Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Word recognition techniques
 Meaning vocabulary
 Study skills

Group Title: Bulletin - State Department of Education ; 71H-3
Title: Specific techniques for teaching reading
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00067249/00001
 Material Information
Title: Specific techniques for teaching reading
Series Title: Florida. State Dept. of Education. Bulletin
Physical Description: ii, 31 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- Adult and Veteran Education Section
Smith, Edwin H
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee
Publication Date: 1965
Subject: Reading (Adult education)   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Statement of Responsibility: by Edwin H. Smith and others.
General Note: At head of title: General adult education.
Funding: Bulletin (Florida. State Dept. of Education) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00067249
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 00020470
lccn - a 68007116

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front cover
    Front Matter
    Title Page
        Title page
        Title Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page i
        Page iii
    Word recognition techniques
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
    Meaning vocabulary
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
    Study skills
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
Full Text

October, 1965


of Vocational, Technical, and Adult Education
loyd T. Christian, Superintendent
W 1 Tallahassee, Florida

CSo 00 -3R2
? .L co

Bulletin 71H-3



Bulletin 71H-3

October, 1965



Edwin H. Smith
Director of the Reading Clinic and
Fundamental Education Center
Florida State University

Wanda D. Cook
Supervisor for the Center

Margaret Morrow
Consultant for the Center

Howard Stayman
Consultant for the Center

Mary Dinnen
Assistant to the Director

Mary Lou O'Banion
Assistant to the Director

Division of Vocational, Technical, and Adult Education
Walter R. Williams, Jr., Director

Adult and Veteran Education Section
James H. Fling, Assistant Director

OC~tP: )1 7 757~
F67 1
.7 f/ h-3)
e, ;.



CHAPTER I Word Recognition Techniques 1

A. Auditory and Phonetic Aids 1

B. Visual and Structural Aids 6
Root and Base Words
Prefixes and Suffixes
Syllables and Accents
Compound Words
Inflectional Endings

C. Other Methods of Word Recognition 12
Using Visual and Structural Aids

D. Meaning Aids 13

CHAPTER II Meaning Vocabulary Techniques 14

CHAPTER III Comprehension 20

A. Receptive 20
B. Critical 23
C. Creative 25

CHAPTER IV Study Skill Techniques 28

A. Locating Information 28
B. General Reference 29
C. Illustrative Materials 30
D. Organization 30


Competent literacy education involves the continuous diagnosis
and correction of deficiencies. Through formal and informal diagnostic
procedures and observation teachers locate specific needs and defects
and then apply specific techniques to meet those needs and correct or
work around those defects. This holds true whether the approach being
used is that of the modified basal reader, the experience approach,
the individualized reading approach, the visual auditory-kinesthetic-
tactile approach, or programmed instruction.

Research in teaching reading tells us that no one approach is
suitable for all students. It also tells us that all of the approaches
work well with some students! As no competent teacher (of children or
adults!) uses one approach to the teaching of reading, no teacher uses
the same techniques for reinforcing an approach with all students.
Techniques make approaches work! The authors of this bulletin have been
collecting techniques for a long time; some have been gathered from
the literature, others have come from observing master teachers at work,--
few are original. Some of the techniques will work well for some teachers
with some students, and you should choose those which fit both you and the
students with whom you are working.

To help you locate techniques appropriate to the skill area
needed, the techniques in this bulletin are organized in four groups with
an explanation of each group preceding the technique. The groups are
word recognition (learning the visual form of a word already in the aural
vocabulary), meaning vocabulary (learning the meanings of words not in the
aural vocabulary), comprehension skills (receiving, criticizing and
developing messages the authors are conveying at a speed appropriate to
the task), and study skills (locating, organizing and remembering infor-
mation for educational growth).

Within each category the techniques are further broken down into
sub-categories. Skim through the book and notice the several sub-
categories. If you see a technique that is new to you and appears feasible
for use with a student, then try it out. You may even want to modify some
of the techniques. If so then go ahead! They are merely a set of tools
whose sole purpose is to enable you to teach better!



This section on word recognition is devoted to techniques useful
in teaching the student to translate the graphemes (letters) into phonemes
(sounds) so that he can recognize words that are already in his listening
vocabulary. Among the methods used are: phonics, picture clues, configura-
tion clues, and punctuation.

For the teacher in search of a list of phonics rules, this section
will be a disappointment. Most common phonic rules are more confusing than
helpful, and recent research tells us that we have been wrong in teaching
such fallacious rules as the "two vowel" rule and the final "e" rule. They
just don't work!

A. Auditory and Phonetic Aids


1. Teach the student the names of the letters of the alphabet. Then
present him with letters for identification at random.

2. Say the names of letters at random and have the student point to

3. Ask the student to put sets of letters in alphabetical order.


1. After showing a picture of a cat, have the student underline all
words which are names of animals that begin with the same sound as the pic-

calf car camel cow

2. Tell the student to underline all the words that begin with the
same sound.

bat door bay bike

3. Have the student underline all the words that do not begin with the
same sound.

cattle candy run can

4. Group related words (animals, foods, furniture) and have the
student select the one which begins with a different sound.

cat deer crow calf

5. After teaching the initial sound of a key word, have the student
underline the words in the row that begin with the same sound.

money not

man: milk

6. Write a word such as "bee" and then have the student pronounce it.
The student should then suggest another word that is like "bee" except for
the beginning letter (see).

7. Write a word such as may. Then have the student delete the initial
consonant and substitute another.

hay -- say

fat -- mat

8. Have the student supply a final consonant sound for a given picture.

picture of wheel

picture of towel

9. Pronounce a word having a distinct final consonant. Have the stu-
dent name the letter which produces the final sound.

sand -d

book -k

10. Show the student a picture. Then ask him to supply the final letter
of the word the picture represents.


Have the student look at the key word at the beginning of a sen-
Ask him to locate a word in the sentence which begins like the key

Bill sold the car.

12. Pronounce three or four words with a consonant in the middle
position and ask the student to identify the consonant he hears.



13. Have the student write the beginning sound of a list of words that
you read to him.

14. Ask the student to underline the silent letters in words.





15. Ask the student to find the initial and final sounds of words and
to explain how these words are alike and how they are different.

bet -- beg

rag -- rug

16. Have the student underline the letter or letters that produce the
"f" sound in these words.

festival rough

professor fifth

17. Write two columns of words and have the student draw lines between
words that have the same beginning sound.

boat -foot
f ivelculi bend

18. Using a list of words with silent letters have the student
indicate the position of the silent letter.






1. Show the student illustrations with three words under each one.
Have the student select the two words which rhyme with the illustration.

picture of boat: coat

float go flower

2. Have the student underline the rhyming words.


look milk


3. Ask the student to match rhyming words by connecting them with

may hill
mill play

4. Have the student underline the word in the sentence which rhymes
with the key word.

goat: Bobby saw a boat on the lake.

5. Ask the student to complete the rhyme by selecting a pictured

Look up
See the

(table cup)

6. Have the student select and list three pairs of rhyming words.


note raise table moat label




7. Ask the student to underline the words which rhyme with the key


set way let get

8. Present some sets of words, the first of which has an accented
syllable underlined. Have the student underline the words which rhyme
with the accented syllable.


hand ball

and band

1. Display a word card. Have the student locate the vowel and supply
another word containing the same vowel sound.


2. Show pictures, the words for which have a missing vowel. Have
the student select the proper vowel for the blank.



3. Ask the student to substitute a vowel in a word to make a new word.

For example:


beg, bug big

4. Have the student underline all the words containing short vowels.





5. Ask the student to use the sound in a known word to identify a new

The "6" in lot has the same sound as the "o" in hot.

6. Have the student indicate the vowel he hears in pairs of words.

pan -- short a

pane -- long a

7. After writing words containing long and short vowels on 3 x 5
cards, divide the group of students into teams. Each member of a team
selects a card, pronounces the word, writes it on the board and indicates
a long or short vowel.

8. Have the student place a line over each long vowel and a line
under the silent letters.


mice road


9. Give the student two 3 x 5 cards with a on one and a on the other.
As the teacher pronounces a word, the student presents the card with the
appropriate vowel.

10. Have the student read a list of words and indicate if the vowel is
long or short by writing 1 or s.

11. Present a key word and have the student underline all of the words
containing the same vowel sound.

rode: float grow pond goat

12. Have the student prepare a chart with pictures of objects whose
names contain a vowel to be learned.


1. Have the student select the word that the sentence tells about.

It grows in a garden.

brown, close, flower, stone

2. Supply a key word and have the student give words beginning with
the same blend.

Grass: green grow


float fly

3. Pronounce a word containing a blend. Have the student write
the letters making up the initial sound.


4. Present a picture. Ask the student to select all words which
begin with the same blend as the picture.

Picture of a clown:

close, slow, clues, clap

5. From a list of words have the student select the ones which have
the same blend as the underlined words. He should then place them in
appropriate columns.


close plate glue

List of words: play (c), clap (b), black (a), plan (c)
glide (d), clean (b)


1. Vowel digraphs have two letters which produce one sound. Have
the students give examples.





2. Consonant digraphs have two consonants which produce one sound.
Ask students to supply examples.





3. Write several headings on the board, each representing a variant
sound of the digraph. Have the student select words from a list and place
them in the column with the appropriate sound.

church anchor machine
(A) (B) (C)

4. Show the student several captioned pictures.
to complete the word with the correct digraph.

Picture of'church:

Instruct the student


5. Show the student a card containing four words, each of which contains
a digraph. Ask the student to identify the word in which the digraph is
pronounced differently.

meadow eagle meat


6. List two columns of words on the board. Have the student identify
the digraph in each word of Column A and then match it with a similar digraph
in Column B.



7. Present words containing digraphs in which one of the long
vowel sounds (oa, ai, ay) is heard. Instruct the student to underline
the digraph and write the vowel sound he hears.



8. Teach the sound "oo" as in "good". Have the student volunteer
words containing this sound. Then supply the student with a story in
which he fills in the proper "oo" words.

Mrs. Jones ran into the house. It was raining hard and she
could not stay outside. Then she (took) off her coat. She
hung it on a (hook), picked up a (book) and began (looking)
at the (book).

B. Visual and Structural Aids

Root Words and Base Words

1. Instruct the student to underline the base word in each of several
given words.


reported reports

2. Tell the student to underline the letters that have been added
to the base word.





3. Design two sets of cards, one set containing the root words, the
other set the meaning of each root. Ask the student to match the root
card with its meaning card.

4. Have the student form compound words from two words.

some one someone

any one anyone

5. Ask the student to underline all words which are root words in
each sentence in a selected paragraph.

6. Write a word on the board and teach its pronunciation and meaning.
Instruct the student to supply derivitives of the word and then use them
in sentences.

Is this a washable shirt?

wash: washable

7. Present a list of words which have the same origin. Ask the student
to identify the root word and write its meaning.

electric electricity electrify

8. Stress that concept, not visual form, determines whether or not a
pair of words are formed from a common root. Present a group of sentences
in which words derived from a common root are used in three of these. A
word of similar appearance is used in the fourth. Have the student under-
line the sentence in which the word is not derived from the root.

Phyllis counted the money.
Her superior recounted it.
She did that countless times.
Then they both left the country.

9. Encourage the student to make as many different words as possible
by using the same root and changing the prefixes and suffixes. This may
be done with the aid of a worksheet composed of words, prefixes, and

10. Give the student a Latin word such as "aqua". Have him use a
dictionary to note its pronunciation and meaning. Then have the student locate
in a phrase a word which comes from the Latin word.

She put the fish in the aquarium.

Prefixes and Suffixes

1. Instruct the student to match each prefix with its meaning. Make
two columns or two sets of cards which contain prefixes and their meanings.

re -- again pre -- before

2. Present the student with a list of words and have him underline the
prefix in each word and then write a sentence using the word.

3. Under the headings, "prefix" and "base", list the parts of the words
from a given list.

Prefix Base
re fill

4. Give the student some words and have him underline the prefix and
use the base word in a sentence.

untie She will tie the package.

5. Discuss the change in meaning that takes place when a prefix is
added. Using sentences, have the student add a prefix to a base word in
each and discuss the change in meaning.

She will tell the story.
She will retell the story.

6. Have the student read a sentence noting underlined words. Then
rewrite the sentence using a word with a prefix.

She is not kind.
She is unkind.

7. Have the student make new words by adding prefixes such as "un" or
"re" to the words underlined.




8. Instruct the student to match the definition with a word containing
the correct prefix.

between schools a)


9. Have the student develop a chart containing suffixes and their meanings.

ness state of being

er one who

10. Have the student match columns of suffixes with their corresponding

helpless full of rocks
rocky!- ---without help

11. Present the student with a list of words each of which can be
classified under one of the two headings by noting the suffix.

one who

state of being

12. Let the student add a suffix to a word and use it in a sentence.

quick quickly

The rabbit ran quickly.

13. Write a word containing a suffix on a card. Cut the card at the
suffix. The cards are to be matched by the student.


biograph/er help/less


14. In order to reinforce the meaning of a single suffix, have the
student fill in similar sentences using the same suffix.

One who flies is an aviator.
One who invents is an inventor.

15. Give the student several words containing prefixes and suffixes.
The student then analyzes each part and gives a definition.

previewer pre:

one who

The word means one who
looks before.

Syllables and Accents

1. To develop auditory perception for vowels in words, say a list
of words. Have the student clap his hands once each time he hears a
vowel. Count the number of claps. Each clap is representing one syllable.

1 1 2 2
tan brake basket acorn

2. List some words on the board or worksheet. The student then in-
dicates the number of syllables in the word.

bank teapot good today
1 2 1 2

3. Using a list of three syllable words, fold a piece of paper into
three columns. Have the student write the syllable that belongs in each

1 2 3

animal an i mal
certainly cer tain ly

4. Present the student with a list of words. The student then writes
them by syllables.

before be fore today to day

5. Divide the group into teams. A word is presented orally to each
member of the team. He then tries to divide the word into syllables.
The team with the greatest number correct wins.

6. Let the student study the underlined word, then check the state-
ment which is true.

X The first syllable rhymes with crown.
The first syllable rhymes with the first syllable of country.

7. From a selection of words, the student decides which word is
divided correctly.

active: ac tive act ive a ctive acti ve

8. Discuss words which are spelled alike, but due to the placement
of the accent have a different meaning. Have the student read the sentence
and underline the correct form of the word.

We keep a record of the weather, record' rec' ord

Compound Words

1. Encourage the student to select a word from each of two columns
and make a new word.

some shore 1. Something
sea thing 2. Seashore

2. Ask the student to underline the two words in a list which could
make up a compound word.

jump pop watch corn

3. Have the student read a sentence and underline the compound word.
Put the numbers one and two over the components of the compound words.

1 2
Tom made a birdhouse.

4. Create puzzle cards by cutting compound words in two. Have the
student try to match the card.

someday popcorn anytime somewhere

5. Ask the student to complete the compound word in each sentence by
selecting one of the given words:

Terry picked some straw mill, berries, get, side

6. To aid recognition of compound words, have the student add new
words to a given word.

some: something someone somewhere sometime

7. Have the student complete the sentence using the proper
compound words.

We sat in front of the to get warm.

fireplace firehouse

Inflectional Endings

1. Have the student fill in the blank with the correct form
of the word.

Betty likes to her mother. (help, helped, helping)
These are the berries I ever ate. (fine, finer, finest)

2. Construct a word wheel for review of variant endings.

3. Have the student add an inflectional ending to make a word
with a given meaning.

high (more high) higher big (more big) bigger



1. Write a contraction. Have the student write the words from
which the contraction was made.

wouldn't -- would not couldn't -- could not

2. Supply two words and have the student write the contraction.

did not -- didn't we are -- we're

3. Ask the student to match contractions and the words for which
they stand.

could no A we're
we are ~ couldn't

4. Let the student substitute a contraction for the underlined
words in the sentence.

They will wash the car. (They'll)

5. Tell the student to indicate the letters represented by the
apostrophe in several contractions.

isn't o She'll wi
I'll wi don't o

Possessive Forms

1. Pick up the student's book and ask whose book is this? Write
the response on the board.

This is my book. or That is Mr. White's book.

2. Present a sentence and have the student select the proper
possessive form.

This is coat. Nancy's or Nancys'

3. Have the student match the possessive with its meaning.

boys' hats hats of all the boys
boy's hats hats that belong to one boy


1. For practice in understanding quotation marks, have the
student underline the part spoken directly by the individual.

Jane said, "It is time to eat."

2. Vary the punctuation in a paragraph and have the pupil explain
the change in meaning that takes place.


3. Read the sentences and supply the proper punctuation.

Susan can help.
Help, Susan, help_
Can Susan help?

C. Other Methods of Word Recognition Using Visual and Structural Aids

1. Allow the students to make flash cards of common words. Working
in pairs, let them practice saying them to each other.

2. Label various objects in the room for the students to identify.

3. Have the students practice tracing the word between tracks.

4. Encourage students to copy sight words from sentences.

5. Make up several key sentences for a group of sight words. Leave
the words and sentences in sight and have the student write other sentences
using these words.

6. Cut out and display basic sight words for the students.

7. Have the students choose a word to fit in the contour box.

bat boy bean

8. Have the student select the words in Column A that match with those
in Column B.
but Now
now Eat
eat But

9. Ask the student to draw a contour box around the word.

about run

10. Have the students underline the words which have no tall letters
and no hanging letters.

can see tree big

11. Construct a set of domino cards using words instead of number sets.
Match words to create designs.

top red
red in


12. For the student who confuses words which are similar in form, have
him select the correct words to complete the sentence.

Carol home. went, want

13. Give the student lists of words omitting some of the letters.
Have the student supply the letters.

1_ttl_ eephnt chlden M th r

14. When two words are confused, write one on a transparent paper
and place it over the other one. Have the student note the differences.

15. Present words in which a hyphen appears. Then have students
skim through their books to find other hyphenated words.

16. To strengthen memory for word form, have students locate the
error and supply the correct word.

The rabbit want through the fence. (went)

17. Make a list of words that have been fabricated to meet the needs
of our modern society.

lipstick, television, ballpoint, bookmark

18. Have students list words that have been "modernized" in our

motion picture movie coca cola coke

D. Meaning Aids

1. Have the student read a sentence and supply the word which
makes the most sense.

A cow lives in a (barn, book)

2. Give the student two lists. List "A" has the beginning of
sentences and List "B" has the endings of the sentences. The student
matches "A" with "B".

The chicken _went to school
The children ate the corn

3. Supply students with cards on which a riddle is written. Have
the riddle contain clues so the student can identify the word on the
It is the opposite of girl.
It rhymes with toy.
Answer: boy

4. Have the student match pictures with sentences or words.
5. Read an article to the students. Occasionally pause for the
pupil to supply the work you left out.



The development of a meaningful vocabulary is a primary goal
of literacy instruction. Vocabulary without interpretation on the
part of the reader merely becomes verbalization of meaningless symbols.

The objective of this section is to suggest techniques and
illustrate practice exercises which are helpful in developing a useful
meaning vocabulary.

1. Discuss the meaning of new words. Then connect each word with
its definition.

store- -A horse like animal with stripes.
zebra-- A place were things are sold.

2. Ask the student a question about the meaning of a word after
using it in a sentence (context).

The lion made a loud roar. What does loud mean?

3. Show the student how to complete sentences using words of
similar meaning.

Little is the same as not big, not there

4. Using words peculiar to a specific subject field, have the
student complete sentences.

A Mexian hat is a chapeau, sombrero

5. Develop sentences which include phrases defining specific words
within the sentence. Have the student underline the phrase which gives
the definition.

The rumba, a South American dance, is my favorite.

6. Ask the student to list several meanings of a specific word.

Perch: fish, to sit, resting place for birds

7. Instruct the student to substitute another word for the underlined
one, thus changing the meaning of the sentence.

The robin flew by. The airplane flew by.

8. Given a choice of two definitions, instruct the student to select
that definition which matches the meaning of the underlined word in a
The boy got a new bat for the game.
a) An animal that flies chiefly at night.
b) An instrument used to hit a ball.

9. Write three descriptive sentences containing the same under-
lined word. Ask the student to check the two sentences in which the
underlined word has the same meaning.

The color ran in his shirt.
He ran for the office of mayor.
She ran for President of the club.

10. Present two sentences containing a homograph (two different
word meanings but the same spelling). Discuss the different meanings.

1. He wiped the tear from his eye.
2. He had a long tear in his shirt.

11. List several words on the chalkboard and ask the student to
classify them according to the types of stories in which they might

lions adventure football sports

12. Write several sentences on the chalkboard from a group of words
and have the student select the word which fits each sentence.

comb feathers pecked hatched

1. A hen is covered with these. (feathers)
2. Baby chickens are born this way. (hatched)

13. Tell the student to select a word which emphasizes a certain
emotion, such as fear, which is expressed in a sentence.

"I miss Susan", Bill_ _. (said, exclaimed,
shouted, cried)

14. Ask the student to supply words which change the meaning of
a sentence. Discuss the changes in meaning that take place.

James to the store. (walked, strolled, ran, drove)

15. Ask the student to read a sentence and underline the proper
nouns. Have him continue reading and underlining any word which refers
to the proper noun already underlined.

John arrived. I met him.

16. Have the student derive the meaning of a word in the first sen-
tence by using the clues provided in the second sentence.

Billy was very jovial.
Visitors told others how jolly he was.
To be jovial is to be_. (jolly)

17. Encourage the student to use context clues to interpret foreign

He took us to the fifth floor in the lift. (run elevator)


18. Let the student read a descriptive sentence and provide a single
word which describes the situation.

The winds had left the homes in ruins, crops were
destroyed and people injured. (tragedy)

19. Give a sentence, have the student underline negative meaning
clues such as no, never and not.

20. Ask the student to construct a scrap book about special topics.
Label the pictures with words, phrases or sentences.

21. Ask the student to make a picture dictionary illustrating un-
familiar words.

22. Have each student make a set of dictionary cards. Place a
picture and word on one side of the card and just the word on the other

23. Give the student various definitions for a word and have him select
the one which best fits several sentences.

24. Provide a list of words and have the student underline the words
which have the same meaning as the first word.

tiny: big little lot small

25. Present flash cards with words. Ask the student to give synonyms.

26. Have the student read pairs of words and write "S" if they have
almost the same meaning, "D" if they mean something different.


happy glad good bad

27. Have the student provide a synonym for the underlined word.

The house is large. big

28. Use a crossword puzzle approach. Provide a synonym for a clue
and have the student supply the answer. A similar exercise may be used
for antonyms.

29. Ask the student to underline the two words which mean nearly the
same things in several pairs of sentences.

The water glistened in the sun.
It sparkled so it hurt my eyes.

30. Have the student match the word with the appropriate picture.

Children sleeping day
Children playing night


31. Have the student write a homonym for each word of a list.

blue blew eight ate

32. Ask the student to underline the homonyms in a row of words.

front ate at eight

33. Have the student complete several sentences using words provided.

She broke the window (pain pane)

34. Have the student read sentences and select the correct word.

I want (to, too, two) pears.

35. Have the student underline the portion of homonyms that sound
alike but are spelled differently.

break brake dear deer

36. Ask the student to define the underlined homonyms in each

That tree is bare. The bear likes honey.

37. Have the student write and illustrate sets of antonyms.

happy sad

38. Ask the student to underline antonyms in each row of words.

high good low food

39. Give the student several words followed by sentences containing an
antonym of that word. Look at the word, then underline its antonym in the

bad: They had a good time at the party.

40. Using two teams, play a word game using antonyms. One team picks
a word. The other team must decide on one word to offer as an antonym;
if the offered word is an antonym the team scores. If it is not, the other
team scores. The team with the most points wins!

41. Have the student change the meaning of several sentences by
replacing an underlined word with its opposite.

He is a good driver.
He is a bad driver.

42. In several sentences have the student locate words with opposite
meanings and write them in a space you have provided.

The flea is a tiny animal, but the dog is large by comparison.
(tiny- large)


43. Display an action picture and have the student supply a
word that describes the action.

44. Ask the student to list words which evoke an emotional

Fire! Help! Murder! Police!

45. Have the student compile a list of words which are
associated with a key word you have given him.

jungle: danger wild animals animal traps hunting

46. Have the student expand a concept by using descriptive words.

I have a book. I have a good book. I have a very good
mystery book.

47. Give the student pairs of adjectives and a list of nouns.
Have him match the noun and the adjectives.

bumpy, winding h--- at
new straw- -road

48. Ask the student to match key words written on the chalkboard
with the word most commonly associated with it.

socks (shoes, belt, hat, gloves)

49. Have the student select the word which presents the most
vivid picture.

The tide carried the boat away. (surging, moving,

50. Have the student underline the figure of speech. Discuss its
The robins made a nest in the tree's green hair.

51. Have the student locate several colloquial expressions and
discuss the meanings.

52. Ask the student to identify phrases which appeal to senses of
taste, touch, etc.

Can't you smell the tantalizing aroma of the brownies?

53. Have the student answer riddles which describe various nouns.

54. Have the student match columns of words with their abbreviations.

avenue Dr.
doctor Ave.

55. Have the student rewrite a letter, envelope, or paragraph
substituting abbreviations for the full word which has been under-

56. Have the student underline the phrase which expresses the
meaning of a picture.

Picture of woman crying good news bad news

57. Discuss prefixes and suffixes with the student. Then in-
struct him to change the meaning of sentences by adding a prefix to
a key word.
I am happy. I am unhappy.

58. Instruct the student to read a.sentence and consider the
underlined words. Have him substitute a pronoun which can be used in
that situation.

A man and his son went traveling. They went traveling.

59. Discuss words which can be used as either verbs or nouns.
Have the student use them in sentences.

talk: noun I am going to give a talk.
verb Talk louder please.

60. Present sentences in scrambled order. Have the student rewrite
It a and was day cold windy.

It was a cold and windy day.

61. Have the student consider words in a sentence and indicate
whether they answer: how, when, where.

He walked to school Monday. How-walked, where-to school
when Monday

62. Ask the student to select a sentence and read it with and without
punctuation. Discuss the change 'of meaning in each situation.

See Mr. Brown.
See, Mr. Brown?

63. Write pairs of sentences which are broken into phrases in
different ways. Have the student select the best one.

X At that instant she stepped on the stage.
At that instant she slipped on the stage.

64. Have the student unscramble a sentence by numbering which part
would come first, second and third.

1 The top of the desk
3 for the drawing
2 was too small

65. Have the student underline words in sentences which indicate
examples are to follow.

Composers, such as Schubert and Bach, wrote violin music.




Reading comprehension progresses from an elementary stage
to an advanced onein three steps. Although comprehension, as in
all growth, develops along a continuum rather than in distinct
steps, categorizing reading comprehension into receptive reading,
critical reading, and creative reading permits the focusing of
attention on specific techniques for each area.

Receptive reading, the first and most basic type of compre-
hension, involves the student in reading to find the author's basic
message. When doing receptive reading the student reads to locate
the specific facts, opinions, and descriptions. These are provided
directly in the words of the author. Receptive reading is the
fundamental comprehension skill. It must be developed thoroughly
before the other two phases of comprehension can be adequately

A. Receptive Reading

1. Motivate the student to read the selection by supplying a
question for which he is to find the answer.

How did John find the cave?

2. Tell the student to study the pictures that accompany a
selection. Then direct the student to answer a question about the

What time of the year might it be?

3. Ask the student to answer questions which follow an article
then locate, underline and number the answers to the questions.

4. Ask the student to fill in sentence blanks with the correct
words from the text.

Danny ate a large melon.

5. After the student has read a narrative paragraph, tell him to
underline the name of the speaker of each line.

Who said, "Hurry, you will be late."? Mother Father Grandma

6. Explain to the student that certain word phrases describe
sensory images. Have him locate phrases which appeal to specific senses.

Sight Hearing Touch Smell
waving grain loud roar soft as a kitten rotten egg

7. Show the student how to discover the crucial points of a story
by asking questions.

8. To develop subject-verb relationship, have the student underline
the subject once and the action word twice.

Ronnie rolled around.

9. Let the student present a quiz program using questions he has
made up from articles he has read.

10. Show a series of pictures and tell the student to compose a
story about the pictures.

11. Set up three or more columns and ask the student to place words
from a list in each column according to their classifications.

Animal Vegetable Mineral
cat corn gold

12. List several words which have a common element. Lead the stu-
dent to discover and to write the common element.

Alaska New York Florida Maine states

13. Instruct the student to list phrases which indicate how, when
or where something happened in a selection they have read.

How? by plane When? yesterday Where? New York

14. Read a selection to the student and have him retell the story
in proper sequence.

15. Have the student arrange a series of pictures in the order which
corresponds with the events in an article.

16. Present several sentences in improper sequence and have the
student arrange them correctly.

3 Howard ran to school.
1 Howard woke up late.
2 Howard did not eat breakfast.

17. Ask the student to follow (on a map) the sequential events of
a story placing numbers for each event in the proper place.

18. Introduce a story which has a surprise ending. Discuss with the
student alternative endings. Note the events which could cause the reader
to expect another type of ending.

19. From a box containing 3 x 5 cards with written instructions, have
the student select a card and then follow the instructions.

Stand near the door. Go to the window.

20. Make an outline at the beginning of the day's work on the
board and explain to the student how he follows the plan throughout
the day.


21. Have the student read an article and identify the paragraph
in which a particular event occurred.

22. Write several sentences below a series of pictures and instruct
the student to draw a continuous line from picture to picture to show
the order of occurrence.

I ran away from the woods. I saw a bear.
I went home. I was afraid of the bear.

23. To reinforce the idea of relationships, have the student refer
to the story and complete the statement.

She ran away from the snake because

24. Have the student delete the sentences irrelevant to the topic
of the paragraph.

25. Read articles concerning other cultures to the students. Have
the students select sentences to demonstrate the differences that exist
between our culture and people of other cultures.

26. List titles of several selections and groups of phrases on the
board. Match the phrases with the story from which they came.

27. While reading a short article, have the student write a summary
sentence for each paragraph. Combine these to make a summary of the
entire article.

28. Have the student underline phrases that show the main ideas of the

29. Have the student read an article and make up a title for it.

30. In a paragraph, include one word which does not make sense. Have
the student locate this word and substitute a more appropriate one.

Then the wheat blows and is cut for harvesting. (grows)

31. Have the student illustrate the main idea of a story by drawing
an appropriate picture.

32. After the student reads a selection, have him fill in some in-
complete sentences at the end. These sentences describe the main idea
of the story.

33. Have the student match columns of titles and the subjects with
which they deal.

1. Rawhide Trai- a) a young girl becomes a singer
2. Stars for Susan b) hard life in early West
34. After reading a story have the student discuss the organization
of the story.
1. The main idea comes first and is supported by facts.
2. The small details lead up to a main idea.


35. Have the student review stories. Place an X before the sentence
which best describes the main idea.

36. Make a cooperative outline of a story. List subtitles to aid
the student.

37. Have the student underline the word which is used as a descriptive
As large as a horse. Quiet as a mouse.

B. :Critical Reading

Critical reading is reading to judge the author's message,
or parts of his message, against criteria such as degree of: (1)
authenticity of materials presented as factual, (2) correctness of
inferences or assumptions, (3) soundness of opinions, (4) accuracy
of reports, (5) honesty of the author, and (6) rote reasoning of
conventional wisdom used.

In receptive reading the reader follows the author's reasoning
to get the message. In critical reading he judges the elements of the
message keeping.in mind probability, relativity, and validity. These
are the tools of the superior critical reader.

1. After reading a selection, have the student list several sentences,
classifying each sentence as opinion or fact.

2. Make a statement concerning an article. Request the student
to substantiate or disprove this statement by citing specific examples
from the selection.

3. Have the student indicate after each question whether the
article gave enough information to answer the questions. Use yes or no.

4. Have the student read several fables and summarize the points
made by each.

5. Provide the student with several questions whose answers are
not found directly in the selection but are merely implied.

6. List several questions at the end of a selection. Have the
student check the correct reason for the action having taken place.

Why did Mary make a toy?

She didn't have enough money to buy one.
X She wanted it to be a personal gift.

7. In order to develop ability to select unrelated information,
have the student read a paragraph in which irrelevant materials have
been included, then have him underline the unrelated items.

8. Have the student read several newspaper articles. Then decide
whether the headlines were misleading or pertained to the article.

9. Discuss propaganda in newspapers, books and magazines. Have the
student list its value and/or harm in specific cases.


10. Promote ability to distinguish between realistic and fanciful
materials. Give the student short paragraphs which are to be labeled R
if they are realistic and F if they are fiction.

11. Discuss "slanted writing" and find examples of this. Have the
student practice writing paragraphs slanted for different purposes.

12. Have the student read a selection and several summaries that
follow. Select the best summary and tell why it is the best.

13. In order to develop an awareness of cause and effect, orally
present the student with an effect and have him state the cause.

Teacher: His eyes danced with joy.
Student: The man saw the new car.

14. Have the student read a selection and the review written by a
professional reviewer. Discuss whether he agrees or disagrees with the
reviewer's opinion. Have the student give reasons for his opinion.

15. Have the student locate in an article information that is faulty
because the author cited improper authorities.

16. Define and discuss analogies with the student. Have him select
false analogies from a given section.

17. Have the student note improper data used to draw conclusions.

18. Have the student read selections where data has been used and
determine if the author has provided enough data for his conclusions.

19. Ask the student to underline places where the author has con-
tradicted himself.

20. Have the student select a speech and leave out all words which
appeal to the emotions or present vague concepts.

21. Point out to the student places in an article where the author
has introduced another topic.

22. Find three examples of stereotyping. Show the student how these
types are represented by certain trademark characteristics.

23. Have the student read to select points at which the author indis-
criminantly uses mean for mode or median.

24. List several proverbs and their literal interpretation and have
the student match them.

25. Have the student list examples that the author claims are cause
and effect in their relationship. Discuss the correctness of these

26. Discuss reports and rumors. Have the students list the
characteristics and find examples of each.
27. Have the student evaluate a conclusion using the critical reading
skills needed in the particular case.

C. Creative Reading

Creative reading is the most sophisticated of the comprehension
skills. It can not however be separated from receptive and critical
reading. When the reader, using and interpreting the information pro-
vided by the author, relates this material to his personal experiences
and expands the ideas, he is reading creatively!

Creative reading may be broken down into two categories. These
are convergent creative reading and divergent creative reading. Con-
vergent creative reading is the incorporation of the author's and the
reader's ideas to answer the existing problem. Divergent creative
reading is reading to use the author's ideas as a springboard to new

In receptive reading the reader follows the author's reasoning
and tries to get the message. In critical reading he judges the message
of the author; in creative reading he goes beyond the message.

1. In a few words, have the student tell what he has learned about
a character's feelings with regard to the following.

His hopes
His ambitions
His fears

2. Direct the student to read a selection-up to,but not including
the last page. Discuss and write possible conclusions for the story,
then compare them with the author's ending.

3. Have the student underline the most appropriate ending for a
The children made noise
when they played baseball.
when they took a nap.

4. Have the student study a picture and tell how it helps him to
know more about the character or plot.

5. Have the student solve a mystery by gathering the facts, formulating
a theory and drawing a conclusion.

6. Discuss irony with the student. Then have him select and
interpret several appropriate passages.

7. Have the student locate several passages which deal with humor,
tragedy or human understanding.

8. Have the student give a word which describes the mood of the

9. Ask the student to match a descriptive passage with its plain
language counterpart. The descriptions are usually in terms of analogies,
similies or metaphors.

10. Have the student read and discuss sentences in which the
emotional mood is changed by various punctuation.

The dam has broken.
The dam has broken!

11. Have the student locate idioms and then interpret their
Give me a hand Help me!

12. Ask the student to list several words which could be modified
by a given descriptive phrase.

As blue as the sky. (ribbon, eyes, lake)

13. Have the student list the attitudes a character in a story
might express about certain topics.

14. Have the student express through tone and pitch of voice, how
he thinks a character felt.

15. Have the student dramatize an especially moving scene from
a story.

16. Let the student illustrate the facial expression a character
might have at a particular moment in the story.

17. Vary poetry selections by using choral reading.

18. Have the student read and interpret a poem. Then compare it with
other interpretations.

19. Have the student add dialogue to a particularly exciting part
of a story.

20. Read a poem or monologue and have the student select an appropriate
record for background music.

21. Have the student discuss the picture that comes to mind when
each stanza of a poem is read.

22. Assign the student a role in a short story and have him act it out.

23. Have the student note the verb in each line and then discuss the
difference in meaning that takes place as the verb is changed.

"The man is here," announced Robert.
"The man is here," said Robert.
"The man is here," exclaimed Robert.
"The man is here," gulped Robert.

24. Form a picture of the emotional make up of a character. Have the
student note where the author left off and his interpretations began.


25. Discuss certain parts of a story. Ask the student what he
would have done in a similar situation.

26. Have the student make a list of all the phrases in a selection
which have implied meanings.

Don't pull the wool over my eyes.
Implication: Don't try to fool me.

27. Have the student write several riddles describing a person in
a story.

28. Have the student draw a conclusion after reading a statement.

Today is Friday.
We get paid on Friday.
Margaret is (happy, unhappy).

29. After reading a selection, have the student discuss what types of
illustrations would be most suitable.

30. Have the student read an article and write a headline for it.

31. Have the student write an article which could be used in a
current events newspaper.

32. Have the student gather information to make a travel folder.

33. Ask the student to rewrite math problems using his own words.

34. Have the student list the steps he used to solve a problem.

35. Ask the student to read a formula which has been written on the

36. Have the student convert chemistry symbols to words.

37. Have the student formulate a hypothesis for a problem.

38. Have the student list possible events leading to a scientific




The basic study skills include such areas as locating information,
organization, using references, and interpretation of illustrative materials.
If a student is lacking in any of these skills, he is limited in effectively
dealing with the printed page. The teacher's responsibility is first to
ascertain and correct the student's particular difficulties and secondly,
to provide for the expansion of these study skills enabling the student to
become a more proficient reader.

Study skills are particularly important when a student encounters
content areas. In meeting various learning situations, the student is
called upon to use effectively all the receptive and critical reading skills
he has developed. For this reason, many of the receptive and critical read-
ing exercises may be interchanged with those in this section.

A. Locating Information

1. Using the table of contents, have the student find the title of
the story when only the page number is given to him.

2. Ask the student to locate the page number of a specific article.

3. Have student identify the type of materials included in his book.

4. Have the student find from the table of contents various sections
of the newspaper.
1. Editorial 3. Obituaries
2. Entertainment 4. Social News

5. Present the student with a set of encyclopedias. Have him indicate
which volume would contain a given topic.

Volume DEF --- information on Florida

6. Given a set of words with the same first letter, have the student
arrange them in alphabetical order.

abbey aim allow away

7. Have the student look at various groups of words. He then indicates
whether they are in correct alphabetical order by placing yes or no after
each group.

8. Discuss the organization of the card catalog with the class. Have
the students locate specific books, authors and subjects using a real or
mock card catalog.

9. Reproduce a list of references for each student. On a second sheet,
present the student with a question. He then indicates the best reference

to use to find the answer.

Question Reference
1. How do you pronounce aardvark? 1. Dictionary
2. How do you raise Siamese cats? 2. Technical book on animals
3. Name 5 cities on the Volga River. 3. World Atlas

10. To aid the student in using an index, list several topics found in
the index of his book. Have him quickly locate and record the page number.

B. Using General References

1. List the letters of the dictionary included in the first, second,
third, and last fourth of the book. Discuss these divisions with the class.

2. Ask the student to classify each word with respect to its location
in the dictionary (1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th quarter).

aim first quarter time last quarter

3. Duplicate a sample dictionary page and underline the guide words.
Have the student list some words that appear on this page.

4. Present the student with a dictionary and several page numbers.
Have him record the guide words found on the specific pages.

5. Use speed drills in locating words in the dictionary. Keep a
record of the best times.

6. Discuss primary and secondary accent. Provide the student with a
list of words and have him place the primary and secondary accents on them.

7. Have the student compare the pronunciation key in several dic-
tionaries, noting the similarities and differences in the keys.

8. Discuss how the same word may be used as a noun or verb. Have
the student use the dictionary to find examples. Use the words in sen-
1. Elizabeth read the report. (noun)
2. She will report on antique cars. (verb)

9. After discussing the arrangement of the encyclopedia, give the
student a list 6f topics and have him indicate how he would locate the
proper information.

10. Have the student underline the key word he would use when looking
up information about given topics.

wind erosion black locust seedlings

11. Have the student prepare a time line and label important dates
and events. Show how one event may have influenced or caused another one
in history.


12. Have the student collect time tables from various sources. Ask
him to figure out how long it will take a bus or train to make certain

13. Discuss the function and use of a glossary. Give the student a
list of words and have him find their meaning in the glossary.

C. Illustrative Materials

1. Have the student follow the sequence of a story on a map in-
dicating the order of events by numbering the related areas on the

2. Have the student plan a trip, real or imaginary, and make a
diagram of the route to be followed.

3. Have the student locate cities on a map by means of latitude
and longitude.

4. Give the student a list of waterways, mountains, valleys and
deserts to be labeled on a geographical map.

5. Have the student read a selection and make a graph using the
information given.

6. After a student has read a selection, suggest that he make a
sketch of the main character, setting or object of study.

7. Show the student how to locate a radio or television program
by using the log in the newspaper.

8. Have the student read a scoreboard as tallied from team games.

9. Have the student diagram an experiment. Then, step by step,
label the procedure and results obtained.

10. Make a graph of the number of students present in class each
day. Indicate which days had 50% absent, 75% present, 100% present, etc.

D. Organization

1. Tell the student to read an article and answer the questions
which are presented in outline form. The answers produce a sentence
outline which can be used for study.

2. Have the student read a selection and then pose one good
question for each of the main paragraphs.

3. Provide the student with a list of sentences, taken from a
selection. Ask him to indicate from which part of the story each
sentence came.


4. To aid memory, display a group of objects. Then remove them
and have the student name as many as he can.

5. Mount pictures on small cards and ask the student to classify
the objects in various groups or categories.

6. Encourage the student to outline an article or story.

I. Story Title (Main Topic)
A. Section Title (Sub Topic)
1. First Idea (Heading)

7. Request the student to list in order the main events in a story
or article.

8. Instruct the student to arrange in order paragraphs clipped
from a newspaper article. Check results with the original article.
Discuss any differences that occur, and have the student explain his

9. Using information from a selection, instruct the student to place
it in chart or graph form.

10. After reading an article, direct the student to underline the
best method of organizing the materials.

11. After a unit of work, have the student discuss the central theme
of various selections.

12. Instruct the student to skim a selection to find a specific thing.

a date a number a name a place

13. Have the student outline the lectures given in-a specific class
for a period of 1 2 weeks. Discuss how they aid in study and recall.

14. Work out a study procedure in schedule form. Encourage the
student to follow it for four weeks.


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