relative locations of the school, the post office, and their homes.
This activity enabled the teacher to develop and use several map
skills already introduced by first grade teachers in this school.
A theme commonly developed in the third grade in Florida
schools is living in the local community-now and then. Much of
value can be learned when comparisons are made with other
types of communities the child has lived in, visited, or viewed
in pictures. Since some communities have very involved his-
torical backgrounds, the teacher must keep the map skills and
understandings at the developmental level of the group.
(Example A) One third-grade class studied the history of
their community by asking older residents questions about the
past. They also read or had read to them some of the newspaper
accounts dealing with their town's history. They shared what they
learned with the rest of the school and with their parents by a
series of maps accompanied by a set of tempera paintings and
a group of dioramas. The series of simple pupil-made maps in-
cluded (1) location of present community on lake shore; (2)
location of present community in relation to Florida and the
continent of North America; (3) location of primitive Indian
village which existed on this site in the sixteenth century; (4)
area of the subsistence fishing and farming village that developed
in the early twentieth century; (5) area of the 1920-1930 com-
mercial fishing village; (6) expanded area of the present Gold
Coast tourist community. This activity provided excellent oppor-
tunities for direct teaching, in a meaningful situation, of the
relationships between landscapes and maps. Within this frame-
work the students guided by the teacher developed the skills and
understandings of translating the landscape to the globe and
globe to the flat map.
(Example B) A small group of third-grade pupils used a map
to share vacation experiences with the rest of the class. They
selected a road map of Florida similar to ones used by their par-
ents. With crayons of different colors, children marked on
the map the route of the trips they had taken from their homes
in Clewiston to DeFuniak Springs, Bradenton, Key West, Starke,
or other Florida cities during the summer vacation. As chil-
dren traced their trips, the teacher utilized opportunities to de-
velop further skill in interpreting this type of map, which had
been used by them and their parents during summer vacation
The teacher in grade four plans with the pupils many activi-
ties involving a review of the developmental steps in translating
and relating the landscape to the map. Opportunities present
themselves in the study of the local community in relation to
other Florida communities and to various types of communities
in other parts of the world. Some teachers have developed their
own simplified map materials for this level.
(Example A) One teacher developed with children the skills
and understandings necessary for making and interpreting sim-
ple dot maps by helping them to show the population increase and
the spread of people over the state during four different periods
of time in the history and development of Florida. The motiva-
tion for this project came as the class was studying stories about
early settlers living in the Tampa Bay area.
The children made simple stickmen graphs showing the com-
parison of the number of people in Florida in 1850 and in 1950.
Careful study and research were done to determine where people
lived in Florida at different periods and why they lived there.
Assistance in this phase of work was given the class by the
librarian and a pupil's father whose hobby is Florida history.
To show changes in the distribution of people at the different
periods of Florida's history, dots were placed on several maps.
This activity underscored the necessity of readiness on the
part of the majority of the class and an understanding by the
teacher of the sequential development of map skills. The children
were given a glimpse of the newness of their community in the
historical development of the state. Moreover, the class had an
introduction to using skills that aid in reading dot distribution
maps in the fifth grade.
(Example B) A combination third- and fourth-grade class
was fortunate to have an outside patio classroom adjoining its
main classroom unit. The teacher, with the help of one of the
fathers, had constructed a covered sandbox. This sandbox was
used throughout the year to translate quickly many landscape
features described or pictured in the textbook into simple, three-
dimensional models. These models graphically simulated airviews
of special places studied, such as the island of Iceland, the moun-
tains of Switzerland, or the Congo River area. The children
were able to relate the models to the semi-pictorial symbols on
printed maps. They then reversed this process by translating
the map symbols into visual imagery. By using the sandbox
models together with pictures the children began to translate
otherwise meaningless symbols and colors into visualized land-
scapes as real places on the globe.
Some teachers have substituted plaster of Paris, sawdust, or
paper mache for sand or clay. Purposes should be carefully
evaluated and processes thoughtfully determined to prevent the
activity from becoming inordinately time-consuming. At its best,
the sandbox is a quick, flexible means of illustrating land-
Generally early in the fifth grade many new kinds of maps
must be introduced within a short period of time. These maps
involve concepts of scale and quantitative comparisons based
on numerical relationships (numbers of people, bushels of corn,
inches of rainfall, and the like). Reading information about dis-
tributions of these data requires skills in interpreting dot maps,
color contour maps, and other maps. As teachers determine pu-
pils' ability to read the printed page, they need also to determine
what map reading skills have been acquired. In learning to
read new maps, pupils will need help from teachers in building
upon map reading skills learned previously. Needed skills not
already acquired must be developed.
(Example A) A fifth-grade class had completed its study of
how people in the various regions of eastern United States make
their living. The population map used throughout this study
showed great concentrations of people in parts of eastern United
States and, in a general way, that there are more people in the
East than in most states of the West. As a summary of the study
of the East and a beginning point for the study of the West,
the class decided to compare the total populations and areas of
the western states with those of the eastern states. Concepts of
density and distribution of population had been previously
Children studied wall and textbook population maps to com-
pare eastern and western United States. On a blank outline map
of the United States each child then shaded in whole states
and parts of states in the West with sparse population. They noted
that certain portions of the three West Coast states contain most
of the people; that the eastern portions of North Dakota, South
Dakota, Nebraska, Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas have more peo-
ple than the western parts. They noted also in some western states
a few more densely populated areas, such as Denver, Salt Lake
City, and Spokane. In the process of making this map which was
suited to their purposes, pupils also identified the western states
involved and acquired some information about them.
By adding the total populations and areas for the eight whole
states shaded in on the map, the children found that slightly
less than 6,000,000 people live in an area of more than 850,000
square miles (nearly one third of the total area of the United
States). They also noted the small number of towns and cities
in this large area. The teacher helped them to estimate that the
sparsely populated portions of the other western states would add
up to about 400,000 square miles, making a total of nearly half
of the United States sparsely populated.
These figures and this map made by the children suggested
to them the following questions:
1. Why is so much of western United States sparsely
Why are there so few towns and cities?
2. Why do some areas in the western states have more
3. Why do a few spots have as many people as the more
densely populated parts of eastern United States?
The teachers and the pupils then asked themselves what
materials they should consult to find facts that helped to an-
swer these questions. They soon found that the following
United States maps, on the wall and in their texts and atlases,
contained data that revealed many significant differences be-
tween East and West:
Irrigated Areas Natural Vegetation
Mineral Resources Crop and Livestock Dot Maps
Surveying these maps made a good beginning for a more de-
tailed study of the West.
(Example B) A fifth-grade class in studying northeastern
United States raised this question in reference to several maps
and pictures in their geography textbooks: Can maps show land-
scapes as clearly and accurately as photographs? With this
question as a starting point, the teacher suggested that the class
proceed with their study of the Northeast using pictures only for
a few days. During this time they were to note the kinds of
needed information available only from maps.
Focusing attention on pictures as important sources of in-
formation led students to examine carefully the pictures in their
text and not to pass over them as mere space fillers. Students
soon noted that pictures cannot show the relative locations of
places. For this purpose maps proved to be indispensable. As one
pupil complained, "Without a map I don't know where I am."
The fact that pictures can show only a small area whereas maps
are not so limited was pointed out in discussion. Pupils also
learned that much information about landscapes cannot be photo-
graphed but can be shown on maps. Distribution of climatic
phenomena and mineral deposits beneath the earth's surface are
examples of such information.
After three days the class decided that using maps helped them
to obtain some kinds of essential information readily and effici-
ently. They further discovered that some kinds of understand-
ings about the geography or history of a region can be developed
only by comparing data on several maps.
In summing up the experiment, the class and the teacher
realized the unique importance of both maps and pictures in
understanding a region. They also learned some of the special
uses and limitations of each of these important visual aids.
The sixth grade continues the uses of maps begun in previ-
ous years. Most of the kinds of maps needed have already been
introduced in grade five. However, opportunities must be pro-
vided for pupils to acquire needed skills which they do not
(Example A) The study of European countries in one sixth-
grade class revealed a wide range in effectiveness with which
resources were used to meet the needs of people. Such countries
as Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland, and Switzerland made
spectacular showings in the number of people supported and the
relatively high levels of living attained with limited resources.
On the other hand such countries as Portugal, Spain, and
Bulgaria rated low in these respects.
Discussion of these differences led to questions concerning
how well resources of the local county are used. To answer these
questions required information not available in the classroom.
The teacher had recently attended a meeting in which the
County Resource-Use Education Representative presented some
ways of studying use of resources in the local county. The class
invited him to meet with them for one class period to make spe-
cific suggestions for their study. At this class meeting, the County
Representative used several maps of the state showing where
people live and comparisons among counties in rate of popula-
tion growth, income, housing, teachers' salaries, health, etc. The
students were surprised to discover that although their county
ranked well above some others, it did not rank as high as they
expected and that population in their county was growing slowly.
With the aid of the County Representative and their teacher they
planned to make a more detailed survey of resource use in their
county. They soon discovered that help was available from a
number of local agency personnel such as the Soil Conservation
District Supervisor, the County Agricultural Agent, the Home
Demonstration Agent, and the doctor in the County Health Unit.
Nearly all of these people used maps in a preliminary sur-
vey to show the distribution of facts and conditions over the
county and to indicate where the special work of their agencies
was being carried on. Additional maps were made from statistical
information provided by the agencies. The rest of the study was
concerned with questions growing out of this preliminary survey.
Junior High School
The' use of maps in the junior high school is directed toward
maintaining the skills, attitudes, and understandings developed in
the elementary school. Pupils who have not developed these skills
are given many opportunities to use maps in controlled situations.
Teachers review the skills needed to work with the materials at
hand and introduce familiar maps in different situations or new
maps so that pupils can relate effectively the use of maps to solve
Not only in the field of social studies are maps of great im-
portance as a teaching aid but also in almost every area where
there is a need for graphic representation. Many units in junior
high school literature are enriched by the use of a map. Certain
problems in science are more easily solved with the use of
suitable maps. Some problems in mathematics require their
use to be effective. Teachers of homemaking, agriculture, and
other subjects in the vocational field recognize how dependent
they are upon the use of maps for teaching certain relationships.
In the field of social studies maps are used frequently to show var-
ious aspects of man's relationship to his environment. In fact,
maps can be used effectively in any area in junior high school.
During the junior high school period boys and girls begin to
transcend the somewhat limited interest of their families and
their peers and to seek increasingly mature relationships in their
community, state, nation, and the world. School programs at this
level tend to emphasize wise use of the environment, develop-
ment of social institutions in the United States, and an under-
standing of the operation of governmental and social agencies as
related to the individual citizen.
Here teachers can help pupils by using maps to show relation-
ships among many facts, to create maps showing statistical infor-
mation, and to develop judgment in the selection of information
that can be more effectively used in map form than any other.
(Example A) A seventh-grade social studies class was com-
posed of pupils from four elementary schools. When the teacher
checked the results of standard tests, he found that many pupils
had few basic map understandings and skills or were badly con-
fused. On the basis of this information he planned to reteach
and review basic map understandings by using several filmstrips
from the series, Exploring Through Maps (Popular Science Pub-
lishing Company), from the school materials center.
The first filmstrip, Maps and Their Meanings, developed an
understanding of directions-north, east, south, and west-in
relation to everyday experiences. The symbols and colors used on
maps were explained by illustrations. The class examined maps in
textbooks and reference books as well as wall maps to see if this
filmstrip explained all information that might be needed. Several
pupils raised questions regarding lines showing latitude and
This discussion led to the introduction of another filmstrip
in this series, Flat Maps of a Round World, showing how a
round world is portrayed on a flat surface. The meaning and use
of the terms latitude and longitude and examples of several
types of map projections were reviewed and explained.
As the value of having several types of projection was dis-
cussed, the many uses of maps also became clearer. The filmstrip,
Maps and Men, which showed maps used in business, recreation,
travel, and the study of history and geography, summarized this
review study for the seventh-graders.
The teachers and the class felt that this experience gave a
common frame of reference for the entire group and that al-
though much remained to be learned, many confusing concepts
about maps had been clarified. The filmstrips were used for refer-
ence several times during the following months. For example,
when discussing the scientific activities of Antarctic expeditions,
the use of polar projections necessitated using both a large
unmounted globe and the part of the filmstrip showing a polar
projection to demonstrate this projection and the way it shows
(Example B) An eighth-grade mathematics class in West
Florida was studying a section in the textbook entitled "Longi-
tude and Time." They already understood these concepts:
1. There are 360 degrees in a circle.
2. As viewed from over the North (or South) Pole the globe
appears as a circle with meridians appearing as spokes
radiating from the pole.
3. The earth rotates 15" of longtitude, or 1/24 of a circle in
5. Fifteen degrees of the earth's surface pass beneath the
overhead sun each hour.
The next step involved noting the apparent differences be-
tween standard time and real time (sun time). This was ap-
proached by way of problems to find the real time and standard
time when the longitude was known. The pupils noted that the
standard time zones gave a different time result from that which
they found for real time. Their text pointed out that standard
time was a compromise and that the figures, arrived at by com-
putation from differences in longitude, would give the real
It was at this point that the pupils became interested in
actual readings of longitude and computed differences in time
on a purely local basis. A county map published by the Florida
State Road Department was studied closely to find the actual
longitude readings given in the upper and lower margins. The
class found the figures reading 87" 00' and 87 05' were spaced
about equally distant on either side of their home town; thus
the true reading was probably 87* 02' 30" west longitude.
Since a Standard Time Map had shown that Tallahassee time
was an hour earlier than the time in their West Florida County,
the group was anxious to find the real difference in time between
these two places. On the same map Tallahassee's longitude read-
ing was nearly half-way between 84* 10' and 84* 15'; therefore,
they reasoned that the longitude of Tallahassee was about
84* 12' 30". From these figures they found a difference in longi-
R1E R2E R3E R4E
1st Standard Parallel North
Less Than Less Than Less Than
6mi 6mi 6mi
OT WNSHIP LINg
Less Than l
z 6mi E i s
Q TOW SHIP LINE___
-I. -f .- t ~-I.
r6m 6,"m1i 6min t Gmi6
Figure 5A. A typical
of townships, with
T3N, R4E subdivided
Figure 5B. A typical
one-mile square sec-
tion, showing method
of describing subsec-
N Y2 of NE IY
NW I4 ( 80 ACRES)
( 160 acres) of N
SI /2of NE I/4
W of E of NW /4f NE V4of
SE 1/4 SE /4
SW4 SW 4 (40acres) (40acres)
SW Y4 of SEI4 of
(80acres (80acres SEY4 SE J/4
(.40acres 40 acres)
I I .
tude of 2* 50' 00" or 2 5/6 degrees. They knew that 15 degrees of
longitude represented an hour, and by dividing they found that
one degree of longitude would equal four minutes of time.
Thus, the real difference in time between the West Florida County
and Tallahassee would be only 2 5/6 x 4 (min.), or 11 1/3 min-
utes, rather than an hour.
During this process of map reading several pupils asked about
the other lines on the map-the section, township, and range lines
shown on all maps published by the State Road Department.
Students learned the significance of these lines through actually
locating places by the system of a fine grid pattern of right-
angled crossing lines. A typical township of thirty-six num-
bered sections is shown in Figure 5A. It is six miles square and
comprises 36 square miles. A section is 1 square mile or 640
acres. In a typical township there are 36 sections. A township's
northern and southern boundaries are called township lines; its
eastern and western boundaries are called range lines, which are
true meridians (north-south lines). A section's boundaries are
called section lines. Figure 5B shows how a typical section is
divided into various sized parcels for use in land descriptions.
All townships in Florida are numbered as North or South of
the Tallahassee base line and as East or West of the Tallahassee
The simple explanation shown was given by the teacher as
diagrams similar to Figures A and B were placed on the black-
board and pupils practiced locating an area such as S E 1/4 of
the N W 1/4 of section 5 (40 acres), Township 37 Range 18 East.
The teacher gave additional guidance to a small group of inter-
ested and talented boys in discovering the practical adaptations
made in the actual use of this system. A surveyor was used
as a resource person for the specific information.
When the class evaluated its experience, the boys and girls
found they had learned some of the practical uses of sun time
and standard time zones and were able to understand and use
simple land descriptions. The class learned that this grid of hori-
zontal and vertical lines constitutes the public land survey
system which is useful in locating places and in making accurate
descriptions of the location of places.
They learned that a typical township is about six miles square.
All townships in Florida are numbered in rows, north and south
of the Tallahassee Base Line, and in tiers, called "ranges" east
or west of the Tallahassee Principal Meridian (Figure 5A). Thus,
the township filled with numbered squares (sections) in Figure
A is identified as Township 3 North, Range 4 East, or simply
T3N, R4E. All "township lines" are east-west lines, and all
"range lines" are north-south lines (Figure 5A). Because of
the curvature of the earth and the fact that meridians con-
verge and meet at the poles, some adjustment of the east and
west boundaries of townships is necessary in the grid if town-
ships are to maintain reasonably uniform shape and direction
orientation farther east or west of the principal meridian. These
adjustments usually show up as "jogs" along some of the north-
south grid lines (see top edge of Figure 5A).
Each township is divided into 36 "sections," each section being
about a mile square and consisting of about 640 acres. Sections
are numbered as is shown in T3N, R4E in Figure 5A. Again,
because of the convergence of meridians toward the poles, and
the fact that range lines are true north-south lines, some adjust-
ment is needed along one edge of each township. Thus, sec-
tions 6, 7, 18, 19, 30, and 31 in T3N, R4E in Figure A will be less
than a mile in width and will be smaller than 640 acres. Except
for possible surveying errors other sections in this township
will consist of 640 acres.
Land parcel descriptions can include, in addition to the town-
ship and section identification, a more detailed description of
location within a given section (Figure 5B). Assuming that the
section shown in Figure 5B is number 16, the full description of
the most southeasterly parcel in this section would be: SE%
of SE /4, Section 16, T3N, R5E, followed by identification of the
Base Line and the Principal Meridian.
Senior High School
The curriculum of the senior high school offers opportunities
for extending horizons for boys and girls approaching adult-
hood. A vision of the entire world and its interrelationships, a
maturing interest in local and world affairs, and an expanding
concept of individual responsibilities in a rapidly changing so-
ciety should come from high school experiences. The social stud-
ies have a particular responsibility, but practically all courses of
the curriculum do contribute to these objectives.
Although maps are usually considered essential tools in teach-
ing social studies, they are important to effective teaching in
almost all courses of the high school curriculum. For example,
wall maps, maps from textbooks or atlases, or those made by
students in biology or agriculture might be used to show distribu-
tion of plants and animals and the influence of climate and other
natural factors on such distribution. In homemaking, locating on
maps sources of basic foods and fabrics should broaden concepts.
In literature, a story or poem will be more meaningful if a map of
the setting is used. In the study of drama visualizing the setting
is essential. In Latin or the modern languages, maps of the coun-
tries involved are valuable tools. The following examples of
teaching situations in social studies may suggest uses for maps in
all courses of the high school.
A world history class studying the Middle East found that this
area plays a major role in present affairs. Rising prices for gaso-
line at the local service station and for oil burned in Florida
power plants were said to be due at least partially to the trouble
over the Suez Canal and the blowing up of pipe lines in that
area. News items stressed these and other aspects of the situa-
tion and reported gasoline rationing in Britain. A physical-politi-
cal wall map of Europe showing also parts of Asia and Africa
revealed the relative positions of most of the places involved.
To understand the situation further, students consulted a world
atlas for additional information about locations of oil fields and
pipe lines and shipments of oil from the Middle East to other
The question as to why the United States, presumably itself
a major oil producer, should be affected by what happened in the
Middle East resulted in obtaining, in part from maps, facts about
our oil production and consumption and the involvement of
American oil companies in that area. This contact with present-
day happenings in the Middle East led students to ask questions
about the past. Why has the Middle East, so vital to the world
today because of its oil resources, seemed important to so many
people since the beginning of history? Why has this area been
conquered and held by several great powers at different
times? Needless to say, trying to answer these questions called
for the use of more maps as well as other materials.
The twelfth-grade class in problems of American democracy
was working on a unit in resource-use. Many problems relative
to using climate, soil, water, forest, wildlife, and minerals were
mentioned and listed. Each member of the class chose for de-
tailed study the topic that most interested him. The class then
was divided into four groups, six to eight to a group, to concen-
trate study on man's use of soil, forests, wildlife, or minerals. The
whole group spent one class period in the school library
looking for material, with very meager results. It became neces-
sary to look elsewhere for information. One committee, the Com-
mittee on Soil and Water, went to the local Soil Conservation
Office and came back with bulletins, charts, and maps on land
classification and distribution of soils.
The class was particularly interested in some aerial photo-
graphs showing a survey and classification of nearby plantations
with which some of them were already familiar. Class members
decided to ask the director of the local Soil Conservation District
to conduct them on a field trip. The details of arranging for a
school bus and getting the students excused from school for
two hours were worked out. On the trip the class saw one
farm which the Service had surveyed and mapped and on which
contour-plowing, terracing, strip-cropping, and cover crops were
all being used. The relationships among real landscapes, aerial
photographs, and maps were made clear by the field trip
The Committee on Forests showed maps, graphs, and pictures
secured from the Florida Forest Service and the teacher intro-
duced some of the maps and charts from the textbook, Florida:
Wealth or Waste?. The class voted to arrange another field trip
to the forest plot owned and cared for by the local chapter of the
Future Farmers of America. A representative of the Florida
Forest Service acted as guide.
The Committee on Wildlife asked a representative of the State
Fish and Game Commission to talk to the class and show some
films. The Committee on Minerals visited the State Geologist
and secured bulletins and maps on Florida's mineral resources.
From time to time throughout the unit on resource-use the
class found maps to be quite useful in providing information.
(Example A) A geography class consisting largely of college
freshmen and sophomore students used a map project to intro-
duce a study of the United States and at the same time to give
students an appreciation of problems involved in translating
statistics to map form. The same method, with specially selected
subjects to be mapped, is adaptable for use in sociology, social
science, economics, and other classes.
Lists of statistics by states were selected mostly from the
Statistical Abstract of the United States. Proposed subjects in-
cluded: population increase or decrease by decades (both percent
and number); birth and death rates; percentage of population
living in urban areas; persons per physician and hospital bed;
value of agricultural products per farm and per acre; average
value of farm land and buildings per farm and per acre; value
of school property and expenditures per pupil; teacher salaries;
and value added by manufacture (total and per worker).
Students were given blank maps of the United States
(81/2" x 11") and each chose a set of statistics to put into map
form. Several students selected subjects other than those proposed
by the instructor. Before the class members could begin making
their individual maps, the following problems involved in statis-
tical mapping were discussed: gathering statistics and the reli-
ability of different sources; organizing the statistics to determine
intervals for grouping; objectivity in working out intervals for
grouping; and selecting an effective color or shading scheme to
portray the subject.
When the maps were completed, each student interpreted his
to the class and cited questions suggested by it. Maps were then
posted, grouped by general subjects, and the entire array was
studied to raise more questions. Some states and groups of states
repeatedly appeared high or low on many maps, and questions
naturally followed. The interrelationships among items mapped
by students and cultural and natural features shown on other
maps were recognized and explored in discussion.
As the study of the United States proceeded, questions and
generalizations from the map project were referred to repeatedly.
(Example B) A college history instructor uses the following
map project in his freshman classes to accomplish several pur-
poses. At the beginning of the semester each student purchases
a large outline map of the Americas. As the semester proceeds,
the student is instructed to put on the map such items as moun-
tain, desert, and tropical rain forest areas, pre-Columbian cul-
ture areas, and routes of explorers. Each of these items is ob-
tained from maps in the textbook or atlases in the library. As
each item is added, reasons are sought for its distribution in
relation to other natural and cultural features. Other items
added to the map through the semester include expansion of
colonial settlement, boundaries of evolving political units, and
trade routes and relations with Africa and Europe.
Students also are referred to other maps to find answers to
questions such as the possible effects of winds and topography on
rainfall and vegetation in different areas; the possible relation-
ships between trade routes with current and prevailing winds; the
effects of natural barriers on colonization and exploration. By
constant use of wall and text maps in class and by trying to get
students to answer basic questions from maps, the instructor
feels he is accomplishing his basic purpose of showing relation-
ships between the development of history and factors in the na-
tural and cultural environments.
In the study of Florida in a sophomore class, maps depicting
the most recent statistical differences among counties were effec-
tive in several ways. Wall maps of Florida were made by counties
of such items from the United States Census as average per capital
income, gain and loss in total population, average value of dwell-
ings, and percent of total population that is urban. These maps
were made with cheap white paper, tempera paints, and black
ink. When these maps were presented to the class, students
living in Florida were stimulated to raise "why" questions like
those below because in many instances the facts challenged
1. Why are some counties losing population in one of the
fastest growing states?
2. Why do incomes vary so greatly from county to county?
3. Why do most north Florida counties consistently rank low?
4. Why does my county rank as it does?
Another type of question suggested by some of the items
shown on the maps evidenced concern: "What can be done
Such questions motivated students to look for information
that might help to provide answers. The investigative process
revealed numerous interrelationships among various cultural
and natural environmental factors in the state, in a part of the
state, or in a given county. Maps showing such items as per
cent of land in forests, income from tourists, value of agricul-
tural production, value added by manufacture, and kinds of
uses of Florida land proved helpful. Items not already mapped
were placed on desk outline maps. Many of these maps suggested
"why" questions concerning distribution of items shown and led
to recognition and understanding of further relationships.
Upon completion of the map survey, the questions, the an-
swers that had been suggested, and the tentative conclusions
reached were summarized and listed for further study. Attention
was then directed to other types of material such as bulletins
from various state and federal agencies, magazine articles, books,
and talks by and interviews with resource persons.
At the conclusion of the study the maps were again used,
this time as a basis for summarizing conclusions reached,
reviewing relationships discovered, and making suggested recom-
mendations for remedial action. Wall maps used were made
with paper, tempera paints, and black ink. Desk outline maps
were useful for showing distributions of various items not already
mapped. The chief source of these data was the United States
Census. Most of the maps used in this exercise are available in
the text, Florida: Wealth or Waste?
Selecting and Procuring Maps
T IS THE PURPOSE of this chapter to provide criteria useful
in evaluating maps for classroom use. While Florida schools
differ widely, certain needs seem fairly common to all schools,
and the emphases here will be of necessity on the more basic
All maps have certain common characteristics. For conven-
ience in using the following criteria, the qualities to be checked
on every map have been assembled in the first section below.
Each type of map has additional special qualities which are dis-
cussed under separate headings. Thus, two sections of the cri-
teria must be used to evaluate any map. Mounted commercial
maps have been dealt with in greater detail than free and inex-
pensive ones; however, the criteria developed apply to both. A
list of the major commercial map publishers completes the
A. Characteristics Common to All Maps
Scale tells how many miles of the earth's surface are
represented by each unit or fraction of a unit on the
surface of the map. Scale should be indicated on a
map in at least two of the three following ways: (1)
a statement usually expressed in miles per inch, (2)
a ruler device showing feet, miles, or kilometers per
unit of linear measure on the map, and (3) a simple
ratio or fraction.
2. Cultural and natural features
Cultural and natural features include such informa-
tion as political boundaries, cities, rivers, highlands,
lowlands. Some maps are designed primarily to show
political divisions; others put emphasis on physical
features. In either case, whatever the purpose of the
a. The features should be shown as simply as possi-
ble to convey the concepts involved.
b. Only as many features should be included as can
be shown clearly.
c. Symbols should have the same meaning through-
out any given map.
d. The grid (parallels and meridians) should be rela-
tively inconspicuous; only a minimum number of
parallels and meridians (about every 100 or 150 for
a world map) should be shown, and they should
be numbered clearly.
e. The Equator, the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn,
and the Arctic and Antarctic Circles (if they fall
within the area of a map) should be shown and
f. Colors used on the map should be uniform in den-
sity throughout and should not clash with each
other. It is desirable to have a standard (green,
yellow, tan, brown) color scheme used on physical-
political maps. In general, not more than six or
seven sequential color bands should be used on
maps for classroom use.
The legend explains the symbols used to show infor-
mation on the map. It should be complete; it should
identify all the colors and other symbols used.
Printing-letters and numerals-should not overshad-
ow other information given on a map. Most printing
on a wall map should stand out well enough to be read
easily at a distance not greater than 10 or 15 feet.
Since the publication date is usually not shown, it
is sometimes difficult to determine whether a map is
up-to-date. Spot checking such cultural items as politi-
cal boundaries and city size will help establish approx-
imate time of publication. Even in the case of maps
already on hand, this procedure is desirable. A map
may have value even though some of the information
on it is old. However, only up-to-date maps should
B. Special Characteristics of Particular Types of Maps
The globe is the only accurate map of the world; all flat
maps are of necessity compromises and must distort the
true characteristics of the features they show. This is true
because it is impossible to represent a spherical surface
on a flat plane. It is important that the child's early map-
use experiences involve a globe and that the globe be
used as a corrective device with all flat maps.
There should be a physical-political globe in the school
library and in every classroom where geography or social
studies is taught. All primary rooms should have access
to a simple globe which shows only land and water masses
and a simple grid.
Size is one of the most important points to consider
in selecting a globe. A simple globe 12 inches in diameter
can be used effectively in early primary grades. A globe
this size is large enough to show land and water masses
clearly and small enough for primary children to handle.
For upper elementary, junior, and senior high levels, a
globe 16 inches in diameter is more useful. A globe small-
er than 16 inches is too small to show enough detail; one
larger is more space-consuming and more expensive than
most schools can afford.
The scale of a 16-inch globe is about 500 miles to the inch.
On a globe this size, a tremendous amount of generalization
of information depicted is necessary. However, a great deal of in-
formation can be given. Land and water masses can be shown
clearly. Major mountain ranges, large plains, major drainage pat-
terns, and the most outstanding cultural features (such as the
Suez and Panama Canals, major political boundaries, important
cities, and some railroads) can be shown on the land masses.
In addition to size, the following points should also be checked
in selecting globes:
Figure 6. Wrapping Printed Gores Around a Blank Globe Ball.
1. Globes should be made of a substantial material.
2. The best globes available at this time are finished with
hand-mounted gores. Less expensive but satisfactory mass
produced 12 and 16 inch cardboard globes are now on the
market. The quality of a globe is revealed partly by the
care with which gores have been printed and applied. No
gaps should show between gores. Segments of parallels
3. In general, a cradle mounting is recommended because it
permits ready use of the entire globe.
The World Map
The unique function of the world map is to make visible on
a flat surface all parts of the world at the same time. The rep-
resentation of world distribution of natural and cultural features
is its most important contribution; however, the world map also
serves to show the relationship of any one part of the earth to
all other parts. Every classroom in which social studies or geog-
raphy is taught should have a world map.
To fulfill their functions, world maps should have as many
characteristics of the globe-grid as possible. All world maps
retain some characteristics of the globe-grid, but other character-
istics of a globe must be compromised when they are transferred
to a flat surface. Because of these compromises, no flat map, large
or small, can give completely accurate representation of all or
any part of the earth's surface. In evaluating a world map, there-
fore, one must compare each characteristic of the world map grid
with the corresponding globe-grid characteristic. The most im-
portant globe-grid characteristics are listed below:
1. The globe has a network of numbered east-west and
north-south lines called parallels and meridians.
2. Meridians (north-south grid lines) are straight lines
when viewed from directly overhead.
3. Meridians converge at the North Pole and the South Pole
and diverge toward the Equator.
4. Meridians are half-circles of equal length-1800 from
North Pole to South Pole-and are half the length of
5. Parallels (east-west grid lines) are complete circles of
6. The Equator is the longest parallel and is approximately
25,000 miles in length.
7. Parallels are parallel to the Equator.
8. Parallel circles become progressively smaller as they ap-
proach the Poles.
9. The 600 parallel is half the length of the Equator.
10. Parallels and meridians intersect each other at right
11. Meridians are equally spaced on the Equator and the
% 00 tod 001 io I0 o __40 Ido 1 0a /o 80 0 6 2ao0 o 0o 9o
Sketch A. Mercator Projection.
( 'If t
Sketch B. Van der Grinten Projection.
12. Parallels are evenly spaced on the meridians (except for
the Tropic of Cancer, the Tropic of Capricorn, the Arctic
Circle and the Antarctic Circle).
13. Meridians are numbered by angular distance (from the
earth's axis) east and west from the 00 meridian which
passes through eastern England (Greenwich). The high-
est numbered meridian, 1800, passes through the Pacific
14. Parallels are numbered by angular distance north and
south of the Equator, which is the 00 parallel. The poles,
at 900 North and 90 South, are at the highest lati-
tudes on the globe.
Sketch C. Mollweide Projection.
15. The scale is uniform throughout the entire globe in all
World-map projections which "telescope" the oceans do not
present a true picture of the correct sizes of oceans or the dis-
tances between continents. World maps which fill in the spaces
between interruption gores with blue coloring exaggerate the
water area between land masses in high latitudes. For these rea-
sons maps with such characteristics should be avoided.
Some of the grid characteristics of four world-map projections
are compared here to the globe-grid characteristics previously
cited. These four are evaluated from the point of view of their
use for general classroom world maps. Special characteristics
and uses of the Mercator grid for navigation purposes are not
Mercator (Sketch A)
1. The meridians are of equal length; however, they do not
converge at all. Regions near the poles north and south of
approximately 800 cannot be shown. (Because of the na-
ture of this projection, the poles would be an infinite dis-
tance from the Equator.)
2. Parallels are parallel, but they are not the same distance
apart. Parallels do not become shorter the nearer they are
to the poles. The 600 parallels are the same length as the
Equator instead of half the length. The 800 parallels which
on the globe are less than 1/5 the Equator's length, also
are the same length as the Equator on the Mercator
3. Low latitudes are represented fairly accurately in size
and shape on this cylindrical projection, but features be-
come more and more exaggerated in size the farther they
are from the Equator.
Van der Grinten (Sketch B)
1. This compromise projection represents low latitudes sat-
isfactorily in size and shape and middle latitude areas fair-
2. High latitudes are exaggerated in size but not so much
as on the Mercator projection.
3. Both of the poles are shown, and meridians converge at
4. The central meridian is as long as the Equator, not half as
5. 600 parallels are considerably longer than half the length
of the Equator.
6. For most land areas parallels and meridians intersect at
angles close to right angles.
7. This projection is sometimes used with polar areas not
shown, thus eliminating the portions with the most exag-
Mollweide (Sketch C)
Except for item 2 the following characteristics also apply to
sinusoidal and homolosine projections and to most other ellipti-
cal projections (see Sketch D).
1. Meridians converge at single points north and south.
2. Parallels are parallel and become more closely spaced to-
ward the poles.
3. This is an equal-area projection, and all parts are rep-
resented at correct size.
4. Low latitude areas are represented fairly accurately in
shape, but areas in extreme high latitudes, such as Green-
land or Siberia, may be badly distorted if they are near the
edges of the projection.
5. This projection may be interrupted or split into gores or
lobes to achieve as good a shape representation of large
land or water areas as possible (see Sketch D). An area
to be shown as accurately as possible is centered on a lobe,
or gore, of the projection and the several pieces making
up the entire surface of the earth are joined by the Equator.
South America, Africa, and Australia appear about the
same in size and shape on each of the projections shown. Green-
land is most exaggerated in size on the Mercator, less exagger-
ated in size on the Van der Grinten, and is shown in its correct
proportional size on the equal-area Mollweide projection.
(Actually, South America is over eight times larger than
Greenland.) Thus, the lasting impressions developed from
studying equal-area maps will be more nearly accurate than im-
pressions formed from using Mercator and Van der Grinten pro-
jections. The few high latitude areas where shape is highly dis-
torted on the Mollweide projection are not studied intensively
or referred to frequently in most classroom situations. Mercator,
and Van der Grinten, and other projections which give highly
disproportionate representations of the world should be avoid-
ed for most classroom uses and for studying the density or
distribution of phenomenon that have a real significance. In gen-
eral equal-area maps are to be preferred.
Distortions do not show up as readily in continent maps as
they do in world maps, because a continent is smaller in size and
can be centered on the standard meridian of the projection. Three
projections in general use for mapping continents (the sinu-
soidal, Werner's modified sinusoidal, and Bonne's modified sinu-
soidal) are equal-area and show all north-south distances true
In addition to these three, the Lambert zenithal (or azimuth-
al) equal area projection also provides a satisfactory base for
continental maps. For maps only of continental United States
(without Alaska and Hawaii) Lambert's conformal conic and
Alber's equal-area conic are very satisfactory.
Usually continent maps are published in series. Where the
same or comparable scales are used for all continents, it might be
desirable to make purchases from one series. In addition to check-
ing on projections, legend, cultural and natural features, typog-
raphy, and date of publication, the orientation of the continent
on the map should be considered. Enough of the surrounding
territory should be shown to visualize the continent in proper
Free and Inexpensive Maps
The same criteria used to evaluate commercial maps should be
applied to free and inexpensive maps which in a few instances
are superior. Cost may influence the decision to purchase less
satisfactory free or inexpensive maps. They can be used in many
ways to supplement commercial maps. Free and inexpensive
maps usually are not mounted; instead each is folded or flat and
must therefore be taped or tacked up for class use. With the
exception of inexpensive outline maps for individual students,
most of the maps listed are large enough to be used by an entire
class or a part of the class.
Following are some suggestions concerning free and inexpen-
1. County Road Maps
The Florida State Road Department in Tallahassee pub-
lishes maps of each county in the state. The maps (300 a
sheet) are printed in black and white at a scale of 1/2 inch
to the mile. They are also available at a scale of 1 inch to
the mile. Maps of a few large counties are printed on two
sheets; supplementary sheets of small settlements in a few
counties are available. These maps are valuable for field
trips and studies of the environs of a community. In
addition to detailed road information, they show streams,
swamps, railroads, a public-land survey grid, and a detailed
classification of most rural buildings.
2. Florida and Other State Maps
a. An official road map (available free from the State
Road Department of Florida) is an attractive map of
the state showing all towns and cities, roads, water
features, and national and state forests. Towns and
cities can be conveniently located by a border number-
letter grid. Enlarged inset maps of eight cities are
included. Similar maps of Florida, other states, or
sections of the U. S., distributed free by oil companies,
should not be overlooked.
b. Sectional Map of Florida (available free from the
Florida Department of Agriculture) is a fairly large-
scale map, measuring 48" x 46". The most prominent
features shown are railroads, counties, and the public-
land survey grid (sections, townships, ranges). Other
data on the map include state parks, forests, canals,
and congressional districts. Marginal information in-
cludes an indexed list of all towns and villages. Tables
of population by county, 1850-1950, formulation of coun-
ties, physical facts, and population of largest cities in
1950 are also listed in the margins.
3. Maps of the United States
Free or inexpensive maps of the United States can be
obtained from several federal agencies in Washington.
Maps of land-use, types of farming, types of forests, water
reclamation projects, mineral-resource and production
areas, and national parks and forests are available. Re-
quest for information about maps on these subjects should
be sent to the Department of Agriculture, Department of
Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, Forestry Service, Geo-
logical Survey and other agencies. Catalogs and informa-
tion on maps published by government agencies may be
obtained from the Superintendent of Documents, Govern-
ment Printing Office, Washington, D. C.
4. Maps of Counties
Free road maps of South America, Central America, West-
ern Europe, and some individual countries are available
from Esso Touring Service, 15 West 51st Street, New York
19, New York. These maps are fairly large scale. The West-
ern Europe road map, for instance, is 24" x 37" and in
addition to roads, shows rivers and up-to-date boun-
daries. Some maps also show airline and shipping routes,
railroads, a physiographic diagram inset, swamps, and
forest areas. Other oil companies publish similar maps of
Latin America, Europe, and individual countries.
5. Topographic Maps
If they are available, topographic maps of towns and en-
virons can be very useful in field trips and community
studies, especially at junior high, senior high, and junior
college levels. Most topographic maps of Florida which
have been published in recent years are about 22 x 29
inches in size and represent an area about 8 x 9 miles. They
are printed to show topography, water features, vegetation,
roads, railroads, towns, settlements, mines, and other cul-
tural features. Most of these maps are published by the
United States Geological Survey, Washington, D.C. Indi-
vidual sheets cost about 30 cents. Topographic maps of
Forida can be obtained from dealers in the larger cities
of the state.
6. Outline Maps
Outline maps, useful student projects, are available at
costs ranging from 1IY to 3 cents per sheet. They can be
reproduced at even lower cost by the teacher if the school
has a mimeograph machine or spirit duplicator. Teach-
ers should select outline maps which distinguish clearly
between land and water areas, and have up-to-date
boundaries. They should avoid outline maps cluttered
with too many details. The major map publishers listed in
the next section all offer a wide selection of outline maps.
In addition, outline maps are sold by Rand McNally and
Company; McKnight and McKnight, Bloomington, Illinois;
University of Chicago Press; John Wiley and Sons, Inc.;
C. S. Hammond and Co.; McKinley Publishing Co., Phila-
delphia; and A. J. Nystrom and Co.
Major Map Publishers
Each of the commercial map companies listed below produces
a wide selection of wall maps and/or globes. Most of them also
produce outline maps and atlases. Catalogs listing prices and
describing these materials in detail are published by each com-
pany. Several companies publish free or inexpensive booklets to
aid teachers in using maps and globes. It is recommended that
teachers write for these catalogs and booklets to aid them in se-
lecting and using maps.
George F. Cram Co., 730 East Washington St., Indianapolis, Indiana
Denoyer-Geppert Co., 5235 Ravenswood Ave., Chicago 40, Illinois
C. S. Hammond Co., Maplewood, New Jersey
A. J. Nystrom Co., 3333 Elston Ave., Chicago 18, Illinois
Rand McNally Co., P.O. Box 7600, Chicago 80, Illinois
Replogle Globes, Inc., Chicago 12, Illinois
Weber Costello, Co., Chicago Heights, Illinois
Handling and Caring for Maps
FLORIDA SCHOOLS, both elementary and secondary, have
long subscribed to a policy of handling and caring for
instructional materials in such a manner that each classroom
receives the greatest benefit from the materials in question.
Obviously, classrooms will receive the greatest benefit from ma-
terials properly inventoried, circulated, cared for, and stored
when not in use. In view of their relatively high cost it is particu-
larly important that maps and globes be handled and cared
for in the best possible manner.
Inventory And Circulation
Individual schools will adopt procedures for inventory and
circulation in terms of their particular needs and organization.
In most Florida schools, all maps and globes are listed in the
card catalog in the library and are considered school property.
Many schools find it advisable to list maps on green cards to dis-
tinguish them from other types of materials in the catalog.
Some schools limit themselves to a shelf list placed in the
principal's office or in another central location.
Whether maps are available in classrooms or from the library
will be determined by the amount of materials and the physical
layout of the school. In general, frequently used maps should be
housed in the classroom. No matter where maps are housed, they
should be listed on cards which carry all information necessary
for inventory and easy access. If maps are stored outside the
library, room location should be given. The shelf card should
carry information like that on the sample below. Listing materials
in this manner not only facilitates obtaining them; it also aids
taking inventory. For other catalog cards and further informa-
tion, refer to page 79, State Department Bulletin 22-C, The Ma-
Europe after the Congress of Vienna, 1815 44" x 32".
Scale 1"-80 mi. (Name of Publisher) H16, c 1949
Date (Name of Publisher) (Price)
Available from Room 106.
Schools which find it feasible to house most of their maps in
the library will devise a check-out system somewhat similar to
that used for checking out library books and other shared ma-
terials. (See page 78, State Department of Education Bulletin 22-
C, The Materials Center.) The length of time for which maps may
be checked out should be determined by classroom need and
Constant exposure of maps may cause them to become faded
and soiled. Storing maps properly when not in use minimizes this
Infrequently used maps assigned to a particular room should
be stored in the classroom if space permits. Those mounted on
spring rollers can often be left on their wall mountings. Racks
should be installed to hold roller-mounted maps. Carelessly stand-
ing these maps on end or laying them on the floor is likely to
Very few classrooms are equipped with horizontal files
with large flat drawers which provide the best storage for un-
mounted flat maps. Unmounted maps or those mounted for fold-
ing between hard covers can be folded and stored in vertical
files. Flat maps that are too large or printed on paper too heavy
to be folded conveniently can be rolled and placed in cardboard
When not in use, maps mounted on tripods present a storage
problem. Such maps are usually placed in a corner of the class-
room or in a closet for storage.
Maps shared among teachers should be stored in a central
place. Central storage is also sometimes used for individual room
maps when there is no satisfactory place to keep them in the
classroom. The same procedures and equipment recommended
for classroom storage of maps can be applied here. However,
where a number of unmounted maps are centrally stored, a hori-
zontal file is recommended.
Caring For Maps
Like any other piece of equipment in frequent use, maps be-
come damaged and soiled. With proper care, however, the use-
ful life of a map can be considerably prolonged.
Conditions Conducive To Map Damage
Ideal weather conditions for maps (i.e., dry, cool air) are
rare in Florida during much of the year. High humidity com-
bined in some areas with a high salt content is conducive to mil-
dew and rust. These conditions cause rapid deterioration of paper
and cloth and corrosion of metal. However, mildew-resistant maps
and rust-resistant mountings are available. Where a school sys-
tem anticipates quantity purchase of maps, it may be advisable
to make advance trial purchases from several producers in order
to determine which type best withstands local weather conditions.
Preventing Map Damage
Because excessively hot and dry air causes some maps to be-
come brittle and crack, they should be stored away from sources
of direct heat. When maps without cloth backing are rolled for
summer storage, a thin coating of talcum powder will reduce the
possibility of surfaces sticking together. Maps should also be
protected against insects and rodents. Dust covers, cloth back-
ings, and glue are favorite foods of cockroaches and rats. Com-
mercial insecticides, tablets, and pellets should be used for pro-
tection against them.
Rolled maps mounted on a cloth backing often shrink more
than the cloth, causing cracks and tears on the map surface. If
space permits, leaving such maps unrolled is the best way to
prevent such damage.
Unsoiled maps treated with plastic sprays such as Arcolite and
Krylon are well protected and easily cleaned. Varnish and shellac
become brittle and crack and may discolor maps. Maps that are
used a great deal acquire dirt smudges and pencil marks. An art
gum eraser will remove most pencil marks. A good grade of wall
paper cleaner can be used to clean map surfaces. Some map pro-
ducers recommend using slices of soft bread to remove dust
Globes are more subject to soiling than flat maps. However,
their protective coating makes them easy to clean. In addition
to periodic dusting, occasional cleaning with a soft cloth moisten-
ed with alcohol will remove most types of stains. A cloth damp-
ened with a mild soap solution is also satisfactory. Newer type
globes with plastic coatings may be cleaned with a detergent.
Maps mounted on spring rollers should be unrolled slowly
and should not be pulled out to their full length. When a map is to
be rolled up, a few inches of pull are needed so that the spring-
catch mechanism can be released. Spring roller mounted maps
should be rolled up slowly and straight to prevent fraying and
tearing the map edges. Maps on roller springs frequently develop
frayed edges. Badly frayed edges should be trimmed.
Manufacturers' recommendations for repairing and cleaning
maps should be followed. If none is provided, the following sug-
gestions can be used: small tears should be repaired with a good
grade of paper tape or the special acetate film tape now available.
Such repairs should be made on the back side of the map to avoid
disfiguring its surface. A stronger repair of edge tears can be
made by extending the tape from the back of the map around to
cover the tear on the front as well. Transparent Scotch tape and
other types of cellulose tape are not satisfactory for such repairs.
They are likely to deteriorate and become sticky and brittle.
The discoloration and gummy deposit produced by them cannot
be removed. Larger tears or holes can best be repaired with
Japanese tissue and paste.
The cloth backing on maps sometimes becomes loose and
needs to be repaired. Paste is the best adhesive for this purpose.
After pasting, repaired portions of maps should be dried under
Evolving Long-Range Plans
OTHER GUIDES OF THE Florida State Department of Edu-
cation describe the shared responsibilities of school person-
nel for setting programs for selecting and purchasing instruc-
tional materials. It cannot be said too often that teachers make
more use of materials they help select. Therefore, it is urged
that principals involve teachers, as well as librarians and super-
visory personnel, in a study of the map and globe needs of their
schools and encourage careful application of criteria to materials
before purchasing them.
A faculty study involves consideration of the following steps:
1. Making an inventory of maps in good condition.
2. Applying the criteria for selection of maps to maps
inventoried as well as to maps being evaluated for pur-
chase (See Chapter 3).
3. Discarding old and worn-out maps and globes and those
not meeting desirable standards.
4. Indicating priority of maps for purchase.
5. Using the list of desirable maps to develop a long-range
plan which includes yearly purchase of new types of
maps and replacements for worn-out ones.
Responsibility for purchase of maps depends upon the policies
of the county or the local school. Minimum foundation funds may
be used to purchase instructional materials. Local school or
county sources may supplement these state funds. The actual
ordering is usually the duty of the county purchasing agent, the
librarian, or the principal.
Storing maps and globes is the responsibility of the classroom
teachers and the librarian or person in charge of materials of in-
struction. Policies should be developed under the guidance of the
principal to fit the local school situation. All policies should
include setting up a central file showing location of each map or
globe in order that it may be used to the maximum.
Classroom teachers and pupils actually determine how they
will use maps. However, the principal, the materials specialist,
and the supervisor are responsible for guiding teachers in select-
ing and using maps as instructional materials. Many teachers will
request help in evaluating maps, determining suitability for spe-
cial purposes, and planning sequential development of map skills.
The suggestions given here may be adapted by schools or coun-
ties in developing policies and practices concerning maps. How-
ever, each school faces its own unique situation and should adapt
any suggestions to its own policies and practices.
Coordinating County Programs1
Following are the planned programs worked out by two
Palm Beach County-A committee composed of teachers and
principals from elementary and secondary schools was selected
on the basis of their special training and experience to develop
a long-range purchase plan for maps and globes. This plan of
procedure was followed:
1. Surveying map materials available in each school.
2. Determining criteria to use in evaluating maps for class-
3. Asking teachers to indicate which maps they use or are
familiar with which they consider the best available.
4. Discussing their decisions with a consultant.
5. Recommending minimum purchases for individual schools
to supplement the supply already in the school.
6. Spending the county allocation of funds on a need basis
-some schools needed very little to meet this goal while
other schools needed all items.
The result of this study was the recommended purchase plan
1. First, procure a sufficient supply of the basic political-
physical maps of the continents, the world, and the United
States, for every elementary school teacher. The first
step toward .this goal was to obtain one complete set for
each school. Then purchase additional sets of maps to sat-
'Material used In this section was adapted from information received from the
offices of the Director of Instruction, Palm Beach County, and the Supervisor of
Instructional Materials, Broward County.
isfy the requirements of individual teachers. After care-
ful study of all available maps, specific maps and
globes from specific companies were selected and recom-
mended for purchase. It was agreed that experience with
these materials plus up-to-date knowledge of improvement
would serve as bases for wise changes in the adopted list.
The kinds of maps selected were:
a. Physical-political maps of Africa, Asia, Australia,
Europe, North America, South America, and the United
b. Physical-political maps of the world.
2. A complete set of the above maps for each junior high
school, to be added to gradually until a sufficient quantity
is obtained for the use of each teacher of the social
3. A complete set of the above maps for each senior high
school, adding United States maps and world maps first.
4. A 16-inch political-physical globe for each school, the
quantity to be increased until one is available in each
5. A set of American history maps for each junior high school
covering the discovery, exploration, European begin-
nings, westward expansion, etc.
6. A set of American history maps for each senior high
school, the number of sets to be increased until each
social studies room has a set.
7. A set of world history maps for each senior high school.
8. Maps of the State of Florida, supplied by the Department
of Agriculture. These maps are large, accurate, and are
free. They are not colored, but may be colored by students
9. A set of stencils for mimeographing 8V2" by 11" outline
maps of the continents, the United States, and sec-
tions of the United States (except that of southern states
which is not available). A set was purchased for each
school having a mimeograph machine at the time. Mimeo-
graphed maps are available at the County Office for schools
without mimeograph machines.
10. A markable project problem globe is recommended for each
elementary and junior high school. Three types have been
tried out by schools. The three were listed by name and
company; two were 16-inch, one 20-inch. Selection is a
matter of choice.
11. A markable outline map with the United States on one side,
the world on the other, is recommended for each elemen-
tary and junior high school. Four types were tried out.
Selection is a matter of choice.
After School Board approval this program was instituted.
When it had been in operation for two years, funds for purchase
of instructional materials were allocated to each school on a
basis of average daily attendance rather than being furnished
out of the general county budget. The committee then made these
1. While most schools have made good progress toward meet-
ing these needs, many do not as yet have a sufficient
supply of the items. It is suggested that the needs of the
minimum basic program be met before branching out
into less essential purchases, even though they are
2. Elementary schools which have met their basic needs have
requested that a chart of geographical terms be added to
3. Since prices are constantly changing, it will be necessary
to use the current map catalogs in placing orders.
4. Folded maps are recommended for first purchases as they
can be easily stored and easily shared. If a school prefers
the roller type, where maps are to remain permanently in
one room, this substitution may be made. For circulation
through the school library services, folded maps are
Broward County-A: county-wide committee composed of
teachers from grades 1-6 and from the secondary social studies
developed a basic list of maps, globes, and charts which were
recommended for purchase for new schools from county funds.
Individual schools selected materials from companies of their
own choice. All schools received a copy of this list; most of them
had maps in excess of the basic list. Each school worked out
its own long-range plan for purchase.
The committee conducted a survey to determine what schools
considered basic maps for the instructional program. Two forms
(see pages 58 and 59) were used to obtain the opinions of indi-
In another county the supervisor of instructional materials
wrote to map company representatives about the map evaluation
he planned to conduct several months later. In the letter he
designated the kinds of maps under consideration, the room in
which the displays were to be set up, shipping information,
necessary equipment, and special arrangements for the meet-
ing. Evaluations for elementary and secondary level maps were
to be held separately.
Representatives of map publishers were informed that they
would be called on in rotation to demonstrate their maps, giving
the scale on which each map displayed was drawn, the type
of projection and its significance, the outstanding features of
the map, items contained in the legend, and the value of insets,
A list of the maps which they would display at the meeting
was to be sent to the supervisor before the evaluation. Pub-
lishers were to display their maps by sets or by grade levels or
in any other arrangement. From the lists submitted, the instruc-
tional materials supervisor prepared a rating scale for the use of
county personnel participating in the map evaluation.
Publishers' representatives demonstrated uses of their
maps to the evaluating group made up of instructional ma-
terials personnel from each school in the county. Comments
were restricted entirely to the value of the maps being pre-
sented; no comparisons with other producers' maps were made.
In preparation for rating the maps, members of the evaluat-
ing group spent a day in reviewing criteria for map selection
and formulated questions based on criteria acceptable to the
group. Material suitable for this purpose is included in Chapter
3 of this Guide.
Each member then used these questions as an evaluative
guide in rating the maps presented. A small committee of this
group later tabulated these evaluations. The summary tabulation
was then distributed to schools throughout the county.
FORM I-Survey on Maps, Globes and Charts-
Please check the materials which you consider basic for your
grade level and add any others not listed which might be of value
as basic materials.
FIRST, SECOND, AND THIRD GRADES
United States Map, Simplified
World Map, Simplified
World Map, Simplified Physical-Political
United States Map**
16-Inch Globe, Physical-Political
World Map, Physical-Political
United States Map, Physical-Political
Map of North America**
Map of South America**
16-Inch Globe, Physical-Political
World Map, Physical-Political
Map of North America**
Map of South America**
Map of Europe**
Map of Asia**
Map of Africa**
16-Inch Globe, Physical-Political
*In several instances the committee which prepared this Guide
to Using Maps and Globes have added in footnotes to the pro-
posals made in the Broward County Plan. The best Florida wall
map is obtainable free from State Department of Agriculture in
Tallahassee. (Sectional Wall Map of Florida)
**The Committee on the Guide to Using Maps and Globes rec-
ommends physical-political maps for the United States and for
each of the continents as basic first purchases.
FORM II-Survey on Maps, Globes and Charts-
Please list the materials which you consider basic for your subject
area. We are not interested in the publisher but would like the
description-such as political, physical, size of globe, etc.
Locating Additional Information
THE BOOKS, yearbooks, magazine articles, pamphlets, films
and filmstrips, and Florida Department of Education bul-
letins listed below are references that teachers will find useful
for refining and extending methods of increasing students' know-
how in interpreting maps. It will be necessary continually to
consult current sources of information to keep up-to-date regard-
For teachers who need help with a particular problem in
teaching map-use skills and need it quickly, the Committee has
compiled a list of resource persons from whom specific suggestions
could be obtained.
1. Other Teachers
3. Curriculum Assistants
4. County Supervisors or Directors of Instruction
5. School Librarians
6. County Librarians
7. County Materials Specialists
8. Civil Engineers and Surveyors in the Community
9. College and University Consultants
10. State Department of Education Consultants
11. Professional Map and Globe Consultants
Books and Yearbooks
1. Peattle, Roderick. Teaching of Geography. Appleton, 1950. Chap-
ter IV, "Maps and Map Reading," pp. 28-39.
2. Parker, Edith. Thirty-Second Yearbook of the National Society for
the Study of Education Teaching of Geography. 1933. Chapter IX,
"A Representative Map Experiment," pp. 154-155; Chapter X,
"Maps," pp. 163-164.
3. Raiz, Erwin, Chapter XI, "Globes" Whittemore, Katheryne T.,
Chapter XII, "Maps" Geographic Approaches to Social Education,
Nineteenth Yearbook of the National Council for the Social
4. Carpenter, Helen. Twenty-Fourth Yearbook of the National Coun-
cil for the Social Skills in Social Studies. 1953. Chapter VIII, "Inter-
preting Maps and Globes," pp. 154-177.
5. Michaelis, John U. Social Studies For Children in a Democracy.
Prentice-Hall, 1956. Chapters 10-11, pp. 267-313.
6. Lobeck, Armin K. Things Maps Don't Tell Us; An Adventure Into
Map Interpretation. Macmillan, 1956.
7. Harris, Ruby. The Rand McNally Handbook of Map and Globe
Usage. Rand McNally and Company, 1959.
8. Kenworthy, Leonard S. Introducing Children to the World. Harper
and Brothers, 1956.
9. Colby, C. B. Mapping the World. Coward-McCann, Inc., 1959.
10. Maloney, Terry. The Story of Maps. Sterling Publishing Co., Inc.
The Journal of Geography publishes many good articles on maps and
the use of maps, including experimental classroom projects. Examples
from recent issues include:
1. Boucher, Bertrand P., "Urban Land Use Maps: Their Role in the
Social Studies Program." Vol. LIII, March 1954, pp. 104-106.
2. Goodman, Marie Cleckner, "Recent Maps of Interest to Teachers of
Geography": No. 1, Vol. LI, January 1952, pp. 13-20; No. II, Vol.
LII, March 1953, pp. 116-126; No. II, Vol. LIII, December 1954,
pp. 384-392; No. IV, Vol. LV, May 1956, pp. 227-235.
3. Gross, Herbert H., "An Experiment in Home Community Geog-
raphy." Vol. LIV, November 1955, pp. 403-406.
4. Holub, Rose A., "Introducing Maps in the Fourth Grade." Vol.
LIV, December 1953, pp. 374-377.
5. Picklesimer, Parnell W., "Map Needs for a Modern World." Vol.
LIII, September 1954, pp. 238-242.
6. Svec, M. Malvina, "The Use of United States Geographical Sur-
vey Maps at High School Level." Vol. XVIII, December 1944, pp.
7. Switzer, Wilbur J., "The Map Exercise as a Basis for Critical
Thinking in High School Geography." Vol. LIX, October 1960, pp.
8. McAulay, J. D., "Maps and Globes in the Elementary School Pro-
gram." Vol. LIX, December 1960, pp. 431-433.
9. Sabaroff, Rose, "Using Maps in the Second Grade." Vol. LVII, No-
vember 1958, pp. 410-415.
10. Miller, E. Joan, "Making Land Utilization Maps: Work in the
Field With Nine-Year Olds." Vol. LVIII, April 1959, pp. 195-198.
11. Warman, Henry J., Dr., "Map Meanings: A Teacher-Student
Guide for Map Learnings in the Secondary Schools." Vol. LVIII,
May 1959, pp. 217-225.
12. Sabaroff, Rose, "Mapping Experiences in the Early Grades." Vol.
LVII, October, 1958, pp. 360-367.
Whipple, Gertrude, "How to Introduce Maps and Globes," No. 15, How
To Do It Series of National Council for the Social Studies, 1201 Six-
teenth Street, N.W., Washington, D. C.
Films and Filmstrips
1. "Exploring Through Maps," Popular Science Publishing Company,
Audio-Visual Division (353 Fourth Avenue, New York 10, New York).
A series of four "Teach O Filmstrips" on Map Study.
2. "Geography of American Peoples" and "Lands and Peoples Over-
seas," Rand McNally-Society for Visual Education Filmstrip Se-
ries, Society for Visual Education, Inc. (1345 W. Diversey Parkway,
Chicago 14, Illinois).
3. "Maps are Fun," Ten minute black and white film. Coronet Instruc-
tional Films (Coronet Building, Chicago 1, Illinois).
4. "Latitude and Longitude," ten minute black and white film. Unit-
ed World Films, Inc., Educational Film Department (1445 Park
Avenue, New York 29, New York).
5. "By Map and Compass," twenty-eight minute black and white film.
International Film Bureau.
6. "Introduction to Map Projection," eighteen minute black and white
film. United World Films, Inc. (1445 Park Avenue, New York 29,
7. "Reading Maps," eleven minute black and white film. Encyclopedia
'17 ~~r~ I
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