t~ -, "*
.--- -- -- I'C;-c '
-U-- --" "~~ "-:'~Y: ~-
----- .. '...'CI L
I- ~-L I-
r-- .L. -- --
rrL-ll ~ r r
..'~t~ -- -~
'':' -~-- -"-
&. 'N I I
STATE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
FLOYD T. CHRISTIAN Superintendent
BULLETIN 35C 1966
SECONDARY-SCHOOL TEACHERS in every subject area
have reported that a significantly large number of their stu-
dents are seriously handicapped by a lack of skill in reading.
Reliable evidence shows that this handicap is a contributing
cause of student failures during the high school years, and that
it is a constant and nagging hindrance to academic achievement
for many students. Out of this identifiable need, a fresh concept
to the teaching of reading has developed. Formerly considered
to be totally within the educational province of the elementary
school, reading instruction is now recognized as an essential com-
ponent of a high-quality secondary-school program.
Further training in reading is necessary at the secondary-
school level, if junior and senior high-school students are to be
able to benefit from the new and improved curricula which em-
phasize independent study. We are faced with the problem of
how to meet this need effectively. Compounding this situation
are the effects of expanding enrollments, the normal variations
in rates of individual development, and the mobility of the
American family. Too, the noble attempt by American schools
to provide universal education has yielded a wide range of stu-
dent differences which call for individualization of the educa-
Alert to this need, secondary-school teachers and administra-
tors have already been at work in Florida holding workshops;
meeting in committees; promoting faculty use of new methods
and materials; and developing and employing new diagnostic
instruments and remedial, corrective, and developmental tech-
niques. Even so, few texts are still available to support reading
instruction at the secondary-school level. Reading teachers are
scarce. Experiments in this area are too rarely reported in pro-
fessional journals and conferences.
This guide is one effort to provide a wide variety of usable
suggestions and dependable information for teachers working in
this important area. Implementation of a workable instructional
plan requires the cooperation of the whole faculty. A Guide:
Reading In Florida Secondary Schools should be helpful, in part
or in its entirety, to teachers directly and indirectly involved in
a secondary-school reading program and to administrators and
supervisors responsible for planning, instituting, and implement-
ing reading programs in high schools.
The Committee responsible for this guide has moved with
amazing dispatch to produce a useful publication that will add
substantial stimulation and support to the teaching of reading in
the secondary schools of Florida. This guide is offered as one
more step toward the unremitting goal of the Florida State
Department of Education to provide excellence in education for
every student in the State.
FLOYD T. CHRISTIAN
State Superintendent of Public Instruction
W HEN THE DECISION was made to develop a state-level
guide to teaching reading in the secondary school, a com-
mittee of public school teachers and university professors was
appointed by the State Superintendent of Public Instruction to
carry out the task.
Members of the Committee, whose service to public education
in Florida is increased and enhanced by their work on this Guide,
were: Dr. George Spache, Head, Reading Laboratory and Clinic,
University of Florida, Gainesville, Chairman; Mrs. Rhea M.
Anderson, Elementary Supervisor, Orange County Public
Schools, Orlando; Dr. Lois V. Arnold, Coordinator of English,
Pinellas County Schools, Clearwater; Dr. Emmett A. Betts,
School of Education, University of Miami, Coral Gables; Mrs.
Malva Braxton, Cottondale School, Cottondale; Mrs. Margaret
G. Green, Reading Consultant, Volusia County Schools, Daytona
Beach; Mr. James Schiavone, Miami Beach Senior High School,
Miami Beach; Mr. Stanley Simmons, Southwest Miami Senior
High School, Miami; Mrs. Carla S. Turner, Sarasota Junior High
School, Sarasota; Mrs. Eleanor Van Duren, Dean of Girls, Pom-
pano Beach Junior High School, Pompano Beach.
The Committee worked in cooperation with Mr. Paul Jacobs,
former Consultant in Language Arts with the State Department
of Education, and with Mr. Rodney P. Smith, Jr., present Con-
sultant in Language Arts.
It would be impossible to list individually all those who as-
sisted in making this guide possible. Their many services are
Special recognition for encouragement and leadership goes to
Dr. Fred Turner, former Director of the Division of Instructional
Services, State Department of Education, and to Dr. Joseph W.
Crenshaw, present Director of the Division of Instructional Serv-
ices and former Assistant Director, Curriculum.
We are indebted to Mr. J. K. Chapman, Mr. R. W. Sinclair,
and Mr. Howard Jay Friedman, for their valuable assistance
with lay-out, illustration, printing, and distribution of the guide.
Table of Contents
FOREWORD ..................................... i
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ........................... iii
I. STATEMENT OF RATIONALE AND NEED ....... 1
Purposes of This Guide .................... 2
Definitions and Objectives of Reading Program 3
II. EVALUATION AND TESTING ................... 10
A Selected List of Reading Tests ........... 17
III. PLANNING FOR A READING PROGRAM ........ 20
Administrator's Role ...................... 22
Role of the Secondary School Reading Teacher 23
Role of the School Librarian ............... 24
Role of Guidance and Student Personnel Staff 25
Role of School Psychologist ................ 27
Role of the School Nurse .................. 28
Role of the Parents ........................ 29
Organizing School Reading Programs ....... 31
Reading in the Content Fields .............. 35
Check List of Reading Practices in the Sec-
ondary School ........................ 57
IV. SCOPE AND SEQUENCE OF READING SKILLS
AND ABILITIES ................................. 59
Development of Reading A Continuous Process 59
Vertical and Horizontal Aspects of Reading .. 60
Scope and Sequence Chart ................. 62
V. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN READING AND THE
OTHER LANGUAGE ARTS ...................... 112
Interrelationships of the Language Arts ..... 112
The Relationship Between Listening and
Reading ............................... 115
The Relationship Between Speaking and
Reading ............................... 118
The Relationship Between Writing and
Reading ............................... 120
Linguistics ................................ 124
VI. DEVELOPING READING INTERESTS IN STU-
DENTS IN THE SECONDARY SCHOOL ......... 128
APPENDICES ................................... 146
Statement of Rationale and Need
UNTIL RELATIVELY recent years, the teaching of reading
was considered the exclusive responsibility of the elemen-
tary school. In fact, in many schools practically all instruction in
reading was concentrated in the first six grades. As a result of
this practice, a great many pupils entered secondary education
with a minimum of reading ability and hardly any skill in hand-
ling reading tasks of an advanced nature. The situation created
was, educationally speaking, an almost impossible one. Without
further training in reading skills, many junior and senior high
school pupils could not even begin the study of the normal con-
tent of a secondary education.
A number of other school conditions have focused attention
on the reading abilities of secondary pupils. Our secondary class-
rooms are becoming more crowded each year because of the
increase in school enrollments without a proportionate increase
in the number of qualified teachers. Approximately one-fifth of
our population moves each year from one home to another. In a
typical year, this means that twelve million or almost one out of
every three children are faced with the problem of readjustment
to a new school program.' The range of reading achievement in
almost any sizable secondary classroom is as much as eight grades.
Many of these pupils read far below their probable capacities as
determined by their intelligence and cultural background. Typi-
cal of the conditions in other schools, a survey of a large mid-
western system indicated that more than 29 percent of the eighth
grade graduates read at or below norms for the sixth grade.2
Finally, a large number of studies demonstrate the significance
of reading difficulties among secondary school drop-outs. Many
of these pupils would be enabled to experience academic success
and remain in school if given extra help in developing their
1 Children in a Changing World, Golden Anniversary White House Conference on
Children and Youth (Washington, D. C.: U. S. Government Printing Office, 1960), p. 7.
2 William Kottmeyer, "Improving Reading Instruction in the St. Louis Schools,"
Elementary School Journal, 45 (September 1944), pp. 33-38.
reading skills. For all these reasons, secondary teachers and ad-
ministrators have accepted the challenge of improving the read-
ing abilities of their pupils.
The growing interest in solving secondary reading problems
has been manifested in our state in a number of ways. Many
schools and counties have organized workshops to provide in-
service training with the help of state and university consultants.
Faculty committees have been formed to lead the school's efforts
to deal with reading training. In some instances, the committees
have stimulated school-wide faculty participation, resulting in
the adoption of new instructional approaches and materials, ex-
periments with grouping or special classes, and other such ex-
In some counties, programs intended to produce continued
development of reading ability have been established in every
secondary school. In other counties, corrective programs to pro-
vide diagnostic and remedial services for retarded readers have
had extensive and effective growth. In these and many other
ways, the teachers and administrators of our state have shown
their initiative in attacking this very difficult problem.
Purposes of This Guide
The spontaneous efforts of our schools to do something about
secondary reading have been hampered by lack of guidelines
and resources. Few practical textbooks on secondary reading
have been available. Teachers trained in secondary reading
methods are scarce. The reports of the reading experiments in
other secondary schools in our country are relatively few and
widely scattered among a number of educational journals. Schools
are unsure of the extent to which they should properly devote
their time and budgets to this responsibility. While the Guide to
English in Flo'rida Secondary Schools3 emphasized the primary
role of English teachers, other content field teachers wondered
about their responsibilities to the reading program. Some coun-
ties attempted to evolve their own models, as the Guide to Read-
ing in the Secondary Schools of Volusia County;4 others hesi-
3 A Guide: English in Florida Secondary Schools, Bulletin 35A, State Department of
Education, Tallahassee, Florida, 1962.
4 Margaret G. Green and George D. Spache, editors, Guide to Reading in the Sec-
ondary Schools of Volusia County (Mrs. Margaret Green, Daytona Beach Junior Col-
lege, Daytona Beach, Florida).
tated to develop functional programs without official statements
to guide them.
This guide is an attempt to resolve the doubts of those who
hesitate to attack the reading problem of secondary pupils. It
will not be a course of study nor a syllabus to direct the school's
efforts but rather a resource tool that may be adapted to the
conditions of each local situation. The Guide should function
simply as a source of practical suggestions for improving the
reading abilities of our pupils. The committee responsible for its
preparation recommends its critical use in the words of Carl J.
Freudenreich, "No other single program which the staff might
plan would have as far-reaching an effect on improvement of
the total teaching-learning situation in the school."'
Definitions and Objectives of Reading Programs
At least three types of secondary reading programs now exist
in schools. These programs differ in their organization, objectives,
Developmental Programs.6 The primary purpose of this type
of program is to develop all pupils to their maximum reading
use and capacity as part of the regular work of the secondary
school. The training is intended to reinforce and extend those
reading skills and applications acquired in previous years and
develop new skills and appreciations as they are needed to com-
prehend and enjoy advanced and complex reading materials.
These objectives imply that all pupils will be given further in-
struction in the basic skills of word analysis, rate, comprehension,
and vocabulary, as well as advanced training in the application
of reading in the content fields, guidance in free reading, critical
reading, reading-study techniques, organizational and reference
In most schools, developmental reading programs are organized
as a unit of some other segment of the regular English program,
or as special sections of English, social studies, or the core class.
A few schools center this instruction in the library, or plan for
all content teachers to devote a small part of each class hour to
the development of significant reading skills. Most develop-
SCarl J. Freudenreich, "How Can a Junior High School Staff Get a Schoolwide
Developmental Program Underway?" pp. 37-46 in Improving Reading in the Junior High
School, Arno Jewett, editor. U. S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare,
Office of Education, Bulletin No. 10, 1957.
6 See Organizing School Reading Programs, Chapter 3, for descriptions of various
mental programs include the measurement of pupil progress by
tests, reading inventories and study of the student's application
of his skills. A few schools attempt to determine the effect of
the instruction upon the quality and quantity of voluntary read-
ing and upon achievement and drop-outs.
The most successful developmental reading programs enlist
the active participation of the entire staff and administration in
planning, conducting, and evaluating the program. In many in-
stances, these efforts are coordinated by a committee of teachers
representing most departments of the school. As a result of these
cooperative efforts, there are often the indirect results of greater
skill in relating assignments, materials, and methods to pupil
reading abilities, attention to the technical vocabularies of each
field, and a recognition of the significance of various reading
skills in learning.
The average developmental reading program is offered for a
semester or two to practically all pupils, usually upon their en-
trance to the junior or senior high school. Training of this dura-
tion usually suffices to sharpen the basic skills and alert the pupil
to the need for flexibility and self-improvement, if he is to suc-
ceed with the secondary reading tasks. Pupils with severe read-
ing difficulties, however, require other types of programs suited
to their problems.
Corrective Programs.7 Perhaps a third to one-half of all
secondary pupils are in need of further instruction than the basic
developmental programs. Extremely slow rate, lack of ability to
adjust rate to the material and the purpose for reading, paucity
of vocabulary, difficulties in organizing and comprehending,
marked lack of interest or even distaste for reading, poor per-
ceptual or word recognition skills and weakness in word analysis
are some of the more common deficiencies in skills and habits.
These problems are touched upon in developmental programs but
often their severity requires more intensive corrective instruc-
Corrective reading programs, then, are intended to assist a
student in overcoming a marked retardation in one or two major
reading skills. Pupils are usually identified by group reading
tests which yield separate, reliable measures of at least rate,
7 See Organizing School Reading Programs, Chapter 3, for descriptions of various
comprehension, and vocabulary. Then they may be assigned to
special sections for the corrective activities. In some schools
when the number of pupils permits, these sections are homo-
geneously organized to contain pupils who present similar prob-
lems. However, in many schools it has been found feasible to
deal with a single, heterogeneous corrective group, if instruction
is offered on a small group basis.
The criterion of the degree of retardation is very important
in selecting pupils for corrective programs. Most schools have
limited staff time, space, and resources to devote to these pro-
grams. Thus the assignment of all pupils below standard to any
small degree is both impractical and wasteful. Several studies
indicate that a minimum of seventh grade reading performance
in the major skills is essential for success in junior high school,
while ninth grade ability is probably desirable for senior high
school. Therefore, these levels might be used for the initial se-
lection of pupils for corrective work. Junior high school pupils
who test below seventh grade and senior high school pupils who
fall below the ninth in one or two major reading skills might
constitute the first groups formed. It is assumed that these read-
ing performances are shown to be below the levels that the
pupils' capacities would permit. Other pupils with less retarda-
tion would then be accommodated in so far as facilities permitted.
Since they are keyed to the particular difficulties of the pupils,
corrective programs may vary considerably in their emphasis,
techniques, and duration. Some pupils will receive training in
reading flexibility by practice in previewing, skimming, scanning,
rapid reading, and study-type reading. At the same time, another
group may emphasize vocabulary development through training
in phonics, structural and contextual analysis, syllabication, use
of the dictionary, and the study of word parts. A third group
may be taught to outline, summarize, take notes, distinguish
main ideas from details, read directions, and other organizational
and reference skills which determine the student's comprehen-
sion. In some cases such as rate training, a few months of in-
struction may be sufficient to lay a foundation of skill which
will enable the pupil to handle most secondary reading demands.
In other cases, the degree of retardation or its persistence since
early school years may demand longer and more individualized
training than that available in the one or two semester corrective
program. Such pupils may well be referred eventually to the
remedial program described below. However, it is apparent that
corrective reading is not necessarily predetermined in length or
emphasis for all its pupils.
The diversity of the corrective program requires more flexi-
bility of methods and materials than does the more general
developmental training. The teacher will, for example, make
somewhat greater use of tests and other evaluative techniques.
Tests of rate of reading in different fields and under conditions
with varying purposes, diagnostic tests of phonic, word recogni-
tion and word analysis skills, measures of pupil vocabulary
knowledge in various fields, as well as informal evaluation ex-
ercises in study, organizational and reference skills will com-
monly be used. In rate training, he may make use of any of a
variety of mechanical devices for quickening perception of
forms and words, for increasing general rate of reading, or for
providing pacing. In comprehension, vocabulary, and other skills,
he may use a wide variety of manuals, workbooks, films and film-
strips, tapes, commercial kits and other aids, such as those listed
in the appendices of this book. Thus by more careful initial
selection of pupils, by diversifying instruction within the class,
and greater use of simple evaluation procedures, the corrective
program helps to overcome the major reading handicaps of most
Remedial Programs.8 The major purpose of remedial pro-
grams is to provide the degree of individualized and intensified
training needed by pupils who function more than two years
below capacity in most important reading abilities. These read-
ing disability cases often present a picture of failure dating
from early school years rather than a simple problem of inade-
quate training for meeting current secondary school demands.
The apparent causes of their difficulties are multiple and fre-
quently include such factors as visual skills, unfavorable emo-
tionalized attitudes toward reading or teachers or schooling in
general, inadequate or inappropriate instruction in fundamental
reading skills, disorganization in reading and study habits, in-
tellectual and learning problems as short attention span and poor
perception, and, finally, unhealthy or derogatory parental atti-
tudes toward the pupil or his reading ability.
8 See Organizing School Reading Programs, Chapter 3, for descriptions of various
The diversity and crucial nature of these contributing causes
make it apparent that careful study of the individual pupil's
history and background is vital to treatment. As a result, re-
medial programs differ from other types of reading improvement
efforts in the extent and depth of diagnosis, the individualiza-
tion of instruction, and the complexity and variety of treatment
approaches. Such programs require not only trained reading
specialists but also assistance from vision, medical psychiatric,
guidance and psychological professionals. Because of the expense
and personnel requirements, most remedial programs or reading
clinics can be sponsored only by county or large city school
The estimation of success of remedial and other types of pro-
grams is frequently based upon a comparison among the pupil's
initial reading performances, his status after training and his
apparent capacity for reading achievement. Corrective and re-
medial pupils are selected for training by this comparison, eval-
uated in their progress in the same fashion and released from
treatment when their performances appear to be commensurate
with their capacities. It is apparent that the constant use of the
comparison makes it a very significant factor in planning reading
improvement programs. Yet there is widely varying practice
among reading teachers and experts in estimating the capacity
for reading achievement. Few of these specialists agree upon
the best measure of just how well a pupil can or should perform
in reading.9 Some assume that his reading should be equal to his
mental age despite the fact that examination of the statistics
for any large number of pupils will show that this equality is
seldom actually present. Many pupils who succeed academically
do not read at a level equal to their mental age, and many read
much better than this level but could benefit from corrective
assistance. The mental age derived from a well-rounded intel-
ligence test is not an accurate predictor of reading ability, for
such a test includes many intellectual abilities irrelevant to
reading. Mental age and reading grade placement need not be
exactly equivalent and in many cases never will be equal. The
lack of language and reading experiences, the negative attitudes
of the pupil, his family or community and other factors may
make the expectation of equivalence in mental age and reading
m George D. Spache, "Estimating Reading Capacity," Evaluation of Reading, Supple-
mentary Educational Monographs, No. 88 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1958),
grade impractical. Furthermore, even if we grant that there is
some basis for expecting equivalence of mental age and reading
age, there is no evidence that mental age is an accurate predictor
of pupil gains from corrective or remedial instruction. Thus,
again mental age does not necessarily indicate the pupil's future
Some reading teachers use other criteria for estimating pupil
capacity for reading, such as age, or an average of the chrono-
logical and mental ages. Another approach is to average chrono-
logical age, mental age, and arithmetic age. This method assumes
that learning in arithmetic samples intellectual processes or
capacities not present in reading. Since both reading and arith-
metic are highly dependent upon the processes of reasoning and
memory, the validity of this method is dubious. Still another ap-
proach is to estimate capacity by the pupil's performance on a
non-verbal intelligence test such as the performance scale of the
Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. Since the facets of in-
telligence sampled by this or other non-verbal tests are not good
predictors of reading success or capacity, this comparison may
be greatly inaccurate. Furthermore, the belief that a retarded
reader, who tests higher in non-verbal intelligence than in verbal,
necessarily has a marked need for reading improvement is in-
defensible. There is no evidence that all pupils will or should
develop equally in both verbal and non-verbal tasks, as this be-
All of these approaches to predicting capacity are faulty, be-
cause they are based on too narrow a sampling of the fundamental
factors which, even more than verbal intelligence, determine
ultimate pupil reading performance-cultural background and
verbal experiences. These factors are more fully reflected by
a measure of auditory comprehension or the level of material
that the pupil can ordinarily comprehend when listening.
Several commercial tests of auditory comprehension are listed
later in this book. In general, they determine the pupil's
ability to answer questions on a series of graded materials and
estimate his capacity for reading after appropriate training to
be equal to the most difficult listening materials he can compre-
hend adequately. Similar informal tests based on any graded
series of content books could be constructed by the teacher. Esti-
mates of capacity for reading growth derived in this fashion rea-
listically sample not only basic intelligence or thinking processes
but also the stimulation given these by the pupil's family, the
community, and the school.
It should be realized that even the measure of listening com-
prehension will have been influenced by the pupil's prior lan-
guage experiences. This ability is amenable to training and, in-
deed, is improved by remedial training. But the listening test
does give a clearer picture of the pupil's background in con-
junction with other measures.
Efforts to evaluate pupil capacities for reading improvement
which include measures of listening comprehension, socio-
economic status, school goals, pupil goals, and family goals are
decidedly preferable to intelligence tests alone. These background
measures counteract such faulty practices as discharging pupils
from training when their reading test scores reach their grade
placement or their mental ages. Some of these pupils will con-
tinue to develop beyond these levels, while others may never
Evaluation and Testing
T HERE ARE TWO contrasting approaches to the study of sec-
ondary pupils' reading abilities and needs. One of these is
the common practice of simply purchasing a well-known com-
mercial reading test and using its results for grouping, diagnosis,
planning of the reading improvement program, and judging pu-
pil gains. This is what we refer to in the title of this chapter as
"testing." A second approach might be termed "evaluation," not
because it excludes reading tests, but because its goals are much
broader and its techniques more diverse. In this chapter, we
hope to convince the reader of the inadequacy of a narrow test-
ing approach to reading improvement efforts.
Evaluation implies that teachers will be concerned with such
questions as: the relationship between any given test and the
objectives of the reading training; the estimation of pupil growth
by actual samples of reading tasks, as well as by tests; how to
relate estimates of pupil capacity to training methods and their
outcomes; the measurement of growth in less obvious areas, as
reading interests, quality, variety and volume of reading; and
reading behaviors in study-type as well as recreational materials.
This approach also implies that the teacher is acutely aware of
the limitations of reading tests in any of the ways in which they
are commonly employed.
Selecting Reading Tests and Other Evaluation Instruments.
The selection of reading tests should certainly be related to the
purposes for which they are intended. Common purposes in-
1. A school survey to discover the proportion of poor readers,
to compare schools or classes and to secure an overview of
the apparent effectiveness of the reading program
2. Identification of the specific reading skills and content areas
in which certain pupils are weak
3. Diagnosis of the reasons for deficiencies by measures of
subskills or related factors
4. Measurement of improvement after training.
Although it is often not recognized, many reading tests are de-
signed to perform only one or two of these functions and are
inappropriate for some of the others.
Survey testing for purposes of crude grouping or classification
of pupils, and comparison of groups or schools may be accom-
plished by any general reading test which samples the major
reading skills of comprehension and vocabulary. Although help-
ful, a measure of rate is not essential for survey purposes since
it is not frequently used for grouping or school comparisons.
Among the tests listed at the end of this chapter which can be
used for survey purposes are the California, the Davis (in grades
11-12), the Cooperative, the Gates Reading Su'rvey (in grades
7-10), the Kelley-Greene, the Survey Section of the Diagnostic
Reading Test Series, the STEP test, the Nelson-Denny, and the
SRA Reading Record.
Survey testing usually is intended to identify those pupils in
need of reading training. Naturally the standards used for such
classification become crucial to the organization and effective-
ness of the reading program. Identification of too many pupils
as retarded in reading can cripple the program or even discour-
age its initiation, as well as waste much of the instructional
time devoted to pupils who are not in great need. For these
reasons, it is often practical to consider pupils as retarded only
when (1) at junior high school levels, they test two or more
years below the average of the group of their potential level or
(2) three or more years below at senior high school levels. It
is assumed that this degree of retardation is not due to lack of
intelligence, a point which may be crudely determined by com-
parison with their performances on a non-reading intelligence
test. This criterion is based on some evidence that lesser degrees
of retardation are not barriers to minimal academic success at
these levels. The norm used for comparison should, of course,
be that established by the population of the school rather than
national norm, for a pupil is retarded only when he cannot keep
up with his intellectual and cultural peers or fulfill his potential,
not when he fails to meet some hypothetical standard. Even with
these criteria for selection of pupils for reading training, it may
be necessary to delay such training for some, because of the
limitations of staff time and other facilities. Reading improve-
ment classes will need to be smaller than other groups, if they
are to supply the intensive, almost individualized instruction
that is essential.
In those schools, in which types of training other than re-
medial are possible, the survey testing may also function in pupil
classification. Corrective groups may be formed to improve one
or two major skills such as vocabulary or rate of comprehension,
if the survey test yields separate scores in these areas. Develop-
mental training may be offered to the average or above average
pupils, as identified by the survey testing.
After groups have been tentatively formed for any of the
types of reading improvement courses, diagnostic tests will be
used to plan the nature of the reading program. In develop-
mental reading it is probably sufficient to follow the general
implications of the survey test in emphasizing training in the
major skills. This may be accomplished by putting the greatest
stress on improving the weakest skill of the group while pro-
viding continued practice in the others. In corrective groups, the
pattern of training may also be based on the survey test results,
except that more small group and individual plans may be
needed because of the wider range of abilities and levels. In
some cases, more detailed diagnostic tests like those used in
remedial groups may be needed to indicate the training needed
in subskills or lower level abilities.
In remedial classes, there is real need for careful diagnostic
study of the pupils' difficulties and of the probable causes. Tests
of vision such as the Keystone Telebinocular, the Bausch and
Lomb Orthorater followed if necessary by a professional exami-
nation are essential. A measure of auditory discrimination, and
an audiometric screening for defects in auditory acuity are also
desirable. These screen out the pupils whose auditory handicaps
are likely to prevent progress in the remedial training.
Following these screening tests, it is necessary to explore the
pupil's development in the subskills which underlie his success
in the obvious major components of reading. For example, vo-
cabulary scores in the survey test are dependent upon the pupils'
relative development of word attack skills-phonics, structural
analysis, contextual analysis, visual perception, syllabication,
roots and affixes-as well as the breadth of his reading experi-
ences and his interest in learning new words.
Among the tests useful in diagnosis in this fashion at sec-
ondary levels are:
Rate-Diagnostic Reading Tests, Section III, Part I-General Rate;
Part III-Rate in Social Studies; Part III-Rate in Science.
Diagnostic Reading Tests, Lower Level, Booklet 2 (in grades
Comprehension-Diagnostic Reading Tests, Section II, Comprehen-
sion-Silent and Auditory; the Iowa Tests of Educational De-
velopment, Test 5-Social Studies; Test 6-Natural Sciences;
and Test 7-Literary Materials.
Vocabulary-Diagnostic Reading Tests, Section I-Vocabulary, and
Section IV-Word Attack Silent; Diagnostic Reading Tests,
Lower Level, Booklet 2 (in grades 4-8); the Michigan Vocabu-
lary; the Silent Reading Diagnostic Tests; the Stanford Diag-
nostic Phonics Survey; the Durost-Center Word Mastery Test,
the California Language Perception Tests and McCullough
Early in developmental and corrective work and somewhat
later in remedial groups, attention will be given to the pupils'
study skills, attitudes or motivation toward academic success,
as well as their actual performances in work-type reading situa-
tions. In some cases, tests of oral reading will be used to make
detailed observations of the pupil's word attack skills in opera-
tion. Generally speaking, oral tests are not accurate indicators
of the levels of reading materials that secondary pupils can deal
with, despite teachers' dependence upon them.' Oral and silent
reading tests measure different processes, yield different degrees
of comprehension and are not directly comparable, particularly
above the intermediate grades. Among those tests which may be
employed in these areas are:
Study Skills-Brown-Holtzman Survey, California Study Methods
Survey; Iowa Every-Pupil Tests of Basic Skills, Word-Study
Skills; SRA Achievement Series, Test 1, Word Study Skills
Oral Reading-Diagnostic Reading Scales; Durrell Analysis of
Reading Difficulty; Gates-McKillop Diagnostic Test; Gilmore
Oral; Gray's Oral Reading; Strang Reading Diagnostic Record.
In all types of reading improvement efforts, standardized tests
play a role in classification, grouping, and in identifying areas of
difficulty and pupil lacks of specific skills. With this test informa-
tion, it then becomes essential to explore the pupil handicaps
1 Ralph C. Preston, "The Reading Status of Children Classified by Teachers as Re-
tarded Readers," Elementary English, 30 (April 1953), pp. 225-27.
by other measures of their performances. Careful observation of
the pupils' procedures in a variety of reading and study tasks
must be made to clarify and implement the test scores.
Other measures necessary for complete evaluation of pupil
progress include records of the volume and variety of pupil
reading; graphs from a group of reading exercises showing
changes in words per minute in sustained reading, percentage of
comprehension, or degree of success in specific word attack skills;
actual samples of work done in content field or study-type ma-
terials; samples of work in outlining, skimming, scanning, note-
taking, summarizing and certain library skills. Performances in
these realistic tasks are better indicators of pupil growth in read-
ing efficiency than any standardized test score. It is important
that pupils be aided in self-evaluation of their own growth by
their performances in these life-like reading tasks. In addition,
as Hitchcock and Alfred2 have suggested, the teacher will make
and record a variety of observations as part of her total evalua-
tion. Among these are notes on the pupils' interest in reading
assignments, ability to resist distraction, preparatory steps in
assembling materials for study, willingness to read orally, skill
in following written directions, interest in class work and desire
to listen rather than read (greater among poorer readers). These
observations of attitudes and working habits are more meaning-
ful to the teacher in planning corrective steps than most available
standardized test scores.
Interpreting Tests and Other Measures. In interpreting tests
and other evaluation instruments, there are two major problems
-relating scores to pupil capacity for improvement and the limi-
tations inherent in formalized tests. The first of these problems
was discussed briefly in the first chapter of this guide. Suffice
it to say that great care must be taken in estimating pupils'
capacities for improvement or in judging their progress for these
points are crucial to the determination of the real effectiveness
of the improvement program.3
While it is true that there are inherent limitations in stand-
ardized or informal tests, many of these stem from the manner
in which tests, are used and interpreted rather than from basic
2 Arthur A. Hitchcock and Cleo Alfred, "Can Teachers Make Accurate Estimates of
Reading Ability?" Clearing House, 29 (March 1955), pp. 422-24.
S George D. Spache, "Estimating Reading Capacity," Evaluation of Reading, Supple-
mentary Educational Monographs, No. 88 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1958),
faults in the tests. Faulty interpretations are common among test
1. Estimating gains after training
2. Making comparisons between pupils or between scores from
3. In over-estimating the reliability and the validity of test
4. In accepting titles of tests at face value.
It is common practice to employ a reading test before and
after training to determine pupil gains in various skills. Such
practice implies that both scores are highly accurate and stable
and that any large difference between them is due to the train-
ing. Such a practice implies that the tests measure the skills
emphasized in the program in material comparable to the train-
ing materials. Often, none of these assumptions are correct. All
reading test scores are liable to a sizable error rather than being
exact. For example, let us say that John scores 8.8 in a certain
reading test. The usual interpretation is that he can read ade-
quately in eighth grade materials. Actually his true score, as
determined by the reliability of this particular test, is most
likely to be somewhere between 8.5 and 9.1, which implies that
he may be able to deal with some ninth grade reading areas.
The test score does not reveal what types of content he can read
at these levels nor his strengths in such major skills as rate,
comprehension or vocabulary, unless subscores in these are pro-
vided. In many cases, the test score does not actually represent
the pupil's working level for he may not be able to perform at
the test level in classroom materials, for a variety of reasons.
Moreover, he certainly will not read equally well in all types
of materials at this level. Furthermore, the test score does not
accurately reflect the instructional level for classroom reading
tasks, or the levels of materials suitable for independent reading.
Continuing with the case of John, we may observe that he
appears to be a poorer reader than Mary, who tests at 9.4. Since
Mary's true score may be as low as 9.1, and John's as high as
this, the comparison is unjustified, for there may be no real dif-
ference in their over-all performances. After training for six
weeks, John retests on another form at 9.1, an apparent gain of
three months. The usual interpretation that the program resulted
in a more than normal gain for John is not necessarily accurate,
for several reasons. The amount of gain is well within the stand-
ard error measurement for this test and may not reflect any
significant change, unless there are many informal indications
of progress in major reading tasks. Secondly, many pupils show
a temporary, significant gain in test score in the first few months
of exposure to a new program, but no further gains in subsequent
training. John's gain does not prove that his improvement is
permanent nor that it will continue, even if there are evidences
that it is real. We have no means of determining these facts
from the test score without concrete evidence in classroom
reading tasks of changes in reading habits and practices.
Judgments of pupil improvement as the result of a training
program must be guided not only by attention to the prob-
able error in measurement but also to other trends in pupil
change. Over any considerable period of time such as several
months or a semester, there is a distinct tendency for pupil
scores to shift to a point closer to the normal. Scores of very
poor readers are apt to move upward while extremely high
scorers tend to regress. Unless these changes are greater than
the inherent probable error they are not meaningful. Bright pu-
pils tend to show almost immediate improvement during the
early part of the training, and relatively little gain thereafter.
Other pupils improve more slowly during the first third of the
program but accelerate in learning during later periods. These
trends raise significant questions regarding the assumption that
learning progresses at a regular rate or at the same rate for most
pupils. The recognition of these trends demands that judgment
of pupil improvement must be based on a variety of evaluations
and samples of pupil work, as well as careful estimates of pupil
There are a number of other pitfalls in interpretation of test
scores into which many users fall. Because a test contains a num-
ber of parts labeled as measuring a certain skill and the overall
test is reasonably reliable, teachers assume that the subscores
are real or valid and reliable measures. There are many tests
of this type in which the subscores are based upon such brief or
highly speeded performances that their validity is suspect. A
realistic evaluation of comprehension in a particular content
area or a literary form, or of rate of reading or vocabulary in
this area cannot be made in a few minutes of testing. Tests of
detailed skills as main ideas, details, conclusions, inferences,
interpretation, etc., intercorrelate so highly as to indicate that
they are probably measuring the same rather than different abil-
ities. Subtest labels do not necessarily measure what they claim
to, even though they may be helpful in offering some clues for
the planning of the training program. These are some of the
reasons we have recommended above specific diagnostic tests
for each major reading skill, rather than suggesting the use of
the subscores from survey tests. Most of the diagnostic tests we
have listed provide adequate samples of major and minor skills,
free from the effect of time pressures and doubtful labeling.
As Traxler4 has noted, there is an inherent artificiality in
reading tests. As the reading process flows by, we dip into the
stream to lift out minute samples from which we then describe
the entire stream. But no aspect of silent reading can be mea-
sured without interrupting the process, for at any moment the
pupil is employing a variety of visual, intellectual, and reading
skills and processes. Only by repeated samples of normal read-
ing tasks, by observation of daily progress over a period of time
and by evaluation of changes in pupil efficiency and variety of
his uses of reading can we estimate pupil improvement and the
results of our training programs.
A Selected List of Reading Tests'
Brown-Holtzman Survey of Study Habits and Attitudes, Psychological
Corporation, 304 East 45th Street, New York 17, New York. Surveys
students' attitudes toward study as well as study practices. For college
freshmen. Extensive validity data offered by authors.
California Language Perception, Educational Developmental Corp., 200
California Avenue, Palo Alto, California. Offers twelve brief tests of
significant subskllls in visual perception, word meaning and phonology
and structural elements.
California Reading Test, California Test Bureau. Del Monte Research
Park, Monterey, California. Junior high test for grades seven through
nine and the advanced test for grades nine through fourteen include
measures of vocabulary and comprehension in several content fields.
California Study Methods Survey, California Test Bureau, Del Monte
Research Park, Monterey, California. Yields separate scores in per-
sonal adjustment, scholarly motivation, mechanics of study and
personal organization, as well as a total score. Offers separate norms
for high school students, all four grades combined, and for college
juniors, in the four parts of the test and in total score.
4 Arthur E. Traxler, "Values and Limitations of Standardized Reading Tests," Eval-
uation of Reading, Supplementary Educational Monographs, No. 88 (Chicago: University
of Chicago Press, 1958), pp. 111-17.
SAll tests are Intended for group administration (unless otherwise noted) by teachers.
Cooperative Reading Comprehension, Educational Testing Service,
Princeton, New Jersey. Two levels are available. Yields separate scores
for vocabulary, speed of comprehension and level of comprehension.
A difficult test in which the distinction between level and speed is
Davis Reading Test, Psychological Corporation, 304 East 45th Street,
New York 17, New York. Intended for grades eleven to thirteen. Yields
scores on level and speed of comprehension in very difficult material.
Diagnostic Reading Scales, California Test Bureau, Del Monte Research
Park, Monterey, California. Includes measures of word recognition
(up to 6th grade) phonics skills, oral reading, silent reading and
auditory comprehension. For individual diagnosis of pupils reading
below ninth grade.
Diagnostic Reading Tests, Committee on Diagnostic Reading Tests,
Mountain Home, North Carolina. The battery of separate tests for
grades seven to fourteen includes a survey test; a vocabulary test;
silent and auditory comprehension test; rate of reading tests in
general rate, social studies and science; oral reading; and silent word
attack. The battery for elementary schools includes reading readiness
tests and test booklets for grade one, grade two, and grades three and
four. The higher level oral reading test is also usable in the first six
grades. Survey tests for grades four to eight are also available.
Durost-Center Word Mastery Test, Harcourt, Brace and World, 757
Third Avenue, New York 16, New York. Includes measures of general
vocabulary of secondary school pupils (grades 9-12) and ability to
use context to obtain meanings.
Durrell Analysis of Reading Difficulty, Harcourt, Brace and World, New
York. Includes measures of silent and oral reading, listening, word
recognition, letter recognition, visual memory of words, beginning
and ending sounds, several spelling tests and several unstandardized
tests. Intended for individual diagnostic use in the first six grades.
Gates Reading Survey, Bureau of Publications, Teachers College, Co-
lumbia University, 525 W. 120th Street, New York. Includes Measures
of speed and accuracy, vocabulary, and level of comprehension for
grades 3 to 10.
Gilmore Oral Reading Test, Harcourt, Brace and World, New York. For
observation of oral reading performances in the first eight grades.
Yields grade scores in accuracy, comprehension and rate.
Gray Oral Reading Test, Bobbs-Merrill Co., Box 558, Indianapolis 6,
Indiana. Oral reading passages ranging from first grade to adult
levels. No quantitative measure of comprehension is offered.
Iowa Every-Pupil Tests of Basic Skills, Word-Study Skills, Houghton
Mifflin, 2 Park Street, Boston 7, Massachusetts. Separate scores in
map reading, use of references, index, dictionary, and alphabetization
as well as total score. Elementary battery for end-of-year testing in
grades three through five; advanced battery for end of grades five
through nine substitutes subtest of reading graphs, charts, and tables
for the alphabetization section. Each of the batteries is probably too
difficult for adequate measurement of the lowest grade level for which
it is offered.
Iowa Tests of Educational Development, Science Research Associates,
259 East Erie Street, Chicago 11, Illinois. Test 9, "Use of Sources of
Information," samples student's knowledge of the content and uses of
basic library reference tools. Yields only total score in grades nine
Kelley-Greene Reading Comprehension Test, Harcourt, Brace and
World, New York. Separate subtests in paragraph comprehension,
rate, directed reading and retention of details in reading materials
representing a variety of content areas. For grades nine through
McCullough Word-Analysis Tests, Ginn and Company, Post Office Box
191, Boston, Massachusetts. Offers seven tests of phonic and word
analysis skills, primarily intended for evaluation in grades 4, 5, and
Michigan Vocabulary Profile Test, Harcourt, Brace and World, New
York. Separate measures of knowledge of word meaning in eight
content fields. Norms for grades nine through twelve, college students,
and various adult groups.
Nelson-Denny Reading Tests, Houghton Mifflin, 2 Park Street, Boston 7,
Massachusetts. Includes tests of general vocabulary, comprehension
of textbook samples, and rate. For grades 9-16.
SRA Achievement Series, Test 1, Word Study Skills, Science Research
Associates, 259 East Erie Street, Chicago 11, Illinois. The intermediate
battery for grades four through six includes this test which is com-
posed of subtests of basic references (such as the table of contents,
index and reference tools) and reading of graphs and tables.
SRA Reading Record, Science Research Associates, 259 East Erie Street,
Chicago 11, Illinois. Offers a measure of rate, comprehension, four
tests of everyday reading skills (directory, map-table-graph, advertise-
ments, index), three tests of vocabulary for grades 6-12.
Sequential Tests for Educational Progress, Educational Testing Service,
Princeton, New Jersey. Separate tests for listening and reading are
available in grades four through six, seven through nine, ten through
twelve, thirteen through fourteen. Each samples comprehension of a
wide variety of classroom materials of appropriate levels. Total score
only is available.
Silent Reading Diagnostic Tests, Lyons and Carnahan, 407 East 25th
Street, Chicago 16, Illinois. For grades three to six. Subtests of word
recognition in isolation and in context; tendency to reversals; word
analysis by recognition of common word elements, syllabication and
roots; phonic skills in recognizing phonograms, beginning and ending
sounds, letter sounds and in blending.
Stanford Diagnostic Phonics Survey, Consulting Psychologists Press, 577
College Avenue, Palo Alto, California. A group test of phonics skills
for high school and college students.
Strang Reading Diagnostic Record for High School and College Stu-
dents, Bureau of Publications, Teachers College, Columbia University,
New York. Includes four oral reading paragraphs and a case history
Planning for a Reading Program
T EACHING READING, contrary to past practice, is no longer
terminated at the end of the elementary school experience.
Without further training in reading skills, many junior and sen-
ior high school pupils could not even begin the study of the
normal content of a secondary education." The causes of this
situation as listed by Spache2 follow:
1. The range of individual differences present because of our
attempt to provide universal education
2. The effects of overcrowding and mass instruction
3. The influence of normal variations in rates of development
4. The impact of the mobility of the American family.
Many secondary schools have become concerned about the
reading difficulties of their pupils and are attempting to find
solutions. The solutions will vary with each county and within
each school, but this guide will attempt to cover some of the ways
in which a reading program may be set up. Each school will
want to evaluate its own program, discover its needs, and set up
the type of program most suitable to meet these needs.
An effective reading program for secondary schools takes into
consideration all teachers of the school, administrators, librarian,
and guidance staff; the needs of the pupils; and the cooperation
of the parents.
A good way to start a reading program in a secondary school
is to form a faculty committee composed of representatives of the
various departments of the school and the administrators. The
services of a trained reading teacher are helpful, but reading on
1 See Chapter 1.
2 George D. Spache, Toward Better Reading (Champaign, Illinois: Garrard Publishing
Company, 1963), pp. 211-212.
the secondary level is the concern of the whole faculty with the
administrator providing demonstrations and in-service training.
A good approach to reading instruction in the secondary
schools is for every teacher in every department to handle the
reading techniques demanded by his subject with special empha-
sis on the particular techniques most needed to meet the needs
of the individual students in his classes. This means that each
junior and senior high school teacher accepts the pupil at his
present reading level and at his own rate of learning. It would
be essential for teachers to have access to several texts on dif-
ferent reading levels and to be willing to use them.
Some schools, through their faculty committee on reading,
have set up a school-wide program in which they emphasize some
phase of reading in the different subjects during the same day or
days. An example of this would be to decide to teach one of the
study formulas, SQRRR or PQRST,3 in the various subjects dur-
ing the same day. This takes careful planning. The teachers in
all departments would become familiar with the formula in ad-
vance and find ways to apply it to their own particular subject
during this same period of time. The practical use of this method
of study throughout the same day would make it much more
meaningful to the students and each teacher would reinforce the
teaching of the other teachers.
After careful planning by the faculty committee some other
principles that might be taught throughout the school on par-
ticular days are: different rates of speed for different materials,
finding main ideas, skimming, scanning, affixes and roots, and
vocabulary.4 In a school-wide study of affixes and roots it would
be interesting to use the same ones as much as possible in all
subjects showing how they pertain to this particular subject area.
In vocabulary something could be done to choose some words
that are used differently in the various subjects. One of the func-
tions of this committee is to plan the list of affixes, roots, and
vocabulary pertinent to the various subject areas.
If ten minutes of the period are spent on the days agreed upon
to reinforce a reading skill in the various subject areas, the
pupils and the teachers would become more aware of the prin-
ciple involved than if it is presented only by the reading teacher.
3 See "Scope and Sequence Chart" on page 62.
See Chapter 4.
This approach has been found to be most successful in several
schools and has been reported in research.
The use of the core program where teachers work with fewer
students for a longer time during the day also has implications
for the teaching of reading. When the teachers have the students
for two or more periods in two subject areas, such as English
and social studies, many advantages from the reading point of
view are apparent. The teacher comes into contact with fewer
pupils during a day and is thus enabled to learn much more
about their reading difficulties. This program often gives teachers
more time to work with individual pupils on their particular
Whatever plans for improving the reading ability of students
are to be undertaken, discussion of the plans by a committee
of faculty members and the school administration is the best
first step to take.
Administrators are usually alarmed when indications show that
many pupils are not reading up to their potentialities. This is
especially true when the administrators are vitally concerned
with the continued improvement of public education.
Newton5 lists three ways in which the administrator should
take the lead:
1. Professional Growth of Teachers
The attitude of teachers toward a developmental program of
reading can be strengthened by in-service training. This method
usually awakens concern for the need of reading instruction in all
courses offered by the school. This in-service training can be
carried out in many ways: workshops, reading conferences, courses,
case studies, parent-teacher conferences, or by the help of a read-
ing teacher in the regular classes.
Also if members of various departments serve on a faculty com-
mittee to plan reading instruction throughout the school, an
awakened interest in reading problems aids the working out of
suitable means to insure the continuing growth in reading skills
for the students.
2. Coordination of Staff Effort
In secondary schools teachers can be more effective in attempt-
ing to solve reading difficulties of pupils if they have the help of the
school nurse, school psychologist, guidance staff, librarian, and a
SJ. Roy Newton, Reading in Your School (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company,
Inc., 1960), pp. 207-210.
trained reading teacher. Teachers who are aware of the diverse
reading abilities of their pupils still profit when the administrator
makes each member of the teaching staff aware of his place in the
3. Public Relations
Usually informed parents are cooperative parents, but sometimes,
because of insufficient information, parents judge the school un-
fairly. As we are all aware, the teaching of reading has been a
prime target for criticism of our schools. The administrator is the
one to take the lead in interpreting the school program to the
parents and in considering the merits of any constructive criticism.
Sometimes these criticisms may result in needed improvement.
Newton says further that "One of the most effective ways by
which a principal can influence the reading climate of a school
is by his selection of new teachers."6 If teachers are hired who
recognize the basic importance of reading in their subjects and
are sympathetic to the idea that not all children learn at the
same rate, then reading will be given a more important part in
the school curriculum.
If a school decides to try a particular type of reading program,
it is the administrator who has the responsibility for providing
the materials needed for such a program. If special reading classes
are set up for retarded readers, slow learners, or superior stu-
dents with reading disabilities, these classes will need essential
reading supplies. Teachers who are willing to attempt teaching
with the aid of several texts on differing reading levels, should
be provided with the necessary materials. Some special materials
are basic requirements for certain types of reading classes.
Some schools are ready to take the necessary steps to improve
the reading abilities of their pupils; others are not yet fully
aware of the difficulties with which many students are faced.
The administrator can evaluate how fast the school, the staff,
and the community are ready to move. In a democracy our aim
is to help all students to develop their full capabilities whether
they are slow learners, average students, or able learners.
Role of the Secondary School Reading Teacher
According to Bracken7 the secondary school reading teacher
has four very important goals:
1. To help teachers improve the reading instruction in their classes
6 Idem. p. 215.
7 Ruth Strang and Dorothy Kendall Bracken, Making Better Readers (Boston: D. C.
Heath and Co., 1957), p. 158.
2. To work with seriously retarded readers in small groups and
3. To work with administrators and curriculum people in providing
experiences the pupils need, especially in suggesting books and
other materials that will be interesting and helpful
4. To interpret the reading program to the public and gain the
citizens' support of it.
Some reading teachers teach classes of fifteen pupils in the
secondary school with success. These pupils may be remedial
pupils, that is pupils who are two or more grades below their
reading capabilities;8 they may be pupils who need corrective
reading help in a particular phase of reading; or they may be a
mixture of both. Reading teachers may also engage in develop-
mental reading instruction. Some teachers have found that in the
secondary schools it is possible to teach all grade levels of
pupils in one group and pupils with many different reading abil-
ities. This is usually more effective if the pupils have asked for
this help, if they have the potential to improve, and if not too
many emotionally disturbed pupils are put into any one class.
On the secondary level it is advisable, if possible, that the
reading teacher have some time to devote to helping subject area
teachers who request assistance in teaching the reading tech-
niques in their particular fields and that he have some time to
devote to individual testing of pupils with special reading prob-
The reading teacher can very well act as a resource person
for the school as he is usually the one in the school who is most
familiar with the materials available for a particular reading
As a member of the faculty committee concerned with plan-
ning the reading program for the school, the reading teacher can
be of great help in planning and implementing this program and
acting as the liaison between the administrator and the reading
Role of the School Librarian
As stated in the section of this guide "Developing Reading
Interests in Students in the Secondary Schools." "The librarian
is a most important member of the team which develops the
reading interests of secondary school students."
s See Chapter 2.
In addition to the services mentioned in Section VI, the li-
brarian can help the classroom and reading teacher by observing
the pupils as they work in the library, and reporting any de-
ficiencies to the teachers concerned. For example, a student
who copies whole paragraphs from an encyclopedia needs more
help in note taking and outlining.
In many schools the librarian does direct teaching. A whole
class can be given a lesson by the librarian in the use of a new
set of reference books or in the location of articles in publica-
The librarian is of great help to the reading teacher and to
all teachers in any school system by recommending books for
particular pupils and by seeing that the library contains the books
that pupils need in carrying out their class assignments and for
recreational reading. A good library in the secondary school con-
tains books on many reading levels and books that meet the
diversified interests of the pupils.
Role of Guidance and Student Personnel Staff
Newton lists five areas in which the guidance department func-
tions in developing a reading program: testing, curriculum, sched-
uling, recordkeeping, and advisement through conferences and
In administering tests to pupils, the important thing is that
both teachers and the guidance department know the reasons
for giving the tests selected and the use which can be made of
their results. The guidance department may suggest tests which
will be helpful to teachers or the teachers may make the initial
suggestions. Of prime importance is the use of test results as a
guide to better teaching methods. Chapter 2, Evaluation and
Testing, of this reading guide lists tests and their uses regarding
Strang says that "The counselor often finds poor reading
associated with behavior problems, with failure in school sub-
9 J. Roy Newton, Reading in Your School (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company,
1960), p. 118.
jects, and with dissatisfaction with school, leading to truancy
and school leaving. As a member of curriculum and policy-
making committees, the guidance person can suggest changes
that will help to prevent reading problems. Guidance problems
of many kinds, including the making of educational and voca-
tional plans, often involve reading difficulties, and serious read-
ing problems usually have social and emotional aspects. The
well-qualified guidance worker should have some preparation
in the field of reading improvement."10
Curriculum provisions at the secondary level will vary all the
way from a single heterogeneous program to a multi-level or-
ganization of homogeneous groups. While homogeneous grouping
may reduce the range of abilities within classes, such grouping
does not remove the necessity of the teacher's providing for in-
When there is an increased emphasis upon reading ability, a
function of the guidance department is the assignment of stu-
dents to special courses and remedial work. With so many sec-
ondary pupils needing additional help in reading adequately,
it is important that pupils assigned for special work be those
who will profit the most from this assignment. The guidance
counselor has access to records and can hold individual confer-
ences with pupils and parents which will enable him to suggest
pupils for special work in the most efficient way possible.
Scheduling is a very individual matter with each school, but
for best results the specific needs of each pupil should be con-
sidered as carefully as possible.
In large schools individual scheduling of all pupils will enhance
the possibilities of their achieving to the maximum of their
ability. Individual scheduling would permit a student to be in
the top section in science and social studies, the second section
in mathematics, and the third section in English, for example.
In smaller school systems, the individual classroom teacher
must provide both adjusted work for the slow learner and en-
richment for the more able learner. In scheduling pupils for read-
10 Ruth Strang and Dorothy Kendall Bracken, Making Better Readers (Boston: D. C.
Heath and Company, 1957), p. 158.
ing instruction it is usually unsuccessful if pupils are deprived
of some subject that interests them deeply in order to attend
Cumulative folders for each pupil and test scores are usually
available in the guidance department. It is important that all
teachers have access to information regarding the pupils whom
they teach. This is particularly true of remedial pupils as many
times the records contain information of great assistance to teach-
ers trying to help these pupils.
Advisement Through Conferences and Reporting
The guidance department spends much time in conferences
with students and parents. In scheduling pupils for special read-
ing instruction it is important that both pupils and parents
realize the purpose of the course.
The guidance department has an important part to play re-
garding any reading program. Its responsibility for student and
teacher conferences, together with the services it gives in test-
ing, test results, school marks, and cumulative records makes
this department of great help to the reading teacher. In order that
he may schedule pupils in keeping with the school curriculum
and pupil needs the guidance counselor must be acquainted with
and sympathetic toward the principles of developmental and re-
medial reading. Thus, the work of the guidance department can
be of great help in insuring a worthwhile reading program for
Role of the School Psychologist
The school psychologist is in a position to be of great help
to the reading teacher and to all teachers who have pupils who
do not learn easily. The school psychologist may be able to make
suggestions which will give the teacher clues to the pupil-
teacher interaction, psychotherapeutic principles, and pupil per-
sonality. Often group intelligence tests label pupils as slow learn-
ers when actually they are so handicapped by poor reading ability
that these tests are an inexact measure of their mental ability.
Many larger school systems have the services of a school psy-
chologist who can administer an individual test to pupils. An
individual test may not only give a measure of intelligence
without reference to reading ability, but may also reveal much
useful information about the pupil's strengths and weaknesses,
attention span, and aptitudes for learning under various condi-
In smaller school systems special services can often be ob-
tained by cooperation with other members of the community,
such as doctors, psychologists, and other specialists who are not
members of the school staff.
Because it is impossible to give individual tests to a large
number of pupils, it is very important that every effort be made
to refer to school psychologists and special services only pupils
who have been carefully screened by the guidance department.
Role of the School Nurse
The school nurse has an important part to play in a good
reading program. Bracken states that "In her home visits, she
may give suggestions to parents about creating the best possible
study conditions. She may also learn about parent-child rela-
tions that are interfering with the student's learning.""1 Because
in many cases the school nurse is familiar with the family of
the pupils, particularly the families of pupils with severe emo-
tional problems or of a very low socio-economic background, she
is often in a position to give valuable information to teachers
working with these pupils on reading problems.
Many schools schedule vision and hearing tests once a year
for their pupils. However, pupils entering school late in the year
or who were absent for the tests often need to have tests given
by the school nurse at another time. Frequently, the vision test
used (the Snellen, for example) does not yield significant in-
formation regarding the pupil's reading-vision problem and
further professional examination will be desirable.
The school nurse also can help by recording pertinent informa-
tion on the pupils' health records. These records are often use-
ful to teachers working with pupils who do not appear to be
working up to their capacities.
Role of Parents
Parents are often very much concerned about the reading
programs in the schools, realizing that for success in academic
work the ability to read well is of prime importance.
Because of this concern, administrators and teachers are often
asked why children do not read as well now as they did when
the parents themselves were in school. Spache tells of several
studies that have been made which show that pupils are not
deteriorating in basic skills. "It is true that there are some
differences that reflect the modern goals of the reading pro-
gram. For example, today's pupils do not read as well orally
nor do they excel in rote learning. But, as the current program
intends, they do tend to be superior in thought questions in
comprehension and breadth of reading experiences. These re-
sults with elementary and secondary pupils were confirmed in
the measures of the scholastic attainments of the draftees in
World War II, who were found to be much superior to the
soldiers of World War I. Thus, studies based on literally mil-
lions of school children and school graduates indicate no gradual
deterioration of the average pupil's skills."12
There are many evidences of improved reading instruction in
the schools today. Teachers have taken special training in teach-
ing reading to pupils on all levels of ability; teachers use a
variety of teaching methods; and many new materials and devices
for teaching reading are appearing constantly.
Parents often want to help their children with their reading,
but do not know just what they can or should do. Spache says
that "Parents can aid and support the reading goal by providing
appropriate reading materials or by helping their children to find
such materials; by encouraging wide, varied reading; by sur-
rounding children with good books; and by providing home con-
ditions which promote the quiet and privacy necessary for
Classroom teachers, reading teachers, and librarians can help
parents select appropriate books for their children. There are
also many good books written to help parents with this problem,
some of which are listed below:
12 George D. Spache, Toward Better Reading (Champaign, Illinois: Garrard Publish-
ing Company, 1963), p. 212.
13 Ibid., p. 213.
Fay, Leo C. What Research Says to the Teacher: Reading in the
High School. Department of Classroom Teachers. Washington: Na-
tional Education Association, 1956.
Larrick, Nancy. A Parent's Guide to Children's Reading. New York:
National Education Association, Research Division. Comparative
Achievement of Pupils Today and Yesterday. Washington: NEA,
Smith, Nila B. Why Do the Schools Teach Reading as They Do?
Washington: National School Public Relations Association.
Strang, Ruth. Helping Your Child Improve His Reading. New York:
E. P. Dutton, 1962. Chapter VII.
Witty, Paul A. and Harry Bricker. Your Child and Radio, TV, Comics,
and Movies. Chicago: Science Research Associates.
Parents can also help their children to succeed in their school
work by adopting a friendly, constructive attitude toward the
school and the teachers. When parents criticize the school pro-
gram and the teachers, children are often belligerent toward the
school program also.
In the secondary schools one of the most common ways to
acquaint parents with the school's reading activities is "Back to
School Night." Such a program gives teachers and administrators
the opportunity to explain what is being done and to give par-
ents a chance to ask questions. In this type of program, parents
follow their child's schedule and meet all of his teachers. This
gives each teacher a chance to explain what he plans to cover
in his subject area, his emphasis upon reading, and what he ex-
pects of the pupils in the class. Parents are encouraged to ask
questions concerning the course, but are discouraged from con-
fining the questions to their own particular child. However, an
opportunity is given for individual conferences at a later date.
Such a program gives parents an excellent overview of the read-
ing training being offered to their children and the methods of
teaching being used.
In many schools PTA meetings are planned for panel discus-
sions of school problems of most concern to the parents. Informed
parents can discuss what they have learned about the reading
program at the school at a meeting of the PTA. It is usually
more effective to have parents-rather than teachers-commend
the program. At the same meeting, the principal can comment
on areas needing improvement and indicate future plans. Having
lay people who may originally have had misgivings and ques-
tions concerning the reading program interpret it to an au-
dience, can be an effective way to bring the matter to a group
of other parents. "If the parent can realize that introducing new
material, new techniques, and new reading skills can best be
done by the teacher while he supplies the leisure reading, much
will have been accomplished."14
Newton says "Parents need help in understanding that reading
is comprehension, that children must want to read and must have
uses for reading, that it goes on all the time in and outside of
school, and that, like physical achievements, reading develops
at different rates."15
Organizing School Reading Programs
The faculty committee and the administrator will consider
both the immediate and the long-term improvement of reading
in setting up a reading program for any given school. The needs
of the particular students in their own school are, of course, their
Before the development of the junior high school, reading in-
struction was usually part of the seventh and eighth grade pro-
gram. With the change to departmentalization at the junior high
level, many teachers have considered that reading is a subject
that has already been taught and mastered by the pupils. All
too often the familiar term "provision for individual differences"
is only a phrase known by junior and senior high teachers rather
than a principle to be followed.
A good reading program for the secondary school provides
for the continuing development of reading skills, gives special
help to all students in the content fields, makes provisions for
differences in reading ability, and provides the services of a
trained reading teacher to help with pupils needing work on a
remedial or corrective basis.
Reading instruction on the secondary level can be divided
into three main types with overlapping among these types.
14 J. Roy Newton, Reading in Your School (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company,
Inc., 1960), p. 197.
15 Ibid.. p. 203.
Developmental Reading Program
This is the first and most important phase of reading instruc-
tion in the secondary school and will achieve maximum success
if it involves most of the departments of the school.
The basic provision of a developmental reading program is
that each individual be taken at his present level and be helped
to advance his reading skills. In other words, the develop-
mental reading program puts into practice the consideration of
individual differences among secondary pupils. There may be a
spread of eight reading grade levels in a secondary classroom.
A developmental program recognizes this fact and attempts to
meet the needs of these pupils.
A really dynamic developmental program will not equalize
these reading levels, but on the contrary will tend to make a
larger spread of reading abilities. Its aim is not to bring all pupils
up to a certain standard, but to enable each individual to achieve
his maximum potential.
Other problems arise when a school attempts to have a really
good developmental program for all pupils. Increased library
facilities will be needed to provide more books on more reading
levels and in all subject and interest areas. Allowing for in-
dividual differences means textbooks available on several levels
with teachers willing to use them. All of this, of course, means
that the teaching process for the teacher is more difficult. It is
always more work to secure materials at many levels of reading
than to use a single textbook with one assignment for all pupils.
However, if a reading program gives added skills to the slow,
the average, and the gifted reader and helps to decrease school
dropouts, there is compensation for the hard work.
"The primary purpose of this type of program is to develop
all pupils to their maximum reading use and capacity as part
of the regular work of the secondary school. The training is in-
tended to reinforce and extend those reading skills and appli-
cations acquired in previous years and develop new skills and
appreciations as they are needed to comprehend and enjoy ad-
vanced and complex reading materials. These objectives imply
that all pupils will be given further instruction in the basic
skills of word analysis, rate, comprehension, and vocabulary, as
well as advanced training in the application of reading in the
content fields, guidance in free reading, critical reading, reading-
study techniques, organization and reference skills."16
The objectives of such a program are: 17
A. To strengthen and enhance in each individual the basic
reading skills previously acquired
B. To develop and maintain a balance of new skills and ap-
C. To relate reading effectively to other experiences which
will lead to wholesome attitudes toward people and more
D. To form a permanent reading habit based on a love of
E. To develop good standards of judgment in selecting and
evaluating reading materials
F. To develop good techniques for meeting reading tasks in
all content areas.
Even in classes that are grouped as homogeneously as possible,
provision is needed for providing different reading experiences
for individual members. No group is truly homogeneous as to
reading skills and interests. Teaching each pupil as an individual
according to his own special needs and capabilities is an ideal
toward which all teachers in all subjects in the secondary schools
should aspire. When such an ideal is reached the non-reading
pupil will not present nearly so difficult a problem as he will
when class activity is standardized on a level to which he cannot
A good developmental reading program not only makes the
poor reader more comfortable and able to adjust to his school
work, but also provides for the advanced reading skills of the
gifted. Some gifted pupils are not reading up to their potential
ability. Many read at their own grade level, but have the ability
to read much better than that. If the gifted are given dull books
to read, books suited for the class level, and are forced to mark
time while the others catch up, they become bored and lose
interest in reading and classwork.
16 See Chapter 1.
17 English, Language Arts Curriculum Guide for Sarasota County, Florida, Sarasota
County CTE and Board of Public Instruction, Work Draft 4.
A good developmental reading program for any particular
secondary school is best insured by a school-wide or all-faculty
attack on the problem. On page 20 the advantages and duties of
a reading committee in the secondary school were discussed. The
school staff should define the general and specific goals of the
entire program, including skills to be stressed in each content
field for maximum success.
Most developmental reading programs will include instruction
in improvement of rate, comprehension, and vocabulary. Further
activities center around techniques of reading aloud, reading in
the content areas, study techniques, and reference skills.
Time provided for a program may vary considerably. Some
schools may offer a five week program, some an entire year.
Some suggested plans are the following:
Television instruction. This allows a large group to receive
instruction of a uniform nature. Oral instruction should be simple
and brief. The medium allows a more expanded, more creative,
use of audio-sensory devices than if often possible in the normal
classroom. Planning is extremely important and the studio
teacher is allowed more planning time than others. Specific
objectives are important. Televised instruction should be limited
to 15-20 minutes with the auditorium teacher providing a follow-
up on the television instruction. One negative element in tele-
vision reading is the difficulty in making on the spot adjustments
and the almost impossible task of provision of individualized
Vocabulary development, word analysis skills, reference skills,
and certain phases of comprehension such as reading for the
main idea or details and reading to follow directions appear to
be well suited for the television medium.
Reading laboratory. The reading laboratory provides the op-
portunity for individualized learning. The reading program is
open to all and pupils apply through their completion of a
formal application. Some plans provide for a student spending
a period or several in the program each week. He can leave his
regular classroom or study hall to attend this special reading
session. Some schools, experimenting with extended school days,
provide classes without formal credit during an early bird period
in the morning or at a time after the completion of the school
After a laboratory session of several months or more, pupils
may return one or two times a week for the remainder of the
year in supervised reading, applying and reinforcing learning.
Desirable equipment in a laboratory includes pacers and other
rate devices, booths, earphones, other listening devices, books,
and many types of reading materials.
Curriculum-wide program. To begin this kind of program, a
faculty must first appreciate the role of reading as a basic part
of the entire curriculum. In its initiation, there can be an inten-
sive analysis of reading problems and levels. This may take an
entire school year. During the following year, an all-school read-
ing committee may be appointed for each department and the
group meets at scheduled times during the year. A summer
workshop for each department representative may be scheduled
for further more specific planning. As an outgrowth of this
summer workshop, each department representative may compile
a course of study tailored to the unique reading needs of his
Full time teacher-consultant. In this plan, teachers of English
are relieved of formal teaching responsibility for six weeks or
more as a school reading consultant teaches the class a planned
unit. After the completion of the unit, the regular teacher may
carry on with the reinforcement of skills introduced by the con-
This program depends upon a strong degree of cooperation
between the language arts teacher and the reading consultant.
Mechanized projects. This kind of program depends primarily
on mechanical devices such as pacers and accelerators, as well
as reading films. Two or three days of the week are devoted to
the machines for rate training and others are spent with word
analysis, study skills, and comprehension techniques.
Reading in the Content Fields
Spache describes the approach to teaching reading in the con-
tent fields used by teachers in the high schools of Norfolk,
Virginia. "Following a series of all faculty meetings, a sequence
in teaching the various desired skills was agreed upon. Steps and
materials were planned for the training in the different content
areas. For each subsequent two-week period, every teacher in a
content area gave ten minutes of each class period to emphasis
upon a certain reading skill. All teachers stressed the same skill
during this period. Since most pupils attended five content
classes per day, they thus received the equivalent of one class
period of training in reading each day.
"The major skills stressed were vocabulary, rate and compre-
hension, the minor skills were main ideas, details and apprecia-
tion. Each of these was emphasized in the manner described
earlier for a two-week period. The cycle of six topics was re-
peated four times during the entire school year. Departmental
and all-faculty meetings provided the opportunity for the review
of effective procedures and the exchange of teacher reactions to
the program. As measured by standardized tests, the results in-
dicated significantly greater than normal growth in general read-
ing abilities. In addition, growth in applied reading in the vari-
ous fields was apparent to the staff."18
Bamman in discussing the teaching of reading in the content
fields says that "Some teachers of the so-called academic subjects
are inclined to think that only in their fields is it necessary for
students to carry on an extensive reading program. Other teach-
ers of the more technical subjects, or of subjects requiring a
great deal of computation or manipulation of a mechanical
nature, tend to feel that they have little or no responsibility for
guiding their students' reading, since reading seems to be rela-
tively unimportant in these technical subjects. Actually the
students' reading is important to learning in all subjects in the
curriculum. It is obviously crucial in the social sciences and
literature; but physics, chemistry, home economics, algebra, vo-
cational agriculture, and others require thoughtful reading too.
In order to understand the principles of electricity, students must
read. Reading recipes and directions on dress patterns in home
economics, reading specification sheets for building a desk or
table in industrial arts, and reading problems and theorems in
algebra and geometry call for genuine skill in word recognition,
word meanings, comprehension, and critical thinking. The stu-
dents' general competency in any of these subjects is dependent
on their ability to read efficiently."'9
s8 George D. Spache, Toward Better Reading (Champaign, Illinois: Garrard Publish-
ing Company, 1963), p. 212.
9e Henry A. Bamman, Ursula Hogan, and Charles E. Greene, Reading Instruction in
the Secondary Schools (New York: David McKay Company, Inc., 1961), p. 44.
Umans says, "One of the most difficult tasks is to help subject-
matter teachers see the necessity of teaching skills directly re-
lated to the reading of the particular subject. Somehow, the
feeling persists that reading is always taught 'elsewhere' and 'at
another time.' "20
Among the foundational reading skills for success in the con-
tent areas that content teachers can and must help develop are:
1. Previewing-An organized rapid coverage of materials. In
practice, it may include reading some or all of the following,
before deciding how or whether to read the entire piece:
title, headings and subheadings, summary and introductory
statements, and graphic materials. When previewing ma-
terials assigned for study or some other purpose, the student
should write down the significant questions that he thinks
will be answered by the complete reading.
2. Skimming-previewing plus the reading of some of each
major paragraph, such as the opening and closing sentences.
Skimming in content materials is not a casual glancing over
the pages, but an organized procedure for identifying most
of the main points by reading as much as necessary for this
purpose in each paragraph or section.
3. Scanning-involves a zigzagging through printed materials
to identify specific information, without reading the entire
page. It is used in reading an index, directory, dictionary,
and in finding a name, date, or other specific fact embedded
in a page. Scanning is not random looking but purposeful
searching which demands that (1) the student knows clearly
what is sought; (2) anticipates the form in which it will
appear, as a number or phrase; and (3) scans rapidly ex-
pecting the fact sought to stand out from the page; and (4)
verifies it by reading the sentence in which it is found.
4. Reading Graphic Materials-Content field teachers cannot
assume that most pupils can read and interpret the graphic,
tabular, cartographic, and other illustrative materials char-
acteristic of a content area. Common types must be reviewed
and students given direct instruction in rapid, effective
reading of these aids, in isolation and in related textual
20 Shelley Umans, New Trends in Reading Instruction (New York: Bureau of Publica-
tions, Teachers College, Columbia University, 1963), p. 7.
5. Organizing and Reporting-Study in secondary content
areas demands a variety of organized skills: notetaking,
summarizing, outlining, writing reports, collating library
resources, and the like. Often secondary pupils have had
little formal instruction in these and their performances
reflect only trial and error learning. If secondary content
teachers expect pupils to learn efficiently, they must instruct
students in these skills, as the skills operate in the area
familiar to each teacher.
6. Special Vocabularies-Each area has its own special vo-
cabulary and collection of symbols, formulas, and concepts.
Most secondary content teachers recognize this problem
and make special efforts to insure pupil learning. Additional
steps, such as recommending a personal card file of technical
terms and formulas, emphasizing common word roots in
related terms, and suggesting mnemonic devices for remem-
bering complicated operations or groups of facts are helpful.
7. Extensive Reading-Pupils need planned introduction to
the reading matter of each field, as bulletins, magazines,
research reports, reference books, and popularized materials.
Clubs, bulletin boards, committee work, special interest
groups, and a variety of reading assignments will promote
this essential experience.
8. Studying High School Subjects-Teachers who investigate
students' study methods are often appalled by their findings.
Studying, for many secondary pupils, is characterized by
lack of plan, disorder, poor study conditions, and ineffectual
methods. This situation can be improved by incorporating
study hints into the daily classroom work and homework.
If assignments are clearly described in terms of their pur-
poses, the manner in which the learning will be assessed,
and the effective ways in which they may be fulfilled,
students will show marked improvement in academic per-
formances. Among the significant types of directed practice
often recommended is training in a systematic method of
study that capitalizes on the basic reading skills described
above. One such system is:
P-Preview the material by reading title, headings, open-
ings and closings of paragraphs, and introductory or
Q-Write down several questions which you wish to an-
swer, or those that you think will be answered by the
R-Read, keeping your questions in mind.
S-Summarize the answers you find by brief notes or an
outline, as you find them while reading.
T-Test yourself on the material by attempting to answer
the questions you proposed, without help from the se-
lection or your notes.
Students will not readily adopt this system in toto without
teacher demonstration of the values of each step. Extended class-
room practice in previewing different types of materials, in
formulating intelligent questions, and in summarizing notes in
outline form are essential for pupil acceptance. Using the system
in class to study textbooks, in doing experiments, in preparing
reports, studying for tests, handling resource materials help to
habituate the pupils.
Secondary teachers will note that none of the general sugges-
tions offered above or the more specific ones mentioned later
require great teacher skill or knowledge in teaching reading.
All are simply practices in handling content field materials more
effectively, that teachers are familiar with, used in their own
school work, and now are transmitting to their students. Train-
ing in these practices need not detract from the time spent in
learning content, for they are integral parts of the learning
process. If, as we have suggested, these hints, suggestions, and
practices are incorporated into classroom work, assignments and
homework, most pupils will respond with superior learning,
better grades, and greater interest in the content.
Reading in Mathematics
The general suggestions #'s 1, 3, 4, and 6 given above are
particularly significant to this field. In addition, pupils will need
special training in methods of problem solving and, perhaps,
some guidance in study techniques appropriate to mathematics,
as suggested above in #8. We do not recommend a formal series
of such questions as "What is given?," "What is to be found?,"
etc., for the research indicates that this type of stereotyped ap-
proach to problem solving cannot be successfully superimposed
on the thinking of many pupils. Even when trained extensively
in these steps, most students do not adopt and use them. Fur-
thermore, some research indicates that ability to answer most
of these questions has little relationship to success in actual
solutions.21 In contrast, we recommend that pupils be trained in
Steps in Problem Solving
1. Previewing the problem by a quick, complete reading to identify
its general nature or type.
2. Carefully re-reading the problem, in a sequence which follows the
steps needed, rather than the printed order. The essential and
non-essential facts and relationships are identified in this second
3. Trying to visualize or restate the problem during or after the
second reading. This may involve an actual drawing or a mental
review of the proposed steps to solution.
4. Beginning the computations, being certain to recheck the figures as
given by reading them in the problem, in order to be sure of
accuracy in copying them.
To insure pupil adoption of this organized approach, it will be
necessary to practice the steps separately and collectively fre-
quently in the classroom under the direction of the teacher.
Solving problems without numbers, practicing reading and dis-
cussing problems without actual solution and demonstrating the
validity of this system in direct comparison with pupils' own
trial and error methods will be most appropriate.
Reading in Science
All eight of the foundational skills for content reading de-
scribed above operate in the field of science. In addition, many
authorities recommend training in problem solving similar to
that offered in the section above on reading in mathematics.
The major reading problems that manifest themselves in read-
ing in science are: comprehension of main ideas, concepts, and
relationships, inappropriate rate, difficulties in remembering de-
tails, poor handling of directions and of problem solving, and
deficiencies in vocabulary. Training in indirective and deductive
reasoning, as in handling relationships of cause and effect, ap-
21 Robert L. Burch, An Evaluation of Analytic Testing in Arithmetic Problem Solving.
Doctoral dissertation, Duke University, 1949.
plication of generalizations, formulation of principles, making
inferences and forming conclusions, has been found very effective
when textual materials, problems and experiments serve as illus-
trative materials. It has been shown that these reasoning abilities
can be improved by direct teaching in realistic science materials,
and that such training will result in improved comprehension.
Other approaches to comprehension include controlling speed
of reading to insure command of details and introducing the
student to more systematic study and note taking practices, as
those outlined above in the eighth general suggestion. Clarifying
the exact purposes for assignments and the nature of the assess-
ment to follow, plus specific hints regarding ways of doing the
assignment significantly influence comprehension.
Practice in problem solving and reading directions, as sug-
gested earlier in this section, during classroom work are also
effective in combatting these problems in science reading. Vo-
cabulary deficiencies may be attacked by some of the steps out-
lined above, and by promoting better background by extensive
reading. All the materials needed for this corrective work in
science reading are available within the usual classroom equip-
ment, provided that a reasonable range of reading levels are
represented in the materials. In addition, special training devices
and kits are listed in the appendix.
Reading in Social Science
All eight of the basic reading skills discussed earlier in this
section function in the social sciences. The discussion above of
training in reading graphic materials, organizing and reporting,
extensive reading and studying high school subjects are of par-
ticular relevance and should be reviewed. In addition, special
training in recognizing such relationships as cause and effect,
inferences, space, and time concepts, reading critically, and prob-
lem solving is essential. Most of these skills may be improved
by classroom practice in the normal variety of teaching materials.
Additional help is available by some of the devices and kits
listed in the Appendix.
Critical, intelligent reading is much to be desired in the stu-
dent of social sciences. Unfortunately, it does not necessarily
accompany good general reading ability, or increasing age, or
maturity, or even intelligence. Like other subtle reading skills,
it is produced only by direct and sustained training. Critical
reading involves an interplay between the reader and the ma-
terials which results in understandings and reactions which may
differ markedly from those intended by the author. It is impor-
tant, first, for the reader to be able to comprehend precisely
what is being said. But then, the reader begins to employ such
evaluative techniques as: examining the sources for reliability,
recency, accuracy; identifying the writer's obvious and his hid-
den purposes and viewpoints and assumptions; distinguishing
between what is factual or opinionated. Secondly, the reader
examines the author's inferences, and those he intends the reader
to make, as well as those implied by his tone and choice of
words or style. Finally, the reader will react to the author's use
of propaganda devices to influence his thinking. Pupils will need
to be trained in recognizing such artifices as: appeals to personal
or social needs; appeals to prejudice; non-sequitur arguments;
false dilemmas; outright lies; irony and satire; and the use of
repetitive slogans or emotionally-toned language to influence the
reader's emotions. Many classroom experiments show that these
aspects of critical reading can be improved with ordinary class-
room materials in training periods extending over at least one
Classroom activities to promote critical reading may include:
1. Comparing several newspaper accounts of the same event
for accuracy, omissions
2. Comparing newspaper versions with those offered by radio
and television news commentators
3. Exploring several of the writings of an author (for example,
Charles Dickens) to discuss his interests, viewpoints, and
4. Comparing several types of presentation on the same topic
as a newspaper or magazine article, editorial, television
documentary, for style, accuracy, and viewpoint.
5. Doing exercises in listing the facts and opinions offered in
a selection, and discussing ways in which these may be
6. Exploring the future outcomes if the reader were to follow
the author's thinking to the ultimate outcomes.
7. Comparing the claims in advertisements for competing
products, in terms of choice of words, fact vs. opinion, ap-
peals to the reader.
8. Comparing pupil interpretations of the author's facts in
provocative or emotional materials.
Reading in English
In all probability, more attention is given to reading skills in
the course of the normal English program than in any other
secondary field. The vocabulary of literature, composition and
grammar is emphasized; skills necessary for special reading aids,
as the dictionary, library, and other resources are stressed; the
development of reading experiences, interests, and tastes is pur-
sued and the forms and functions of types of literature are
taught. Word study and word-attack skills such as syllabication,
use of the context, and word structure are also an integral part
of the English program. Literature is explored both widely and
deeply for its personal, developmental dimension as well as its
humanistic and social aspects.
Because of this emphasis upon reading skills and abilities,
some secondary teachers and administrators are inclined to leave
the teaching of all reading to the English department. As we
have tried to imply in describing the reading skills demanded
by various other fields, this attitude is unsound. The English
department is neither trained nor equipped to direct the de-
velopment in the special vocabularies and skills of other content
areas. If secondary pupils are to develop the ability to deal with
the materials on that level, it will only be as the result of a
school-wide effort by all teachers concerned.
It is unnecessary to repeat here the suggestions of the state
English guide22 regarding approaches to the literature or reading
program in secondary English. These suggestions outline the
dimensions of the literature program, its organization and the
role of individual reading. A developmental reading program for
the promotion of the basic skills of rate, vocabulary, and com-
prehension, as it might operate within the English program, is
also described in some detail.
22 A Guide to English in Florida Secondary Schools, Tallahassee: State Department
of Education, 1962.
There is some evidence that some of the goals of the literature
program are not readily achieved. Permanent reading interests
and tastes are not widely established among graduates of our
secondary schools, and reading plays a diminishing role in the
lives of young people. These trends are evidenced in the studies
of the low rank of reading among pupil interests during second-
ary years, the tendency toward disuse of public library facilities
among high school and college graduates, and the lack of breadth
of reading among the adult population.
Reading interests probably arise both because of social rein-
forcement or pressures and from a variety of internal drives or
needs. Our literature reading programs are inclined to emphasize
mainly the rewarding of students for doing the proper reading,
rather than adapting the content and approach to such pupil
needs as the searching for a personal philosophy or emotional
independence, for reassurance of normality, and solutions to
problems of family and social adjustment. As Niles and Early
point out,23 students will read if given reasons to read (or helped
to identify their own reasons), time for reading, and guidance
in their choices. If it is organized with flexibility and with ade-
quate recognition and support of the individual's reasons for
reading, the English literature program can make a most signifi-
cant contribution to life-long habits and tastes in personal read-
Reading in Industrial Arts and Home Economics
The general suggestions #'s 3, 4, 6, and 8 given earlier in this
section are particularly relevant to these fields. Special vocabu-
laries must be learned to help the student identify the tools,
utensils, processes, common abbreviations, and symbols used
in these areas. Training in scanning, in careful reading of direc-
tions and of problems is essential. Teachers of industrial arts
and home economics will want to review the discussion of prob-
lem solving approaches given above in the section on reading in
mathematics. The reading of a wide variety of graphic aids,
illustrations, sketches, blueprints, working drawings, and the like
are demanded in industrial arts. To these, homemaking adds the
reading of recipes, statements and invoices, charts, graphs, and
23 Olive S. Niles and Margaret J. Early, "Adjusting to Individual Differences in
English," Journal of Education, 138 (December 1955), pp. 1-68.
patterns as well as critical reading of many materials addressed
to the consumer. All of these represent specific reading tasks
peculiar to the content which must be practiced and perfected
in directed classroom and homework activities. As in other con-
tent areas, teachers will need to develop a classroom library of
resources and references varying widely in their levels of reading
difficulty. Both of these fields require intensive and extensive
reading, for which pupils will need planned training and oppor-
tunity in the classroom, laboratory, and shop.
Reading in Business Education and Other Content Areas
The general suggestions given earlier in this section are of
value for teachers of business education, art, music, and other
content areas. Each field has its special vocabulary, its own types
of reading materials, its unique variety of reference and resource
tools, and its peculiar degree of emphasis upon such basic skills
as organizing and reporting, studying content, and adapting rates
to purposes. Teachers in these other areas will profit from read-
ing the suggestions offered for the development of foundational
reading skills, as well as the specific details given in certain of
the related or similar content areas.
Conclusion. A developmental reading program for secondary
schools is designed to provide a sequential program of instruction
for all students of grades seven through twelve in all content
areas of the curriculum. It recognizes that high school students
need continued practice in applying already taught skills to their
more difficult and complex assignments and, in addition, need
instruction in high-level skills in interpretation and critical
Such a program is best planned by a committee representing
the whole faculty of a school and should be evaluated frequently.
This evaluation can be carried on by a team that includes the
reading committee, the administrators, students, and parents.
Corrective Reading Program
"Corrective reading programs are intended to assist a
student in overcoming a marked retardation in one or two major
reading skills."24 The corrective program is planned to give help
24 See Chapter 1.
in reading areas in which individuals and groups have shown
weakness on a reading test or in class work.
Who should take corrective reading? "Several studies indicate
that a minimum of seventh grade reading performance in the
major skills is essential for success in junior high school, while
ninth grade ability is probably desirable for senior high school.
Therefore, these levels might be used for the initial selection of
pupils for corrective work. It is assumed that these reading
performances are shown to be below the levels that the pupils'
capacities will permit."25
Some schools are giving work in corrective reading, including
study skills, to all seventh graders entering the junior high
school and to all tenth graders entering the senior high school.
Usually the seventh graders and the tenth graders are given
reading tests in the fall so that reading disabilities may be de-
tected. Often a second test is given in the spring to determine
what progress has been made.
Such a course in corrective reading in the junior and senior
high schools might include any or all of the following areas:
Study skills, including reading in the content areas; vocabulary;
outlining; dictionary usage; using different rates of speed to read
different types of materials; vocabulary study; word analysis,
including phonics; skimming; scanning; distinguishing main
ideas; critical reading; locational skills; note taking; and guided
free reading. In the senior high school corrective programs may
be set up for two different groups of students: those who plan
to go to work after high school and those who plan to enter
college the next year. For the terminal students a corrective pro-
gram would stress the types of reading skills that will be needed
for success in their jobs. For the college-bound students a cor-
rective program may include note taking from different subject
areas and may emphasize the organizing of ideas from several
sources in preparing term papers.
If corrective reading is given to seventh graders in the junior
high school and to tenth graders in the senior high school,
then special classes might be set up for students from the other
grades who have still shown a deficiency in a specific reading
skill. It seems advisable to include in the special corrective read-
25 See Chapter 1.
ing classes first those students who are working below their
capacities and then to include others if there is room for them.
Newton says that "If one of the better methods for providing
instruction in corrective reading has been used in the seventh
grade, and if it was designed to take every seventh grader at his
own reading level, it is common administrative practice to con-
tinue instruction in eighth and ninth grades for reading-disability
cases who have not yet reached their indicated capacity. The
developmental reading program should provide for reading
growth in all subjects for other students."26
This same thing would be true for eleventh and twelfth graders
if the instruction is given to all tenth graders in the senior high
There are many plans by which a corrective program may be
organized and these same plans may be used in organizing de-
velopmental reading programs in some schools.
1. Corrective reading, as mentioned above, in the junior high
school for all seventh graders and in the senior high school
for all tenth graders.
A corrective reading program is being given to all seventh
graders at Sarasota Junior High School, Sarasota, Florida,
for nine weeks during the first semester. Pupils are given a
reading test and instruction is aimed at improving general
reading ability and study skills.
A corrective reading program for tenth grade pupils is
being given at Ocala High School, Ocala, Florida. All pupils
are given reading tests and emphasis in the course is upon
fundamental skills of rate, vocabulary, and comprehension.
In this program pupils are grouped homogeneously into
three sections with changes made at the end of each six
weeks whenever it seems advisable.
2. Reading home room
Some schools have lengthened the home room period to
enable the home room teacher to give reading helps to the
26 J. Roy Newton, Reading in Your School (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company,
Inc., 1960), p. 241.
students. The advantage of this method is that it reaches all
of the students. The disadvantages are that not all teachers
are interested in teaching reading skills nor consider them-
selves qualified for the work. Also this method requires
providing materials to all home room teachers on a wide
3. Enrichment units
In some junior high schools in Pinellas and Broward
counties pupils are given instruction in reading skills on a
wheel plan. In most cases this plan is at present for seventh
graders, but might be expanded to take in eighth graders
also if the school desired to do so. Under such a plan
seventh graders might have twelve weeks of reading in-
struction under the supervision of a reading teacher, twelve
weeks of general music, and twelve weeks of art during
one class period each week.
4. Special English period
Some schools have placed students having reading diffi-
culties in special sections of English. The advantage of this
method is that no additional staff members are needed.
In such a program English grammar would not be
stressed, but the emphasis would be on reading skills at the
necessary level to meet the needs of the individual pupils.
The disadvantage of this scheduling is that when the
teaching of reading skills is assigned to the English teacher,
all too often teachers in other departments believe that they
have no further responsibility to teach the skills needed in
their own areas. The English teacher cannot teach the
study-type reading necessary in all the content fields as well
as the regular subject matter teacher can.
5. Double language arts period
Some schools schedule language arts for two periods with
one period being devoted to reading and study skills. This
method is preferable to attempting the job in a one period
class. However, few English teachers have had the necessary
preparation to teach the reading skills; and, moreover, this
approach tends to identify reading-skill teaching with the
English-language arts teachers alone and to imply that
other subject matter teachers have no responsibility in the
6. Core program
When a teacher has a class for two or three periods a day,
it is possible to devote some of this teaching time to the
reading skills. Usually the teacher covers two subjects, the
English and social studies combination being a common one.
If the teacher is trained in the teaching of reading skills, it
is possible to teach the skills needed for good reading in
literature and social studies.
Since the teacher has fewer pupils to meet during the
day under this plan, it is possible to be more familiar with
the reading abilities and disabilities of these pupils and to
devote more time to individuals who need special help in
7. Individual work with a reading teacher
If the personnel is available, an English teacher trained
to teach reading or a reading teacher may be scheduled to
give individual help to selected students. However, many
secondary schools do not have the personnel to make such
a plan practicable.
8. Special reading class
As mentioned above, some schools schedule classes of
fifteen pupils to a trained reading teacher. If the pupils
placed in these classes are pupils who need help in one or
more phases of reading, but are not remedial cases, a great
deal can be accomplished in a semester or even in a shorter
period of time.
It is assumed that these pupils are ones who are not al-
ready working up to their capacities, but who need help
in overcoming particular reading disabilities. For example,
many excellent students read much too slowly to get their
reading done in a reasonable amount of time. Much can be
done to help them increase their speed of reading if they
have normal vision and really want the help.
9. Summer programs
Many schools are offering helps in reading to students
who wish them during the summer. Much can be accom-
polished in a summer program if the teacher is well trained,
the students elect the course, and the reading problems are
of a corrective nature.
Newton27 lists six considerations to be decided before
setting up a summer reading program:
a. How is the program to be financed?
b. Are trained teachers (including the school's reading
c. Can the program be coordinated with existing work in
d. Are materials fresh and new to children without steal-
ing from those to be used later?
e. Will the necessary cumulative records be available?
f. Can the numbers involved be kept small enough to
permit effective instruction?
He believes that the better types of summer courses
offered by the schools have the following characteristics.
"They are limited in enrollment, often admitting students
on the recommendations of previous teachers. When the
numbers are kept small and the instruction is provided by
competent reading teachers having access to school records,
much can be accomplished. Sometimes boys and girls report
only at stated hours and are dismissed when the instruction
period is over. This organization of the summer reading
program resembles the clinic or reading laboratory for work
Viox29 describes the setting up of a summer program for
a junior high school in Kenmore, New York. In this case
the pupils were carefully screened to be sure that those
chosen were those who could profit most from the six
27 Ibid., p. 244.
28 Ibid., p. 242.
29 Ruth G. Viox, "Setting Up a Junior High School Summer Reading Improvement
Program," The Reading Teacher, September 1963, p. 39.
She states that the pupils chosen must:
a. Have a positive attitude toward reading
b. Be willing to attend
c. Be emotionally stable
d. Show a spirit of cooperation and ability to work well
in a group (approximately 15 pupils)
e. Be free from serious health problems which would
preclude successful participation in this program.
In addition, the pupil's home and family had to be willing
to cooperate in providing transportation, seeing that the
pupil's attendance was regular and punctual, and avoid
undue pressures on the child.
In Florida, summer reading programs were started on a
large scale during the summer of 1961 and have increased
each year since in numbers of counties involved and in
numbers of pupils attending the classes. While participation
in the elementary level programs approached 28,000 in the
summer of 1963, participation in secondary level programs
is just beginning to show definite signs of growth.
Two kinds of reading programs are offered during the
summer: remedial and enrichment or developmental pro-
grams. In the summer of 1963 the numbers of junior and
senior high school pupils participating in the programs were
Junior High School Pupils 1,751 860
Senior High School Pupils 129 653
Eighteen counties in Florida had junior high remedial pro-
grams, and eight counties had senior high remedial
programs; fourteen counties had junior high enrichment
programs, and nine had senior high enrichment programs.
The state requirements for remedial classes specify that
not more than 15 pupils be assigned to a class and not more
than 30 pupils be assigned to any one remedial reading
teacher for a daily load. There are no specific state require-
ments pertaining to class size and teacher load for the
enrichment or developmental programs. When remedial
reading instruction is offered in the summer program, par-
ticipation is to be voluntary.
It is hoped that more counties will avail themselves of
ASIS (Administrative and Special Instructional Services)
units to provide remedial reading for secondary pupils dur-
ing the summer. These units are available provided no more
than 35% of a county's total allocation of ASIS units for the
period beyond ten months are used for teachers of remedial
reading and for teachers of academic subjects for credit.
Should a county desire to use the full 35% of its summer
allocation of ASIS units for remedial reading, it may do so.
Wherever possible it is advisable to provide reading help
during the summer for secondary pupils as many pupils
have very full schedules during the regular school year
and are not able to fit work in special reading classes into
Conclusion. It is a good plan to give students entering junior
high school and those entering senior high school corrective
reading to improve their skills in the specific areas in which
they are deficient and to reinforce study skills. If possible, the
corrective reading help begun in the elementary schools should
be reinstated in the junior high school rather than in the senior
high school because less frustration is met when the work is
started early. Also the sooner help is given the students, the
more they are able to use it in their class work.
Corrective help is still essential in the senior high school
because the pupils are encountering the demand for different
types of reading skills in different subject matter. The senior
high schools also often have transfers from other school systems
where the reading programs may have been inadequate. Some
pupils mature very slowly and in the senior high school are just
beginning to realize their need to increase their reading skills.
When students realize their needs and ask for help, often much
Remedial Reading Program
The Nature of Remedial Instruction in Reading. Just what
constitutes remedial instruction? When is remedial instruction
necessary? As has been pointed out in the rationale the major
purpose of remedial reading programs is to provide a degree of
individualized and intensified training needed by pupils who
function more than two years below capacity in most of the
important reading abilities.
In a typical junior high school class it is not unusual to find
pupils whose reading ability ranges from those who are well
read to the non-readers who in some instances can recognize
only twenty-five to thirty words. In such cases the subject matter
is too extensive and the textbooks are well beyond the pupils'
comprehension. Attempts to provide instruction in the usual
subject matter usually fail because of the lack of ability to read
When such remedial cases are recognized the first question is
usually-What should be done for the remedial reader? Should
special reading classes be formed? The answer to these questions
depends upon the situation within the individual secondary
school. Because of the various problems involved in remedial
cases, the remedial reading program must of necessity differ
from other types of reading programs. The importance of in-
dividualized instruction and the numerous approaches to work-
ing with remedial readers intensifies the complexities of the
instruction. If such a program is to be instituted within the
school, it will require a trained reading specialist. In some in-
stances, school systems have worked in cooperation with college
and university clinics, which have been specifically set up for
handling remedial reading cases. Such action has become neces-
sary because of the expenses involved, the need for trained
specialists, and the multiplicity of factors involved in conducting
a sound remedial program.
Selection of Students. It is evident then, that remedial reading
instruction becomes necessary when remedial cases are identified
and there is an indication that some form of instruction is needed.
When a school decides that it will have a remedial program and
has been able to secure the services of a trained reading specialist,
the next step would be to select students for the remedial in-
struction. Just how can this be implemented? Since teachers
are well aware of the difficulties which many of their students
are facing, they are quite often in an excellent position to make
various recommendations. Therefore, the teacher recommenda-
tions constitute one criterion for the selection of students for
Poor scores on standardized tests would also indicate reading
problems, problems which may constitute a remedial situation.
Then, of course, we have the students themselves. It is not un-
usual for students to express their willingness to participate in
such a program, particularly when they know that remedial
help is available within the school. The students themselves are
aware of their problems and difficulties, and quite often they
seek out the help they need.
Other criteria for the selection of students for remedial in-
struction would include some measure of the student's ability
to understand what he listens to, his socio-economic background,
his goals, and his family goals.
Types of Remedial Programs. Various types of programs have
been employed to assist remedial readers. One method is the ex-
tra required course. Such a course is usually set up without
credit for those retarded readers who are in need of this type of
training. This approach has its disadvantages. It increases the
student's academic schedule. In the event that it should be offered
for credit, it could take time away from another course that
the student might take.
Another approach is that of part time remedial instruction
as a unit in other classes. In such instances groups are formed
within the class to permit emphasis upon the various kinds of
reading skills wherein deficiencies are indicated. In such in-
stances the teacher can use a multi-level approach to reading
improvement. This raises the question whether or not a student
should be permitted to receive remedial instruction on either
a voluntary or a compulsory basis. Each approach, of course, has
its advantages and disadvantages. If the program is made volun-
tary, it is usually spelled out in advance that once the student
makes the decision to enter the program he is expected to at-
tend regularly. This approach has the advantage of enabling the
student to make his own decision relative to doing something
about his particular difficulty in reading. It places the responsi-
bility for improving reading on the student. On the other hand,
compulsory participation in a program will insure that a student
who needs such instruction will receive it.
Another approach to remedial instruction is that of the summer
reading program. The summer reading program is discussed in
another section of this chapter (see page 51).
Size of Remedial Reading Group. What should be the size of
the remedial reading group? Small groups of up to ten students
will enable the reading specialist to individualize instruction to
the extent necessary to bring about the desired results. The
larger type classes are more suitable for corrective training pro-
grams. The length of the total program and of each class period
also needs to be considered. These decisions must be related
with the total school program. Ordinarily, remedial instruction
is conducted on a daily basis. The total program can last from
one semester to an entire year.
Methodology. It is important to note that there are very spe-
cial difficulties in teaching reading to seriously retarded read-
ers. At the secondary level, a student's inability to read well
and his continuous earlier failure may have given him a sense
of extreme inadequacy. By this time such a student has developed
a concept of himself as an individual who simply cannot learn
how to read. In working with retarded readers at the secondary
level, it is well to keep in mind the old adage, "nothing succeeds
like success." In a remedial reading program the students must
have the experience of success. They must be able to prove to
themselves that they are capable of reading.
Another problem in the teaching of retarded readers at the
secondary level is that of breaking old habits that have been
formed. For instance, some students make wild guesses at words,
or they may have developed other inappropriate methods of
word attack. In spite of the difficulties in teaching seriously re-
tarded readers at the secondary level, there are certain positive
aspects which may not be found at the elementary level. The
need for reading at the secondary level is extremely pronounced.
Secondary students are preparing for future vocations in which
reading plays an important part. The motivation here is high.
With regard to methodology in working with remedial readers,
we cannot point to one particular method. A variety of methods
seems to get results. When students are sufficiently motivated,
when they understand the reason for being in a remedial reading
group, and when they are presented with suitable and interesting
materials, they usually make adequate progress. With such stu-
dents, the remedial reading teacher needs to work toward the
development of the essential reading skills in both oral and silent
reading. Auditory discrimination and perception are important.
The students' listening skills need to be developed. Visual per-
ception and discrimination are also important factors. Of course
as the teacher works with students in improving their reading,
the areas of vocabulary development and word analysis should
Students need a continuum of experience from the beginning
to the higher level reading skills, beginning at their particular
level of development. Students need help in working with the
skills involved in the study type of reading in order to experi-
ence success at school. Numerous practice materials and drills
need to be introduced. Most important, the remedial reading
instructor works toward helping each student to broaden his
The best approach for this instruction would be to include it
in the student's regular program without placing an extra burden
on his schedule. The remedial reading instructor needs time to
schedule individual conferences with the students. Once the in-
struction is set up students should be encouraged to take the
responsibility and to put forth the initiative in working with
the various practice materials and instruction which seems to
have value for them.
Tests are used for both teaching and diagnostic purposes.
Student interests may be employed as a springboard for motiva-
tion. Materials of appropriate difficulty should be presented to
insure initial success in working with remedial students. As the
students develop in their skills, the exercises should become
progressively more difficult. Evaluation of progress may be made
periodically to encourage each student. Remedial reading pro-
grams may be evaluated on the basis of standardized tests, stu-
dent records, noted changes in the student's attitudes, interests,
and motivation, an overall improvement in the student's aca-
demic work at school, and introspective reports.
Conclusion. For the pupils in the secondary schools who are
two grades or more below their potential reading levels, it is
essential to provide for remedial work with a reading teacher.
To avoid frustration and to help pupils with their class work,
this remedial help is needed both in the junior and the senior
Bamman, Henry A., Ursula Hogan, and Charles E. Green. Reading
Instruction in the Secondary School. New York: David McKay Com-
pany, Inc., 1961.
Botel, Morton, Cora Holsclaw, and Gloria Commarota. How to Teach
Reading. Chicago: Follett Publishing Company, 1962.
Newton, J. Roy. Reading in Your School. New York: McGraw-Hill
Book Company, Inc., 1960.
Sarasota County Council of Teachers of English and the Board of
Public Instruction for Sarasota County. English, Language Arts, Cur-
riculum Guide, 1964.
Spache, George D. Toward Better Reading. Champaign, Illinois: Gar-
rard Publishing Company, 1962.
Spache, George D. and Margaret G. Green. Guide to Reading in the
Secondary Schools of Volusia County, 1962.
State Department of Education. A Guide: English in Florida Secondary
Schools, Bulletin 35A. Tallahassee, Florida, 1962.
Strang, Ruth and Dorothy Kendall Bracken. Making Better Readers.
Boston: D. C. Heath and Company, 1957.
Triggs, Frances Oralind. Reading: Its Creative Teaching and Testing,
Kindergarten through College. New York: 419 W. 119, 1960.
Umans, Shelley. New Trends in Reading Instruction. New York: Bureau
of Publications, Teachers College, Columbia University, 1963.
Viox, Ruth G. "Setting Up a Junior High School Summer Reading
Improvement Program," The Reading Teacher (September, 1963).
Check List* of Reading Practices
in the Secondary School
1. Is provision made for continuation of the teaching of reading skills
throughout the grade levels of the secondary school?
2. Do faculty members accept responsibility for orienting themselves
to the reading problems of the elementary schools?
3. Does each teacher plan for teaching the reading skills as an inte-
gral part of his subject matter?
4. Does each teacher recognize the reading problems which are in-
volved in his subject areas?
5. Are provisions made, in each subject area, for meeting the needs
of students who have a wide range of abilities in reading?
6. Are provisions made for a wide range of reading interests, in terms
of both materials and instruction given?
7. Have the faculty members agreed as to the scope and sequence of
skills to be emphasized at successive grade levels?
Taken from Reading Instruction in the Secondary School by Henry A. Bamman,
Ursula Hogan, and Charles E. Greene. (David McKay Company, Inc., New York, 1961,
8. Are the study skills and habits pertinent to the various subject
areas clearly defined and do teachers assume responsibility for
helping students develop more efficient study habits?
9. Are materials, personnel, and space available for a laboratory pro-
gram for the retarded readers?
II. Are materials adequate and consistent with the kinds of programs
1. Is there a wide range of periodicals, books, magazines, newspapers,
and pamphlets for each subject area?
2. Are materials sufficiently varied in terms of interests and reading
levels of all students?
3. Are materials adequate for the recreational needs of the students?
4. Is guidance given, in each subject area, in the use of reference
materials and textbooks?
5. Are materials provided for the student who wishes to practice and
develop better reading skills?
6. Do trained personnel assist students in the location and use of
III. Is there an adequate program of evaluation?
1. Are the results of standardized tests made available to all the
teachers-both total and subscores?
2. Are the teachers apprised of the reading levels of their students?
3. Do the standardized tests which are used cover adequately the
skills needed for reading in each of the content areas?
4. Are students apprised of the results of evaluation?
5. Are provisions made through the counseling services for diagnosing
cases of extreme reading disability?
6. Do counselors provide opportunities for the students to discuss
their study and reading problems?
7. Are provisions made for superior students to seek, on a voluntary
basis, extension of their reading skills?
Scope and Sequence of Reading Skills
Development of Reading a Continuous Process
ASOUND READING program recognizes the value of contin-
uous, systematic instruction, the utilization of pupil inter-
ests, the fulfillment of developmental needs and the relationship
of experience in reading to other types of worth-while activities.
In this way steady growth in reading skills is made possible and
the attainment of basic human satisfaction is facilitated. At the
same time the maximum growth of the individual according to
his unique nature is fostered.' Thus, one concludes that develop-
ment in and through reading is a continuous process-a lifetime
task to which each period of life contributes.
Learning to read efficiently and effectively is very important
in the world of today. Reading is crucial to the success of an
individual both in and out of school and in every area of living.
If the individual is to become an efficient and effective reader,
he must have systematic and sequential reading instruction,
differentiated in terms of his purposes, needs, interests, problems,
and potential at all school levels and in every subject area.
Development of Reading Based on Individual's
Experience and Background
Every important reading ability has its beginning in the early
years of the child's reading development. Each year old reading
skills are reinforced and new ones are added as the student is
challenged with increasingly complex and difficult reading ma-
terials. Each step of development in reading should be based on
the previous step and reinforce and enhance each skill and ability
so that it becomes part of the repertory of mastered skills and
abilities. Many skills become more complex and more refined
1 Paul Witty, Sixtieth Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education
Part I, Chicago. Distributed by the University of Chicago Press, 1961.
and subtle as mastery of reading takes place. However, it should
not be expected even at the college level or later that students
will have acquired complete mastery of all reading skills. Thus,
the development of reading abilities becomes a spiral process
and cannot be confined to any single grade or educational level,
but is dependent on the individual's experience and language
development. Each teacher's task is to provide the experience
and guide the individual in the use of these experiences at each
Vertical and Horizontal Aspects of Reading
Instructors at all educational levels should be concerned with
not only the horizontal which deals with the development of the
skills and abilities of reading but also the vertical aspects which
deal with the growth of these skills if students are to become
efficient and effective readers.
A vertical reading program provides definite responsibilities
for the administrators,2 the teacher of all subjects at all grade
levels from kindergarten through college, the guidance person-
nel3 and the librarian.4 A vertical program assumes that each
instructor discovers the capacity and achievement level in read-
ing of each student, his reading weaknesses and strengths, his
reading background, his interest in reading, his language de-
velopment and his rate of learning. In terms of this information
a program should be designed to help pupils not only to learn
to read efficiently and effectively but also develop power in read-
ing in every area that requires reading.
Special efforts should be made for those reading below their
grade levels and mental capacities, as well as challenge the
reading power of superior students. Content fields require special
instruction to meet reading problems peculiar to each field.
Ability to read well in one subject does not imply the ability to
read well in others. Each field presents its own demands in
special vocabulary, concepts and ways of reading for different
purposes. Thus, every teacher who employs materials that de-
mand reading should make the effort to direct his pupils in
ways and means of accomplishing that reading.5
2 Reading Guide. p. 20, Planning for a Reading Program
Reading Guide. p. 128, Developing Reading Interests in Secondary Schools.
5 George D. Spache and Margaret G. Green, editors. Guide to Reading in the Sec-
ondary Schools of Volusia County.
uu.rTjqpI puU joiasunoo aouupTno '.folonals
-uI aTI tItA uoil2oJadooo ur iojtaqstuuTpv aoq Jo AlTITqTsuods
-al 3OyTODads aj 9V ur.iso.ic 2uipaLI atl jo spacldsV 1=T4IT9aA
-310ig ieTluaijadxa uIT tOAOD 0
u'.ptalI doIaAga 0o saOt!TAIT
IuautloTaU .o10 SUTPIPAOLJd
ssauTpsa@'a auip2aTP u! TITo M0J
uo01daooad p.ToA ui TIIoao. E
aOIAOurd 211 U IIIAOJEO e
OnJlQ no 3a0no 1T V
a ou jo suaL plaqo oUT sa X0AJflo3 4 $' .
2uTpUt-H 2BulI@ ui TUIAOJO &
Aouanii. 2 pvsaa ui Tiloa-D ^d^ a'
a3Ua 1 4z
-puacapui uTpsaa ul j Aoo V^ a
sapn4V puu 4saaatuI ?
2UTP'aa ImnpTATPUI uIT TXAoJOj tt^.
PUB snlUS iupeaaI u! iUt o o i o
I0 0 41 -I <4
U I I IQ
rar E: SW bD3
0 ; g -i
a c 0 u -
4 'd H oa 'P4 '-
a) 0 0 0 0 0. 0. 0 W.
ow ;> > > > > > >
Scope and Sequence Chart
The scope and sequence chart that follows presents the picture
of the behavioral outcomes in reading development and personal
development through reading which can be expected as each
child moves at a pace commensurate with his ability and achieve-
ment level through the reading program from kindergarten
through adult life. Following introduction of the skills and abili-
ties through informal and incidental experience, the skills are
maintained, refined and practiced at all succeeding levels. Each
subsequent practice goes more broadly and deeply into the sub-
ject than did the previous practice. Each new learning must be
based on the previous learning. No student, however, will show
equal maturity in all skills.
It is hoped that this chart will be an aid to all persons re-
sponsible for reading development in order that they can under-
stand the sequence and coordination of the reading program at
all educational levels.
*a t- a
S *I .
% .3 S 9
d 3oH 3f
I f.4 .
^3 P a oj > *-
mvo to 4..t b
C) .- C)
|i cl 0 l 0
1 4 0l d *
a 0 t
4 .5 4)
do Casm l
a~g as% a as
CO C 0
So 9 0
J_______ -___ -__ __ --__ ___ _____
*CO .1 I
cl 7 -
c) 0 0
as < C go
*s ^~ s :
0. N N0
'^ C ) C) --^ C )
c C2 g )C0
1^ 1 .I a-
C).C) ,2 C)i C)
C)a NB NC)
b~~C fl C
S C) 0
C)- .s 0
U g s
-Ca N bo
C) l l
,1 C) C) 0
C) C) -n HC
1. I- I
3 & 0
0I C IC I
6 dd a
QO C3 0
0 .2 .2 i b_ 0
.s o g s a g a gC
*' 1 I 0 0 1 C II
0 e *
Ce o C
0 0 a?
-I ID Ceaf
cl .- d b
ce Pe 0 C
0 0 00
o -r -0-0
Ce PI 00
s 0 c
Sa- -a 0 a
Ce Ce r 'd~ *ca
0 0 0C
Ce ~ ~ ~ ~ ; 40. 0 0,0~CeC
*0 9b 0 lo 5C
0e 0* 0 0 o
C 0 to C.
Ce R a 0 0
e Ce Ce 0 0 0 C-
oa C 0 q C b > e
o -o 0. o Ce 9 hCe Ce e .
J) 0C 0
Ce' Ce '0" >0 C
0 ~ Ce *gf hd *-; *j~
% a::S~ r `"r a
m a '94
o a o 3
^~ g ^
.i .g 0
<1? .. -
|Q wt9 uS
C)~ .- 4
-0C "~ i
0u j .aC
c C- C)
0 0 *
sg m- Og
0 IC 01
ai; 1 ^
0 0 0** 0r
0 i-i a ., o c
**U 00 021-
.Q 0 s
" t P
.0 o3 O
Cd ^ *S .g
Cd 0 -a I
ad 01 C ) ~
;u Q- C)a' ^ -
C) o^ S _
~ o 3 ^
*S Eg '" S "
o~ Cd C) C) C
o C9b C)C
od a )
Ld. Cd 'E
C)C~C E flO.
"sirs ? |S|
a" O Cd
^3 uaa g g-
0 0"- o Ps
-0 a a c
oE 3 gb o~ ato-
Pll IF 11;j
*^. a &,
a 2 C) C)P
02a 02 0'
, s -s M "I
2& *FZ .0 ^
Cjg ) i .0 b f
.III~ .00 I1
o-. a w s -
.^|~ I | I t
- .. G '3 0 3 C
Cii .- o .
"s. c g ? &, ^
r| 1 1 *l i
"a cS V;~ bo F.
1 0 ) *- 03 -
:a .s a -
ro | as 7 -
e .o 2
"" n. -a 5'
*^~ b4$ a 0 c
>0 028 '
0gC 0 g- .e
.P~00 0 C 2
^g ^*- ^1 *s
~j -a 0 C
^g^l~r -i g
I~s. g-g9 *S
0C)02C "laC -a C)
Fo^0C 2 0m2 0
f-~Sdi Q. 0 0. 02
j-C -3 0(-d 6a
T "I i
S" .s .a
C) C ;C C)
I~ ls C CC3
I) I 'P i
S, s r *
-C C CI ^
m g *g ^*
.Q CCQa T
C .) .. ^
C)** e ,~ C h l
~cr ,~ E
C) C)) -C
-j -C- ~OO ~0
m CCj E
a CCC % C)
C)- C ~ -~CC
s~ CC.s s
a, -~ mb
^ -C CC C
ca CC -
a S ba
ed MO as
* -S C)" CC
CCH' C) a*a -
C). C)- eo
" e&1 b- &
CC ^' -*' *3
.S C0 0 i.-.^ oC
C) C--. ^ -y
a a S- a s
-C ) fr -l' g .
y *C+-- 5C)*'~ -d-
c, g a g O0
o .S =S
-m C)- .-a
' S 8 3 C
bs -a =
* ) C)
be a C
-1 .ta fl
C) C) -.C
c C)f <-i C)
Cl U *a ,^;
I% i g g a "
1' j i *
C) C) C) C- 0.- *~ c
w S C 29
'C -*- C C)
2! E, *8 6 S a "
C3 C )
0 03 C C c
"f a sg i j
-^ c3 C) -
^ *^ 9 ^ '3 g *
-8 ^ S S? a ,a -
Q 5 0 .E M p. ~ en .g-1Q il-
'C C- g H -Q .C)
C) C) C)o" C" C C"~ -
.0 0,' -CC' 0 -
C) C) ~O -, C' C).
.. C) 'C d-' C
a e3 3~ C3 w~I
b.0 2 S m
cCb1 m -3 -0. 0 -4
,CC O c` CC
-~c ?j,]~ ~
CC CC CC~C
C) C) C) CC i
CC b -cl na p.C
CC z ) )
i c e C 'C C/ .cC J
ChO ., C)
h. E C). cC -4 CCC 0 CC~
d ~ 2 f CC CC h~
o ~ 00r( CCC ) c d-2"C
-C *N~ QF QC cC~ CC
-~~ ~ $~ CCO COC
~ ~ ~ CC 2 m~ ~CCf
eCC 0cC %6 C ; ; %'CCr6 ~
C) ~ .0
r __. 0__
o )o C' C)
1 ,3 -- ? b- S0
c)- t*CC 0 68 6 N -
1^ ||C o.| || || 1
C )C ) *3 *
co r- o i '
c3 bfl 0
*-. ..C 9)
p4 -*. o
a h F1
* -i- C)
0 C) ^ 0
C) E? '(
1i &1 ^
0.9 'j C)
"; SS -2 g
a, "i t
.3 ~0 *e,
.*- ^mS *5
MiE .9 B I"
d la s ;6i t
a ^3. EC Cc .,.mE
C) o m g
S m~~a I 3
C 0 1
A -1 .d % 3
TO eo M d e
CO l *^'
B*T- I r-
.4 4 C
0 d Q
c CCm Cd
^? ~ ~ ~ 0 F2^ ^ r. -'
.3 1 ^ 3 2 g3
0 B g 0 0
CC ..5 1 ) 1 1 I I 2 i |
3-1 cs 3 a
C6 C 01 1 S 1 0 b
C)C) 0 d ~ --- 2
C~fl -1 I )i1.C4 1
C) CC 1 '~ -i 0| l .. i
>*=! a S: E P a a P 5(
-4-**- C) C) .08 .2 2' 4- -"! o
41 C) 2 0 CC 0
3~ ~~ ~ ". "-.s ^ ^
,S-4 o4 -4- 4 g-o 4-
**-4w C) ") d
C)" CC _5T ^ -g b 0 S' ^d
^o CC S **- 1)C g| !
,,0 -3 2 -3 0 C)C 0t 2 o ag g5
2 ;C .00 .0 ) 0C
CC iC 2 i),O t *I I
~o 22 C
03 ;3 .
ro aS 'It cairo E *^ CJ oe t^ o
C)C) ,4 rE~
4-~ 0C0 C)c)l 0
o o a 7
~sl 0 CCC) bD~3
..o o Pcj @m- -d -
0, C) -~ .-t ,-
C,, ~a )
U) U)5, S
C)C o~ 1
C)-C :C) .- .-.b -
~d D C..~; ~ ~ C)8~S~
C) O oXC)
0 ~ _~ ~ I ?
C gE oC)U), a ~
9 C)~ ~ C )
C)C C) cl C)m* dC4l bl).-
x. o g o 2 =
S 0 ca *1
i 0 -. 0o Z 0 -
. I s 0
r 3 C5 3
1. t a0 0 S 3
.2 ~ S0.S .S uoS
-14 0 44. w 6 4
0u .. 0 C tQ 00
0-.0 .0 0. I'
.0-d' ~ ~ .~ 0 C U) .0 0
0, C~ 0 000)
0 Y; V a ~ d
.0 i 0 a Co 0o ? g --
0 o~0 o
Om o o,
Oo 008 0
: 0 0 g g^ e.a .
0 0 0. o 0. o o g
P,~ 13 cs'" ^3 ohca U QJ 1' ^! '
.0 0^ C2 5 00
0"-- -^ aa 5 S' o o ^
$ '0 1 o '0 S .0 oSol
3- j | g ^ S ^ S- S 3
.0- *g,3o 's ^ o ^ ? s ~ -
t 1 JS t i 1.m lfra
*g 0o-~ ll0- aCO
~ 0 .0l O~ ?
0i OCrg C o. f .0 0 M *
0~, o~ CC ~ 00~
~a .a .-o --
ao~ ~ a- ao' p3 o :
CO d O Co~F
6 ~ ( 6'V C
0 0 "
- s O0 3
o o o Ao
.jl l 0i
c,- s ca
o0 .- .o -.
S S S
600 ~ ~
0, a 4 ma
4 O0 4 c4l c 4 02W$E4
9C C) C3 P i
S C w.
(C .4 I I a a S I -
I ^ *g 'a 4- C g s
Ij -O S Io I SC ,~ IS C)
Q o E o a ., o .
>> 2 -0 C 0I
Sa y i -d -i C) s
53 C3 a a -
oi. | ~o i E .. cf
$- I .&- .1 0 o I
02 *|- i C0 C C1
I- A ) H1 Z 1 -
c t< 0 .C i
C3 Fle b C)
-~~ ~ ~ .- ; S
I II I
S2 -j ^
o d ,. |
C) aC C)S H >
b .g I2e
*S .S "
N c C if 0
*||1 S 1
*<* ?? ?
a~~ --s "| S
a >; o i
o O "E he ~ ^- -
c!O U3 ao < w *, 0- a &
C bC *
*s *3 c ., QcC
- .5 3 tS ^-~ .i g-3 cas'g -*
d 02 c~ ^ Se Ex 3 IB'
-. l |C I I1
Csg s 0C))' *- "C
rn |S rcCg -a
d- 3 -s o) d-
0iF 3 C)
0 m a0a
o C) C
3 ) 0
20 *! o
3 S a'
0- ^- 0
-s .9 1- :
C) .^ .2^~ .i
W C G'C
^ o o3*+-
3 a *g
C) 11 I
ft '-- '-'!
aS af S a
u ^D -aaT
z- S 0-'Q
C)C q T
C) .C d
Cs. I ~ -4
o' s *
8 rt 'a gS a
C) Cd 0J ~
s C O o
C) C) s
a 3 S 3 -
-- C 00 <-
C) 8- .
|| IS g, ^ |
Cd~ ~ e -~ P
.0 CC -M CC _mC C)
0-.0 C) C) .
,a n y I S t ^^ -i
00CC *08- 4
4-4-C) C 0 2 8.-2 XCd
0-; Ml C *" rt 03 ,0
V; bb ; Fcd
a o eo3
.0O+d o c
.E hC g -
o-0 tcd C)C)a
CI CC.C CC
I 1 EB ^
5 Io -1 M .
9A 0 0
Ss 0 S $
0 c 3 C3
' o C3 5 iS .
.0 C) o5
.2 .^ .?
E o 32.0 a
.9 -ga ^ ^ e;.tg
*I Sal fi la i
0 c >C)
.I Is*! i1
0S a 3 0 o g
C)l 02. C).* *FC) 1* o
.0 CE o E0 0
.b d ; e5 ~l
CI 3 2
0.2 0 0
2 5=. .3
- 0'a 0
5 s. -9
i3 o 9
C)i0 P, 0
d1 I C
0 -d 6.
a a, o
*s ~~ .s A -
13 '2 -S
C) 0 fe C d
o iQ^ S S a
a 5 Y gh S-a *
-^ -C) a C
I ioi e i! ca I 11L
s .EI .gg< ^ g g l s .
C" o o o o
bid -1 Cd.F
~~s -g 0 -.
o .I? o l0 ..., o
-6 0r .
~a Y ~ 04- 0 SC
4-4 C) 0~ ,. '-aC 02 4-.%
o~~ ~ N oC oCbiE-'4~ C)C
C) N Cd 4-" Cd ~ ~ N
Cd d. C ) -
C)C -i C)N )
o 8 o -S
02 C) 0g
m = oa -i
;E 0~ 0
tl) 0 0
C) ^ 5
02 -.0 0. S
3 rtg 3'0
0 ^C) '0 0
o 02' Ci -S *<
0i ^CC *~
0. C Ci -
Ci 0 ~ Ci C
- 0 *a c
| .- 0 |
i ) Ci i: ^11.
ill In 1 in
- S 0 Cio2 ^'
s | g a 3 1jH-
0 53 C1i -1^
^ ^ g$- g^
io o aC C)
F: C~ 5 o 6'
~U~ CiSC 5 0 m
~. 05.0 00 0 Ej ~
S : m*S Sg, ^
--' -=! at 3s -i? '
I F1 1 i ll~ 1^O 1
| d C Ia j? j | | ^ 1 g g
-~ I o .8 0 m-~C
llii l 0 111- n
r a Ji ^~ i ^II I^^
QC O Q0 i3 c O 3
00 0 00 0 c~
S- g @ S~ g: FI pS ^ S^
O cC c C)o
0 c3 0 -c3 <0 C)
os *0 oc CO 0 w
0 g ~o P o~~bC,
OyX~~~~c 0 ~~~~8gCI~
0G .i 0 COd 0C 0 -
.c El cC u lQ
~~cjf -r cC-
5-, Oo~ "O CO -.cC 0P ~
H C) ) 0 -4
o~ -. -O cC .~ s-. ~
-Z -9 ~ v 0 0 Co'
cLt~ J c ~ cC 0
,cCa cJ dZo C .a Vc;c .c
P 0 C) C C
CC CC 0
0 C) Ca C
N FS 3
CC C) C)
C)CaI*' ~P Ca
fl a .M
C a 0 01
0 .0 C) C0
C 3 a a. a -
Ca C) ^ CC CC
go a &ss'"
ao, ci a R fi M
SS SSO dl
0 ..-. ..-. ma
0 0 0 0
S o C3
C s 0 0
2~~~~ -i -s^sg
P a g- P F3 0 .2 5
g c3 0 0 a 2 C
4 -iC i C)U P ilfl f
C) 4)' C) 0 6-. 4
0 .E U -U .0 .. fl
C. o -?
3 0 03 C
0d .. C
re gC!) y3 0
- g, *0 s 0 C I
*i- :" a; a v
o 3 o ) -S
C) C) e0 -
a 3 3 ri -a
20 ^ 0 g .
5 ^s I a
^ CC 0
rt: rt ? <<<
C m C
0 2 CC re C)
C ) C) C) C)3 C
C) d O ~ 0 (