• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Foreword
 Acknowledgement
 Introduction
 Table of Contents
 Driver education--a responsibility...
 History of driver education in...
 Regulations
 Planning for driver education in...
 Planning for learning experiences...
 Forms-reports-records of interest...
 Additional resources
 Back Cover














Group Title: Its Bulletin 6, 1963
Title: A guide
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00067243/00001
 Material Information
Title: A guide driver education in Florida secondary schools
Series Title: Its Bulletin 6, 1963
Alternate Title: Driver education in Florida secondary schools
Physical Description: v, 108 p. : illus., ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- State Dept. of Education
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee
Publication Date: 1963
 Subjects
Subject: Automobile drivers   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Funding: Bulletin (Florida. State Dept. of Education) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00067243
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01542751
lccn - a 63007818

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Title Page 1
        Title Page 2
    Foreword
        Page i
        Page ii
    Acknowledgement
        Page iii
    Introduction
        Page iv
    Table of Contents
        Page v
        Page vi
    Driver education--a responsibility of schools
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
    History of driver education in Florida
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Regulations
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
    Planning for driver education in the secondary school
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
    Planning for learning experiences in driver education
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
    Forms-reports-records of interest to the teacher
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
    Additional resources
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
Full Text















9aci


DRIVER EDUCATION
IN FLORIDA
SECONDARY SCHOOLS

BULLETIN 6
1963

i STATE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
Tallahassee, Florida
THOMAS D. BAILEY, Superintendent









Foreword


FLORIDA'S CONTINUED development depends directly on
the safe and efficient use of our street and highway transpor-
tation system. Although noteworthy achievements of individuals,
civic groups, officials, and legislators have enabled the Sunshine
State to accrue multiple benefits from more efficient use of motor
vehicle transportation, progress in regard to safety has not been
sufficient for us to use to best advantage the increasing number
of technological accomplishments.
An increasingly dark shadow hovers over vehicular travel in
Florida-a shadow cast by the growing specter of accidents.
Each year, well over one thousand human beings are killed in
traffic accidents within the boundaries of this state. In addition,
the annual casualty toll is rapidly approaching the 100,000 mark,
and the economic loss may be counted in the hundreds of mil-
lions of dollars.
What can be done about this wanton waste of life and prop-
erty? The answer, of course, is complex because the causative
factors are complex. While improvements in the areas of en-
forcement and engineering can help, traffic safety education is
generally accepted as the solid foundation for an effective pro-
gram of conserving human and material resources.
This educational approach should include activities by the
public information media, the courts, enforcement agencies, par-
ent and civic groups, business, industry, and public schools. The
responsibility which should be assumed by the public school
system is an essential segment of the whole. Fulfilling this re-
sponsibility is a job that schools are obligated to do.
We know that safety must permeate every aspect of student
activity if desirable basic attitudes toward safe living are to
become firmly engrained. Since traffic mishaps produce more
deaths among young people than any other menace to human
life, traffic safety should receive strong emphasis throughout
the curriculum.
At the high school level, Florida has every reason to be proud
of the rapid growth and splendid achievement of the driver
education movement. This program stands high among the states
as far as both quantity and quality of instruction are concerned.








The enthusiastic backing of officials, legislators, parents, and
students assures us that well-taught courses have been successful
in encouraging traffic citizens to exhibit desirable driving prac-
tices on streets and highways. Moreover, experience has shown
that the course content provides enrollees with an opportunity
to acquire an understanding of each approach needed for Florida
to reap maximum benefits from the use of motor vehicle trans-
portation.
While these positive values alone represent adequate justifica-
tion for statewide driver education in public high schools, there
are more. The course blends well with other curricular offerings.
The subject matter enables the alert teacher to help achieve
the school's general objectives. The avid interest in youth in
learning everything possible about driving permits the teacher
of driver education to tie in basic learning which are an essen-
tial part of other academic and technical subjects.
Special legislation has established successful completion of an
approved course as a prerequisite to licensing of drivers under
eighteen years of age. In addition, school districts are required
to provide each youth with an opportunity to enroll in a state-
approved course. These facts present to the public schools of
Florida a real challenge. With a high percentage of students
enrolling in the course in driver education and with human lives
at stake, our public school system is challenged to provide su-
perior instruction. Schools are challenged to offer courses which
involve not only training of drivers but also education of the
highest order.
With these thoughts in mind, it is a pleasure to present the
initial guide for teaching driver education in Florida's secondary
schools. Prepared by a selected group of teachers, principals, and
university professors, the guide is designed for use by adminis-
trators, supervisors, teachers, and other individuals interested in
driver education. It is hoped that this publication will prove to
be of value in improving the organization, administration, super-
vision, and actual teaching of driver education throughout the
State.



THOMAS D. BAILEY
State Superintendent of Public Instruction











Acknowledgments


THE BASIC CONTENT of this guide was developed by par-
ticipants in a workshop sponsored by the Florida State Uni-
versity in cooperation with the State Department of Education
and the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety. While all of
the many important contributions made by several agencies
and many individuals are greatly appreciated, special acknowl-
edgment is accorded the members of the workshop group:
Dr. Richard W. Bishop Harold Morgan
(Workshop Director) Columbia High School
Florida Institute for Continuing Lake City
University Studies Tommy Parker
Dorothy Bishop Eustis High School
Monticello High School Donn Peery
Don Clemens Florida State University
Clearlake Junior High School Jack Powell
Cocoa Crestview High School
James DeCosmo Earl Rumph
Florida State University Pierce Junior High School
Harold Green Tampa
Florida State University Larry Walden
John Haygood Pompano Beach High School
Winter Haven High School O. C. Wilson
Lester Kling Winter Park High School
Mainland High School
Daytona Beach
Acknowledgment is also due Zollie Maynard, Assistant Divi-
sion Director, Physical Education, Health, and Recreation; H. E.
Williamson, Acting Assistant Director for Health, Physical Edu-
cation, and Driver Education; and Tom Seals, Consultant,
Health, Physical Education, and Driver Education, whose pro-
fessional interest and concerted efforts have continued the work
of the group and carried it through to publication.
Recognition and appreciation are due Dr. Fred W. Turner,
Acting Director, Division of Instructional Services, for his strong
professional support and encouragement and Dr. Joseph W.
Crenshaw, Curriculum Specialist, for review of the material
and editorial assistance.
Other members of the State Department of Education who
assisted with professional and technical advice, layout, printing,
illustration, and distribution are J. K. Chapman, Howard Jay
Friedman, W. H. Pierce, and R. W. Sinclair.










Introduction


ONE HUNDRED ten million individuals are expected to be
licensed to drive automobiles in the United States by 1970.
As the fastest growing among the medium-to-large states, Flor-
ida will have more than five and one-half million of these drivers,
a figure greater than the population of the State in 1960. In
addition, Florida has an enormous annual tourist population.
In a recent year there were over twelve million visitors, repre-
senting more than a 90% increase over a ten-year period. It is
estimated that 80% of the annual tourist population arrives by
automobile, thereby adding immeasurably to the problem of high-
way safety in Florida.













Photo Courtesy of National Safety Council
Figure 1: Florida is faced with the problem of an overwhelming number of automobiles
on its highways by 1970.
Furthermore, authorities estimate that in 1970 eleven thousand
youths of secondary school age will reach driving age daily-
40,000,000 yearly.' In Florida, where the high school age group
will increase at least 80% between 1960 and 1970 (compared to
a national increase of 43%), 105,000 youths will reach driving
age annually.2 Florida, faced with an overwhelming number of
automobiles on its highways, recognizes the critical need to edu-
cate beginning drivers.
1President's Committee for Traffic Safety, Education (Washington, D.C.: Superin-
tendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1961), p. 7.
2Based on a U.S. Census Bureau survey financed by the National Education Asso-
ciation.










Table of Contents


Foreword ......................................... i
Acknowledgments ...... .. .......... iii
Introduction .................................... iv
Driver Education-A Responsibility of Schools 1
History of Driver Education in Florida ...... 4
R regulations ............................ 7
Planning for Driver Education in the Secondary School 26
Planning for Learning Experiences in Driver Education 62
Forms-Reports-Records of Interest to the Teacher 90
A ppendix .. ... ......................... ...... 104










CHAPTER 1


Driver Education-A Responsibility

of Schools

SINCE THE SOCIAL and economic effects of traffic accidents
in Florida have emerged as a major problem, citizens have
called on the schools for help in developing the behavioral pat-
terns needed to live effectively with the motor vehicle. The
validity of this position is easily understood when it is realized
that the majority of causative factors in traffic accidents involve
the physical, mental, and emotional characteristics of people.
Education is vitally concerned with these personal character-
istics.

Over three million people are licensed to operate motor ve-
hicles in Florida. It has been said that "many of these know how
to drive." While this statement is somewhat facetious, it includes
an element of truth. The high percentage of traffic accidents in-
volving driver inattention, faulty perception and judgment, poor
physical and emotional condition, undesirable attitudes, lack of
knowledge, and other human failings is a grim reminder of the
need for improvement in driver performance. Just to know
how to maneuver a vehicle is not enough. Efficient use of motor
vehicle transportation is of prime importance in our modern
civilization. A lack of proficiency in traffic results in wanton
destruction of human and material resources.

Instruction in Primary and Intermediate Grades
Education for traffic safety should have its foundation in the
elementary school. Up to this period in his life, the child has
been protected to a large extent; but now he does an increasing
number of things without adult guidance. This age group walks
a great deal, pedals bicycles, and rides in automobiles or school
buses. Since these and other traffic-associated activities involve
dangerous risks, schools should institute well-planned traffic edu-








cation programs designed to help children cope with immediate
and future situations. Schools should help young people form a
sound basis for a lifetime of safe and efficient use of facilities
for pedestrian and vehicular traffic. Thus the school shares re-
sponsibility for child safety with parents.

Purposes of High School Driver Education
An essential feature of the secondary school traffic education
program is the availability of a driver education course to stu-
dents at the time they reach the minimum legal driving age.
The immediate and practical purpose of such a course is to
develop a good foundation upon which can be built a lifetime
of successful use of traffic facilities.

Driver Education is an excellent medium for the development
of such character traits as courtesy, consideration of the rights of
others, strengthened self-discipline, and respect for law and
order. These and many other personal characteristics are culti-
vated in courses of high quality. Students usually see the need





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Photo Courtesy of New York Port Authority







for assuming personal and social responsibility in an activity so
vital and practical as driving. In driver education courses, young
people experience a real life situation which provides many op-
portunities to learn the importance of good human relations,
emotional maturity, and responsible citizenship.
In addition to helping young people become safer and more
efficient drivers, the competent driver education teacher strives
to develop informed and responsible citizens with respect to
traffic problems.
Driver education, well taught, not only improves the behavior
of the driver but also strives to develop citizens who understand
and support progress in each area of a comprehensive program
for traffic safety.










CHAPTER 2


History of Driver Education in Florida


U NLIKE SOME OTHER areas of the school curriculum,
driver education is a recent development in the State of
Florida. The early driver education courses were developed on
a voluntary basis by a few schools shortly after World War II.
The steady growth of this program is illustrated below:


Growth of Driver Education in Florida's Public High Schools
During a Nine-Year Period
Number of Schools Students Enrolled
Year Offering Courses in Courses
1953-54 51 4,104
1954-55 51 6,908
1955-56 161 15,088
1956-57 171 18,534
1957-58 216 24,614
1958-59 209 31,146
1959-60 224 36,787
1960-61 230 41,409
1961-62 240 59,307


Legislative Action
As one analyzes the preceding information, attention is di-
rected to the exceptional growth of the driver education program
since 1955-56. This growth can be attributed to the passage of
special legislation for driver education by the Florida Legislature
in 1955. This legislation made it permissive for school districts
to establish courses in driver education and provided $900,000
for the support of the program in the public schools during the
1955-57 biennium. State support was financed through a
twenty-five cent increase in the driver license fee. Under this law
the State Department of Education was given responsibility for
administration of the driver education program, approval of the
course of study, and establishment of certification standards for
driver education teachers. The law provided financial assistance
to the counties for teachers' salaries, based upon the unit value







in the Minimum Foundation Fund; $400 per teaching unit for
current expenses (instructional supplies and equipment); and
up to $300 per teaching unit for car operation.
The positive effect of the 1955 law on driver education is illus-
trated by the fact that Florida moved from a rank of forty-
fourth among the states in 1955 to a rank among the top eight
in 1959-60 in the percentage of secondary schools offering driver
education courses and the number of students enrolled in such
courses.
As high school driver education courses become more numer-
ous throughout Florida, the appropriation of $900,000 under
the law of 1955 was found to be insufficient. This financial prob-
lem was recognized by the 1957 Legislature, and the full revenue
from the license fee increase, voted in 1955, was appropriated
to driver education in the amount of $1,200,000 for the biennium
1957-59. This additional revenue also proved to be inadequate
to support the rapidly growing program. In the 1958-59 school
year, there was money to defray only eighty per cent of the
state-obligated reimbursement to counties. In the 1960-61 school
year, there was enough money to defray only sixty-three per
cent.
Realization of the need for additional support for driver edu-
cation and continued state-wide interest in problems of traffic
safety led to consideration of a new driver education bill by the
1959 Legislature. This bill included a requirement that all per-
sons under eighteen years of age complete an approved course
in driver education before becoming eligible to be licensed as a
driver. It also provided for a substantial increase in the driver
license fee to finance the program. Unfortunately, this proposed
driver education legislation did not receive sufficient support for
passage.
During the 1961 Session, proposed changes in the Driver
Education Law, similar to those introduced in 1959, were sub-
mitted to the Legislature. Sufficient support was obtained and
new legislation was enacted. Details of the 1961 driver education
laws are given later in this publication.

Professional Growth
Passage of the 1955 driver education law enabled the State
Department of Education to create a full-time consultant in







driver education and safety. Another full-time staff member was
added during the summer of 1961.
Driver education is rapidly becoming an integral part of the
secondary school curriculum in Florida public high schools and
expansion of the program is a continuing process. This growth
is due to the combined efforts of many groups. The following
agencies are among those which have made substantial con-
tributions to the program: the Allstate Insurance Company,
the American Automobile Association, the Insurance Institute
for Highway Safety, the State Department of Education, The
State Legislature, the teacher-preparation institutions, the pro-
fessional associations of driver education teachers, and the public
secondary schools.

A Challenge for the Future
One of the most promising approaches to traffic accident reduc-
tion lies in preparing a generation of drivers to assume individual
and social responsibility on the highway. Learning to drive by
the trial-and-error method is a hazardous undertaking. More-
over, when parents or friends teach young people to operate a
motor vehicle, faulty practices are passed from one generation
to another. Teaching a person to drive by the application of hap-
hazard techniques and imparting information with a callous in-
difference as to how the youngsters use these skills often lead
to chaos on the highway. Through high school driver education,
the beginner is given the opportunity to learn how one should
behave behind the wheel-physically, intellectually, socially,
and emotionally. Teaching a person to drive should be far more
involved than simply imparting knowledge and developing skills.
Commonly accepted goals are to develop wholesome attitudes,
accurate perceptions, sound judgment, and strict emotional con-
trol. Through effective teaching of the basic concepts, the pro-
fessionally prepared driver education teacher is challenged to
develop better traffic citizens. Meeting this challenge successfully
conserves human life and contributes to the general education of
youth. The public high school system of Florida is moving rapidly
toward the goal of a complete course in driver education for
every young citizen.









CHAPTER 3


Regulations


T HE 1955 LAW providing financial support for state-wide
driver education in public secondary schools was permissive
in nature. It provided that "beginning with the school year 1955-
56, there may be installed in all secondary schools of the State a
course of study and instruction in the safe and lawful operation
of a motor vehicle." The law also added twenty-five cents per
year to the fee already required for each driver license and ap-
propriated the sum of nine hundred thousand dollars from the
proceeds so collected to help defray the costs of the program.

Applicable Legislation
In 1961, the legislature amended paragraph (k) of sub-section
(4) of section 230.23, Florida Statutes, to read as follows:
230.23 Powers and Duties of County Board. The county
board acting as a board shall exercise all powers and perform
all duties listed below:

(4) Establishment, Organization, and Operation of
Schools. Adopt and provide for the execution of plans for the
establishment, organization, and operation of the schools of
the county, as follows:

(k) Instruction in operation of motor vehicles.
1. Beginning with the school year 1963-64, there shall
be installed in all secondary schools of the State a course of
study and instruction in the safe and lawful operation of a
motor vehicle. Such course of study and employment of in-
structors therefore shall be administered under rules and
regulations of the State Board of Education.
2. For the purpose of financing the driver education
program in the secondary schools, there shall be levied an







additional fifty (50) cents per year to the driver's license
fee required by Section 322.21. The additional fee shall be
promptly remitted to the Department of Public Safety. The
Department of Public Safety shall transmit the additional
fee to the State Treasurer, and such fee shall be deposited
in the general revenue fund.

3. All moneys appropriated biennially for driver educa-
tion shall be expended by the Department of Education
solely for the purpose of financing a program of instruction
in safe driving of motor vehicles in the public schools
throughout the state for young people who have not attained
their twentieth birthday or who are enrolled in a sec-
ondary school or students of the State School for the Deaf
and Blind.
4. All moneys appropriated for driver education shall
be administered under the direction of the State Super-
intendent of Public Instruction and shall be made available
to the respective county boards of public instruction upon
certification to the State Comptroller by the State Superin-
tendent of Public Instruction based upon facts reported to
him by the county superintendents of the respective counties
provided that:

a. Instructional personnel engaged in driver educa-
tion shall be approved and certified in accordance with
standards prescribed by the State Board of Education.

b. All schools offering a course of instruction in driver
education shall require of each enrollee a physical screening
examination in conformity with regulations prescribed by
the State Board of Education.

c. Distribution of the funds to the respective county
boards of public instruction shall be in a uniform manner,
reimbursing them for the expense of their driver education
program to the extent that the appropriation will permit,
based on the principles defined in the minimum foundation
program so that opportunity for driver education shall be on
an equal basis in all the counties as to instruction and equip-
ment, in accordance with the rules and regulations which
shall be promulgated by the State Board of Education in
accord herewith.







5. From the appropriated funds, the State Superintend-
ent of Public Instruction is hereby empowered to provide
funds and authorize expenditures including automobiles pur-
chased through the Department of Public Safety, for the
training of personnel, for identifying and encouraging cor-
rection of health problems which limit ability to operate a
motor vehicle, and for such other purposes as may be
deemed necessary for the adequate and efficient administra-
tion of the aims and objectives of this subsection.
6. The State Superintendent of Public Instruction is
empowered to allow expenditures from the funds appro-
priated for the employment and expenses of such personnel
on the State Department of Education Staff as may be nec-
essary for the conducting of studies and for any and all re-
quirements for carrying out the purpose of this subsection.
7. The State Board of Education is authorized to adopt
rules and regulations pertaining to the driver education pro-
gram in the public school system, provided that such courses
shall not be made a part of or a substitute for any of the
minimum requirements for graduation, and provided that a
sufficient number of driver education courses shall be offered
during out-of-school hours, in the late afternoon or evening,
on Saturday, and during the summer months, so that no
person will find it necessary to take driver education at the
expense of some other essential part of his program of studies
or of his employment. Such restricted license as may be
necessary for such instruction shall be provided by the
Department of Public Safety.
In 1961 the Legislature also passed a law to amend Chapter
322, Florida Statutes, relating to driver's licenses by adding
Section 322.111, providing that no driver's or chauffeur's license
shall be issued to a minor under eighteen (18) years of age with-
out his first having successfully completed an approved driver
education course, providing certain exceptions, and providing an
effective date. The specific law is as follows:
Be it Enacted by the Legislature of the State of Florida:
Section 1. In Chapter 322, Florida Statutes, insert a new Sec-
tion 322.111 to read:
322.111 Driver education for minors. Beginning July 1,
1963, no operator's or chauffeur's license shall be issued to







any person under eighteen (18) years of age unless such
person shall have successfully completed a driver education
course which is given by a school in the public school system
in compliance with Section 230.23 (4) (k), Florida Statutes,
or which is given by some other school or agency and is
approved by the department of public safety as equivalent
to the course given in the public school system, except that
an operator's or chauffeur's license shall be issued to any
person who has a signed statement assuming liability of
the applicant from (1) both parents, if living and having
custody of said applicant; (2) Either parent, if said parent
has exclusive custody of said applicant; (3) The guardian or
person having such custody, if neither parent is living. The
driver 'education course required by this section shall not
exceed thirty-six (36) hours of instruction. The provisions
of this act shall be construed as supplemental to the pro-
visions of sections 322.05, 322.07, 322.12 and 322.16, Florida
Statutes, and shall in no way apply to anyone already pos-
sessing a Florida restricted operator's, operator's or chauf-
feur's license prior to July 1, 1963.
Section 2. This act shall take effect on July 1, 1963.

State Board of Education Regulations
Acting under the authority contained in paragraph 8 of Section
230.23, Florida Statutes, the State Board of Education established
the following regulations to become effective in 1963:
130-6.25 Disbursement of Funds.
Funds provided by Section 230.23 (4) (k), Florida Statutes,
which are budgeted for distribution to the respective coun-
ties will be disbursed to county school boards according to
the following provisions:
(1) Disbursements will be made on the basis of the number
of driver education units earned.
(2) A county will be entitled to one driver education unit
for approved driver education courses in which each of one
hundred twenty-five (125) students is provided a minimum
of thirty (30) hours of classroom instruction and an average
minimum of six (6) hours of actual driving experience ex-
clusive of observation time in the practice driving vehicle.







(a) With written approval in advance from the State Super-
intendent of Public Instruction, a county shall be entitled to
reimbursement for experimental courses designed to lower
per pupil cost and improve the quality of instruction. Such
reimbursement may be made in accordance with the for-
mula as outlined in subsection (5) of this section until ex-
cess costs for such items as construction of off-street driving
ranges and expenditures for approved classroom simulators
are reimbursed; after which the county may be reimbursed
according to a special formula for specific experimental pro-
grams.
(3) Driver education units may be operated jointly by two
or more counties with prior approval of the State Superin-
tendent of Public Instruction.
(4) Fractions of units computed to the nearest one-hun-
dredths will entitle the county to a proportionate amount
of funds assigned to a whole unit.
(5) For each driver education unit earned, the county
school board will receive:
(a) For teacher's salary an amount equal to the unit value
provided in the Minimum Foundation Program for teacher's
salary according to the rank and contractual status of the
instructor, or the salary actually paid the instructor, which-
ever is the lesser.
(b) For current expense of the driver education program,
up to seven hundred dollars ($700) per approved unit will
be allowed. Current expense will include purchase of in-
structional materials and equipment, costs for operation and
maintenance of practice driving cars, insurance coverage,
and replacement of equipment.
(6) Funds allocated to a county shall be remitted at the
close of the first semester, or after June 1 of each year as
soon as final reports from all counties have been received
and approved. Computations will be based on the attendance
data for the school year during which such instruction was
provided.

(7) If the cost of the units within the counties exceeds the
funds available, all unit values other than approved and in-
complete experimental units will be prorated on the basis







of the relationship which the total funds available bears to
the total funds requested.
130-6.26 Minimum Standards for Program Approval.
Personnel must be certified to teach driver education in
accordance with current standards prescribed by the State
Board of Education. Specific requirements pertaining to
minimum course standards will include the following:
(1) Instruction must consist of a minimum of thirty (30)
clock hours of classroom instruction plus an average mini-
mum of six (6) clock hours of actual driving experience
per student exclusive of observation time in the practice
driving vehicle. Student experience on an approved class-
room simulator, at the ratio of four (4) to one (1), may be
used for three (3) hours or more of behind-the-wheel ex-
perience, provided students receive a minimum of three (3)
hours of actual driving as a part of the complete course.
(2) Both phases of instruction must be conducted under the
direct supervision of a properly certified teacher of driver
education.
(3) Each automobile used in the practice driving phase will
be equipped with the following:

(a) A seat belt for each occupant.
(b) Outside mirrors mounted on each side of the car.
(c) An ignition cut-off switch on the "instructor side" of the
control panel in easy reach of the instructor.
(d) When operated on public streets and highways, dual
controls for clutch and brake mechanisms shall be required
of each vehicle.

(4) Each teacher of driver education in the public secondary
schools, for any period of three (3) consecutive years, shall
maintain a driving record in the Department of Public
Safety that is free of a conviction for a violation of traffic
law which results in a suspension or revocation of the driv-
ing privilege, or contains not more than one (1) conviction
for a moving violation of traffic laws as defined in Section
317 of Florida Statutes Annotated. It is the responsibility

































Photo Courtesy of Chrysler Corporation
Figure 3: Seat belts, which have been proved effective as safety devices, are required
equipment in all practice driving cars.

of county superintendents of public instruction to review,
on an annual basis, the record of convictions for violation
of traffic laws accrued by each driver education teacher
within their jurisdiction to determine whether those who
have exceeded the standard described in this paragraph shall
be permitted to continue as a teacher of driver education in
the public secondary schools of his county.

(5) County superintendents of public instruction shall not
consider applicants for a position as a teacher of driver edu-
cation in the public secondary schools of a county unless
they have maintained for a period of three (3) consecutive
years prior to the beginning of the concerned school term
a driving record that conforms with the standards stated in
subsection (4) of this section.








(6) The regular type course or an approved experimental
type course may be conducted when school is not regularly
in session. Such a course shall be conducted over a period of
not less than six (6) weeks. The classroom phase (30 clock
hours) shall be composed of not less than fifteen (15) ses-
sions scheduled over a period of three weeks or more. The
actual driving experience in the practice driving phase shall
be scheduled so that students receive not more than one
(1) hour of behind-the-wheel instruction per day with not
more than one-half hour instruction per session. A minimum
of two (2) hours shall elapse between periods of instruction
for each student.
Such a course entitles the county to reimbursement of
twenty percent of the teacher's salary and current expenses
as provided in Section 130-6.25, subsections (5) (a) and (b),
of these regulations provided twenty (20) percent of the
number of students required for a regular unit complete
the course.
130-6.27. Forms and Records.
Application for driver education units and final reports on
units shall be made on forms provided by the State Depart-
ment of Education. Permanent school records of students
shall show successful completion of an approved course com-
posed of thirty (30) clock hours for the classroom phase and
an average minimum of six (6) clock hours of actual driving
experience or the equivalent time on an approved simulator.

(1) The approval of driver education units by the State
Superintendent of Public Instruction will be based on a
description of the courses to be offered. Application for units
will be made on forms provided for this purpose by the
State Department of Education and must be submitted not
later than September 15 for the fall semester, February 15
for the spring semester, and June 15 for the summer term.
Application for approval of units for the fall, spring, and
following summer terms may be submitted before September
15. Application for approval of units for the spring and fol-
lowing summer terms may be submitted before February 15.
(2) Final reports on units must include separate forms, pro-
vided by the State Department of Education for fall, spring,








and summer term courses. As a prerequisite to reimburse-
ment, such final reports may be submitted:
(a) At the close of the fall term for the fall semester and
the previous summer term.
(b) At the close of the fall term for the fall term only.
(c) At the close of the spring term for the previous sum-
mer, fall, and spring terms.
(d) At the close of the spring term for any combination of
the three previous consecutive terms.
(3) Upon completion of an approved driver education
course, each student shall be issued a special certificate pro-
vided to counties by the State Department of Education.
This certificate, in order to be acceptable for licensing and
insurance purposes, will be signed in the proper manner by
the student and a certified teacher of driver education in the
school where the course was provided or the principal of
the school in which the course was provided.
(4) Each school offering an approved driver education
course shall file with the county superintendent immediately
upon completion, a list of all students who have successfully
completed the course. This information list shall show each
student's name as it appears on a birth certificate, his present
mailing address, and the date of his birth and shall be re-
tained in the superintendent's office for at least two years.
Within fifteen days after the completion of the course, the
school shall forward a duplicate of the information filed with
the county superintendent to: License Examiner, Local
Troop Headquarters, Florida Highway Patrol.

















DRIVER EDUCATION FORM I-APPLICATION FOR UNITS
This is an application for units which must be submitted on or
before September 15 of each school year. When completed it
should provide the following information.
1. The periods of the year during which the program will be
taught-fall, spring, summer.
2. The full name of each driver education instructor as it
appears on his teaching certificate.
3. The rank of leach instructor as certified to the State De-
partment of Education.
4. The certificate number of each instructor.
5. The name of each school in which the instructor is to
teach.
6. A description of the program to be offered.
7. Each dealer that provides a car or cars for the program.
(This information is used to give recognition to those
dealers who provide cars on a loan basis.)
8. An estimate of the number of students to be enrolled
during the year.
One approved copy of this form will be returned to the county
superintendent as soon as all items have been checked for con-
formity with regulations.









Driver Education
Form I Revised-1963

APPLICATION FOR
DRIVER EDUCATION UNITS
File in duplicate with State Department of Education (Attention:
Consultant, Driver Education and Safety) by September 15.
A. Semester(s) for which application is submitted: Fall........ Spring........
Summer........
B. Instructional Personnel


Name

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.


Rank Cert. No.


C. Type of Program Planned
1.........Classroom instruction and actual driving experience. (Minimum
30 hours classroom plus an average minimum of 6 hours per
student of actual driving experience exclusive of observation
time in the practice driving car.)
2.........Approved experimental program. Explain......................................




D. Name and location of dealers) furnishing carss. Use back of sheet
if necessary.





E. Estimated number of students to be enrolled in Fall........ Spring........
Summer........

Signed ................................. ..............
County Superintendent
Date.............................................. Name of County........................ ...........


School
























DRIVER EDUCATION FORM II-
APPLICATION FOR REIMBURSEMENT
This form is to be submitted within fifteen days after the
close of the fall semester for summer and fall programs or by
June 15 for summer, fall, and spring terms.
All expenditures for driver education should be listed in the
proper column opposite the proper budget item. It is important
to list the number of cars used in the program.
Teacher's salaries should show the total annual salary paid by
the county, including all supplements.













Driver Education
Form II Revised-1963


APPLICATION FOR
REIMBURSEMENT FOR DRIVER EDUCATION UNITS


Figures above double Current Expenses
line to beup to Salaries
line to be filled in by Account $700 o .......units ........... Units Total
State Department of Numbers ...........
Education .............. ..... ..........-

1. Instructors' SalarieE 2213 .................
2. Classroom Supplies 2250 ..................
3. Other Instructional ......................
Expenses 2260
4. Maintenance 2420 .....................
5. Insurance 2610 .............
6. New Equipment 2844 ...................
7. Replacement of ......................
Equipment 2430

*Total


Number of dual control cars used in program..................

The above expenses were incurred in con-
nection with the driver education program
and were used for no other purposes.

Date..................... .............. County... ...................... ........


Signature of County Superintendent

*Total expenditures of driver education program must agree with appropriate classi-
fication of accounts reported in Section I of Annual Financial Report.

Submit in duplicate to
Consultant for Driver Education
State Department of Education
Tallahassee, Florida






















DRIVER EDUCATION FORM III-
TEACHER LOAD AND CERTIFICATION
1. This form is completed on each driver education teacher
and forwarded along with the request for reimbursement.
2. The number of students completing the course under the
teacher whose name appears at the top of the form should be
entered in the blank opposite the description of the type of
course which was offered. It may be that two or more types of
courses were offered by the same teacher. In this case, numbers
should appear opposite all courses in which students were en-
rolled.
3. The actual salary paid the teacher including supplements
should be entered in the space provided for listing salary.





















Driver Education
Form III Revised-1963

DRIVER EDUCATION
TEACHER LOAD AND CERTIFICATION

Teacher's Nam e.............................................. Certificate No............................
Rank.................. Salary.......................... Contractual Status............ .........
No. of Students
Completing Course
A. Course including 30 class hours and an aver-
age minimum of 6 hours per student of
actual driving experience exclusive of obser-
vation time in the practice driving car. (Min-
imum unit requirement 125 students.)
B.... .......... Experimental Course. Explain .......................




The above figures are based on actual number of students completing
the courses described.
Date...... ......................... Principal...............-...-..-....----

School ................ .......
County
Date................... ........... Superintendent .. ........................

County...............................
Submit in Duplicate to
Consultant for Driver Education
State Department of Education
Tallahassee, Florida
























DRIVER EDUCATION FORM IV


This form is used only when reimbursement is claimed for
travel expenses, per diem allowances, and registration fees which
have been approved in advance by the State Superintendent of
Public Instruction. Use will occur most frequently in connection
with conferences and workshops sponsored by the State Depart-
ment of Education.
This form, where expenditures have been previously author-
ized, should be submitted along with requests for semester or
annual reimbursement.















Driver Education
Form IV

APPLICATION FOR REIMBURSEMENT FOR EXPENSES
OF TEACHERS ATTENDING CONFERENCES AND
TRAINING COURSES APPROVED BY STATE
DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION

Name oj
Teacher Transpor- Regis- Per Diem Activity Total
Prince, station traction ($11.00 max.) and ot
Su isor Mode Amount Fee Days Amt. Location Expenses
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

Total


The above represents the total amount actually disbursed to teachers for
the above listed activities.

C county .......... ........ ..........................

Signature of County Superintendent
Submit in duplicate to
Consultant for Driver Education
State Department of Education
Tallahassee, Florida








BOARD OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION-
DEALER AGREEMENT FORM

Schools are urged to use this form when dealers lend cars for
the teaching of driver education. If there are items objectionable
to either party, substitution of wording may be made or certain
items may be deleted.

When automobiles are contracted for, four completed copies
of the form should be forwarded to the Consultant in Driver
Education and Safety, State Department of Education. When
they have been checked and approved, one copy will be returned
to the county superintendent and two copies will be sent to the
dealer. Chevrolet dealers will then forward one copy along with
their request for reimbursement to the Chevrolet Regional Office
in Jacksonville.









Driver Education
Form V

BOARD OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION-DEALER AGREEMENT
FOR USE OF DUAL CONTROL DRIVER EDUCATION CAR

This agreement entered into this day of
19_ at of
City County
between
State Agency furnishing automobile

Address City
hereinafter referred to as

and the hereinafter
County Board of Public Instruction
referred to as "The Board of Public Instruction."

The Dealer Agrees
To furnish without charge, upon 30 day's written notice,
Number

(Body Style) (Make)









The Board of Public Instruction Agrees
1. To use said automobiles) in
Name of School
for conducting a driver education course which meets the requirements
of the Florida State Department of Education. The Board of Public
Instruction may divide the time of said automobiles) so that (it)
(they) may be used by other schools within the school system.
2. That the program for which (this) (these) automobiles) (is) (are)
to be used and the instructors therefore are approved and/or certified by
the Florida State Department of Education. Should such approval or
certification be withdrawn at any time, it is understood that this agree-
ment expires therewith.
3. To provide minimum insurance coverage of $25,000-$50,000 public
liability, $5,000 property damage, and $50 deductible collision. (Limits
of liability should satisfy owner.)
4. To equip said automobiles) with basic dual controls, seat belts for
each occupant, a rear-view mirror on each side, and an engine cut-off
switch convenient to the instructor.
5. To return (this) (these) automobiles) to
in the same condition as received except for normal wear.
6. To restrict the use of said automobiles) to the purpose for which
(it is) (they are) furnished; to ensure that the automobiles) will not
be operated except under the personal supervision of the approved certi-
fied instructor.
7. To allow a dealer courtesy line in letters not to exceed 11/2 inches.
8. To pay for all repair and maintenance, allowing dealer to stipulate
where repairs are to be made.

The Florida State Department of Education Agrees
1. To certify qualified teachers of driver education.
2. To provide consultant service along with curriculum materials for
instructional use.
This agreement shall become valid when signed by persons authorized
to act for the agencies involved.
For the School Title
For the Local Dealer Title
For the State Department of Education
Title
Tfato









CHAPTER 4


Planning for Driver Education in the

Secondary School

DRIVER EDUCATION consists of two phases: The classroom
phase and the practice driving phase.
In the classroom phase learning experiences emphasize per-
sonal and social problems related to the safe and efficient move-
ment of traffic. One major aim is to emphasize the desirable role
of the pedestrian and driver in traffic, and another is to develop
the knowledge and attitudes needed for safe use of traffic facil-
ities.
The purpose of the practice driving phase is to develop,
through the use of realistic situations, the knowledge, attitudes,
and skills necessary for safe and efficient operation of motor
vehicles. The practice driving phase embraces (a) actual experi-
ence of driving the motor vehicle and (b) observation time in
the car. When approved by the State Department of Education,
experience on driving simulators may also be considered as a
part of practice driving instruction.
Since objectives of driver education are the same in the class-
room as in practice driving, it is essential that the two phases of
instruction be carefully articulated.
Driver education should be offered as a regular part of the
high school curriculum, preferably for a full semester. To meet
the demand for driver education courses and to overcome ob-
stacles presented by scheduling difficulties, it may be necessary
to plan programs that operate on an extended day basis and/or
during the summer months.

Time Allotment
The classroom phase of the driver education program should
consist of at least thirty class periods of sixty minutes each or








the equivalent. The practice driving phase of the program should
provide at least an average minimum of six hours of actual driv-
ing experience per student plus observation time. It is recom-
mended that the practice driving experiences be scheduled con-
currently with the classroom phase of the program, although
other plans may be approved by the State Department of Edu-
cation.

Types of Courses for High School Students
The prevalent type of driver education program operating in
Florida is the two phase plan, consisting of both classroom and
practice driving experience. Several variations of this plan have
been developed throughout the State and are presented here as
a guide for local planning.

Dual Control Car Plan
The dual control car plan is the most commonly used. It con-
sists of a minimum of thirty hours in the classroom plus practice
driving in a motor vehicle equipped with dual controls. In the
practice driving phase there is a ratio of one instructor to one
student behind the wheel. The instructor works with students
divided into groups of two, three, or four in the car, and each
student alternates between observation and actual driving ex-
perience. Practice driving is usually conducted on streets and
highways in the vicinity of the school, utilizing the normal traffic
situations of the area for learning experience. It is recommended
that the same instructor teach both the classroom and practice
driving phases of the program.

Multiple Car Plan
The multiple car plan consists of the usual classroom phase
with the practice driving phase carried out on an off-street driv-
ing range. The special feature of this plan is that two or more
cars operate on a range under the supervision of one or more
instructors. This plan allows several students to practice simul-
taneously. It is recommended that the driving range experiences
be supplemented with actual driving in traffic under the super-
vision of a certified teacher in a car equipped with dual controls.
At the present time valid research results as to the optimum
number of cars to be used or the number of hours on the range
to be required in lieu of on-the-street driving are not available.

































Figure 4: The dual control car plan is most commonly used.


Figure 5: Two or more cars operate on an off-street driving range under the super-
vision of one or more instructors.









Therefore, this plan may still be labeled as experimental in
nature. Research studies, however, have indicated that this
method of instruction does hold promise for increasing the pupil-
teacher ratio and reducing the per-pupil cost in driver education
programs.

To illustrate the multiple car plan, the program operating in
Escambia County is described as follows:

The multiple car plan of driver education operated in Escambia
County consists of classroom instruction and practice driving on
the range.
The students are scheduled in classes for one semester as in any
other course in the curriculum. Thirty to forty students are assigned
to two instructors per period, five periods a day, five days a week.
The program is an elective for all students.
The classroom phase of the program is taught by one of the
instructors in a regular classroom.
The practice driving phase of the program is carried on by another
instructor on an off-street driving range located at the school site.
This instructor directs four cars to which eight to twelve students
are assigned per period, five days per week. Under this plan each
student may receive up to nine hours driving time per semester.
The range at Escambia High School is constructed on an area of
the athletic stadium parking lot measuring 400' by 200'.
The instructors sometimes alternate between classroom instruction
and supervision on the range.1

Dade County Plan
In Dade County, Florida, a plan is operating which utilizes
educational television as a modification of the typical classroom
phase of the program. This plan also contains a unique feature
in that driver education cars are provided for the range under a
county fleet agreement. A general description of this plan is as
follows:

The program conducted in Dade County consists of classroom
instruction and practice driving.
In the classroom phase approximately twelve hours of the instruc-
tion are presented by educational television to large classes. These
television lessons are presented during homeroom periods three
days per week for eighteen weeks. The remaining hours of class-
room instruction are conducted in a normal class situation with
each student being scheduled for one class per week.
The practice driving is conducted on off-street driving ranges
using fleets of cars. A fleet of cars may consist of six to twelve
cars depending upon the size of the school served. The fleet will
remain at a school from twelve to eighteen weeks, depending upon
the driver education enrollment. In this way a fleet of cars may
'The description of the Escambia County. Florida, multiple-car plan prepared by
Ernie Priest, Supervisor of Driver Education in Escambia County.
































Photo Courtesy oI New YorK university

Figure 6: Utilizing educational television is an interesting and effective mod-
ification of the classroom phase of the driver education program.

serve two or more schools during the school year. The driving ranges
are marked off on the parking lots of each school served.
Instructors for the practice driving phase are assigned to a fleet of
cars and move with the fleet during the year.
One instructor is assigned for each six cars. The fleets of cars and
the instructors are assigned to the various schools by the Coordi-
nator of Driver Education. However, the fleet instructors operate
as a part of the regular faculty of the school to which they are
assigned and under the control of the school principal.
Using these methods of instruction, three fleet instructors and one
classroom instructor using twelve cars for eighteen weeks can
instruct approximately 1100 students per semester, providing the
30 hours of class time plus six hours practice driving.2

Simulator Plan

The simulator program consists of classroom instruction, modi-
fied practice driving experiences using simulators, and practice
driving experience in a dual controlled car. This plan utilizes
state approved simulators to provide laboratory experience simi-
lar to actual driving experiences. This laboratory equipment can
2Description of the Dade County Program prepared by William Barber, Dade County
Coordinator of Driver Education.




























Figure 7: Simulators provide laboratory experience similar to actual driving experience.

be placed either in a classroom or can be acquired in a mobile
unit which can be moved from school to school.

Bernoff in a study using one of the popular simulators found
that students with such experience were as adequately, or pos-
sibly better, prepared than students with experience using the
dual control car plan. He also found that this type of course
offered the instructional staff the opportunity to prepare approxi-
mately thirty per cent more students per school year at a much
lower per pupil cost. As a result of this experimental program
in Los Angeles and several similar investigations, it is recognized
that time on an approved simulator can be equitably substituted
for on-the-street driving at a ratio of 4:1. The time on the ap-
proved simulator in excess of 12 hours may be considered as
classroom instruction.

The simulator plan is illustrated by the driver education pro-
gram operated by St. Petersburg High School, St. Petersburg,
Florida. A general description of this program follows:

This plan consists of classroom instruction, modified practice
driving through use of Drivotrainers, and practice driving in a dual
control car on city streets and highways.
sBernoff, Louis I. An Experimental Study of Teaching Eficiency of the Aetna Drivo-
trainer. (Hartford, Conn.: Aetna Casualty and Surety Company, 1958), p. 9.









Students are scheduled one period per day, five days a week for
one semester. One-half credit is given for successful completion of
this course.
Each student receives the following instruction:
1. 30 clock hours of classroom instruction.
2. 12 clock hours of instruction in the Aetna Drivotrainer.
3. 3 clock hours of behind-the-wheel practice driving in a dual
control car.
4. 9 clock hours of observation in a dual control car.
The classroom instruction in this program is typical of the recom-
mended course in driver education.
Modified practice driving in the Drivotrainer is substituted for
actual behind-the-wheel practice on a 4:1 ratio. The Drivotrainer
is a teaching device made up of the following parts: A number of
small Drivotrainer units which are equipped with all the controls
found on a standard automobile; a master control and recording
cabinet connected to each of the Drivotrainers; and a complete
course of study using 16mm films which have been especially pro-
duced for use with the Drivotrainer. This device permits a student
to practice skills under controlled conditions while actually manip-
ulating controls of an automobile simulator. Through the use of
films, it is possible to teach judgment in the use of the automobile
since many actual traffic situations can be set up for the students
to experience that would not be practical or possible to set up
using the dual control car. The master control mechanism records
each student's driving errors as he 'drives' through that particular
situation. This provides a permanent record of all student responses
to any given motor skills required in meeting the thousands of
situations which he faces in the driving exercises appearing on
the screen.
These simulators are excellent devices to teach basic skills to
beginning drivers. The Drivotrainers also afford the opportunity
to teach all students, regardless of driving experience, the proper
attitudes and habits necessary for safe operation of motor vehicles.
The lessons on defensive driving are extremely valuable to condition
responses in emergency situations.
Students are scheduled one day each week for 12 weeks in the Drivo-
trainer and the next four days are spent in the dual control car
with a different group each day practicing that particular lesson.
Using this method, one instructor may teach 16 students per period
rather than 12 as occurs in the conventional or dual control plan.
The St. Petersburg High School installation consists of eight Drivo-
trainer units. The number of units necessary for operating this
program will vary according to enrollment. The most common
installations consist of 12 Drivotrainer units, 3 dual control cars,
and 4 instructors. A lower per pupil cost and a greater increase in
pupil teacher ratio will result with an increase in the number of
Drivotrainers and dual control cars.'

Driver Education for Adults
Florida continues to experience a phenomenal population in-
crease. This increase, along with legislative developments, has
4Description of the St. Petersburg High School Plan prepared by Leonard Balas,
Driver Education Instructor, St. Petersburg High School, St. Petersburg, Florida.








produced a demand for high quality driver education courses
for adults.

In some communities, this demand has resulted in county pub-
lic schools offering driver education through adult education
programs. Many of these courses provide thirty hours of class-
room instruction along with six hours of driving experience.

A driver education instructor may not teach adult students
without obtaining a commercial license, unless the adult students
are assigned to him as a part of an adult program sponsored by
a county public school.

Physical Facilities
In some high schools, physical facilities for driver education
have been neglected. Although physical facilities do not of them-
selves produce a good program, the effectiveness and morale of
teachers and students are reduced in a poor atmosphere with
makeshift facilities and equipment.

Since legislation requires public high schools to provide each
youth with an opportunity to enroll in an approved course, every-
thing possible should be done to provide adequate facilities for
the driver education program. In planning for new school plants,
consideration should be given to the special needs of driver
education.

Classroom
As in any area of the curriculum, driver education requires
certain specialized physical facilities. The types of activities that
may take place in a driver education classroom are presented
here as a guide for local school planning.

Student activities require space for:
1. Large group discussion
2. Small group work
3. Work on individual research projects
4. Reading-texts, supplementary literature
5. Demonstrations
6. Displaying models and mock-ups








7. Using psychophysical testing devices
8. Viewing audio-visual materials

Teacher activities require space for:
1. Conferences-individual and group
2. Evaluating-individual and group
3. Record keeping
4. Storage-models, mock-ups, charts, collections, audio-
visual materials and equipment, practice driving equip-
ment, etc.
5. Preparing instructional materials
Special attention should be given to the following features in
planning driver education classrooms:
1. Office space. Certain driver education plans utilize two or
more instructors assigned to the same classroom. They
should be provided with a private place to plan and work.
2. Table top storage space.
3. Black-out curtains, permanent projection screen, and
adequate electrical outlets.
4. A combination storage and work room.
5. Library area to display books, pamphlets, etc.
6. Location of the classroom to facilitate movement of
students to and from the practice driving facilities.

Practice Driving
The nature of the practice driving phase of the driver education
program demands special attention in order to provide special
physical facilities which are suited to the safe operation of a motor
vehicle. The type of facilities needed will be determined by the
plan selected for practice driving instruction. Special physical
facilities are presented here for each major plan as a guide to
planning for more effective practice driving.
Since the dual control car plan utilizes the normal traffic
situations found in the vicinity of the school, few special facil-
ities need to be provided. However, the multiple car plan re-
quires:







1. An off-street driving range measuring approximately 200
feet by 400 feet. The exact size is determined by the number of
cars used and type of maneuver areas desired.

2. Maneuver areas of this "driving range" should include, if
possible, straight-away (with a two-way traffic pattern); a curve;
a right and left turn; an intersection; a space for parallel parking;
a diagonal parking area; space to turn around; a figure eight;
a "dead end" with "T" intersection; and a hill situation.

The driving range can be laid out on existing parking areas
and reserved at special times for driver education. When plan-
ning new school sites, consideration should be given to providing
space for a driving range.

Licensing Procedures
The Department of Public Safety has a vital interest in and
supports wholeheartedly the driver education program in Flor-
ida. This interest and support stems from the fact that both
groups have similar goals related to traffic safety and driver im-
provement.

The rapport between the driver education instructor and every
local Department of Public Safety official is important to the suc-
cess of the driver education program. Maintaining a proper rela-
tionship demands conscious effort. Where problems do arise, they
are often related to driving techniques demonstrated by students
during driving tests. When such problems arise, the instructor
should arrange for a conference with the driver licensing super-
visor and examiner. The instructor is the teacher and the exam-
iner is the official tester. In the minds of students the instructor
should make clear to students the difference in the function of
the teacher and the examiner.

The Department of Public Safety serves the driver education
program in many ways. It serves as a resource agency by sup-
plying:

1. Free literature related to traffic laws and accident infor-
mation.
2. Resource consultants for classroom use. These include
local highway patrolmen, safety officers, driver licensing
supervisors, and the licensing examiners.








In addition, the Department assists the instructor in securing
restricted licenses for non-licensed drivers enrolled in driver
education classes.
All students enrolled in driver education classes must have
either an operator or restricted driver license when behind-
the-wheel experience is provided on public streets and highways.
To assist the student in securing a restricted driver license,
the driver licensing examiner may administer the required writ-
ten examination at the local school during regular class periods.
The following procedures have been suggested by the Depart-
ment of Public Safety to assist the examiner in the administra-
tion of the written examination:
1. A county-wide schedule for the examiner should be ar-
ranged with the local driver licensing supervisor before
school opens in the fall.
2. The Department of Public Safety will furnish the instruc-
tor with the necessary forms prior to the scheduled exami-
nation. The instructor can assist by seeing that the forms
are completed correctly before the examination date. At
the request of the examiner, the driver education teacher
may assist in other ways.
3. The student must be prepared to pay, in cash, the proper
fee at the time of the examination.
Road tests for operator's licenses will not be given at the
school. Under the present driver licensing regulations, the appli-
cant must pay a one dollar fee per examination. This means
that one dollar must be paid by the student to obtain a restricted
license, and another dollar must be paid for the road test.

Public Relations
The public relations aspect of the driver education program
should be of continuous concern because the program is con-
stantly in the public eye. Unfavorable reactions to driver educa-
tion can be quickly translated into a reduction of financial sup-
port and/or curtailment of the program. While other areas may be
subject to scrutiny, driver education is a relatively new member
of the school family and is, therefore, more suspectible to criti-
cism. Thus, every effort should be made to give special attention
to the public relations aspect of driver education.







Public backing can be achieved in a number of ways. The basis
of any effort to secure understanding and support should be a
sound, well-rounded course which is taught in a competent man-
ner and is administered wisely. Such a program requires a mini-
mum of effort in regard to maintenance of good public relations.
No amount of effort to obtain sound backing will overcome a
poorly taught course.

Another way of approaching public relations is to recognize
the importance of opinions expressed by parents and students.
Public relations begin in the classroom. Once students are con-
vinced as to the worth of driver education and the competence
of the instructor, the battle is half won. Students tend to keep
parents informed about well-taught courses.

Once good home-school rapport has been established, atten-
tion may be turned to other influential elements within the
community. Since civic clubs are usually interested in school
activities, the driver education teacher should avail himself of
every opportunity to appear on their programs. In addition, many
teachers have found it wise to have two or three students appear
before groups to discuss various aspects of driver education and
traffic safety.

Local law enforcement authorities, naturally, have a direct
interest in the driver education program. These persons should
be encouraged to visit driver education classes. This practice
provides strong backing for the course and enables students to
become aware that law enforcement officers are more con-
cerned with prevention than with punishment.

The news media are very receptive to school news. Certainly
the delivery of the new driver education car each year should
be the subject of a news release, with due credit to dealers who
supply cars on a free loan basis. The visit of a state highway
patrolman, a traffic survey by driver education students, a visit
to traffic court, the appearance before a civic club of a panel of
students are all examples of newsworthy subjects. Many local
radio and television stations are most cooperative and in many
communities schedule regular programs for the dissemination
of school news. At the same time, the school personnel assigned
to provide copy for news releases are often desperate for mate-
rial. If the driver education teacher will seek out the responsible








individuals with ideas for interesting programs concerning his
field, he will usually be enthusiastically received.
The driver education teacher should strive to create and
maintain a favorable attitude among other members of the fac-
ulty toward his program. He should recognize that the relatively
small number of students for which he is responsible during the
driving phase of the course may cause him to be the object of
false envy by some members of the faculty.
The driver education teacher should seize every suitable occa-
sion to discuss and explain the program to members of the school
staff. A series of brief presentations concerning the program at
faculty meetings would be most appropriate.

In areas where the driver education car is provided on a loan
basis, special care should be given to the maintenance of good
relations with the lending dealer or dealers. In addition to the
publicity suggested previously, other practices offer promise in
encouraging continuation of the car lending program. In the first
place, the dealer should never be asked for permission to use the
car for any purpose other than driver education. Any mishap
to the car should be reported at once to the dealer. His decision
as to the extent of repairs should not be questioned. If a visit to
a garage or automobile dealership is part of the driver education
program, the lending dealer should be given the first opportunity
to serve as host to the class.

The driver education teacher will often be asked for an opinion
on the quality of the practice driving car. In all cases he should
refrain from disparaging remarks. On the other hand, he should
not go overboard in endorsing a particular make of vehicle; nor
should he permit the course to be exploited for any commercial
purpose.

The driver education teacher should continuously remind him-
self that, whether in the practice driving car or in his personal
car, he is known throughout the community. Therefore, he
should at all times exemplify the type of driver which he is
trying to develop. A good example is expected; a poor example
will bring discredit to the program and should not be tolerated.
No matter what other attributes he possesses, a driver education
teacher who does not practice what he teaches cannot achieve
the objectives of the program.








Program Evaluation
Evaluation of any school program is the process of making
judgments that are to be used as a basis for improvement. It is
the process of collecting evidence related to the attainment or
lack of attainment of established goals, making judgments from
the evidence, and revising the program in the light of these
judgments. This is a procedure for improving the end product,
the procedures, the facilities, or the goals themselves.'

Driver education should be subject to evaluation procedures
that are applicable to other subjects in the school curriculum.
Evaluation should examine the administrative and organizational
policies, the instructional procedures, the instructional staff, the
facilities, the educational materials and equipment, and the
achievement of the students. There should be a continuous fol-
low-up of the evaluation study to check effectiveness of the
driver education course.

Evaluation of driver education should be a cooperative enter-
prise involving the county and local school administrators, driver
education teachers, other teachers, students, and members of the
professional organization. When local policies permit, parents
and community groups should be added to this list of cooperating
groups.

As a guide for conducting an evaluation of the driver educa-
tion course, attention is called to Section D-6 of the Evaluative
Criteria, 1960 Edition." This is perhaps the most recent and com-
prehensive guide available for evaluating the driver education
program, and it is recommended for use. In using any guide of
this nature, care must be taken to adapt the items listed to the
local school's philosophy and characteristics.

To provide the local school with a guide, adapted to Florida's
standards, the following evaluative check list is suggested for use
by instructors, supervisors, or principals.
GDepartment of Public Instruction. A Guide to Driver Education and Highway Safety,
Bul. No. 395 Rev. (Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.)
"Evaluative Criteria. Washington, D. C., National Study of Secondary School Evalua-
tion. 1960 Ed.









SUGGESTED CHECK LIST
ORGANIZATION:
Yes No
1. Driver education is offered as a regular course
not substituting for state or local minimum
requirements for graduation.
2. Provision is made for both classroom and
practice driving instruction.
3. Instruction is offered to the students near the
time they reach the legal driving age.
4. The course is so organized that all eligible
students can enroll and receive the entire
program of instruction.
5. Scholastic credit is given for the driver edu-
cation course.
6. The course provides a minimum of thirty
hours of classroom instruction.

7. The course provides a minimum of six hours
of actual driving experience per student plus
observation in the car.
8. Sufficient cars are provided to give practice
driving instruction to all eligible students.
9. The classroom and practice driving instruc-
tion are carefully correlated.

10. Cars are used for practice driving instruction
only.
11. Necessary forms for reporting accidents and
keeping vehicular records are maintained in
the car at all times.

12. Permanent records of students, maintained in
the school office, include information pertain-
ing to driver education.

13. Records and reports are kept to protect pupils
and school personnel in case of liability.








14. There is a planned program of public rela-
tions.

FACILITIES AND EQUIPMENT
Yes No
1. When cars are not owned by the county, a
satisfactory written agreement has been
reached with the lending agency.
2. Cars used for practice driving instruction
are appropriately equipped.
3. Cars used for driver education are adequately
insured.
4. Cars used for practice driving instruction are
properly identified.
5. Cars used for practice driving instruction are
properly maintained to insure their safe
operation.
6. A special room with adequate equipment is
provided for driver education.
7. Necessary types of audio-visual equipment
and facilities are available to the program.
8. Storage space is sufficient to protect equip-
ment, models, and other instructional mate-
rials.
9. Display space and bulletin board space are
available for materials.
S10. Stanchions, road signs, and other necessary
equipment are provided for practice driving
instruction.
DIRECTION OF INSTRUCTION
A. Instructional Staff
Yes No
1. Instructor is fully certified by the State De-
partment of Education.
2. Instructor has a valid Florida driver license.








3. Instructor has a satisfactory driving record,
free from repeated accidents and traffic vio-
lations.

B. Instructional Activities

Yes No
1. There is evidence of careful planning and
preparation for instruction.
2. A variety of teaching techniques is used; such
as, discussion, demonstration, projects, etc.
3. A variety of audio-visual materials is used,
selected carefully according to course objec-
tives.
4. Instructional activities utilize surveys and
studies to community problems and condi-
tions related to safety and driver education.
5. Local consultants participate as resource per-
sons to strengthen the instructional activities.

6. Students are given opportunity to assume as
much responsibility as they can handle in
traffic situations.

7. There is evidence that students have the
opportunity to develop their perceptual ability
in diagnosing traffic situations.

C. Instructional Materials

Yes No
1. Up-to-date textbooks and basic reference ma-
terials are available.

2. Supplemental teaching materials are pro-
vided.

3. Filmstrips, motion pictures, and other audio-
visual materials are provided.

4. Models and mock-ups are used.

5. Standardized tests are used.







METHODS OF EVALUATION
Yes No
1. Evaluation is an integral part of instruction.
2. A variety of evaluative techniques is used;
such as, written, driving skill, and attitude
tests; observations of student behavior; anec-
dotal records; student appraisals.
3. Outcome of evaluations are used to revise
the program and to plan learning situations.
4. The school evaluates its driver education pro-
gram in terms of graduates, parents, traffic
safety officials, and motor vehicle records.


The Student
Grade Level and Selection
The motor vehicle code in Florida permits issuance of a re-
stricted driver license when a youth is 14 years old. As students
reach this age, motivation to learn about driving is often at its
peak. Therefore, whenever circumstances permit, driver educa-
tion should be made available to students as they reach the
minimum legal driving age. Fourteen-year-olds, for the most
part, are at the ninth grade level.
Existing statutes require that beginning with the school year
1963-64 a course in driver education be offered in every public
secondary school in Florida. This is interpreted to mean that
every eligible student shall have the opportunity to enroll in
a state-approved course. Successful completion of a driver educa-
tion course may be required by a county school, but driver edu-
cation is not a compulsory course in Florida. In addition, begin-
ning July 1, 1963, no operator's license will be issued to any
person under eighteen (18) years of age unless such person has
successfully completed the state-approved driver education
course. However, such a person may obtain an operator's license
at 16 years of age if a parent or guardian has signed a statement
assuming full responsibility for the student not having taken the
course.
As the program in Florida continues to grow, it is foreseeable
that some schools may not be able to provide all eligible students







with the course during a given school year. This means that some
type of selection process may become necessary. Potential ex-
posure, vocational plans, grade level, and maturity are some
items often considered in a selection process.
In establishing a selection procedure, consideration should be
given to licensed drivers as well as to beginners because driver
education courses in high schools will help experienced, as well
as inexperienced, motor vehicle operators. While different teach-
ing techniques may be used for the two types of students, much
benefit can be gained by each group.

Class Size
Under ordinary circumstances, the number of students as-
signed to a driver education course for classroom work should
not exceed the maximum number of students prescribed by the
State Department of Education for other classroom courses.

Scheduling
No single formula can be developed to overcome all difficulties
which may be encountered in scheduling driver education
courses. Therefore, the discussion and the sample schedules con-
tained in this section are provided as suggestions for individual
adaptation by those who have responsibility for scheduling.
As a general observation, both phases of driver education
should be scheduled during the regular school day. However, the
low teacher-pupil ratio in the car has encouraged many schools
to schedule at least a part of the practice driving phase during
an extended school day. This arrangement, of course, makes it
difficult for administrators to balance the driver education teach-
er's load with that of teachers of other subjects. Because of the
increasing demand for driver education by students, some schools
are offering the complete course as a part of the summer pro-
gram. Usually the summer program courses are offered in addi-
tion to courses provided during the regular school year. This
arrangement makes the course available to students regardless
of heavy class loads during the regular year.
The first sample schedule in this section is developed around
a 150 student unit. While it is difficult for one teacher to handle
this number and meet time allotment standards, extra teacher
time may be applied as necessary in order that these standards








may be met. Other sample schedules are developed around a
120 student unit. These are suggested for adaptation to local
conditions when instruction extends over less than six periods
per day. When a teacher teaches fewer than 125 students, it
should be understood that reimbursement from the State will
be made for the fraction of the unit earned.
Before selecting a schedule plan, the administrator should de-
termine the number of class hours needed for driver education.
This can be calculated by using the formula:
X = (30 X N) + (6 x S)
In this formula
X = Class hours needed for driver education
30 = Required class hours for the classroom phase
N = Number of available class hours per day
6 = Required class hours of actual driving experience per
student
S = Number of students for driver education
To illustrate, a planner has available six class hours per day
for driver education and desires to know how many class hours
will be needed during a given semester to provide sixty students
with a complete driver education course. Using the formula, he
would find that:
X = (30 X 6) + (6 X 60)
X = 180 + 360
X = 540
After the number of class hours needed is determined, the
planner is in a position to work out the details of a schedule for
driver education. The schedule should show on paper how the
time is to be used. Again, care should be taken to see that the
course is composed of at least thirty hours of classroom instruc-
tion and an average minimum of six hours of actual driving per
student, plus observation time in the car. In drawing up the
schedule, class hours and time for practice driving should be
shown in a clear manner.
The classroom phase of the driver education course is often
scheduled as a separate subject with time set aside for the prac-
tice driving phase. In other instances, the classroom phase is
scheduled as a separate subject with students for the practice













PLAN I


Using this schedule 150 students can receive 36 hours of classroom instruction and 6 hours of practice driving instruction. The 150 students are
divided into 5 sections of 30 students, each section completing the course during consecutive 36 day periods. Each section is scheduled for classroom
instruction one period per day and practice driving instruction for 18 days in groups of 3. This plan would require two periods per day devoted to
driver education for an 18 day period.


36 DAYS


CLASS, 1st Section
30 Students


18 Days

Group 1-A
3 students

Group 2-A
3 students

Group 3-A
3 students

Group 4-A
3 students

Croup 5-A
3 students


18 Days

Group 1-B
3 students

Group 2-B
3 students

Group 3-B1
3 students

Group 4-B
3 students

Croup 5-B
3 students


36 DAYS


CLASS, 2nd Section
30 Students


18 Days

Group 1-A
3 students

Group 2-A
3 students

Group 3-A
3 students

Group 4-A
3 students

Group 5-A
3 students


18 Days

Group 1-B
3 students

Group 2-B
3 students

Group 3-B
3 students

Group 4-B
3 students

Group 5-B
3 students


36 DAYS


CLASS, 3rd Section
30 Students


18 Days

Group 1-A
3 students

Group 2-A
3 students

Group 3-A
3 students

Group 4-A
3 students

Group 5-A
3 students


18 Days

Group 1-B
3 students

Group 2-B
3 students

Group 3-B
3 students

Group 4-B
3 students

Group 5-B
3 students


36 DAYS


CLASS, 4th Section
30 Students

18 Days 18 Days

Group 1-A Group 1-B
3 students 3 students students

Group 2-A Group 2-B
3 students 3 students 3 stt


Group 3-A
3 students

Group 4-A
3 students

Group 5-A
3 students


Group 3-B
3 students

Group 4-B
3 students

Group 5-B
3 students


36 DAYS


CLASS, 5th Section
30 Students

18 Days 18 Days

Group 1-A Group 1-B
3 students 3 students

Group 2-A Group 2-B
3 students 3 students

Group 3-A Group 3-B
3 students 3 students

Group 4-A Group 4-B
3 students 3 students

Group 5-A Group 5-B
3 students 3 students


1st
Period




2nd
Period

3rd
Period

4th
Period

5th
Period

(ithl
Period


-~--





PLAN II

This plan illustrates a schedule for instructing 120 students per year using a 6 period day (60 students each semester). Each student receives 30
hours of classroom instruction and 6 hours driving instruction. Each semester is divided into nine 10-day blocks. Of these, 3 blocks (spaced through-
out the semester) are devoted to classroom instruction and 6 blocks are devoted to practice driving. Ten students are assigned per period. For practice
driving instruction the students are divided into 3 groups with the extra student rotating among the groups.

ONE SEMESTER


Periods 10 Days

1
Time Span

1 .................... C lass
10 students


2 ................. .



3 ................. .



4 ............... ..



5..................



6 ... .. .. ...


Class
10 students


Class
students


Class
10 students


Class
10 students


Class
10 students


10 Days

2
Time Span

Group
A
B
C

Group
A
11
C

Group
A

C


A
B
C

Group
A
B
C

Group
A
B
C
C


10 Days 10 Days 10 Days 10 Days 10 Days

3 4 5 6 7
fime Span Time Span Time Span Time Span Time Span

Group Group Class Group Group
A A 10 students A A
B B B
C C C C

Group Group Class Group Group
A A 10 students A A
B B B B
C C C C

Group Group Class Group Group
A A 10 students A A
B B B B
C C C C

Group Group Class Group Group
A A 10 students A A
B B BB
C C C C


Group Group
A A
B B
C C

Group Group
A A
B B
C C


Class
10 students


Class
10 students


Group
A
B
C

Group
A
B
C


Group
A
B
C

Group
A
B
C


10 Days 10 Days


)1


8
Time Span

Group
A
B
C

Group
A
B
C

Group
A
B
C

Group
A
B
C

Group
A
B
C

Group
A
B
C


9
Time Span

Class
10 students


Class
10 students


Class
10 students


Class
10 students


Class
10 students


Class
10 students














PLAN III

This schedule allows for instruction of 120 students in 6 hours of practice driving and 36 hours of classroom instruction in 180 days using a five
period day. Two sections per period are scheduled for classroom instruction, one the first 18 days and one the last 18 days. Eight groups of 3 students
per period are scheduled for practice driving. Each group drives for 18 consecutive days. When a six period day is used, 144 students can receive equal
instruction.

18 Days 18 Days 18 Days 18 Days 18 Days 18 Days 18 Days 18 Days 18 Days 18 Days
1st Class Driving Driving Driving Driving Driving Driving Driving Driving Class
period 24 students Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Group 4 Group 5 Group 6 Group 7 Group 8 24 students
3 students 3 students 3 students 3 students 3 students 3 students 3 students 3 students
2nd Class Driving Driving Driving Driving Driving Driving Driving Driving Class
period 24 students Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Group 4 Group 5 Group 6 Group 7 Group 8 24 students
3 students 3 students 3 students 3 students 3 students 3 students 3 students 3 students
3rd Class Driving Driving Driving Driving Driving Driving Driving Driving Class
period 24 students Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Group 4 Group 5 Group 6 Group 7 Group 8 24 students
3 students 3 students 3 students 3 students 3 students 3 students 3 students 3 students
4th Class Driving Driving Driving Driving Driving Driving Driving Driving Class
period 24 students Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Group 4 Group 5 Group 6 Group 7 Group 8 24 students
3 students 3 students 3 students 3 students 3 students 3 students 3 students 3 students
5th Class Driving Driving Driving Driving Driving Driving Driving Driving Class
period 24 students Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Group 4 Group 5 Group 6 Group 7 Group 8 24 students
3 students 3 students 3 students 3 students 3 students 3 students 3 students 3 students










PLAN IV

Extended day with one teacher and one car serving 60 students in 180 days with instruction of 90 classroom hours and six hours behind-the-wheel.*

1ST SEMESTER 2ND SEMESTER

Classroom instruction for 30 students for 90 hours during the day Classroom instruction for 30 students for 90 hours during the day
for one period, for one period.


18 Days


Driving
Group
1


3
students


Driving
Group
11


18 Days


Driving
Group
2


3
students


Driving
Group
12


3 3
students students


18 Days


Driving
Group
3


3
students


Driving
Group
13



3
students


18 Days


Driving
Group
4


3
students


Driving
Group
14



3
students


18 Days


18 Days


18 Days


18 Days


18 Days


- 1__ _ _ _ _ _


Driving
Group
5


3
students


Driving
Group
15



3
students


Driving
Group
6


3
students


Driving
Group
16



3
students


Driving
Group
7


3
students


Driving
Group
8


3
students


Driving
Group
9


3
students


18 Days


Driving
Group
10


3
students


- 1 -1_____________________ ________________________ _________________________ __________________________


Driving
Group
17



3
students


Driving
Group
18



3
students


Driving
Group
19



3
students


Group
20


*NOTE: If a driving group is scheduled before the school day starts, 30 or more students could be taught, but this would increase classroom sections to 45 students in
each section.


7th
Period


8th
Period


I- -














PLAN V

Driver education scheduling during the summer is based on 1/5 of the regular unit for teacher reimbursement or 30 students.


CLASSROOM INSTRUCTION FOR 36 DAYS FOR 30 STUDENTS

18 Days 18 Days


Driving group 3 students


Driving group


Driving group


Driving group


S3 students


3 students


3 students


Driving group 3 students


Driving group 3 students


Driving group 3 students


Driving group 3 students


Driving group 3 students


Driving group 3 students


1st Period




2nd Period


3rd Period


4th Period


5th Period


6th Period








driving phase taking time from study halls, extracurricular peri-
ods, vocational subjects, unused laboratory periods, before and
after school hours, the summer months, or physical education
courses that are offered in excess of the minimum requirement.
In still other cases, the entire course is scheduled within the
framework of another subject. Regardless of how the course is
established within the curriculum, care should be taken to see
that minimum time allotment standards are met and the course
is entered on the student's permanent record.

The Teacher
Teaching driver education presents a challenge related to
many aspects of human behavior. The driver education teacher
should be prepared to stimulate logical thinking, encourage de-
velopment of proper attitudes, and teach the basic concepts and
skills of good driving. An individual with sound professional
preparation and teaching ability is considered essential to the
accomplishment of these objectives.

Qualifications
One of the most important prerequisites for successful teaching
in driver education is a basic understanding of human behavior.
This understanding enables a teacher to help students (1) over-
come personal problems, (2) cope with and control emotions,
and (3) understand and react in a proper manner to the actions
of other drivers. Proper guidance will assist students in acquiring
those characteristics possessed by drivers with good attitudes.
The driver educator should understand and appreciate the
functions and problems of traffic law enforcement, traffic en-
gineering, community traffic organizations, and other forces di-
rectly concerned with programs of highway traffic improvement.
Developing an awareness of the relative importance of each
approach to highway traffic safety is an essential objective of
driver education. The teacher should provide experiences related
to those approaches that will favorably influence the student's
understanding and acceptance of the several aspects of compre-
hensive programing for traffic safety and efficient movement
of traffic. This provision has definite value in developing better
traffic citizens.
The competent driver education teacher has an enthusiastic
interest in his subject, a conviction that young drivers should be








well prepared to face a complex traffic environment, and a per-
sonal desire to create safer highway travel through such prep-
aration.

Some of the more important qualifications of a driver educa-
tion teacher are:

A. General Qualifications
1. Hold a bachelor's degree from an accredited institution
of higher education.
2. Have a teaching certificate validated for service in the
secondary schools.
3. Have the basic qualities necessary for effective teach-
ing in any other field.
4. Show genuine enthusiasm for driver education and
broad interest and knowledge in the field of safety
education and accident prevention.
5. Have a resourceful, inquiring attitude into the prob-
lems of driver and safety education.
B. Special Qualifications
1. A valid teaching certificate in the field of driver edu-
cation. (Requires successful completion of a minimum
of six semester hours in driver education and three
semester hours in safety education.)
2. A valid driver license.
3. A strong desire to set a good example by his own
driving and safety habits.
4. An extensive driving background, including (a) at
least three years of satisfactory driving experience;
(b) a driving record, state and local, free from re-
peated accident experience and traffic law violations;
and (c) experience in driving different makes or types
of vehicles in cities and on highways under various
traffic, weather, and road conditions.
5. Good physical and mental health as evidenced by
a. Even temperament, sympathetic attitude, and high
degree of patience in working with students.








b. Physical qualities appropriate to the demands of
teaching driver education, such as normal use of
both eyes, both ears, both hands, and both feet;
normal motor coordination; and absence of uncor-
rected limitations related to vision, hearing, and
the heart.
6. Interest in using research findings applicable to driver
education and in contributing to special studies in
driver and safety education.
7. Willingness and ability to work with community groups
in order to enhance the instructional program through
use of local resources.
8. Appreciation of the need to assure that all driver
education equipment is maintained in good condition.
9. Ability to structure learning experience with ingenu-
ity and imagination.
10. Ability to identify and to help solve the special prob-
lems of student drivers.7

C. Professional Growth
Participation in professional organizations. The local or
county professional organization for driver education is
one means the teacher has of strengthening his relations
with the public. It is important that every teacher of driver
education be a member of and participate in his local
organization as it attempts to:
1. Improve standards
2. Help keep teachers up-to-date
3. Orient new teachers
4. Aid in improving teacher preparation
5. Help correct mistakes and abuses in present programs

D. Professional Activities
1. The teacher's membership in professional organizations
should include participation in a state association of
TNational Commission on Safety Education. Policies and Practices for Driver Educa-
tion. (Washington: National Education Association, 1960), pp. 18-19.








safety educators. Such an association should hold an
annual meeting on the state level and send a delegate
each year to the annual conference of the American
Driver Education Association.

2. State organizations can raise the standards of the pro-
gram by:
a. Promoting high standards for driver education
teachers. (Certification requirements, code of ethics,
etc.)

b. Directing the efforts and energies of other related
and interested groups.
c. Suggesting and promoting proper legislation.
d. Suggesting and directing needed research in the
field.

3. On the national level there are three organizations of
concern to the driver education teacher.

a. The American Driver Education Association, which
received departmental status in the National Edu-
cation Association in the Spring of 1960.
b. The Safety Section of the American Association for
Health, Physical Education, and Recreation.
c. The School and College Department of the National
Safety Council.

E. In-Service Activity
Driver Education teachers should have the opportunity to
attend conferences, workshops, or other institutes in driver
education on the county, state, and national level. The
purpose of this participation should be

1. To keep abreast of the latest in teaching developments
and research findings in the field of driver education

2. To afford the teacher an opportunity to exchange ex-
periences and discuss problems of mutual concern with
others in the field.8
sLeon Brody and Herbert J. Stack. Highway Safety and Driver Education, 2nd Edition.
(New York: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1954), pp. 344-348.








The Practice Driving Car
Excepting certain experimental courses, every complete driver
education program makes use of practice driving cars. Some
schools use one or more cars on a full-time basis. In other cases,
two or more schools use the same car. Any vehicle used for
driver education should be properly equipped, insured, stored,
maintained, and identified.

Type and Use
It is recommended that late model, four-door cars be used in
driver education. Moreover, experience has shown that better
results can be obtained by using cars equipped with an automatic
transmission. Once a student has mastered the fundamentals of
starting, steering, and stopping the car, the ability to shift gears
is easily acquired. If a school has several cars, one may well be
equipped with a conventional transmission. Some schools have
purchased older model cars with conventional shift for teaching
students how to change gears.

WHEN IDENTIFIED AS A DRIVER EDUCATION VEHI-
CLE, CARE MUST BE TAKEN TO SEE THAT THE PRAC-
TICE DRIVING CAR IS USED ONLY FOR DRIVER EDUCA-
TION AND IS USED ONLY UNDER THE SUPERVISION OF
A CERTIFIED TEACHER OF DRIVER EDUCATION.

Car Procurement
Continued growth and improvement of the high school driver
education movement in Florida depends, to a large extent, on the
availability of cars for practice driving. Therefore, it behooves
the administrator and instructor to have a car available when-
ever student time and teacher time exists.

Cars for driver education are usually obtained by: (1) loan,
(2) lease, or (3) purchase.

Under the loan plan, cars are usually secured from a local
automobile dealer. In communities where there is no dealer, a
car may be obtained from an auto agency which has the franchise
to operate in the concerned vicinity. In communities where there
are several dealers wishing to provide free loan cars, it may be
considered wise to use a plan of rotation. Loan agreements are
usually worked out between the local dealers and school officials.








A state approved form for the agreement between the dealer
and the school should be used.
A full understanding between the lending agency and the
school in regard to responsibility for insurance, maintenance,
repairs, place of storage, and use of the vehicle should be cov-
ered in the contract.
When loaned cars are received by schools, returned to dealers,
or transferred, representatives of the lending agency and the
school should jointly inspect the vehicle. Following the inspec-
tion both agents should sign as to the condition of the car.
Under the lease plan the school pays the agency furnishing the
cars on a monthly or yearly basis. A plan of this type should be
based on a written contract stipulating the lease agreement with
a full understanding between the agency furnishing the car and
the school as to responsibility for insurance, maintenance, re-
pairs, and place of storage.
More and more schools are finding it convenient to purchase
cars for practice driving. Such purchases may be negotiated by
the county finance officers through the Division of Administra-
tion and Finance of the State Department of Education.

Identification of Practice Driving Cars
Cars used for practice driving should be marked in a standard
manner. It is recommended that a sign be displayed on the rear
bumper or the roof of such vehicles and that signs or decals on
doors or trunks not be used. Cars obtained on a free loan basis
should display the sign at all times. Leased or purchased vehicles
should display the sign only when the cars are being used to
instruct students. Thus, signs for leased or purchased automobiles
should be removable.
Specifications for identification signs should be based on the
standards established by the Third National Conference on
Driver Education. A report of the conference states:
Automobiles used for driver education should be identi-
fied with the program, the board of education, or the
school or college. There should be no commercial adver-
tising or identification on or in such automobiles other
than company names ordinarily appearing on and in
stock automobiles. Where state or local conditions seem

























Figure 8: Cars used for practice driving should be marked in a standard manner.

to require a courtesy credit identification, however, it
should be limited to a single line in which the letters do
not exceed 1/% inches in height.

Special Equipment
Dual controls constitute the major special equipment required
on a driver education car. Other required equipment is a seat
belt for each occupant, an outside mirror on each side, and an
engine cut-off switch convenient to the instructor.
The instructor may find it necessary to secure additional equip-
ment for the proper care of the vehicle and the safe, effective
conduct of the driving phase of the program. (Extra floor mats,
seat cushions, a heater and defroster, and brake pedal extensions
are examples of the additional equipment.) Certainly, any acces-
sory group provided by a lending agency should be accepted, if
the equipment does not interfere with instruction.

Insurance
All driver education cars are to be adequately covered by
insurance because risk can only be minimized, not completely
eliminated. When driver education courses were first started,
insurance premiums were twice the regular passenger car rate.
Today most insurance companies provide coverage for driver
education cars at the same insurance rates which prevail in the








community for privately owned passenger cars. At present, be-
cause of the low accident frequency and minor nature of such
accidents involving driver education cars, it may be possible to
obtain a special low rate for vehicles used exclusively for driver
education.

Before a lent driver education car is delivered to a school, the
principal must know that the car is properly insured.

1. The recommended insurance coverage for a lent or leased
car is:

(1) $100,000 and $300,000 public liability protection.
(2) $10,000 property damage protection.
NOTE: Limits of liability insurance should satisfy the
owner, but must satisfy the financial responsibility
law.
(3) Medical rider (or clause) to pay medical expenses of
any one injured in an accident while riding in the
insured car, permitted under Florida Statute 234.03
(sub-sec. 2).

(4) $100 deductible collision protection.
(5) Comprehensive protection covering losses by fire,
theft, breakage of glass, missiles, explosion, earth-
quake, floods, vandalism, etc.

2. The required insurance coverage for a county-owned driver
education car is set forth in the Florida Statute 234.03 (sub-sec.
1, 2, 3, 4) which states:
(1) County school boards are required to secure and keep
in force bodily injury liability insurance.
(2) County school boards are permitted (although not
required) to secure and keep in force medical pay-
ment insurance and property damage insurance.
(3) Limit of coverage and source of funds:
a. $5,000 for bodily injury or death resulting there-
from to any one person or pupil. The limits for
any one accident shall be $5,000 multiplied by the
rated passenger capacity of the vehicle.








b. Not less than $5,000 for damage to property.
c. Not less than $500 medical payments per person.
d. The premium for such insurance shall be paid
from the county current school fund, or the state
fund apportioned to the county for driver edu-
cation.
(4) Waiver of Immunity:
It shall be a part of the policy contract between the
county school board and the insurer that the com-
pany shall not be entitled to the benefit of the defense
of governmental immunity. Immunity of the county
school board against liability for damages is waived
to the extent of the limits of the insurance carried by
the school board.
In any judgment or award which may be rendered
in favor of the plaintiff, and if a verdict rendered
by the jury exceeds the limit of the applicable insur-
ance, the courts shall reduce the amount of said
judgment or award to a sum not exceeding the appli-
cable limits set forth in the policy. Special attention
is called to Florida Statute 234.03 (sub-sec. 5), en-
titled Penalty, which states: The members of any
county school board which owns or operates a driver
education car without complying with the provisions
of this section, 234.03, shall, for such failure, be sub-
ject to removal from office, and any person owning
or operating a driver education car for the trans-
portation or instruction of pupils as set forth in this
section, and failing to comply with its provisions,
shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor.
3. General
The driver education instructor is covered by the provisions
of the State Workman's Compensation Insurance.
If the car is loaned to or leased by the school board, responsi-
bility for the insurance coverage is further specified in the car
loan or lease contract.
All persons and organizations which could possibly be liable
in any way should be covered by the insurance policy. The policy








should also define very clearly the conditions under which the
insurance is valid and the car should then be operated at all
times in such a way that the conditions of insurance validity are
absolutely maintained.

The responsible authorities are:
(1) The owner of the vehicle.
(2) The school board.
(3) The driver education teacher.
(4) The school superintendent, staff, and school principal.
(5) The student drivers.

Parents of driver education pupils who do not own an auto-
mobile should be made aware of their possible need for obtaining
adequate limits of bodily injury and property damage liability
insurance.
The Constitution of the State of Florida provides that county
school boards are immune with respect to liability. This govern-
mental immunity is waived only to the extent of insurance car-
ried as required or permitted by general law. This immunity
cannot be extended to the benefit of an individual. The principle
of negligence is the basis for tort liability. Negligence is defined
as any conduct in which the degree of care is below that which
could be expected from a reasonably prudent person. Such con-
duct must result in injury to another person. Although negli-
gence is the major factor in determining tort liability, one finds
extensive variations from county to county. Accordingly, county
school superintendents should seek legal counsel before con-
tracting for liability insurance coverage of the school's driver
education cars.
The following items are good administrative practices and
should minimize the possibility of valid charges of negligence
against the school board and its employees. The school principal
and superintendent should give attention to:

(1) Competent instructors adequately prepared to present
the instruction.
(2) Properly equipped driver education cars-e.g., seat belts,
seat cushions, extra mirrors, dual controls, etc.







(3) Policies governing use of driver education cars.
(4) Proper inspection, maintenance, and operation of the
driver education car at all times.
(5) A designated procedure to be followed if a student is
injured.
(6) Records showing the name, address, and phone number
of parents, family doctor, and preferred hospital.
(7) A record of student's physical condition, indicating cor-
rections or prosthetic devices needed to meet established
minimum physical standards.
(8) Properly signed parents approval form on file.
(9) Standardized accident reporting procedures.
(10) Any communications from the teacher to the principal
seeking repairs, adjustments, or additional equipment
in the interest of safety.
Even though insurance is required, the type and the amount of
coverage are dependent upon the car procurement plan. The
guide lines for insuring a county-owned driver education car are
provided in the Florida Statutes 234.03. The recommended insur-
ance for a lent or leased car has been stated and appears on the
loan agreement form.









CHAPTER 5


Planning for Learning Experiences

in Driver Education


THE DRIVER EDUCATION teacher, working with his stu-
dents, is responsible for developing specific learning experi-
ences. A complete program of classroom and practice driving
instruction includes consideration of the topics shown in the
guide below. This guide is not intended as a teaching outline, but
rather as an arbitrarily arranged list to indicate the nature and
scope of what students should learn in a driver education course.
Traffic Citizenship: responsibility to other drivers and high-
way users responsibility to community, family, and self
attitudes of safe living .courtesy and manners .
intelligent support of public officials understanding of en-
forcement policies voluntary observance of signs, signals,
and markings.
Laws and Regulations: knowledge of local traffic ordinances,
state motor vehicle laws, Uniform Vehicle Code under-
standing of physical laws that affect drivers and pedestrians.
Characteristics of Drivers: social, mental, emotional, physical,
and physiological effects of alcohol and drugs psy-
chology of driving.
Driving Skills: basic habits and maneuvers making turns
parking special skills for driving in the city, on the
highway, on expressways techniques for hazardous condi-
tions and meeting emergencies skills of defensive driving.
Development of Judgment: vision and perception knowl-
edge and analysis of traffic situations .making decisions.
Role of Government: driver licensing vehicle registration
and inspection financial responsibility laws equip-
ment required on vehicles enforcement of laws through








police and courts highway and traffic engineering .
official safety agencies.
Automobile Use: economics of vehicle ownership and opera-
tion trip planning and map reading servicing, main-
tenance, and inspection of vehicle what to do in case of
accident professional driving.
The Traffic Problem: human and economic losses impact
of accidents on the community, state, and nation.1

As the instructor surveys the vast amount of teachable mate-
rial, it behooves him to establish carefully a priority rating for
the concepts.
After listing the possible understandings that could be taught,
they should be rated as either (1) basic, (2) related, or (3) en-
richment learning in terms of the established goals. A basic learn-
ing contributes significantly to the development of some phase of
the objectives. For example, developing the concept that "all
drivers are at times temporarily unfit to drive" is essential in
the mind of a safe and efficient driver. The awareness and ap-
preciation of this concept could conceivably prevent traffic acci-
dents. Knowing how to purchase a new or used car illustrates
a related learning that probably will benefit the learner at some
time. However, this knowledge is not absolutely necessary for
driving competence or effective traffic citizenship. Examples of
enrichment learning are: Knowing how roads are built; under-
standing the intricate mechanism of the differential; and know-
ing the horsepower of all the late model cars.
Certainly the driver education curriculum should include a gen-
erous supply of basic and related learning; and if time permits, a
limited amount of enrichment learning. Projects, reading, and
other special assignments provide a means to satisfy group and
individual interests with respect to learning which are not basic
to achieving the primary objectives of driver education.

Methods and Techniques

The complexity of the teaching-learning process has handi-
capped attempts to measure the relative merits of various meth-
ods; so evidence to support "best" methods is inconclusive.
'National Commission on Safety Education. Policies and Practices for Driver Education.
(Washington: National Education Association, 1960), pp. 14-15.







Nevertheless, many facts about learning are known and accepted.
Methods and techniques of teaching driver education will be
discussed in view of these known facts. The following principles
are suggested:

1. The method should be appropriate to the end desired.
Learning is a goal while teaching methods are a means to achiev-
ing that goal. When the objective is limited to acquisition of
knowledge possessed by the teacher or other knowledgeable per-
sons, a lecture or demonstration can provide facts and informa-
tion to many students at the same time. However, if the goal is to
stimulate students, to clarify their beliefs and attitudes, and to
commit them to a choice of behavior based on insight rather than
blind mimicry, student centered activities may be more appro-
priate. In short, no one method is best for all students.

2. The teacher of driver education should be aware of individ-
ual differences and provide the appropriate instruments and
learning situations to meet best the needs of the individual. Ex-
perienced teachers have observed that learners respond differ-
ently to the same methods. This is especially significant when the
teacher is considering the presentation of a film depicting grue-
some accident scenes. A learner already frightened and lacking
in self-confidence may be adversely affected by viewing the film.
On the other hand, the over-confident, over-aggressive student
with a "devil-may-care" attitude may be encouraged to restrain
his "hot-rod" tendencies after seeing the film.

In addition to the unique emotional characteristics of students,
wide differences exist also in their intellectual and psychomotor
ability. All classroom teachers of any subject are faced with
varying degrees of intellectual potential in students, but the
driver educator has the special task of teaching motor skills to
individuals with varying degrees of psychomotor ability.

Besides the problem of handling individual differences be-
tween students, the teacher is also confronted with differences
in the way individual students learn. Occasionally a learner will
be quick to learn the subject matter and attitudes related to safe
and efficient driving but slow in acquiring good driving skills.
The reverse of this may also appear with other combinations.
These and other kinds of differences present a challenge to the
driver education instructor in teaching and evaluating students







The driver education teacher has an excellent opportunity to
discover individual differences of students during practice driv-
ing instruction. In this intimate relationship with only two, three,
or four students, the discerning teacher will discover attitudes
and emotions of students that probably will never be revealed to
him in the normal classroom situation. A competent teacher will
understand and apply the implications that these individual dif-
ferences have for selection of methods and techniques in both
classroom instruction and practice driving. The practice driving
situation, with small groups of students, not only provides a
good opportunity for recognizing individual differences but is
also an ideal setting for teaching these differences. The teacher
has no excuse for "lock-step" instruction when he is working
with only two, three, or four students.
3. Students enjoy and profit from methods that stress intelli-
gent classroom participation. The learning process is experienc-
ing, doing, and reacting. We should think of the student as an
active learner and not as a passive receptacle into which we stuff
required bits of knowledge. In driver education the important
implication is that students not only know but also believe and
apply the acquired knowledge. This objective is most likely ac-
complished when the teacher uses as many real and contrived
experiences as can be reasonably arranged.
Driver education furnishes many opportunities to relate class-
room activity to community agencies concerned with traffic
safety. Well-planned and purposeful assignments directing stu-
dents to use the resources of state and local police departments,
courts, traffic engineering departments, city and county govern-
ment officials, driver license officials, and civic clubs can be a
practical lesson in citizenship for the students. In short, the com-
munity offers a natural laboratory which can add meaning and
significance to driver education.

4. A blend of telling and showing enhances the learning proc-
ess. Telling and showing should be used separately only when
necessary and applicable, and even then for brief periods only.
Too frequently teachers fall back on telling alone or showing
alone as a stop-gap because they have failed to plan for a more
effective combination of the two. An intelligent, well-planned
lesson which combines telling and showing usually produces the
best results. Teachers should make sure that the material pre-







sented is clear and well illustrated, appealing to as many of the
receptor senses as possible. Use of the blackboard, flannel board,
projectors, charts, models, demonstrations, and other visual aids
enriches explanations and facilitates learning. Not all of us learn
in the same way, but all of us need to see the process clearly and
understand the accompanying words.
5. Teachers cannot force permanent improvement in student
behavior. They can only help students improve their own be-
havior. Force may win verbal acceptance and temporary compli-
ance, but it will not produce the conviction necessary for changing
behavior permanently. Driver education fails unless it ulti-
mately influences the thinking and driving behavior of the
students. A student can know the traffic laws, effects of alcohol,
stopping distances, and still violate the law, drink and drive, and
"tailgate." Therefore, in planning for effective instruction the
driver educator must constantly ask himself the question, "Will
attitudes and behavior be affected by the teaching-learning situ-
ation being planned?" Education is not only teaching people what
they do not know, but it is also teaching them to behave in a
desirable manner.
The preceding premise does not prevent the teacher from
stating his values and the reasons for them. However, it does
suggest that he should not tell the students they must accept his
values. Rather, he should let the group determine superior values
after they analyze expressed teacher and student values and
available research evidence or other information related to the
problem. If young people fail to accept values as a result of
examination and trial, they cannot be forced to do so by dog-
matic procedures.
6. The teacher should believe in the method and possess con-
fidence in his ability to perform it. The personality and previous
experience of the teacher, facilities and equipment available, and
other factors determine the suitability of a particular method for
a teacher. A successful approach for one teacher will not neces-
sarily work for another. Teachers should believe in what they
teach and also in the way they teach.
The following ideas for instruction are examined in the light
of driver education objectives. A description of the technique is
followed by an estimate of its potential value and the possible
disadvantages associated with the procedure.








Sample Unit for Classroom Use
While this guide will not attempt to outline in detail the
content of driver education, one unit will be organized into:
(1) concepts to be developed; (2) methods and techniques and
(3) resources.
Recognizing that the awareness and the development of proper
attitudes are the key to effective traffic citizenship, a unit on
"The Driver" has been selected. However, proper attitudes and
personal responsibility should be stressed throughout the course
as the opportunity presents itself.
1. Attitudes: (a) definition (b) origin (c) examples of good
and bad attitudes (d) how modified.
2. Why normal people commit unsafe acts.
3. Effects of alcohol on driver proficiency.
4. Why drivers under 25, as a group, have a poor driving
record.
5. Common traits of traffic violators and accident repeaters.
6. Visual prerequisites to good driving.
7. The importance of a realistic self concept of one's driving
ability and how to compensate for limitations.
8. Diseases and other physical and mental handicaps which
should restrict or disqualify one for the driving privilege.
9. Traffic situations which cause driver irritations, and hints
on emotional control.

Suggested Activities
1. Administer personality or attitude test, such as the Sie-
brecht Attitude Scale, and discuss implications of the test
for driving.
2. Hold a panel discussion on the physiological and psycho-
logical effects of alcohol and drugs.
3. Engage in dramatization and role playing related to good
and bad attitudes displayed by driver.
4. Have each student analyze a real traffic accident with
which he is familiar for underlying human causes.








5. Have each student analyze himself in terms of:
a. What kind of person am I, and what kind of person do
I want people to think I am?
b. What characteristics do I possess which will predispose
me to accidents?
c. How can I eliminate or compensate for these weak-
nesses?

6. Take field trips:
a. To traffic court.

b. To police station for chemical test (alcohol) demonstra-
tion.
c. To a driver improvement school for chronic violators.
7. Make surveys:
a. Observe at a busy intersection and note courteous and
discourteous acts by drivers to pedestrians and other
drivers.
b. Determine parent opinion of traffic situations which are
most irritating.
8. Develop a Driver's Code of Conduct.
9. Assign outside reading and summations.
10. Prepare bulletin board displays of cartoons, newspaper
articles, etc. related to "The Driver."

11. Use psychological equipment in testing students.


Books
Better Driving: Chapters 2,
3, & 8
Let's Drive Right: Chapters
2, 3, & 4
Man and the Motor Car: Unit
3
Sportsmanlike Driving: Chap-
ters 2, 3, & 5


urces
Films
All of a Sudden
And Then There Were Four
Cases of Officer Hallibrand
Chain Reaction
Day in Court
Human Factors in Driving
Incredible Journey








The Road to Better Driving:
Chapters 2, 3, & 4

Tomorrow's Drivers: Chap-
ters 6, 7, 8, & 9

When You Take the Wheel:
Chapters 2, 3, & 4

Pamphlets and Periodicals
Accident Facts

Deft Driving

Good Driving Practices

Motor Manners

Traveler's Insurance Com-
pany Annual Booklet

Youth and the Automobile


Last Date
Look Who's Driving
None for the Road

Resource People
Judge
Medical Doctor
Optometrist
Police Officer or Highway
Patrolman
Psychiatric Social Worker
Psychologist
School Counselor
Trucking Company Safety
Director


Principles and Practices for Teaching the Practice Driving Phase

Practice driving aims to develop further understanding of the
concepts taught in the classroom, desirable attitudes, and sound
driving habits. Instruction in this area is unusually exacting and
requires the highest degree of teaching ability. The wide scope
of the objectives and the limited instructional time per student
demand an extremely efficient learning situation, if the objectives
are to be accomplished. The following discussion presents some
ideas for increasing teaching effectiveness in both (1) the dual
control car plan and (2) the multiple car plan.

In the dual control car plan, one instructor usually teaches
from two to four students per practice driving lesson. Each stu-
dent takes his turn behind the wheel while the others observe.
This plan will be discussed in terms of (1) planning, (2) explana-
tion and demonstration, (3) guided practice, and (4) appraising
student progress.

Planning
Planning for practice driving lessons is just as important as
planning for classroom instruction. First, the teacher needs to be










Technique Description or Example Strengths Problems

Role Playing Two or more students act out Stimulates analysis of a prob- Time consuming. Stu.
a situation relating to a prob- lem. Promotes better group un- dents may lose sighi
lem under discussion. derstanding of interpersonal of the goal. Must b(
problems. Tends to bring out well done.
attitudes that might not other-
wise appear.

Projects May include interviews, opinion Provides a means for satisfying May become an end ii
poll, creative writing, poster group and individual needs, itself.
drawing, making models, etc.

Visual Aids A supplementary device that Facilitates learning and reten- May cover too mud
needs correlation with topics tion. Can provide the same in- material too fast
being studied. Not a teacher formation to large groups of Scheduling and cost.
substitute. Films, slides, trans- students.
parencies, etc.

Psychophysical Used primarily as an education- Stimulates interest. Helps teach- Questionable validity
Testing al tool rather than a screening er locate gross physical disabil- of test results.
device to evaluate fitness to ities. Shows individual differ-
drive. Tests may be purchased, ences.
borrowed, constructed, or im-
provised.

Surveys Examine closely a situation Students get first hand experi- Limited possibilities ii
through observation of research. ence by doing practical work in rural areas.
effective traffic citizenship.

Lecture One person presenting facts and Can provide material to large No group participa
information on predetermined groups. tion. Boredom and re
subject. distance may occur.

Traffic Students view a graphic descrip- Focuses attention of basic driv- Difficulty securing thi
Situation tion of a traffic situation or acci- ing concepts in a meaningful and underlying factors ii
and/or Accident dent and identify potential haz- interesting way. Improves per- an accident.
Analysis ards or factors causing the acci- ceptual skill. Develops the abil-
dent. ity to sense a hazardous situa-
tion.

Group The process in which students Teacher can tell if group mem- Time consuming. Un
Discussion. actively take part in examining bers understand and follow related ideas may bi
(Decision) a problem or concept. The in- ideas. Unity and group belong- discussed. May create
structor or student plays the ing develops. Group exchange tension. Group cai
role of moderator so that an or- experiences. Thinking is chal- draw wrong conclu
derly discussion is maintained. lenged. Individual attitudes may sion. Students ma,
The group tries to reach a con- be changed or developed through talk too much.
census or commitment. Panel group influence.
Forum.

Field Trips Entire class or small group visit Better understanding of a par- Cost, transportation
police stations, garages, traffic ticular area. The instructor may and time problems fre
courts, etc. learn with the students. quently prohibit trip
by entire class.

Resource A specialist with the necessary A good method of influencing Difficulty in obtaining
Persons ability and knowledge presents attitudes. Gives information in and scheduling quali
information on a given topic re- an area in which the instructor's fled persons.
lated to the objectives of driver knowledge may be limited.
education.









Technique Description or Example Strengths Problems
emon- The use of real objects or models Aids in understanding driving Preparing suitable ma-
rations in presentation. maneuvers, such as steering, trials.
turning, parking, forces of na-
ture, and emergency driving
practice. Students enjoy and
benefit by participating in dem-
onstrations and watching fellow
students participate.
educational Short telecasts of basic material All students benefit from a mas- Scheduling. Cost. No
revision in driver education by a care- ter teacher. Students also bene- interaction between
fully selected teacher. The ma- fit from equipment which is too teacher and student.
trial is selected by classroom expensive for each school. In- Only available in few
and studio teachers. Offered structor has adequate time for area-i.
during school day through mon- preparation. Gives classroom
itors in school building, teacher more time to develop
attitudes by reducing material
to be covered. All students are
able to learn from effective use
of resource people. Uniform
view of demonstrations for all
students.


thoroughly familiar with the locality where he will conduct the
lessons, so that he can determine the best locations for teaching
various maneuvers. Another important phase of advanced plan-
ning is the sequence of skill lessons designed to expose students
to a wide variety of driving experiences. Some teachers are
handicapped in giving students a wide variety of driving experi-
ences because their school is located in the heart of a city or
deep in a rural area. This handicap can be partially overcome by
scheduling a block of time, thus making possible a trip to the
country or the city for needed practice.
In addition to these essential long-range plans, the competent
teacher also plans carefully for the effective use of time for each
period. A typical lesson may include a twenty-five minute review
of right and left turns and thirty minutes devoted to introducing
and practicing lane changing, with students spending time be-
hind the wheel in accordance with individual needs. Even with
homogeneous skill grouping, the learners will not progress at
exactly the same rate, a fact which requires the teacher's atten-
tion and thoughtful planning prior to the lesson. Standard prac-
tice driving guides are available to help the teachers plan their
lessons, but many experienced teachers have deviated from these
and have adapted plans to the local situation and individual needs
of students.








Another important phase of planning for practice driving in-
struction concerns the selection of students for the practice
driving groups. A difference of opinion prevails among driver
educators regarding the ideal number of students for practice
driving lessons. Some prefer only two students (one driver and
one observer), which eliminates any discipline problem with ob-
servers and requires less time for changing the students behind
the wheel. Other teachers place a higher premium on the value
of students learning from each other and therefore prefer a total
of three or four students per lesson. A survey of practices would
probably show that three students are the average number. This
number permits the use of a seat belt for each occupant of the
vehicle.

Another unresolved question relates to practice driving group
compositions as related to sex distribution and ability. "Should
the groups be coed?" "Will grouping of students with differing
ability handicap learning?" These and other practical questions
concern the beginning and experienced. Most experienced teach-
ers agree that if the groups are compatible, other problems are
not insurmountable. Grouping of students with like ability ap-
pears to be desirable, so that all members are ready for new ex-
periences (city driving, parallel parking, etc.) about the same
time. On the other hand, the imaginative teacher can handle a
group which differs widely in ability by adjusting the time and
location of the skill practice. If these wide differences appear,
the slower learner should be urged to compete with his previous
performance rather than compete against the performance of
the more advanced student. Interest of the fast learner can be
maintained by confronting him with challenging driving ex-
periences.

Explanation and Demonstration
The teacher's function is to direct the learner's attention to
the essential features in each operation, keeping verbal instruc-
tion brief and concise. Avoid talking too much or demonstrating
too long before giving the learner an opportunity to have an ini-
tial trial at the activity. Student trials are the chief sources for
thinking and learning about the skill. Learners should be en-
couraged to listen to explanations and observe demonstrations
thoughtfully so they understand not only how to perform a driv-
ing operation but also why the method taught is the best method































Photo Courtesy of Automotive Safety Foundation
Figure 9: An effective way to minimize errors is for the teacher to "talk through"
the steps as the student executes them.
for performing it. Mimicry, blind trial and error, and robot-like
repetition not only waste time but also produce inferior perform-
ance.
Most authorities in motor skill learning agree that the teacher
should make certain that early trials are successfully executed.
When the objective is to establish a correct habit pattern, incor-
rect trials will only delay the process. An effective way to mini-
mize errors is to "talk through" the steps as the student executes
them. The student is then usually ready to "talk through" the
steps by himself as he performs the skill. This procedure has
been termed "commentary driving" and is used extensively by
driver education teachers, not only for manipulative skill devel-
opment but also for cultivating perceptual skill and a defensive
driving attitude.
Practice driving demonstrations are a vital part of the effective
teaching of skill. Since extensive demonstration in the car with
each practice driving group is time consuming, driver education








teachers are experimenting with more efficient techniques. One
way to free more time for actual student practice behind-the-
wheel is to use the classroom periods for appropriate skill ex-
planations and demonstrations. Here the teacher instructs the
entire class at one time rather than each group of two to four
students in the car. Of course, a brief review of the step-by-step
procedure is usually necessary before allowing the student to
drive independently in the practice driving lesson.
If an adequate demonstration cannot be given in the classroom,
the teacher can still avoid small group demonstrations by using
the practice driving car to show a maneuver, such as parallel
parking, to the entire classroom section at a location near the
school. The teacher may choose to "talk through" the skill pro-
cedure while an able student actually operates the vehicle. To
increase the efficiency and effectiveness of the outside demon-
stration, it should be preceded by a demonstration and discussion
in the classroom using a model car and a blackboard or a mag-
netic board as aids.

Guided Practice
The teacher's function is to guide progress, not to act as a
"co-pilot" or "crutch." Beginning students require more guid-
ance, but as their proficiency increases they should be given
more opportunity to perform on their own.
Clear, concise and consistent terminology should be used when
referring to the parts of the car and to step-by-step driving pro-
cedures. Failure by the teacher to communicate directions to the
student frequently causes a delay or, even more serious, a hazard-
ous situation. The use of consistent terminology in giving direc-
tions aids the communication process. The parking brake, for
example, should always be called the parking brake and not the
"hand brake," "emergency brake," or something else. Classroom
time can be used to acquaint the students with various terms and
directions that will be used.
"The teacher's first responsibility is to provide for the safety of
students by assuming control of the car in dangerous situations.
The frequency and extent of such control, however, must be
limited; otherwise the student may never learn to assume re-
sponsibility for his own driving."2 If an accident is impending
2Anderson, William 0. A Summary Report on Effective Behind the Wheel Instruction
in Driver Education. (New York: Teachers College, Columbia University, 1961) p. 15.







and can be avoided by applying the dual brake, obviously the
teacher should do so without hesitation. If the reason for using
the control is not apparent an explanation by the teacher can
follow. Otherwise, the student may become antagonistic to the
teacher's interference. While dual control devices are emergency
controls, the equipment may also be used as a teaching tool.
Naturally, students may commit many mistakes in the early
stages. When the student does not recognize or understand an
error, the teacher identifies the error and describes how to per-
form the skill correctly. Effective teaching frequently includes
encouraging students to analyze and correct their own mistakes.
If the student has committed numerous errors within a short
time, the teacher should help the student correct one at a time.
Teachers should emphasize to students that mistakes, understood
and corrected, are a valuable part of the learning process.
The intimate nature of the small group practice driving lessons
and the driving operation itself demand a teacher-student rela-
tionship of mutual respect. The teacher sets two kinds of exam-
ples for students: one as a skilled driver and another as a patient,
courteous person. When correcting errors in practice driving,
sarcasm, threats, and reprimanding are out of order for obvious
reasons. How can a driver education teacher develop patience,
courtesy, and emotional control in his students if he displays the
very opposite of these traits? For many students learning to
drive is a strong emotional experience, and they need an under-
standing teacher who knows the value of praise as well as
criticism. With only six hours of practice driving, the driver edu-
cation teacher should quickly "size up" the students and adjust
his approaches to their individual differences. In this manner he
increases chances of cultivating rapport with individual students
and, in turn, facilitating the learning process.
Driving is predominantly a perceptual task. Competent drivers
"spot" potential accident-producing situations and adjust their
driving accordingly. They have command over the driving situa-
tion at all times. Perceptual ability depends on personality traits,
previous experience, and familiarity with the situations being
encountered. Therefore, the driver education instructor should
introduce his students to a wide variety of traffic situations as a
means of developing perceptual skill. Effective instruction in
teaching the basic skills needed to maneuver the vehicle safely
will give the teacher more opportunity to expose students to










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Figure 10: In the conventional practice driving plan, one, two, or three students will
be in the back seat observing, while the instructor and one student will be in the front.

varied driving experiences. Furthermore, observation time, as
well as actual driving experience, can advance the development
of this skill.
In the conventional practice driving plan, one, two, or three
students will be in the back seat observing, while the instructor
and one student will be in the front. Since the car is a classroom
on wheels, a teaching laboratory, the resourceful teacher will
devise various techniques and aids to assure that the observers
are alert, participating, and learning, rather than merely riding
around awaiting their turn at the wheel. Observing and evalu-
ating fellow students behind-the-wheel afford a good learning
opportunity. This opportunity can be used to good advantage by
urging the observers to identify themselves with their fellow
student behind the wheel and to imagine they are actually driv-
ing. By thinking through the situation which confronts the
driver, planning how they would react, and comparing their de-
cision to the driver's decision and action, they will be learning
along with him.
Other suggestions for increasing the learning value of observa-
tion time are:
1. The observers watch the student driver closely and prepare
to offer constructive criticism immediately after that learner







completes his turn behind the wheel. The teacher should
constantly emphasize courteous criticism. To increase ob-
jectivity, some teachers develop rating scales for the stu-
dents to use.
2. The student observers record examples of safe and unsafe
driving behavior which they see during the practice driving
period. A composite list of these incidents from numerous
students and lessons can then be used as a basis for discus-
sion during a classroom period.

3. Less formal techniques are: (a) occasionally asking an ob-
server for a critique of a skill performance by the student
driver and (b) asking a student if he saw a certain behavior
by another motorist or pedestrian.

Appraising student progress. A separate discussion on evalua-
tion is hardly necessary when discussing practice driving instruc-
tion because checking on driver performance is so closely tied in
with guided practice. The teacher is continually commenting on
the driver's performance or asking the driver and observers to do
likewise. Errors are corrected immediately in order that correct
habits may be formed.

As the learner progresses, the teacher insists upon more accu-
rate, exact, and precise performance. The students may now be
ready for the pressure of a more formal type of evaluation in the
form of a checklist marked by the teacher or the student ob-
servers. In addition to the motivating value of such a checklist,
it may also serve to develop in learners a sense of personal pride
in their skill and abilities. As a final evaluation of skill, teachers
frequently require students to drive a prescribed course which
includes all the maneuvers taught. This road check out is often
more comprehensive than the one required by the state license
examiners.

Practice driving lessons not only afford an opportunity to
evaluate manipulative and perceptual skills but also provide in-
formation related to the learners' intellectual, social, and emo-
tional traits. In the real life situation of driving, the student
reveals strengths and limitations that the teacher might never
discover in the classroom. A perceptive teacher will accumulate
these observations and eventually form insights about students
which will increase the teacher's effectiveness.







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Photo Courtesy of Michigan State University
Figure 11: In the off-street multiple car plan, one instructor teaches two or more
students, each student operating a car simultaneously.

Multiple Car Plan
The off-street multiple car plan is primarily intended to in-
crease the pupil-teacher ratio in practice driving instruction
without sacrificing quality. This is accomplished through a mass
instruction technique utilizing an off-street driving facility. One
instructor teaches 2 or more learners, each operating a car simul-
taneously. The exact number depends on the size of the range
and the number of cars available. Experienced teachers of this
plan feel that 6 cars are the maximum number one teacher can
safely control, assuming adequate space. However, a smaller
number still increases teacher productivity over the conventional
single car plan.

All students receive step-by-step instruction in the preliminary
phases of driving. After the second hour on the range, all pupils
are operating cars alone following a predetermined traffic pattern
which is adjusted in its complexity from time to time to meet the
advancing skills of the students.

As pupils master successive instructional steps, they progress
to more complex skills requiring higher degrees of proficiency on
their part. From time to time, the instructor will ride with in-
dividual students to make a check on incorrect driving practices.
As they move about the course, students devote extra time to
practicing those exercises which prove most difficult, as may suit
their individual needs.


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1410







As a further aid to the instructor in handling the group, a
portable public address system or another method of communica-
tion enables him to caution or give instructions to pupils any-
where within the area, even while the cars are in operation.
Some ranges include a central tower with radio communications
to each car. Caution should be used in giving instructions to the
students while they are in the process of maneuvering the vehi-
cle. The tendency of the student will be to look in the direction
of the instructor, which could create a hazard. Ideally, students
should be trained to keep their eyes on the road ahead, even
when instructions are being given.

The question is frequently asked as to the degree of hazard
involved in permitting these students to operate the vehicles
alone on the driving area at such a relatively early stage in their
instruction. Where the plan has been in operation the property
damage has not been excessive.

For the initial experience on the range the cars are lined up
side by side at least fifteen feet apart. Following a briefing of the
lesson plan for the day, students go to their assigned vehicle and
wait with key in hand for further instruction. The teacher then
directs the students to enter their cars and execute preparatory
steps such as adjusting seats and mirrors, checking doors and
windows, and checking the brakes. For efficient use of range
time, students should be familiar with these steps beforehand
through reading assignments and class discussion. When prelimi-
nary steps have been completed, the teacher "talks through" the
steps for starting the engine as the students execute them. The
students then repeat this phase of the lesson a few times on their
own.

Now the students are ready to learn how to drive the car for-
ward and backward and stop smoothly. The teacher guides one
student at a time through the steps of moving the car forward
and stopping. After each learner has driven his car forward about
50 to 75 feet (depending on space available) so that all cars are
again in line, the teacher directs the students to move forward
again all at the same time. After this the same procedure is fol-
lowed for backing, one student at a time in the first attempt and
all together on the second try. Next, the students are directed to
repeat the forward and backward procedure on their own for
about ten minutes. During this phase of instruction the teacher







is watching the drivers closely in order to spot those who are
having difficulty and those progressing satisfactorily.

By this time the teacher has determined which students are
ready to start driving around the periphery of the range. Learn-
ers needing additional practice in driving forward and backward
remain where they are. The remainder are directed to drive
around the range in a counter-clockwise direction at a slow
speed, with an interval of at least three to five car lengths be-
tween cars. The teacher stations himself near the most difficult
turn so that he can "nip in the bud" potentially dangerous situa-
tions. After ten to fifteen minutes of this practice, the pattern of
traffic should be reversed to a clockwise direction. When the
learners who remained at the forward and backward practice are
ready, they join the circular traffic pattern. Usually by the end
of the period all cars are in this pattern.

After the first lesson, at least one new maneuver is introduced
each period. If the streets are wide enough (12 foot lanes), the
group is divided from the second lesson with one-half the cars
going clockwise and the other half going counter-clockwise.
After 10 to 12 minutes they reverse directions so that students
get equal time making right and left turns. Halfway through the
second period another maneuver is introduced. Entrance into
and exit from multiple lanes and lane changing are appropriate
early experiences if facilities permit.

The nature and sequence of maneuvers practiced on the range
depends upon the size and lay-out, plus the teacher's imagination
and ingenuity. The more comprehensive ranges include two and
four lane streets; some intersections; a dead-end street; a hill; a
simulated garage; a figure 8; and angle and parallel parking fa-
cilities. Smaller ranges include only a few of these facilities. In
any event, new maneuvers and traffic patterns are introduced
rapidly enough to challenge advanced students.
1. In planning the range lay-out, use adequate signs, markings,
lane widths, and other physical features designed to mini-
mize hazards. Adjust traffic patterns and controls to com-
pensate for inherent hazards which cannot be eliminated.
2. Instruct the learners so they understand and appreciate the
need for the rules and regulations related to the operation
of the range.







3. A competent teacher is necessary for maximum safety and
efficiency of the multiple car program. He must be alert and
sensitive to the problems and characteristics of each student.
Furthermore, he should possess the ability to maintain con-
trol and at the same time earn the respect of the students
as an effective teacher.

Instructional Material and Equipment for Driver Education
In selecting and using materials and equipment necessary for
good instruction, there is need for careful selection and planning.

1. Classroom

a. Textbook-Each student should have available a good,
up-to-date textbook.
b. Charts-May be made by teacher or student. Many good
and informative charts are available from various sources.
c. Models-May be developed by teacher or student. May
also be purchased.
d. Mock-ups-Usually developed by teacher or student. These
can be cut-aways or salvaged parts of automobiles.
e. Films and Filmstrips-Many sources are available for free
loan or purchase.
f. Slides-With some ingenuity and a 35 mm. camera, an in-
dividual may develop his own slides depicting local scenes.
g. Magnetic Boards.
h. Psychophysical Testing Equipment-Equipment may be
purchased or developed in part by teacher or student.
i. Maps-State and regional maps may be secured from local
service stations and gasoline dealers.
j. Additional Reference Material-Files of magazines, arti-
cles, traffic safety magazines, newsletters, pamphlets, local
traffic codes, Florida Driver's Handbook, etc.

2. Practice Driving
Many instructors feel that each of the following items con-
tributes to a more effective teaching program.







a. Dual control car
b. Simulators
c. Stanchions
d. Signs (auto signs). Driver Education identification signs
e. Mirrors-side mirrors and extra inside mirror for instruc-
tor
f. Steel tape
g. First aid kit
h. Fire extinguisher
i. Seat cushions
j. Seat belts
k. Accident report forms
1. Clip boards

Evaluation and Grading
Driver education, a comparatively new subject in the school
curriculum, should use the same pupil evaluation principles and
techniques as any other subject.
At the present time teachers do not have an accurate method
of measuring the entire learning process in driver education.
Nevertheless, teachers must do their best to evaluate the quali-
ties which constitute the competent driver and traffic citizen. No
technique or source of data should be overlooked. Furthermore,
the uniqueness of driver education demands that the teacher seek
new and more appropriate ways to evaluate.
The purpose of evaluation is to determine the extent to which
the objectives of instruction are being achieved. The end result
should be improvement of the educational offering. To accom-
plish this goal in driver education, evaluation procedures should
be selected that are appropriate to the behavioral goals.
Effective evaluation will help to answer these significant ques-
tions. How effective is the instruction? Do the students know,
can they do, and will they do as a result of our teaching? What
must be re-taught? Moreover, evaluation motivates teachers and
students to further progress. Evaluation is an essential guide and








motivator to the learning process, not merely a technique to
check up on the learner.
Human behavior and the nature of driver education are so
complex that in no way can the course be evaluated or described
by a single score or technique. Therefore, varied instruments and
techniques should be used. An evaluation program for driver edu-
cation that is concerned only with knowledge is inadequate.
Driver education has additional, important objectives. As far as
the individual student is concerned, evaluation of a driver edu-
cation should be concerned with the direct effects the course has
on the objectives dealing with attitudes, knowledge, and skill.

Evaluation of Attitudes
Social-Emotional Factors
Since attitudes, emotional maturity, and judgment are difficult
to measure, many driver education teachers base grades almost
entirely on subject matter and driving skill. Occasionally, a stu-
dent with poor attitudes scores well on subject matter tests and
performs skillfully in practice driving. However, the teacher may
sense that such a young person will likely be irresponsible on
the highway. Even though the teacher may desire to fail such a
student, the action cannot be supported by valid and reliable
testing procedures. Obviously, the teacher in this situation needs
as much data as possible in addition to subject matter and skill
test scores. The question is how can valid evidence of this type
be obtained. What techniques yield the information necessary to
evaluate attitudes, emotions, and judgment?
Observation of Behavior
Behavior is caused by multiple forces operating within and up-
on the individual. To evaluate the individual, a teacher needs to
understand these motivating forces. The best clues are found
through study and systematic recording of actual behavior. This
practice tends to stimulate teachers to seek underlying causes of
surface action, a prerequisite to helping students alter their
thinking and behavior. As a result, the teacher is less inclined to
sum up behavior by a single prominent trait or label. Instead, he
will see that a youngster's present behavior is based on his past
experiences and shaped by his present situation.
Observation of behavior must be organized, directed, and sys-
tematized in order to secure dependable information about in-








dividuals. The written report of an observation, commonly called
an anecdote, describes a single incident of a student's behavior.
To be significant, episodes are reported that deviate markedly
from the normal behavior of the individual or group, both com-
plimentary and uncomplimentary. If the anecdote is written by
the actual observer soon after the incident occurs, it can be quite
objective. Observers must avoid generalizing on the basis of
single episodes but instead should look for patterns of behavior
from numerous anecdotes. Interpretation of small bits of behavior
has little meaning.
Increased validity and meaning of observations result when
more than one reporter is involved. This is possible in driver edu-
cation where, in many cases, the student has different teachers
for classroom instruction and practice driving. When all the best
conditions prevail for writing anecdotes, they should be carefully
interpreted along with other information before forming even
tentative generalizations.
When anecdotes are written and used as they should be, a use-
ful and valid means of assessing and improving the behavior of
students is available. To put meaning into the observations, the
driver education teacher must first decide what traits or aspects
of behavior are to be investigated. The clues lie in the established
behavioral goals for the course. After these have been deter-
mined, the instructor should be on the lookout for significant be-
havior that leads to a better understanding of the student. Al-
though the process will help the teacher grade more accurately,
this is not the purpose or the most important value. Anecdotal
records, substituted for the usual vague generalizations about
student behavior, contribute to an understanding of an individ-
ual's personality so that he can be helped toward a better adjust-
ment on the highways and elsewhere.

Driving Attitudes Inventories
The development of desirable attitudes is generally considered
the most important part of a driver education course, as teachers
strive to prepare students for effective citizenship in a traffic
society. Therefore, the evaluation process should attempt to de-
termine to what extent attitudes are changed by the course con-
tent and instructional methods.
In regard to attitude, teachers should encourage the develop-
ment of drivers who:








1. Desire to become proficient drivers.

2. Take pride in the development of defensive driving skills.

3. Concern themselves with the safe mechanical condition of
vehicles.

4. Acquire knowledge and gain respect for traffic laws and
regulations.

5. Develop respect for the rights of drivers and pedestrians.

6. Act courteously in all driving situations.

Validating an instrument to measure attitudes is an imposing
task. For example, how can the teacher be sure the response re-
veals the real attitude or only what the student says it is? A
driver being examined for a license or a student taking a test
for a mark would tend to answer according to what he thought
was the acceptable response.

To complicate matters further, results from a few attitude
studies question the correlation between attitudes expressed on a
paper-and-pencil questionnaire and observed behavior. This and
other problems partially explain why so few instruments are
available for assessing driver attitudes.

Three acceptable inventories specifically designed for use in
traffic safety are:

1. Siebrecht Attitude Scale
Center For Safety Education
Washington Square
New York 3, New York
2. Driving Attitude Inventory
Iowa State College
Ames, Iowa
3. Mann Attitude Survey
College of Education
Michigan State University
East Lansing, Michigan
Administering one or more of these scales at the beginning of
the course and again at the end is a practice designed to deter-
mine attitude change and also a better understanding of student
attitudes. The inventories are also valuable to trigger class dis-
cussions which will help students to clarify their thinking about
traffic matters.








Tests for Personality Adjustment
Despite the lack of reference to specific driving situations,
other measures of personal and social adjustment promise to help
driver educators acquire useful information about students. Re-
search indicates that the problem driver possesses personality
traits that cause him to be maladjusted in other social settings.
A bad driving record is simply one manifestation of his broader
problems of adjustments. The following inventories are suggested
for use in safety education:
1. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory
The Psychological Corporation
304 East 45th Street
New York 17, New York
2. California Test of Personality
California Test Bureau
5916 Hollywood Boulevard
Los Angeles 28, California
3. Rogers Test of Personality Adjustment
Association Press
291 Broadway
New York 7, New York
4. Gates Scale of Emotional Maturity
University of Houston
Houston 4, Texas
Obviously, these devices are not achievement tests, but quali-
fied teachers can use them:
(1) to support notions gained from observed behavior
(2) to focus attention on what is to be observed
(3) for experimental purposes.

Group Discussion
This method can reveal the attitudes of students about driving
practices and traffic problems.

Student Self-Appraisal
The student analyzes his own progress with respect to course
objectives. Student and teacher jointly determine what action is
necessary to eliminate or compensate for the deficiencies re-
vealed by the self appraisal.

Projective Techniques
Through creative writing, sentence completion, etc., attitudes
may be unwittingly revealed.








Evaluation of Knowledge
Understanding of knowledge implies that the learner can apply
or make use of acquired knowledge rather than the memorization
of a selected series of facts. Therefore, in selecting or constructing
measuring instruments, care should be taken to see that test
items measure application and use of knowledge.
The following measurements are suggested as valid methods of
determining to what extent the students are acquiring an under-
standing of the concepts taught:
Written tests
Classroom participation
Individual or group projects, notebooks, workbooks, etc.

Evaluation of Skill
The development of skill in maneuvering a car is essential in
training a student driver. The following list of testing procedures
is suggested to measure potential driving skill.
Driving skill test
Psychophysical tests
Simulators
Road test

Grading in Driver Education
Although many educators feel that letter grades are inadequate
and frequently harmful to students, most secondary schools use
this method of reporting to parents. Common arguments against
letter grading are: (1) students work for a grade and learning
becomes secondary, (2) teachers frequently use the threat of
grades as a substitute for good teaching, (3) grades cause teach-
ers to overlook individual differences, (4) competition for grades
creates a barrier to the development of an attitude of cooperation
within the classroom, (5) letter grades have little meaning to
parents in regard to their child's development, (6) emphasis on
grades encourages cheating, and (7) the complexity of the learn-
ing process makes it impossible to determine accurately the
grade a student deserves. If these criticisms are valid in grading
other school subjects they are also true with respect to grading
driver education. In fact, the technique of determining a mean-








ingful and valid grade in driver education may be more complex
than in other school subjects. Nevertheless, driver education, as
well as other secondary school subjects, is faced with the problem
of ultimately interpreting test scores, observations, and other evi-
dence into A, B, C, D, or F; so they must grade as discriminately
as possible.
Some of the problems confronting driver education teachers in
the grading process are:
(1) What weight should be attached to the classroom phase
and the practice driving phase?
(2) What weight should be placed on skill, knowledge, and at-
titudes, in both classroom instruction and practice driving?
(3) How can attitudes be measured?
(4) Should driver education teachers consider behavior in
other classes and activities in arriving at a driver education
goal?
(5) Should non-school behavior be considered?
These and other questions have no easy solutions, but the fol-
lowing approach is suggested to help the driver educator with
the grading problem.
The grading decision becomes a comprehensive process cover-
ing all the behavioral goals of driver education. Although this
section suggests devices for evaluating specific aspects of the in-
dividual's learning and adjustments, it must be realized that these
measures are weak instruments when taken in isolation. One
cannot successfully fragmentize the learner into attitudes, skill,
and knowledge because they are so closely interwoven as deter-
minants of behavior. Individuals act on the basis of their total
personality, not just one aspect of it. Hence, the teacher must
eventually synthesize his observation and estimates of the stu-
dent, test scores, and other evidence to make an appraisal of the
whole person as a potential driver and traffic citizen. The pre-
ceding material in this section has pointed to sources and tech-
niques for securing the necessary evidence for making a realistic
appraisal.
An evaluation form, similar to the one contained in this pub-
lication, may help summarize and interpret accumulated evidence
on individual students. The form is designed to consider all the








acquired information on the student, whether the source was the
classroom or the car. To draw a sharp line between classroom
instruction and practice driving seems illogical since attitudes,
emotions, and knowledge are functioning in both situations. The
judgments on individual items must finally be interpreted into
one grade, but it will be meaningful judgment helpful to student,
teacher, and parent.

The student and teacher should use the evaluation form to-
gether. A discussion of the items on the form is in order early in
the course. Students deserve to know the factors on which they
will be graded. Rating each student midway in the course or
sooner gives him time to correct his deficiencies. The student's
understanding of his limitations and desire to improve them may
be encouraged by the opportunity to rate himself and then com-
pare his rating with the teachers in a private teacher-student
conference. Intelligent counseling, when undesirable symptoms
first appear, can prevent failures and, more important, may affect
a change in attitude and behavior. The pressure of grading too
frequently causes teachers to forget that the main purpose of all
evaluation activities is to promote and improve learning.

The following quotation suggests ideas for overcoming some
of the limitations of the grading process.
First, grading is no longer the teacher's sole responsibility but becomes
a joint endeavor, in which the student takes an important part.
Second, it is assumed that each student can learn, can use his best
talents, and can assess his own ability and effort. Third, the actual
achievement of students is considered far more significant than the
grade that is stamped upon it. Fourth, continued teacher-student
contact-many individual conferences, time spent on joint appraisal
of progress, and cooperative planning of programs--is accepted as
necessary."
SCrambs, Jean D., Iverson, William J., and Patterson, Franklin K. Modern Methods in
Secondary Education, Revised Edition. (New York: The Dryden Press, 1958), page 509.










CHAPTER 6


Forms-Reports-Records of Interest

To the Teacher


T HE NEED FOR FORMS, reports, letters, and records in the
driver education program cannot be overemphasized; how-
ever, it is desirable to limit the number and variety to those of
real value which will be used to the best advantage in contribut-
ing to the effectiveness of the program.
Several of these forms will be provided, and their completion
required by the State Department of Education and the State
Department of Public Safety. Others, which have been merely
suggested, can be prepared at the local county or school level.
There may be forms, other than the ones suggested here, which
the local instructor or school will develop to suit a particular
need.
Explanation of Forms
First letter to parents. This is the first of several letters and
reports that may be sent to parents. Their signing it indicates
that there will be no difficulties arising regarding their signatures
on the DL-3 form, which they must sign if the student is to take
the tests for a restricted operator's license. (To be prepared at the
local level.)
Joint inspection report. This form is self-explanatory. It should
be filled out in duplicate using carbon paper so that both copies
are identical. One copy goes to the dealer and one copy is kept
at the local school. (To be prepared at the local level.)
Board of Public Instruction-Dealer Agreement. This form will
be prepared by the State Department of Education, Tallahassee,
Florida, and will be made available to the local school through
the county superintendent's office. It should be filled out in quad-
ruplicate. When all copies have been signed by the school repre-







sentative and the dealer representative, they are sent to the State
Department of Education, Tallahassee, Florida, where they will
be signed by a State Department representative and distributed
to all parties concerned.
Driver education car log. This form is to be prepared at the
local level and may be revised to suit the needs in the local
situation. It is suggested that it be made up in pad form for
convenience.
Letter to parents: explanation of form DL-3. This letter will ac-
company the DL-3 to the parents explaining the proper proce-
dure in completing the form. Use of this letter has been found
to reduce the time and difficulty experienced in getting the DL-3
signed. (To be prepared at the local level.)
Class information form. This form contains the same informa-
tion that will be transferred to the DL-4 application forms. The
instructor will assist the students in filling out this form prior to
the arrival of the examiner to the school to give the tests. Then
the students may copy the information from this form onto the
DL-4 in ink (blue or black). Use of this form has been found to
expedite considerably the testing program. (Prepared at local
level.)
Student progress report to parents. This letter will be sent to
the parents after the student has received some instruction in the
driving phase of the course. A copy of the unit of instruction
which the instructor feels will benefit the student by "home
practice" will accompany this letter. As each new unit is taken
up by the instructor, a copy of that unit will be sent to the par-
ents for "home practice."
Instructor's final report. This report may be sent to the parents
at the completion of the driver education course. It may be at-
tached to the student's report card for that reporting period. It
should be made out in duplicate so that the school may keep one
copy for a permanent record. (To be prepared at the local level.)







Date


FIRST LETTER TO PARENTS
Driver Education

High School
Dear Parents:
has enrolled in the driver education course
at High School. The course consists of
hours of classroom instruction designed to develop the skills, un-
derstandings, and attitudes basic to safe and efficient driving,
with special emphasis on defensive driving techniques; and
Hours of actual driving instruction. The driver educa-
tion car is equipped with dual controls to provide adequate
safety and is also covered by liability insurance. Tests for a
restricted operator's license will be given each student early in
the course. The Florida Highway Patrol will collect a $1.00 fee
from each person just prior to administering the test.
Because of the limited time available for supervised practice
during the course of instruction, we are able to give the students
only the basic fundamentals of sound driving practices. We shall
appreciate your cooperation in providing additional practice
driving for the student. Other letters will be sent to you with
information as to what movements the student should practice.
It is advisable to keep such practice within the limits of the stu-
dent's driving instruction and experience. We hope that you will
be able to provide as much opportunity for practice driving as is
necessary to prepare the student adequately before he attempts
to face today's complex traffic conditions alone.
It will be the student's responsibility to obtain, when qualified,
a regular operator's license, since the examiner will not be able
to come to the school again for road tests.
Please sign and return to

Father's Signature Mother's Signature

or Guardian's Signature
Signed: Date 19




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