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 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Foreword
 Part I: Some basic issues in developing...
 Part II: A suggested program of...
 Back Matter
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Group Title: Bulletin - State Department of Education ; 9A
Title: Planning programs of study in Florida elementary schools
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00067231/00002
 Material Information
Title: Planning programs of study in Florida elementary schools
Series Title: Its Bulletin
Physical Description: 42 p. : ;
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- State Dept. of Education
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee
Publication Date: 1947
 Subjects
Subject: Education -- Curricula -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
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Bibliographic ID: UF00067231
Volume ID: VID00002
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
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Resource Identifier: oclc - 07843900

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Title Page 1
        Title Page 2
        Title Page 3
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents
    Foreword
        Foreword 1
        Foreword 2
    Part I: Some basic issues in developing a program of study
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
    Part II: A suggested program of study
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
    Back Matter
        Page 45
        Page 46
    Back Cover
        Page 47
        Page 48
Full Text











UNIVERSITY
OF FLORIDA
LIBRARIES




1-


A d


BULLETIN No. 9A NOVEMBER, 1947

STATE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
COLIN ENGLISH, Superintendent Tallahassee, Florida








PLANNING PROGRAMS OF STUDY

IN

FLORIDA ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS


Bulletin No. 9A
November, 1947


STATE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
Tallahassee, Florida
COLIN ENGLISH, State Superintendent of Schools
JOE HALL, Director, Division of Instruction











TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page
Foreword

Part One

Some Basic Issues in Developing a Program of Study

Analyzing Teaching Situations.......................... ................................. 1
P planning the School P program .................................................................................... 4
Guiding and Evaluating Experiences of Children .............................. 6
Securing Instructional M materials ......................................................................... 10


Part Two

A Suggested P program of Study.......................................................... ............................. 12

L a n g u a g e A r ts................................................................................... .................................. 1 3
S o cia l S tu d ies ...................... .......................................................... ..................... . 2 0
M a th em a tics ................................................................................................................ .............. 2 2
M u sic .................................................................... ................................................ . ..................... 2 4
S c ie n c e ................................................................................................................ ............. ............ 2 8
A rts an d C ra fts ..................... ................. ................................................................... . 30
P h y sical E d u cation ..... ................................................................ . .................................. 34
H health an d S afety .......................................................... ....... ........................ ............. 6

List of Publications of the State Department of Education

Frequently Needed by Elementary School Teachers....................................40

Index to Curriculum B ulletins......................................................... ............................. 41











FOREWORD


In response to a need of many principals, teachers, and supervisors,
the Courses of Study Committee requested the preparation of the
Program of Study for. the Elementary School. Marked changes in
the elementary school program within recent years and frequent
changes in administrative and teaching personnel necessitate a bulletin
pointing out trends in curriculum development and suggesting ma-
terials for use in dealing with solution of curricular problems.
This bulletin is designed to aid the principals in orienting new
teachers and to give teachers specific help in becoming acquainted
with the program of studies for the elementary school of Florida. It
may also aid lay people to understand this program.
It is believed that a guide of this type will facilitate the use of
the more detailed curriculum bulletins issued by the State Depart-
ment of Education. It is hoped that this material will be useful to
county-wide groups, faculties, and individuals who are interested in
improving the local school program. It may be used by study groups
as a basis for further investigation of problems, since summarizing
statements, cross references, and charts coordinate the publications
of the State Department of Education which deal with the elementary
school. All references given are to these publications.
Appreciation is extended to the committee members who pre-
pared this bulletin and to the consultants who directed their efforts.
Membership of the committee was as follows: Marian Black, Blounts-
town; William E. Bush, Day; Amelia L. Cabot, Key West; Hellen
Caro, Pensacola; Julia Carroll, Sebring; Eunice Hall, Pensacola;
Florida Harding, Jacksonville; Lucille M. Hart, Mayo; Maude E.
McClellan, Paxton; Marguerite Neel, Brooksville; May Sands, Key
West; Frances M. Summers, Panama City; Elizabeth Warren, Mari-
anna; Mary F. Wicks, Orlando; Birdie Wilson, Dania; Jewell J.
Wise, Mayo.
The consultants for the bulletin were Edna Parker and Sarah
Lou Hammond. In addition to the two consultants, other members
of the State Department of Education who gave valuable assistance
were Joe Hall, Mrs. Dora Skipper, Mildred Swearingen, Marjorie
Morrison, Louise Smith, and Cliff Kerby. The State Department of
Education is particularly indebted to Dr. W. T. Edwards, Dr.
Robert C. Moon, Professors of Education; Mr. Ralph Donaldson,
Asst. Professor of Industrial Arts, and Dr. Wiley L. Housewright,
Professor of Music Education, at Florida State State University,
who gave valuable comments and suggestions.










Grateful acknowledgement is also accorded to the members of two
groups which worked at Florida State University during the first
term of the 1947 summer session: the members of the elementary
principals' workshop and those teachers who prepared the elementary
science bulletin.



State Superintendent of Public Instruction













PART ONE
SOME BASIC ISSUES IN DEVELOPING A PROGRAM OF STUDY



Analyzing Teaching Situations
Growing plants are on the window sills, flowers are in vases
about the room. Books are placed too carefully on shelves and tables,
tightly arranged in neat rows. The entire room is quite orderly, yet
it does not look at ease, any more than the children do. During the
lesson a child picked up a book which lay on the table in front of
him and opened it. "Put down that book; now, sit up" came at
once from the teacher.
Spelling on the blackboard was given exhaustive and exhausting
attention, with interruptions such as-"Now, you are all talking at
once. Remember, every time you talk you will have to write two
more words." Each word is pronounced and discussed at length.
The children answer spasmodically in chorus, accompanied by the
teacher's remarks, such as, "Now Jack, that is just pure carelessness.
You have no pencil ? Well, I'm going to send you home to get one.
You know you have to furnish your own pencils!"
The spelling lesson finished, it was nearly three o'clock when
argument arose as to who was to clean the blackboard and water the
plants. "Well, you just water those plants and miss your bus, then,"
said the teacher. "I can't be watering the plants every day." New
members of the student council were hurriedly elected. The chair-
man" was overridden by the teacher and after some confused
"voting" the matter was finally decided by the teacher. "Now,
Bobby, just sit down until you can behave and keep your mouth
closed. I can just appoint the members-but that is not a very
democratic way! After you have finished cleaning you may go."
The children tramped out.

Although the above description is not sufficient for an adequate
evaluation of the learning situation certain implications are apparent.
The teacher has some knowledge of the objectives of a good school
program, yet she seems confused as to the interpretation and ap-
plication of them in the classroom. She talks in terms of a newer
practice in education, yet she rigidly holds to a very traditional
practice in everyday experiences with children. While she speaks of
being democratic. the way in which she conducted the election could











2 PROGRAMS OF STUDY IN FLORIDA ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS


not be democratic in any sense of the meaning of the word "de-
mocracy. '"
The following analysis seems appropriate:
1. Available materials not wisely used
2. Lack of sympathetic attitude toward problems of pupils
3. Lack of respect for personality of pupils
4. Lack of desirable teacher-pupil relationship-emotional
tone of classroom strained and tense
5. Lack of recognition of individual differences
6. Lack of pupil-teacher planning
7. Absence of democratic living in the classroom
8. Emphasis on the acquisition of subject matter-more in-
terested in what children do with subject matter than what
subject matter does to children
9. Punishment unrelated to behavior
The situation described above can be changed to a classroom that
is organized for wholesome democratic living in which children and
teacher cooperatively set up and maintain good standards of work
and conduct. This change can be brought about through (1) a
clarification of the ultimate objective of the school-the all-round
development of children, and (2) planning ways of achieving these
objectives. Methods of achieving desirable goals are implied in the
following situation.

There was a certain careless ease in the arrangement of the room.
Books, while disarranged, looked as though they had been used.
Partially completed objects lay on the work bench. An easel with
large sheets of paper, jars of tempera paints, and brushes stood in-
vitingly in one corner. Growing plants at the windows; maps and
charts on the board; interesting books upon tables; and the informal
arrangement of the furniture gave evidence of awareness of needed
values.
A glance at the blackboard revealed the planning that had been
done. On one section of the board was written "Things We Are
Doing". Below this heading were listed: studying how aviation has
made the world seem smaller, learning about polar centered maps,
writing letters to find out about air lines, learning many new words,
making model airplanes, learning to swim, learning to sing two part
songs, working on speed and accuracy in arithmetic, and learning to










SOME BASIC ISSUES IN DEVELOPING A PROGRAM OF STUDY


work in committees. On another section of the board were placed
the names of the children who were to lead the devotions for the
week. Nearby were names of committee members whose duties were
to arrange flowers, to care for tools, to adjust windows and shades,
mix paints, and to secure other needed materials.
The teacher's remarkable personality pervaded the classroom. Her
manner was easy and self-controlled. Though she had been there
only three weeks, she had already learned much about the background
and readiness for learning of each child. This knowledge aided her
in planning her work so that she could provide interesting activities
for all the children on their own levels. By continuous planning of
activities for group improvement and evaluating results with children
she had secured a classroom organization based on democratic princi-
ples of living.

Before faculty groups can plan effectively to improve the over-all
school program they will need to clarify for themselves the functions
of a school in a democracy. Many faculties have found that this
may be done more effectively in terms of some particular problem
rather than in the abstract. When goals are understood, faculties
need to plan ways and means of achieving them in keeping with the
problem at hand peculiar to their situations. Help in determining
the objectives may be secured by careful examination and study ot
the methods used by state committees when preparing curriculum
bulletins,' or guides. The following objectives developed by such
committees are stated in terms of changes desired in boys and girls:
1. To develop boys and girls who are socially sensitive
2. To develop boys and girls who strive for increasing control
over those skills necessary for participation in a democracy
3. To develop boys and girls who will strive for increasing control
over the process of reflective thinking and the scientific method
4. To develop boys and girls who strive for increasing under-
standing and control over self and over the relations of self
to other people
5. To develop boys and girls who will strive to produce and en-
joy the processes and products of creative effort
6. To develop boys and girls who will strive to perform some
useful work and to see the relationship of their work to demo-
cratic living.
1. All bulletins are listed by title and number on page 40. In all other places
the bulletins are referred to by number only.
References: Bulletin No. 2, pp. 38-54
Bulletin No. 9, pp. 78-84










4 PROGRAMS OF STUDY IN FLORIDA ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS

Planning the School Program
If the school program is to be understood and carried forward
it must be planned cooperatively by all concerned. Good planning
must include analysis of present situation, agreement on basic beliefs
and purposes, and development of a general program of activities
in terms of needs revealed and purposes stated. Planning in the local
situation should be done by groups at several levels-county, school,
teacher and teacher-pupil.
County-Wide Planning-In order to plan effectively at the county
level, it is necessary that every area be represented in the planning.
Many counties have found it effective to have a planning committee
made up of administrators, elementary and secondary teachers from
both large and small schools. This planning committee may wish to
utilize the services of parents, civic organizations, and character
building agencies in planning school-community programs, such as
year-round recreation. In large counties it is often necessary to
organize sub-committees for special functions. Planning which should
be taken up at the county level includes continuous development ot
the curriculum, wise use of textbooks and other materials, a unified
county health program, report cards and cumulative records, and
promotional policies, etc. Committees of teachers should cooperate
with the superintendent, school board, and. principals in developing
general policies in respect to the year's calendar, leave of absence
for study, sick leave, in-service training of teachers, relief periods
for elementary teachers, etc.
Total Faculty Planning.-Planning at this level involves a con-
tinuous study and evaluation of the school program. Elementary
faculties will wish to plan cooperatively in regard to problems which
deal with schedule making, provision for individual differences,
school community relations, school health program, character de-
velopment, discipline, school lunch, and continuity and balance of
the streams of experience (subject matter area).
The importance of securing continuity in the school program
cannot be over emphasized. It is the duty of each elementary and
secondary teacher to take the individual child where he is and guide
him through a series of related experiences which will aid him to
become a well-rounded person. If there is continuity in the total
school program, the child will usually proceed smoothly through
the elementary school, from the elementary to the junior high school,
and on through the senior high school.
Individual Teacher Planning.-As the teacher begins her plans
within the framework set up by the faculty, she must consider both
the scope of the entire year's work, and that of shorter periods of
time. She must state her over-all purpose in terms of the grade









SOME BASIC ISSUES IN DEVELOPING A PROGRAM OF STUDY 5


theme as suggested in curriculum bulletins. Her more detailed plans
for specific units must be in keeping with the local background and
needs and interests of the pupils. The teacher must remember that
this planning, which is done in advance, is flexible and will be modi-
fied as she plans and works with the pupils. She should plan for
three phases of instruction: integrated, direct teaching, and
individual.1
Before the teacher can select a unit, she must (1) check on the
outcomes already achieved by the group and by individuals within
the group, and (2) secure information concerning local community
background, pupil needs and interests. After she has selected the
unit of work, her pre-planning must take into consideration (1) a
wide range of activities which meet the needs and interests of the
group, (2) available source material, (3) possible situations which
may arise, (4) her knowledge of related subject matter, (5) the
objectives in terms of pupil behavior and achievement. She should
avoid making plans which are rigid outlines, and also avoid short
units totally unrelated to one another.
As the teacher works with pupils she will guide them in the use
of subject matter from all areas that will aid in solving the problem.
If she provides a large block of time in the schedule for the integrated
phase of teaching, she can help the pupil to see the relationships be-
tween subject matter and the problem at hand.2
Needs of the group which become evident through the integrated
phase of instruction necessitate direct teaching. This phase provides.
opportunities to emphasize development of meanings, understandings,
and skills.
Certain needs of individual pupils cannot be cared for either in
the integrated or in the direct teaching' phase. Therefore, it is neces-
sary to schedule a period of time when the teacher can aid the pupils
to make personal adjustments, gain understandings and master skills.
Teacher-Pupil Planning.-Teachers and pupils will need to make
weekly and daily plans. In teacher-pupil planning the needs of the
group must be considered, rather than a mere whim of a particular
child. Neither domination nor lack of planning by the teacher is
desirable. These plans made by the children under the guidance of
the teacher will set up definite activities to be accomplished by indi-
vidual committees, and by the group as a whole. Such activities
should be of interest and value to the children and should include
plans for the development of needed skills. As pupils plan with each
other and the teacher, execute plans, assume responsibilities and
make choices, they are learning and growing.
1. Bulletin No. 9 pp. 47-50
2. Bulletin No. 46 pp. 15-16
Bulletin No. 47 pp. 15-16
Bulletin No. 9 pp. 63-73










6 PROGRAMS OF STUDY IN FLORIDA ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS


Guiding and Evaluating Learning Experiences of Children
Guidance is a vital phase of the school program because of its
aid in adjusting the child and the curriculum. An adequate guidance
program involves cooperation between all teachers of a school, de-
sirable relationships between parents and teachers, and good pupil-
teacher rapport. The classroom teacher, because of her daily associa-
tion with pupils, is the one best fitted to guide them in their adjust-
ment to group living, and in their progress toward achieving other
objectives of the school. She has the responsibility of guiding them
so that they may form habits and make adjustments which will result
in behavior satisfactory to themselves and approved by the group.
A good guidance program will help the pupils to adjust to the chang-
ing problems which they face as they progress through elementary
school.
Discipline.-Throughout all of the elementary school years the
chief concern of the teacher should be the personal development of
each child as he lives and learns as a member of the group. Securing
discipline by teacher domination is undesirable; however, maintaining
a good learning situation may require external control rather than
permitting a chaotic condition to exist. Aiding the child to develop
self-control is of utmost importance. The fact that misbehavior is a
sign of maladjustment, not an evidence of innate meanness, should
be recognized. The child's interests, the emotional tone of the class-
room, and the organization and development of the curriculum strong-
ly influence his behavior. Careful planning should provide for demo-
cratic participation which gives each pupil a sense of security and
neededness. Standards of behavior cooperatively set up and main-
tained by the group, provide'the most effective control-group ap-
proval or disapproval.
Character Development.-Character development cannot be se-
cured merely by reading, thinking, or talking about good behavior.
In fact, such activities are unlikely to alter behavior. Good habits
and attitudes can be developed only by daily practice. The good
living, which exists in the classroom day after day throughout the
school year, sets the pattern for good or bad traits of character.
Honesty, cooperation, tolerance, and respect for others, can become
a part of one's personality through wholesome daily living.
Evaluation.-Knowledge of the child's present status and of the
direction of his growth is necessary if the teacher is to provide suc-
cessful guidance. Many different kinds of information are required
to present the total picture of his development. Some means of get-
ting evidence of pupil growth and achievement are standardized tests,
informal oral and written tests, questionnaires, conversation, diaries,









SOME BASIC ISSUES IN DEVELOPING A PROGRAM OF STUDY 7


rating scales, and observation either in an informal situation or in
one which has been set up by the teacher. In order to prevent preju-
dices from having undue influence on evaluation based upon observa-
tion, the number of persons making judgments may be increased and
provision made for periodic observations.
Standardized Tests.-Standardized tests should be used cautiously
since their dangers are many. Often they do not test for the objectives
of the teacher. Even in the field of subject matter, the sampling of
items included in achievement tests may not be sufficient to give a
true picture of pupil achievement. Another danger is that emphasis
upon the use of standardized achievement tests may dictate the school
program by placing too great emphasis upon memorization of isolated
facts. Diagnostic tests are valuable when used by the teacher to
locate pupil weaknesses, which can be then strengthened. Tests of
mental ability also aid the teacher to adapt the curriculum to the
needs of the individual child. Complete confidence should not be
placed in the information secured by the use of a single test, as there
are too many factors which may influence results. When the results
of a test seem contrary to what the teacher expects them to be, pro-
vision should be made for retesting.
Recording Data.-Information about pupil growth is of little
value unless it is recorded in some form which will aid its use. An
individual cumulative folder is one satisfactory form. Not only can
information be recorded on the folder, but other materials, such as
samples of work, can be placed inside. Another helpful means of
recording data is the anecdotal record, or pupil log, where the teacher
records typical behavior of the child with descriptions of the situation
in which the behavior occurred. A brief summary made near the end
of the year and given to the new teacher will enable her to become
acquainted more quickly with the children in her room.
Use of Data.-Knowledge of a child's progress is not sufficient.
The value of the data secured lies in its use. It is necessary to in-
terpret the results and to see to what extent the goals are being at-
tained. Careful study may result in changes in organization, in
scheduling, in types of activities, or even in modification of the
original objectives.
Grouping.-Although growth is a continuous process, children
vary considerably as to their rate of growth. This factor, in addi-
tion to variations in experience backgrounds of children, contributes
to the wide range in the degree of readiness for learning at any age
level. In order to provide for continuous growth at the child's own
rate of learning some type of flexible grouping is necessary. In any
grouping such factors as, social development, age, interest, ability
of pupils and ability and experience of the teacher should be con-
sidered.











8 PROGRAMS OF STUDY IN FLORIDA ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS

In small schools where there is one teacher for each grade, group-
ing is not a big problem. Each teacher takes care of the wide range
of ability by flexible grouping within the classroom. In larger
schools where there are two or more sections of the grade they face
the problem of classifying the children for the different sections
of each grade. In schools of this type heterogeneous grouping seems
desirable. Such grouping gives children a chance to work and play
with those who are leaders and those who are followers. It is a more
normal situation, and one which is conducive to mental health and
to the development of the individual socially and emotionally. Opinions
differ as to the wisdom of separating immature children from the
first grade groups for the development of readiness. Where this is
done the children should be absorbed by other first grades as soon
as possible. This plan should be used cautiously in order that pupils
not become pigeon-holed in any one category.
In order to insure continuous progress, some schools have developed
a Junior Primary Organization. The interpretation of this term
varies-in some schools the term is applied to the readiness program
for beginning first grade pupils; in others the term is applied to an
ungraded block of time covering the work of the first two or three
grades. In the latter plan the children progress from level to level
rather than from grade to grade. Although the term Junior Primary
is relatively new, it is not a new idea. For some time many teachers
have worked on the principle of accepting children where they are
and taking them as far as they are able to go. They have done this
by organizing flexible groups within the classroom and adjusting ma-
terials to the needs of pupils.
The same methods that are used within a classroom may be applied
to a room in which there are several grades. Children who are classed
by grades may be grouped for direct instruction in skill subjects ac-
cording to the level at which they are ready to work.
Reporting to Parents.-Reporting to parents, grading, and pro-
motion are factors to be considered in any guidance program. The
policies of a school in regard to each of these items have a strong
influence on child development. Because -of a desire to inform the
parents about the total growth of the child many schools are ex-
perimenting with reports which range from extended check lists to
informal notes. Often there is space not only for teacher comments,
but also for comments of parents and pupils. The status of the child
is appraised in regard to many items, such as social adjustment, sub-
ject matter achievement, and work habits. The report should record
progress in all areas in which growth is considered important. Grad-
ing, as shown on the report card, should be consistent with the
philosophy of the school. Regardless of the type of report used, there










SOME BASIC ISSUES IN DEVELOPING A PROGRAM OF STUDY


should be parent-teacher conferences to establish better relationships
between the home and the school and to develop a better understand-
ing of the child. If a change in the objectives of the school makes
necessary a change in the type of reporting to parents, in the system
of grading, or in the policy of promotion, it is wise to inform the
parents and to secure their understanding and approval. Some-
times it is better to introduce a new report card into only a few grades
at a time.
Promotion.-Promotion is no longer based exclusively on achieve-
ment in subject matter, but also is influenced by social adjustment,
abilities, mental and physical health, work habits, and attitudes. In
questionable cases promotion should be determined jointly by parents
and teacher, assisted by the principal, supervisor or other consultants
as needed. This decision should be made only after careful study of
the individual and should result from answering the question, "Is
it better for this child to be retained or go on with his classmates?"
Generally speaking, no more than two years retardation should be
permitted during the elementary school period.
References: Bulletin No. 2, ch. 7
Bulletin No. 9, pp. 26-45; 58-65
Florida School Bulletin, January, 1947










10 PROGRAMS OF STUDY IN FLORIDA ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS


Securing Instructional Materials
Materials and equipment should be selected after a survey of needs
has been made and in terms of the objectives set up by the total
faculty group. These should be varied and should include textbooks;
library books, newspapers, pamphlets, and magazines; creative ma-
terials for arts and crafts; audio-visual aids; playground equipment;
and the use of other resources of the community. Consideration must
be given to the interests, abilities and needs of the pupils. The faculty
should plan together for the best use of the materials so that they
may be used interchangeably to care for individual needs, such as
reading ability below the grade level. The pupils themselves will
experience valuable learning if they are given opportunity to assist
in the selection, organization, and care of the materials and equipment.
Careful attention should be given to the method of requisitioning
state adopted textbooks and additional library books. Wise selection
of these materials can improve the teaching-learning situation. Fol-
lowing each textbook adoption the Florida School Bulletin has carried
a discussion pointing out the relationship of the newly adopted ma-
terial to the curriculum. Other bulletins2/3 containing annotated lists
of library books, should be carefully studied before purchasing library
materials with local or state funds.
Workbooks may be valuable when used to supplement textbooks
or to meet individual needs of pupils. Workbooks are of little value
unless the teacher directs and checks the work with the pupils. For
this reason, the number used should be very limited, and the teacher
and pupils must recognize a definite purpose for them.
Audio-visual aids offer a valuable source of varied instructional
materials.4 Care should be taken that these materials have a definite
relation to the problem under study and that pupils see this relation-
ship.
The local community is one of the most valuable sources of in-
structional material. People in the community and excursions and
field trips to points of interest may contribute valuable information

2. Florida School Bulletin, May 1946, "State Adopted Free Textbooks for Use
in Elementary and Secondary Schools".
3. Bulletin No. 27, State Adopted Library Books for Florida Schools, with
extended list in Florida School Bulletin, January, 1946. "Library Manual
for Florida Schools". This list has been revised and will be available in the
fall of 1947. For information on organizing the School Library see the
Florida, School Bulletin for December, 1943.
4. Florida School Bulletin, March, 1946: Instructional Aids: Development in
Audio-Visual Aids. A new bulletin on Audio-Visual Aids will be available
in the fall of 1947.










SOME BASIC ISSUES IN DEVELOPING A PROGRAM OF STUDY 11


in social studies, science, health, and other fields. Recent publica-
tions./6/7 will aid the teacher in using Florida resources to enrich
the curriculum.
Suggestions for additional materials may be found in other bulle-
tins issued by the State Department of Education. An index to these
various bulletins will be found on page 40 of this bulletin. In addi-
tion, many organizations, state agencies, state institutions, and vari-
ous commercial companies issue free and inexpensive materials which
may contribute valuable aid to the task at hand. Pupils may share
the responsibility for securing these materials. Such materials should
be organized in some usuable form, such as a vertical file.
Teacher guidance of pupils in the use of all materials necessary to
accomplish a purpose rather than a page by page study and recita-
tion of one textbook should aid in the development of good study
habits. Pupils, if guided properly, will learn how to locate and
relate information and will develop discrimination as to what is perti-
nent to the problem.

5. Florida School Bulletin, March, 1947. "Out-of-doors Florida as Instructional
Material".
Florida: Wealth or Waste?
6. Florida School Bulletin, November, 1945. "Bibliography on Florida Re-
sources".
7. Florida School Bulletin, December, 1945. "Resources Use Education, Sug-
gestions to Teachers".














PART TWO
A SUGGESTED PROGRAM OF STUDY



In keeping with the basic curriculum bulletin for the elementary
school, A Guide to Improved Practices in Florida Elementary Schools,
and the Programs of Study in Florida Secondary Schools, certain
"streams of experience" that have their beginning in first grade and
continue through the ninth grade are recommended in this bulletin.
These "streams of experience" are language arts, social studies,
mathematics, music, science, arts and crafts, health and safety, and
physical education. It is suggested that provision for such problems
as resource-use education, character development, first aid, aviation,
alcohol and narcotics education, and home living be made within the
scope of the present total program rather than added as extra
"streams" or subject areas.
Part Two of this Bulletin contains brief general statements and
charts relative to each subject area. Specific suggestions are given
in the charts to assist teachers in planning for continuous growth in
the development of understandings and skills. The charts are by no
means complete. However, it is hoped that they will serve as a guide
in using other curriculum bulletins which are referred to frequently.
Some areas are treated in more detail than others. This is particularly
true of areas in which specific bulletins have not as yet been written,
such as language arts, music, and arts and crafts.





LANGUAGE ARTS

Since Language Arts include all the skills used in communicating thought-reading, writing, spelling, listening,
oral and written language-experience in this field can make a valuable contribution to the personal and social
development of the child in every phase of his living, both in and out of school. All these skills depend on one
another and should be recognized as parts of the same whole. Good teaching in one phase will stimulate or rein-
force work in the others, and mastery in these arts will reflect the stage of maturity that the individual has reached.
References: Bulletin No. 9-pp. 121-150
Bulletin No. 46-pp. 20- 44
Bulletin No. 47-pp. 20- 50
Bulletin No. 53-pp. 31- 34

Reading. Learning to read should be considered a continuous process covering many years and one that cannot be
broken into precise segments so much for each grade. Reading is not the relatively simple process it was considered
to be for many years, a process involving almost exclusively techniques of word recognition. Reading is a phase of N
language, a process of reconstructing facts or experiences behind the printed word. In spite of a gradual increase
in the use of first-hand experiences, of visual and auditory aids, reading remains by far the most frequently em-
ployed means of learning. A child must develop facility in reading if he is to be a successful learner in the schools
of today.
An important phase of reading instruction is the readiness period. Reading readiness has been referred to in m
professional literature largely as preparation for reading in the primary grades. However, it has a much broader >
(leaning which includes preparation for reading at every stage of child development throughout his entire school
,ife. In developing a reading lesson the teacher needs to utilize the experiences of the children in such a way as o
to furnish the motivation necessary for a vital consideration of the new materials.
Many reading skills have their beginnings at some point in the first grade and are gradually refined and used .S
with facility. Pupils do not develop in reading ability at the same rate. Beginning first graders show marked dif- g
ferences both in readiness and in their capacity for reading. As pupils progress through school these differences 14
increase rather than decrease. The range in reading skill found within a given grade should be looked upon as normal,
yet highly significant for the methods and materials to be used in the developmental reading program. Teachers
of grades four, five, and six should continue to provide a reading program designed to meet the needs and achievement
of pupils rather than merely worrying over the fact that some of the children read below grade level. Many
pupils having reading difficulty could profit by a corrective reading program, which seeks to adjust the reading
material and the experiences of the child. Few children, usually clinical cases, require remedial reading.
References: Bulletin No. 46-pp. 20- 30
Bulletin No. 47-pp. 20- 36
Bulletin No. 53-p. 32
Bulletin No. 9-pp. 121-139














(Reading cont'd.)
GRADE ONE
1. Provide readiness activities; length of period de-
termined by need. No. 9, pp. 130, 132-134; No. 46, pp. 8.
25, 39; No. 53, pp. 7, 26, 32
2. Compose and read original stories based on children's
everyday experiences. No. 9, p. 143; No. 46, p. 9
3. Provide for continuity of experience and care for
consistent vocabulary development by using basal texts.
Normally introduce other pre-primers and primers after
completion of basic primers. Number of books read
varies according to pupil development and to difficulty
of material. (See manual to accompany text). No. 46,
pp. 20-24, 26; No. 53, p. 32
4. Practice efficient reading habits. No. 46, p. 29
5. Use a variety of word recognition techniques. No.
46, p. 29
6. Evaluate reading process by varied means, such as:
a. Dramatization No. 9, p. 143; No. 46, p. 29
b. Retelling stories No. 9, p. 143; No. 46, p. 29
c. Asking and answering questions No. 9, p. 143; No.
46, p. 29
d. Drawing
e. Using old vocabulary in a new setting No. 46, pp.
29, 40
7. Group for direct reading instruction; regroup fre-
quently on basis of reading development. No. 46, pp. 1, 23,
24; No. 53, p. 32


GRADE TWO

1. Provide readiness activities for second grade. No.
9, p. 134; No. 46, pp. 25, 39

2. Maintain and continue to refine skills begun in first
grade. No. 46, p. 29
3. Provide sight-reading materials related to activities
in which children are interested:
a. Experience charts No. 46, pp. 9, 10, 29
b. First grade material on a variety of topics No. 46,
p. 23

4. Help the child acquire these habits and skills:
a. Interpret a longer thought unit (more than one
sentence at a time) No. 46, p. 29
1. Use the table of contents for finding stories No.
4(, p. 29
c. Read stories to others No. 46, p. 30
d. Use clear enunciation, good phrasing, good posture
No. 46, p. 30
c. Use library materials No. 46, p. 30

5. Increase independence in using work recognition
techniques. No. 46, p. 30

6. Continue use of basal reading series, adapting level
to reading achievement of each child (Use manual ac-
companying text). No. 46, pp. 23-24, 26

7. Organize flexible groups for reading instruction
within the classroom. No. 46, pp. 1, 2, 3, 24






(Reading, cont'd.)
GRADE THREE
1. Provide readiness activities for third grade. No. 46,
pp. 8, 25, 39; No. 9, p. 134
2. Maintain and continue to refine skills acquired in
previous years. No. 46, p. 30
3. Continue to use basic reading series, adapting level
to reading achievement of each child. (Use manual to
accompany text). No. 46, pp. 22, 23, 26
4. Group children for reading instruction; regroup
when necessary. No. 46, pp. 1, 23, 24
5. Increase independence in using word recognition
techniques by use of:
a. long and short vowels
No. 46, pp. 30, 40
h. prefixes, No. 46, pp. 30, 40
c. suffixes, No. 46, pp. 30, 40
d. other phonetic elements
No. 46, pp. 30, 40; No. 9, pp. 138, 139
6. Provide sight-reading materials related to activities
in which children are interested.
a. Experience charts No. 46, pp. 9, 10, 30
1b. First and second grade materials on a variety of
topics No. 46, p. 30
7. Help child to develop his ability to :
a. Interpret information related to other subjects.
No. 46, p. 30
)i. Read stories to others. No. 46, p. 30
c. Use library materials. No. 46, p. 30
d. Handle books properly, using their parts, such as:
table of contents, glossary. etc. No. 46, pp. 30, 40
GRADES FOUR, FIVE, SIX
1. Continue various phases of reading program, such as:
:a. Systematic instruction in basic text (See manual
accompanying text). No. 47. p. 29


(Grades 4, 5, 6 Cont'd)
b. Flexible grouping for direct instruction in reading
skills No. 47, pp. 1, 21, 22
c. Further development of word recognition and
word analyses techniques No. 47, p. 35
d. Many means of evaluation, such as:
1) Arranging events in sequence No. 47, pp. 10, 25
2) Outlining No. 47, p. 25
3) Retelling the story
4) Construction activities
2. Introduce use of dictionary in the fourth grade and
continue development of its use. No. 47, pp. 36. 40, 41
3. Help children to use skills with more independence.
No. 47, p. 22
4. Teach reading in content fields- arithmetic, social
studies, etc.-and develop concepts and skills needed
there. No. 9, p. 134; No. 47, pp. 4, 29, 35
5. Build independence in adapting type of reading
skill to the reading task, such as: No. 47, p. 22
a. i..Ii.._ No. 47, p. 24
b. Reading to answer question No. 47, p. 24
c. Predicting outcomes No. 47, p. 24
d. ...|... 1.; directions No. 47. pp. 24, 36
e. Forming an opinion No. 47, p. 24
6. Aid pupil to use books and other materials as sources
of information and to relate facts gained there to the
problem he is solving. Teach pupils to use books and
other materials as sources of information. No. 47, pp.
4, 5, 24, 27, 20, 2S
7. Aid children to use facts gained in solving problems
at hand.
8. Provide opportunities for children to read for pleas-
ure as well as for information.














Handwriting. Handwriting is a means to an end and not an end in itself. From the very first the child should be
aware that writing is for the purpose of expressing an idea. It is only when pupils are conscious of handwriting
as serving their needs that they develop genuine interest in improving their writing skill and maintain attention and
effort while practicing. The more vital and interesting the total school program is, the greater will be the child's
desire to write and the greater his willingness to improve, because he is fully aware of the uses which are to be
made of what he is learning. Practice then becomes a meaningful process rather than a useless repetition of letter
formation.
References: Bulletin No. 47, pp. 37- 40
Bulletin No. 46, pp. 31- 34
Bulletin No. 9, pp. 121,135-136
Bulletin No. 53, pp. 32- 33


GRADE ONE
1. Begin instruction in manuscript writing (See Teach-
er's Manual for State text). No. 46, p. 31; No. 53, pp.
32, 33
2. Use blackboard for first work.
3. Supervise all writing until correct habits are es-
tablished as:
a. Correct letter formation
b. Good spacing
c. Good posture
4. Provide daily practice period from 15-20 minutes
after first few weeks of school. No. 46, p. 34
5. Use experiences of pupils for writing lessons. No.
46, p. 33
GRADE TWO
1. Continue instruction in manuscript writing. No. 46,
p. 32
2. Maintain and refine habits and skills of first grade
as: No. 46, p. 33
a. Correct letter formation
b. Good posture
c. Good spacing
d. Appropriate size of letters


(Grade 2, Cont'd)
3. Provide daily practice period of approximately 15
minutes. No. 46, p. 34
4. Cursive writing may be introduced last 12 weeks
of term if local situations make it advisable. No. 46, p. 32
GRADE THREE
1. Introduce instruction in cursive writing. No. 46, p.
32
2. Supervise all cursive writing until habits of correct
letter formation are established.
3. Permit use of manuscript writing while child is ac-
quiring skill in cursive writing. No. 46, p. 32
4. Provide daily practice period-approximately 15
minutes. No. 46, p. 34
GRADES FOUR, FIVE, SIX
1. Continue instruction in cursive writing, daily prac-
tice period, approximately 15 minutes. (consult Teach-
er's Manual). No. 46, p. 40
2. Maintain skill in manuscript writing for such pur-
poses as, labels, posters, maps, titles, questionnaires, etc.
No. 47, p. 37
3. Teach child to diagnose and correct individual
errors. No. 47, pp. 38-40
4. Use writing books as reference books.
5. Maintain correct writing habits in all written work.
No. 47, p. 40







Spelling. Spelling, like handwriting, is a means to an end, not an end in itself. It includes not only knowing the
sequence of letters in a word, but also knowing the pronunciation and use. The words which a child needs to
spell are those which he uses in his written work. A plan for studying words should be developed cooperatively
by the teacher and pupils and followed until it is a well-established habit. Spelling is taught more successfully
when the child realizes its importance. Awareness of the fact that meaning may not be clear if spelling is inac-
curate may help create a desire to spell correctly. In any given school, the child's achievement in spelling will
reflect the extent to which the curriculum provides for both systematic instruction and the use of correct spelling
in the vital experiences of the day. It is not enough that correct spelling be emphasized during the spelling lesson.
Good standards should be maintained in all written work. Children should learn to spell words in the content
areas that are commonly used. The teacher should provide for such instruction when it will be most meaningful
and helpful to children, either in the regular spelling lesson or in connection with the activity in which the words
are needed.
Bulletin 9, pp. 136-137; Bulletin No. 46, pp. 34-37; Bulletin No. 47, pp. 40-43


GRADE ONE
1. Teach no formal spelling.
2. Use daily activities for informal spelling.
Copy invitations, letters.
Bulletin No. 53, p. 34; Bulletin No. 46, p. 34
GRADE TWO
1. Introduce systematic instruction. Bulletin No. 46,
p. 35
2. Develop with pupils a method of studying words,
involving distinct pronunciation, recalling and checking
visual images, writing and checking words. Bulletin
No. 46, pp. 35-36
3. Supplement state adopted text with words needed by
pupil in daily activities. Bulletin No. 46, p. 35
GRADE THREE
1. Continue systematic instruction.
2. Use method of study developed in Grade 2. Bulletin
No. 46, pp. 35-36
3. Assist pupil in applying methods of word analysis,
such as prefixes, suffixes, phonetic elements, derived
forms, etc. Bulletin No. 46, pp. 34-36


(Grade 3 Cont'd)
4. Supplement word list in text with words needed in
other areas, as. arithmetic, social studies, science. Bulle-
tin No. 46, p. 35
GRADES FOUR, FIVE, SIX
1. Continue systematic instruction as suggested in
adopted text. Bulletin No. 47, p. 42; Bulletin No. 9, p.
136
2. Emphasize individual method of study developed in
previous grades. Bulletin No. 47, p. 42
3. Encourage use of dictionary as a spelling aid.
Bulletin No. 47, pp. 41-42
4. Base choice and .number of words on needs and
ability of child. Bulletin No. 47, pp. 40-43; Bulletin No.
47, p. 136
5. Provide individual instruction for those having spe-
cific spelling difficulties. Bulletin No. 47, p. 43
6. Plan spelling instruction so that each child learns
the words which he needs. Bulletin No. 9, p. 136
7. Continue development and application of word
recognition techniques. Bulletin No. 47, p. 42














Oral and Written Expression. Language cannot be differentiated from the other language arts or the content areas,
so interwoven are the ideas and the means of expression. Since the purpose of language is to aid pupils in expressing
their thoughts accurately, clearly and concisely, the school must provide experiences which give the pupils many
opportunities to use language purposefully.
The integrated phase of the school program offers varied experiences in language; among the possible activities
are discussing topics, writing letters, telephoning, and giving directions. In addition the integrated phase should
encourage the child to develop his creative ability, since it can provide wide experiences and freedom for him to
express his idea. These purposeful activities may indicate certain weaknesses in skills which will need to be cared
for in the direct teaching phase. The child should be guided in forming habits of correct usage and accurate ex-
pression until good speech and effective writing become habitual. Only when a child has something to say or to
write, is he interested in learning how to do it well.
If the child is to attain a feeling of security in the use of language arts in social situations, it will be necessary
for him to acquire needed skills and techniques. English skills developed during the language arts period should
improve the quality of English usage during the child's entire day. Skills should be related to language situations
involving thought, purpose, and meaning, if they are to function in the life of the child.
References: Bulletin No. 9, pp. 121-146
Bulletin No. 46, pp. 37- 44
Bulletin No. 47, pp. 43- 50
Bulletin No. 53, p. 34


GRADES ONE, TWO, THREE
1. Utilize reading experiences since oral language is
so closely interwoven with reading. No. 46, pp. 37, 39
2. Provide varied opportunities for developing oral
skills by means of:
a. Conversation with friends
b. Extending invitations
c. Taking messages, No. 9, pp. 127, 137, 145
d. Planning and presenting programs
e. Retelling stories and relating experiences
f. Using the telephone, No. 9, p. 127
g. Making reports of excursions, etc.
h. Creative expressions (stories, songs, poetry) No.
9, p. 127
i. Committees


(Grades 1, 2, 3 Cont'd)
3. Give guidance in forming correct speech habits,
such as:
a. Speaking distinctly
1. Diagnosing and correcting errors in spoken
English
c. Using courteous forms of address, as : please, yes,
Miss Jones, thank you, excuse me, No. 46, pp. 38,
42, 43
d. Expressing ideas clearly and fluently
4. Emphasize both content and mechanics in all ex-
pressions as:
a. Reading (what is read and how it is said-see
third grade manual)
b. Writing (composing stories, invitations, songs)
c. Listening (stories, music, poetry)
5. Supplement these activities with materials from
state adopted textbooks (use manual accompanying text)










(Oral and Written Expression, cont'd.)
GRADES FOUR, FIVE, SIX
1. Maintain and refine skills and habits acquired in
previous grades. No. 47, pp. 44, 45
2. Continue to use everyday experiences and ma-
terials from textbook for language instruction (use
manual).
3. Provide many opportunities for oral expression,
such as:
a. Conversation with friends
h. Reporting on committee work
c. Dramatization
d. Choral reading
e. Planning and presenting a program
f. Participating in group discussions No. 47, pp. 43,
44, 45, 50
4. Assist child to improve oral expression by giving
consideration to use of:
a. Correct verb forms
1). Courteous forms
e. Correct pronunciation of common words No. 47,
pp. 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50
4. Clear definite words


(Grades 4, 5, 6 Cont'd)
e. Clear enunciation
f. Pleasant speaking voice
5. Provide many opportunities for written expressions,
such as:
a. Letter writing
b. Outlining, No. 47, pp. 45, 48
c. Paragraphing, No. 9, p. 127
d. Creative expression
6. Assist the child to express himself in writing by
use of :
a. Good forceful sentences
b. Correct punctuation
c. Capitalization, No. 47. p. 49
d. Different types of sentences
e. Proofreading (checking written work)
7. Introduce English techniques which make for ade-
quate performance at appropriate maturity levels.
a. Kinds of sentences
b. Parts of sentences (subject and predicate), No.
47, p. 48
c. Parts of speech













SOCIAL STUDIES
The entire school program offers opportunities for instruction in social studies. Because social studies involve
the building of attitudes as well as the acquiring of information and skills, it is important that these opportunities
be used for establishing desirable habits. For example, through teacher-pupil planning in the classroom the idea
can be developed that taking turns is very often a good way to get along in a group. However, if the teacher is not
consistent and does not follow up to see that the children take turns in their games on the playground, she can
hardly justify the thought that she has taught social studies. The ultimate test of whether a child has learned lies 0
in how he acts.
The social studies field offers excellent opportunities for integration. When a teacher plans for social studies
instruction, she usually finds that she is also planning for instruction in health, nutrition safety, and science; for
the use of natural sciences; and for the use of natural and human resources. These areas are so closely related 0
that they reinforce one another. It is often desirable to develop these areas together in a large time block in the
daily schedule or at least to place them close together so that there need be no break in going from one to another.
Certain grade themes are being used in Florida schools to help teachers plan a continuous program in social g
studies. The idea of the expanding environment of the child has been followed. The child studies his immediate
environment in the first three grades. In the next three grades his experiences are broadened to include a study of
state, nation, and world.
References: Bulletin No. 9 pp. 151-172
Bulletin No. 2 pp. 190-210 o
Bulletin No. 30 entire booklet
Bulletin No. 46 pp. 45-53 >
Bulletin No. 47 pp. 51-63 V

General Suggestions Applicable to All Grades
1. Teacher and pupil plan activities.
2. Make use of direct experiences such as, living together at school, excursions, etc.
3. Use variety of means for sharing, organizing, and recording experiences.
a. Discussion d. Construction activities
b. Experience Charts e. Creative activities o
c. Oral and written reports f. Maps, graphs, etc. 0
4. Supplement with available materials such as, textbooks, library books, audio-visual aids, etc. Provide variety W
of reading materials at various levels of difficulty.
5. Assist children to see the relationship between the information learned and their own problems.
6. Evaluate what the program is doing to the children and interpret outcomes in terms of:
a. Growth in social behavior c. Growth in techniques and skills
b. Growth in social information





(Social Studies, cont'd.)
GRADE ONE
Theme: Living in
Home and School
1. Use everyday
experiences.
2. Make use of
points of interest in
and around the home
and school.
See charts found in
Bulletin 30, pp. 20,
28, and 30.
See Bulletin 46, pp.
45-53.


GRADE TWO
Theme: Helping Each
Other in the Com-
munity
1. Provide direct
experiences to in-
crease understand-
ing of neighborhood
helpers by:
a. Visiting points
of interest in the
neighborhood
b. Inviting c o m-
munity helpers
to visit the
school
See charts found in
Bulletin 30, pp. 20,
28, and 30.
See Bulletin 46, pp.
45-53


GRADE THREE
Theme: Developing
and Improving the
Community
1. Begin to estab-
lish relationships of
local history and re-
sources.
2. Make map of
the community.
3. Visit local in-
dustries.
See charts found in
Bulletin 30, pp. 20,
28, and 30.
See Bulletin 46, pp.
45-53


GRADE FOUR
Theme: Living in
Different Types of
Communities
1. Relate present
living in community
to early history.
2. Study variety of
types of Florida com-
munities now and
formerly.
3. Study typical
sections in South-
eastern states and
along Atlantic sea-
board.
4. Study living in
world communities.
See charts found in
Bulletin 30, pp. 20,
28, and 30.
See Bulletin 47, pp.
51-63


GRADE FIVE
Theme: Improving
Life in Different Re-
gions of the United
States
1. Relate living in
the local community
to living in the South-
east region past and
present.
2. Show interde-
pendence of living in
different regions of
the United States.
3. Show interde-
pendence of living in
the United States
and nearby regions
and possessions.
See charts found in
Bulletin 30, pp. 20,
28, and 30.
See Bulletin 47, pp.
51-63


GRADE SIX
Theme: Developing Successful Ways of Living on a
World Basis
1. Relate living in local community, state, and region
to present day national needs and problems.
2. Show necessity for cooperation with nearby regions
and nations in meeting national needs.


3. Develop understanding of necessity for cooperative
living in world regions, in meeting group, national, and
world-wide needs.
See charts found in Bulletin 30, pp. 20, 28, and 30.

See Bulletin 47, pp. 51-63.















MATHEMATICS

If instruction in arithmetic is to help children solve the quantitative problems that arise in everyday living,
both the mathematical and the social phases of arithmetic must be developed simultaneously. The mathematical
phase deals with the development of understandings of number concepts, the number system, number relationships,
and processes; the social phase, with the practical application of numbers in social situations. Although arithmetic
is an integral part of the school program, direct teaching will be necessary for the development of mathematical
meanings.
Research in this field indicates two general trends; first, that many concepts in arithmetic are complex and
need to be developed gradually over a period of time if they are to be really understood; second, that successful
learning of processes in the later grades, and speed and skill in using these processes, have their beginnings in broad
first-hand number experiences in the early grades.
The suddenness of the transition from concrete experiences to abstract thinking is commonly a basic cause of
confusion. Four stages in the transition from the concrete to the abstract are usually recognized: (1) purely
concrete, in which the child deals with objects in his own experiences: (2) picture stage, in which he uses pictures
of familiar objects to experience number: (3) semi-concrete stage, in which he uses dots, circles, squares and lines
to represent quantity: (4) the abstract stage, in which symbols represent the concepts of quantity. The signs
, -, X, -, are also strange to the child, and need as much explanation as the numerals themselves. It will
take many varied experiences within the four stages to make a successful transition. These stages need to be recog-
nized in introducing any process at any level.
Drill should follow understanding and should be challenging-never entirely new, but the range of difficulty
gradually increased. The wide variation in the degree of readiness of pupils at all grade levels makes grouping in
this area necessary.


GRADE ONE
1. Make inventory by
general observations and
individual interviews with
children to determine ex-
tent of understandings in
respect to the following:
a. Rational counting-
count by pointing to
objects
1). Rote counting-count
by l's and 10's
c. Recognizing s in a ll


GRADE TWO
1. Make inventory (fol-
low suggestions given in
first grade chart).
2. Develop an under-
standing of the easy addi-
tion and subtraction com-
binations.
The extent of under-
standing may be checked
by the levels given below.
No drill should be given
below Level 4.


GRADE THREE
1. MaIke inventory to de-
termine extent of under-
standing of work of pre-
vious grades (follow sug-
gestions for grades 1 & 2).
2. Continue to empha-
size the importance of
number system in order to
make the four fundamental
processes more meaningful.
Carrying in addition and
borrowing in subtraction


GRADES FOUR, FIVE,
SIX
1. Make individual in-
ventory of pupils under-
standing of work of pre-
vious grade by: general
observation, interview, and
by analyses of difficulties
revealed on standardized
tests. (At the present time
the normns of standardized
tests are not in keeping
with the program of arith-





(Mathematics, cont'd.)
groups without count-
ing.
d. Recognizing c e n t.
dime, nickel and
quarter
e. Reproducing numbers
-teachers ask pupils
to show a definite
number of objects.
2. Build number con-
cepts, especially 1 through
10 (using blocks, sticks,
4tc.).
3. Use rational counting
as needed in solving im-
mediate problems.
4. Introduce rote count-
ing after the child has ex-
perienced rational count-
ing.
5. Develop the under-
Standing that our number
system is based on 10's-
that is, 11 means 1 tei. and
I one or 1 unit.
6. Supervise the writing
)f numbers after their
meaning has been de-
veloped.
7. Provide experien.-es in
the recognition of groups
of objects without count-
ing (at least to five).
8. Encourage the child
to evaluate his own prog-
rOss.


1. See Manual for State
Adopted Text.
These four levels of per-
formance are illustrated
by the combination 3 & 4:
a. Level 1, counting a
number of objects one
by one to determine
the total
b. Level 2, partial count-
ing; recognizing the
group 4 as a unit and
completing the total
by counting
00
000000
4 567
c. Level 3, recognizing
both groups without
counting and putting
them together addi-
tively
0000
000
4+3=7
d. Level 4, using sym-
bols 4--3=7
3. A beginning may be
made for development of
meaning for higher combi-
nations. This does not
mean drill on higher coinm-
binations.
a. by using concrete ma-
terials
Ib. bridging 10's (a mneth-


od of changing the
new combinations to
are introduced at this
level.
3. Introduce multiplica-
tion and division facts em-
phasizing the relationship
between the two processes.















(Grade 2, Cont'd)
a known combina-
tion)
Example: the combi-
nation 9+3 may be
changed to the known
combination 10+2
4. Continue to emphasize
the importance of place
value of numbers.
5. Encourage the child
to evaluate his own prog-
ress.


metic as described in Bulle-
lin No. 26).
2. Capitalize on oppor-
tunities that arise in all
activities and other con-
tent areas to develop num-
b e r meaning. Problems
that grow out of life sit-
uations are more meaning-
ful than verbal problems
from textbooks.
3. Concentrate on nmul-
tiplication and division
facts in fourth grade, be-
gin work with fractions.
Concentrate on fractions
in fifth grade, and begin
work with decimals. Ex-
tend work on fractions in
sixth grade and concen-
trate on decimals.
4. Encourage child to
evaluate his own progress.
References:
Bulletin No. 26 (Study
Charts)
Bulletin No. 46 pp. 54-00
Bulletin No. 47 pp. 71-79
Bulletin No. 53 p. 36
Bulletin No. 9 pp. 196-219













MUSIC FN

Experiences in music contribute to the well-rounded development of boys and girls. Such activities as singing,
expressing rhythm, listening, playing instruments, and creating, may be interwoven into all phases of the school
program and can be carried on by teachers with little or no specialized training in music. Emphasis should be upon
the development of boys and girls and their attitude toward music rather than upon the skills to be achieved.
o
Suggestions Applicable to All Grades

1. Integrate music activities with other activities as language, arts, social studies, etc.
o
2. Teach many beautiful songs preferably by rote at all maturity levels, rather than develop a dislike for them through 14
tedious drill with syllables.
3. Create in children a desire to sing with expressive and beautiful tone quality; songs should be sung with a
"live" tone, not necessarily a loud tone.
4. Develop a readiness for reading music before attempting formal reading instruction at any grade level. A desire
to read music can be obtained through participation in many enjoyable experiences in music.
0
5. Develop musical skills and understandings which are both stimulating and challenging and of graduated levels
of difficulty. Help pupils to feel the need for progressively greater musical skills and understanding.
6. Encourage pupils with extraordinary musical aptitude to develop above the level of the class as a whole, to W
study with private teachers and participate in extra-school musical activities. 3




0
t.4





(Music, cont'd.)
Singing, Rhythmic, Listening, and Playing Activities
Grades
ONE TWO THREE
1. Provide enjoyable experiences in singing.
a. Develop beautiful singing
b. Strive towards improvement of inaccurate singers
1) Match tones and short phrases (see Teachers'
Manual for Primary Grades)
2) Seat children who do not sing well near the
teacher in front of the best and most accurate
singers
c. Teach songs by rote (for procedure see Teachers'
Manual for Primary Grades)
d. Encourage children to express themselves in cre-
ative interpretation
e. Encourage individual singing
2. Develop a feeling for rhythm through activities of:
a. Bodily movements
1) Impersonation
2) Dramatization
3) Singing games
4) Fundamental movements of legs, arms, trunk
5) Singing folk dances (grades 2 and 3)
6) Dance steps (grade 3)
b. Rhythm Band
c. Clapping and stepping accents and note values
3. Stimulate a desire to listen to music.
a. Develop awareness of how to listen and what to
listen for
b. Guide children in listening to
1) Music in which rhythm is the dominant feature
(dance music)
2) Music that suggests mood and color
3) Music that tells a story
c. Provide opportunity for listening to records, radio,


sound films, and instrumental demonstration by
school and community personnel.
4. Develop an interest in instrumental activities and
provide for experiences in playing instruments
a. Rhythm Band
1) Increase rhythmic skills
2) Develop feeling for and expression of beat,
tempo, time accent, phrase, and note patterns
(see Teachers' Manual)
3) Encourage children to discriminate in mood
and rhythmic effects in determining appropri-
ate instrumentation
b. Pitch-producing Instruments
1) Experiments with tuning glasses
2) Guide children to full playing of familiar songs
on bells
3) Introduce use of pitch names and notation
through pre-band instruments (song flutes,
tonettes) (grade 3)
4) Create desire to experiment with piano key-
board in "fingering out" familiar melodies
(grade 3)
5. Motivate children to express own ideas and engage
in creative activities by:
a. Deciding how a song should be sung
b. Adding original stanzas as (for grade 1, substitu-
tion of words and inventing a new line of words)
c. Impersonating, dramatizing, planning games
d. Selecting rhythm band instruments, appropriate
for musical interpretation
e. Listening with discrimination
f. Creating a song (see Teachers Manual for Pri-
mary Grades)














(Music, cont'd.)
GRADES FOUR, FIVE, SIX
Continue and expand experiences in singing.
a. Teach songs by rote
b. Prepare for two-part singing (grade 4)
1) Rounds and canons
2) Few pupils sing second part
3) Use of descants
4) Two-part singing in thirds as "do" and "mi",
"re" and "fa" and so on up the scale; sixths
may follow
5) Listening to a second part
c. Introduce two-part singing (grade 5)
d. Introduce three-part singing (grade 6)
2. Continue to develop a feeling for rhythm :
a. Bodily movements
1) Fundamental movements
2) Singing games
3) Folk dances
b. Clapping and stepping note values
c. Recognizing the meaning of rhythmic symbols and
notation
3. Continue to keep and expand a live interest in listen-
ing activities.
a. Integrate listening with other activities
b. Develop a sensitivity to an understanding of
music form, history, mood, harmony
c. Guide children in listening creatively through
1) Comparison
2) Imagination


3) Discrimination
d. Develop a listening program including
1) Children singing
2) Rhythmic selections
3) Vocal-solo and choral
4) Instrumental-solo and orchestral
e. Create an interest in listening which will carry
over to music heard over radio, at movies, con-
certs, at home, and elsewhere
4. Continue experiences in playing instruments and ex-
pand interest in instrumental activities.
a. Use song flutes, tonettes, and other pre-band or
orchestral instruments
b. Use bells, piano, (melody only) chording and ac-
companiment (grades 5 and 6)
c. Present instruments of orchestra and band for
observation, listening, and accompaniments by
children
d. Use social instruments as harmonica and fretted
instruments-guitar, banjo, or mandolin
e. Encourage children showing average or above
average ability to begin study of orchestra or band
instruments
5. Continue activities begun in earlier grades and ex-
pand experiences in Creative Activities as:
a. Chording accompaniments (grades 5 and 6)
b. Adding voice parts to a melody
c. Scoring for instruments
6. Discover talent and provide for its development.






(Music, cont'd.)
Reading Activities
GRADE ONE
Reading Readiness
1. Provide a rich program of music
experiences which contribute to
the development of reading readi-
ness.
2. Develop ability of children to
observe by ear characteristics of
the music as
Quick or slow-loud or soft
High or low-long or short
tone

GRADE TWO
Reading Readiness
1. Provide a rich program of music
experiences which contribute to
building reading readiness.
2. Begin the development of the
transition from ear to eye by
observance of
Tonal experiences
Rhythmic discrimination
GRADE THREE
Reading Readiness
1. Provide a rich program of music
experiences which contribute to
hnilding reading readiness
2. Expand and develop transition
from rote to reading music


a. Tonal experiences
Tones, high or low
Tones move up or down by
steps, skips, or repeated
Phrases just alike, almost
alike, or different
Attention to tone groups
tonic chord
neighboring tones
scale wise melody
intervalwise melody
b. Rhythmic experiences ex-
panded to include
Beats
Move by twos
Move by threes
Move by fours
Note values
quarter note
half note
quarter rest
eighth note
dotted quarter
and eighth note
Note patterns
Beginning on a weak beat

GRADES FOUR, FIVE, SIX
Reading
1. Continue to present music ex-
periences which develop music
reading rather than.take music
reading as a segregated phase.


2. Develop Tonal Experiences
a. Sight reading syllables, pitch
names, scale numbers
b. Part-singing, vocal chording,
preparatory work-(grade 4),
two-part singing- (grade 5),
three-part singing-(grade 6)
3. Tonal problems
a. Songs in five keys-(grade 4)
b. Songs in nine keys-(grades
5 and 6)
e. Chromatic sharps and flats
d. The Bass clef-(grade 6)
e. Minor keys-(grade 6)
4. Rhythmic Experiences
a. Reading rhythmic notations,
scansion of the text, keeping
time to beats of music, step-
ping the beats while clapping
note values
1. Time Problems-beat, accent,
measure, time signature, the
rest-quarter, half measure,
the hold, the tie, eighth notes
separated and slurred, dotted
quarter and eighth notes, six-
eighth measure- (grades 5
and 6), dotted eighth and
sixteenth notes- (grades 5
and 6), eighth-note beat-
(grade 6), half-note beat-
(grade 6), syncopation, triplet
e. Dance rhythms-waltz, polka,
schottische, mazurka, minuet,
gavotte, farandole












SCIENCE

Experiences in science should begin in the first grade and continue through the child's school life. In the
elementary school, these experiences are focused upon the child and his surroundings. The central concern is to
aid children in using scientific procedures and information as a means of understanding their environment and of
dealing with problems that arise.
Balance among the major areas of science is important. At each grade level some attention should be given to 0
each of the major areas; the earth as a part of the universe, the earth and its changing conditions, matter and
energy subject to change, conditions necessary to life, living things and their activities, and man and his environ- g
ment. o
Recent trends in science teaching emphasize the learning of science by doing rather than exclusively by read-
ing, with the teacher acting as guide and co-learner. Observing, experimenting, discussing and reading are major M
ways in which children learn science, and usually no way is followed for long to the exclusion of the others. C
The work in carrying forward the science program rests with the teacher. The work of carrying on the acti-
vities of the science program is the task eagerly sought by most pupils. The teacher who can visualize such partner- Z
ship with her pupils can teach science.
References: Bulletin No. 2 pp. 122-124 0
Bulletin No. 9 pp. 173-195
Bulletin No. 46 pp. 13,45-53
Bulletin No. 47 pp. 13, 67-70
Bulletin No. 7

SUGGESTIONS APPLICABLE TO ALL GRADES
1. Keep science close to the immediate interests of the child. Use objects brought to class by the pupils and phe-
nomena which may interest the child or be of interest to the community. 0
2. Provide for applications of a principle to be experienced many times before making a generalization or
formulating a principle. 0
3. Encourage pupils to keep an open mind and an attitude of inquiry, to seek evidence, withhold judgment until
facts are assembled, and to modify conclusions in the light of new evidence.
4. Include experimenting, comparing, observing, reading and obtaining first-hand experiences in the study of science.
5. Plan experiments which are practical to do and involve only the simplest materials.






(Science, cont'd.)
6. Plan for some experiments to be done as demonstrations by individuals, others by committees, others by the
group as a whole.
7. Provide guidance in the six major areas of science instruction: the earth as a part of the universe, the earth
and its changing conditions, matter and energy are subject to change, conditions necessary to life, living things
and their activities, man annd his environment.
8. Use the science textbook as a source of reliable information and as a means of developing new interests. Work
with pupils as texts are being used.
9. Develop a readiness for reading science by use of illustrations, conversation, and direct experiences. Introduce >
new words into spoken vocabulary before they are introduced in print. M
10. Provide reading instruction in the study of science.
11. Use multi-sensory aids such as making collections, using models and toys that illustrate principles, making short
excursions, and developing projects at home and reporting to the class.
12. Build readiness for the concepts to be presented.
o
References: Bulletin No. 9 pp. 173-195
Bulletin No. 46 pp. 45- 53
Bulletin No. 47 pp. 64- 70
Detailed charts in the Elementary Science Bulletin No. 7 o

'3













ARTS AND CRAFTS
Arts and crafts are no longer regarded as isolated fields, but as experiences to be interwoven into all activities.
In addition to providing opportunity for creative expression, they offer satisfaction through development of good
taste, order, pleasing arrangement and appreciation in relation to the child's everyday living.
Many opportunities should be given for the child to experiment with various media. He should be given much
freedom for creative expression. As the need arises techniques may be introduced. When the child is concerned
about making his work look "right" appropriate principles of art may be taught effectively.
References: Bulletin No. 9, pp. 220-244
Bulletin No. 12
Bulletin No. 46, pp. 72- 77
Bulletin No. 53, p. 35


GRADES ONE, TWO, THREE
Color:
1. Develop recognition of primary and secondary colors
a. understanding of color family
b. understanding of warm and cool colors
c. understanding of light and dark values (grade 3)
2. Provide experiences in missing colors


GRADES FOUR, FIVE, SIX
Color:
1. Provide meaningful color experiences using various
media.
2. Develop an understanding of intermediate color.
3. Develop an understanding of color wheel.
4. Develop knowledge of: hue, value, and intensity
5. Develop ability to:
a. gray colors
b. make dull colors light
c. blend colors (Grades 5 and 6)
6. Begin study of standard color harmony (Grade 6).
a. complimentary
b. triad
c. monochromatic (one color with different value)
7. Create designs with harmonizing colors (Grade 5).
a. contrast values
b. repeat colors
c. combine colors
8. Experiment with original color harmonies.
Drawing and Illustration:
1. Develop an understanding of drawing animals based
on rectangles, ovals and circles.





(Arts and Crafts, cont'd.)
Drawing and Illustration:
1. Use media suited to muscular development of young
children, as: large pencils, large sheets of paper,
large brushes, large crayons (Grade 1) clay and
chalk.
2. Allow many experiences with media listed.
3. Use simple forms in drawing figures, landscapes, and
in illustrating stories.
4. Begin simple analysis of pictures drawn to develop:
a. size, proportion
b. simple principles of perspective
1) nearness-large object, low in picture
2) distance-small object, high in picture
c. concept of horizon












Design:
1. Use everyday experiences to develop understanding
and use of design
2. Develop principles of repetition and rhythm in de-
sign by:
a. making borders
b. creating patterns based on everyday experiences
c. studying light and dark values in design
(Grade 3)
3. Introduce finger painting.


2. Introduce and continue study of:
a. foreshortened circle (draw flower, vase, tumbler,
etc.)
b. parallel and angular perspective (Grade 6)
3. Increase ability to:
a. analyze pictures
b. draw cartoons
c. criticize own work and that of others
4. Increase understanding of:
a. proportion study in pictures
b. figure drawing as:
1. profile
2. correct proportion of features
3. action figures
5. Provide experiences in drawing:
a. from memory
1). real people
c. community scenes
d. outdoor sketches

Design:
1. Develop an understanding and knowledge of elements
of design:
a. line
b. dark and light values
c. color
2. Develop knowledge and understanding of principles
of design:
a. balance
b. rhythm
c. dominance
d. unity
3. Develop creative expression in design.
4. Conventionalize naturalistic forms-emphasize free-
domn and originality
5. Provide further experience in borders and surface
patterns
6. Provide for adaptation of design to three dimensional
objects.


>


CO
ti


0

0

ciT
t:1
0

Ci)
0
'].4











I-A














(Arts and Crafts, cont'd.)


Lettering:
1. Develop understanding and use of:
a. form (use single strokes)
b. spacing
c. arrangement
d. similarity
2. Develop ability to cut and draw block letters
(Grades 2 and 3).









Construction and Crafts:
1. Provide experiences for creative work in clay, wood,
yarn, cloth, paper, cardboard, etc.
2. Develop ability to use and care for simple tools (ham-
mer, nails, saw, needles, thread).
3. Form objects of three dimensions (Grades 2 and 3).


7. Increase ability in:
a. finger painting
b. stick painting
c. stenciling
d. poster making (plan independently)

Lettering:
1. Develop lettering using different colored ink with:
round-nib pen, (Grades 4 and 5), square-nib pen
(Grade 6).
2. Continue study of:
a. spacing and balancing of letters
b. drawing block letters
3. Develop ability to:
a. letter Roman alphabet
b. arrange letters on poster in relation to other parts
of poster (in regard to emphasis and proportion)
4. Develop uniformity in:
a. space
b. slant
c. proportion
d. form
Construction and Crafts:
1. Continue:
a. modeling
b. soap sculpture
c. weaving
2. Introduce and continue:
a. glazing and firing (clay)
b. wood sculpture
c. constructing toys and small objects
3. Develop appreciation of good materials, construction
and design.





(Arts and Crafts, cont'd.)
Appreciation:
1. Study paintings in regard to meaning, beauty, color
relations, size and relation of objects.
2. Encourage seeing beauty in home, school, and sur-
roundings.
3. Beautify classroom, playground, etc.


Appreciation:
1. Develop ability to analyze masterpieces in regard to:
a. design
b. color
c. pattern
2. Develop a feeling for real art quality, (painting,
sculpture, etc.)
3. Compare paintings of different artists, study strokes,
patterns and color schemes.
4. Develop ability to interpret works of art from the
standpoint of the feeling and the purpose of the
artist.











PHYSICAL EDUCATION
Physical Education embodies a planned program which contributes to the desirable development of knowledge, c
habits, skills, ideals and attitudes. As one phase of the school program, physical education has a distinct contribu-
tion to make to the personal-social growth and development of the child. Opportunities should be provided for all
children to receive instruction and to participate in a broad and varied program of activities.
If physical education is to serve a social purpose, the children should have a part in planning their daily ac-
tivities should develop a sense of responsibility in carrying out the plans of the group, and following the play period
should have an opportunity for free discussion and evaluation.
0
Suggestions Applicable to All Grades in the Elementary School
1. The classroom teacher is responsible for organizing and conducting the physical education program for her n
particular class, o
2. The principal should appoint the teacher best qualified in physical education to serve as chairman of the faculty
group to help the various teachers in planning and conducting their respective programs.
3. Assign to physical education in grades one through six a daily period of nt least thirty minutes, exclusive of the
noon hour and any recesses that may be scheduled. At least twenty minutes of this period should be used for
participation in the planned activities. Teacher-pupil planning in the classroom, proceeding to the play area,
returning to the classroom, and discussing of situations or problems which arose during the day's play will nor-
mally consume the remainder of the period.
4. The physical education period should not be scheduled within thirty minutes before or after the lunch period. o
5. Certain playground equipment is essential and this equipment should be furnished teachers just as other teach-
ing supplies are provided. 5
6. When possible, each classroom should have a complete set of equipment suitable for that grade. If this is not M
possible, the schedule should be staggered so that the same equipment2 can be used by more than one classroom
group.
7. Make definite time schedules and play area allotments for each grade.
8. Separate boys and girls in the fifth and sixth grades for team activities. If two of these grades can be H
scheduled at the same period, it is possible for the classes to be combined for team games, with one teacher
being responsible for all boys and the other teacher responsible for all girls.
9. Prepare a tentative yearly program and more definite weekly and daily programs. The elementary school MI
physical education program is composed of the following distinct phases of activity:
a. Directed Play-individual or group play in which there are as many or as few playing in each activity, and 0
in which the number of activities is dependent upon the choice of the children. i
1). Small Group Play--organized play providing for activity in small groups of not more than eight for the I
primary purpose of social development.
c. Large Group Play-organized play providing for a maximum amount of activity for groups of more than
eight players.
d. Team Game Activities-those concerned with the development of specific skills, understandings, and attitudes
related to traditional athletic sports.
e. Rhythmic Activities-those activities in which the child responds physically, mentally, and emotionally to
music or rhythm.




(Physical Education, cont'd.)
f. Stunts, Pyramids, and Apparatus Activities-those chiefly of a self-testing nature which are primarily con-
cerned with large muscle development.
g. Classroom Games-those which, because they require a limited amount of activity and space, can be played
in the classroom and are suitable for various recreational situations.
10. The approximate per cent of time which should be devoted to each phase in the respective grades is suggested
in the following chart:


G H A D Ei s
PHASES S

1 2 3 4 5 6

percent percent percent percent percent percent

D directed Play ........................... ... .. 40 20 ...... .
Small Group Play and Large Group Play ......... 20 40 30 30 10 10
Stunts, Pyramids, Apparatus Activities. ............ ... .... 10 10 10 10 M
Team Game Activities ...................... ... ... .... 40 40 60 60
Rhythmic Activities ......................... .. . 40 40 20 20 20 20
Classroom Games .............................. o

TOTAL .................................... 100 100 100 100 100 100

Approximately 5% of the time should be devoted to classroom games (usually on rainy days).

11. Select specific activities in keeping with the objectives, time allotments, and individual needs. H
I Detailed information on the entire elementary physical education program is contained in Bulletin No. 21, "Source
Materials for Physical Education in Elementary Schools." This material has been revised and published by
A. S. Barnes and Company under the title "Teaching Physical Education in the Elementary School." This
publication may be secured for faculty use through regular channels. Page references are given for both the
revised publication and the state bulletin.
2 Suggested list of equipment:
Bulletin No. 21, pp. 9-10
Revised Edition, p. 15
3 Examples of weekly and yearly progrinis
Bulletin No. 21, pp. 19-21
Revised Edition, pp. 21-22
i1 Suggested Activities
Bulletin No. 21, pp. 22-25
lItvised Edition, pp. 23-25














HEALTH AND SAFETY EDUCATION
Health and safety experiences of the elementary school child should contribute to the wholesome physical,
mental, emotional, and social growth and development. The school must combine forces with home and community
to aid the child in developing attitudes, understandings, appreciations, practices, and skill that will enable him
to live healthfully and safely. He must learn to protect himself and develop a sense of responsibility for the
health and safety of others.
A functional school health and safety program will include:
1. An emotionally stable teacher who exemplifies in daily practice healthful and safe ways of living.
2. A healthful and safe environment which provides opportunities to practice health and safety teachings.
3. An adequate health protection and guidance program designed to prevent defects, illness and injury in which n
health needs and problems of the child are discovered and met.
4. Planned, organized, and well balanced experiences in health and safety, in addition to incidental and integrated M
instruction.
5. Utilization of all opportunities for teaching health and safety throughout the school day, as health and safety
services, the school lunch, daily school routine, transportation to and from school, use of materials and equip-
ment, and other areas of experience as language arts, social studies, science, physical education and art.
6. Coordination of the school health and safety program with home and community agencies.

General Suggestions Applicable to All Grades 0
1. Plan the health and safety program so that the children develop the ability to recognize health and safety
problems and to discover means of solving their problems; these grow out of their daily experiences at school, t
at home, and in the community.
2. Plan together, teacher and children, how to solve their problems-what facts are needed, the sources, and ways 4
to secure the information.
3. Apply health and safety knowledge through planning and executing activities and provide for maximum, pur-
poseful pupil activity. The formation of desirable habits implies activity and practice.
4. Cooperate with the home; plan many activities to be carried over from the school to the home; enlist assistance
of parents. .
5. Evaluate with children their experiences.
6. Utilize community resources, o
7. Provide for continuity in health and safety experiences and adapt them to maturity levels, needs, and interests 0
of children. E
8. Stress the right thing to do; avoid the negative and gruesome; cover real life situations which children meet
daily.
9. Place emphasis on character and citizenship traits which make for happy and safe living.
10. Provide health and safety experiences and instruction for children which will enable them to develop scientific
and wholesome attitudes, understandings, practices, and skills.






Healthful and Safe Living
1. Provide a healthful and safe environment-physical, social, and emotional-in which teachers and children
may work together happily.
2. Let pupils share in planning to improve and to maintain a healthful and safe living environment; i.e., ventila-
tion, temperature, lighting, housekeeping, room arrangement, decorating, sanitary rest rooms, safety measures, lunch-
room environment and conduct.
3. Consider the factors of rhythm, balance, and flexibility in planning the daily schedule.
4. Make the classroom a happy and beautiful school home which the children share in creating and keeping. Keep
it free of tension, strain, and fear.
5. Be an understanding friend who serves as guide and counselor, seeking to help each child grow physically,
mentally, emotionally, socially, and spiritually toward intelligent self-direction and toward assuming responsibility
for others.
Health Protection and Guidance
1. Observe the children daily and continuously for:
a. Cleanliness.
b. Signs and symptoms of communicable disease.
c. Significant abnormal physical, mental, emotional or social behavior.
2. Make policies and plans in each school in regard to:
a. Provision for a clean and sanitary place for isolation of sick or injured children. 0
b. Notification of parents or guardian of illness or accident.
c. Establishment of definite policies in regard to transporting a sick or injured child home.
d. Readmission of child after absence for communicable disease. o
3. Cooperate with the immunization program against smallpox, whooping cough, diphtheria, tetanus, and typhoid. "1
a. Interpret to parents the immunization program. W
b. Explain to child in advance the reason for and procedure to be used in immunization.
c. Create a desire for immunization, an atmosphere of calm and poise, and courage to bear a little pain. o
d. Develop an appreciation for services of physician, dentist, and nurse.
e. Develop an attitude of cooperation with nurse, doctor, and dentist.
f. Realize that children reflect the attitudes and behavior of the teacher.
4. Weigh children monthly and measure height quarterly to motivate health practices.
5. Give vision and hearing tests.
6. Screen children needing health examination; ask to have any child with a physical, mental, emotional, or social
problem examined.
7. Make the health examination an educational experience for the child.
a. Prepare children carefully for health examination by explaining purpose, procedure, and value of examination.
b. Invite parents to be present at the health examination.
c. Make necessary arrangements so that the classroom teacher may be present.









Health Protection and Guidance-Continued
d. Show a personal interest in each child.
e. Discuss with the child remedial measures to be taken. When advisable, use this opportunity to educate for
health.
f. Develop a desire for periodic examinations.
8. Confer with the nurse in regard to:
a. Screening procedures.
b. Interpretation of findings of health examination.
c. Planning to meet the individual needs of each child.
d. Home environmental conditions.
e. Needed health information.
9. Make necessary school adjustments as additional feedings, increased rest periods, changing location of child in
classroom; use influence to help secure other remedialmeasures needed.
10. Keep informed of changing health status of child.
-1. Adjust classroom program to child's needs.
12. Become skilled in techniques of health guidance.
Community Relationships
1. Become informed in regard to community health and safety problems.
2. Become acquainted with local and state resources which aid in solving these problems.
3. Participate in community health and safety activities.
4. Utilize appropriate community resources-individuals and organizations.
5. Coordinate health and safety education with home and community health and safety activities.
6. Utilize the knowledge of parents and community leaders in discovering and interpreting pupil needs in health
and safety.
7. Encourage parents and community leaders to help plan to meet these needs.
8. Interpret to parents and community groups the school health and safety program,


Major Areas in Health
Nutrition and growth
Exercise, rest and sleep
Body functioning
Cleanliness
Clothing
Teeth
Eyes and ears
Posture
Communicable disease control
Family life education
Mental and emotional health


Health and Safety Instruction
Dental and medical services
Environmental health at school and at home
Community health
Major Areas in Safety
Traffic safety
School safety
Home safety
Fire safety
Farm safety
Safety in recreation
First aid
Weather hazards





Health and Safety Instruction


GRADES ONE, TWO, THREE
1. Develop desirable health and safety attitudes and
practices in the major areas.
2. Utilize daily experiences for guidance in healthful
and safe behavior as: going to and from school, living
with others-in the classroom, preparing for lunch, select-
ing and eating lunch, weighing and measuring, using
school materials and equipment, learning to use toilets,
lavatories and drinking fountains correctly, participating
in play, relaxation and rest periods, riding the school bus,
preparing for the visit of the doctor or nurse.
3. Create a desire to obey and an appreciation for peo-
ple who help to keep children well and safe as: mother,
father, doctor, dentist, nurse, policeman, school safety
patrol.
4. Teach health and safety by practicing healthful and
safe living throughout the day in relation to all activities.
5. Integrate health and safety instruction with other
areas of experience as: science, social studies, language
arts, physical education.
6. Use health and safety texts to help create desirable
attitudes, to motivate health and safety practices, to se-
cure accurate information, and to help solve problems.
7. Use stories and pictures related to the experiences of
the child..
8. Provide for maximum pupil activity such as: com-
posing and reading original stories based on health and
safety experiences, dramatizing health and safety stories.
9. Check frequently to see that children have well bal-
anced experiences in health and safety with some degree
of continuity.


GRADES FOUR, FIVE, SIX
1. Continue emphasis on attitudes and practices related
to personal health and safety; stress service to others.
2. Develop understanding of reasons for health and
safety procedures.
3. Widen the horizons to introduce home, school, and
community health and safety.
4. Help children to grow in ability to recognize and
solve health and safety problems that are meaningful to
them.
5. Plan with them to solve problems by finding the
facts and studying in a wide variety of ways: observ-
ing, demonstrating, experimenting, using pictures, tak-
ing excursions, reading books, interviewing people.
6. Apply health and safety knowledge to the problems
through planning and doing activities.
7. Evaluate with pupils the worthwhileness of the ex-
periences.
8. Provide special periods for direct health and safety
instruction.
References: Bulletin No. 4
Revised Edition, 1943
Bulletin No. 46
Bulletin No. 47
Bulletin No. 9










40 PROGRAMS OF STUDY IN FLORIDA ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS


LIST OF STATE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION PUBLICATIONS
FREQUENTLY NEEDED BY ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHERS


Bulletins
No. 2 Ways to Better Instruction in Florida Schools, 1939
No. 4 Florida's School Health Program, Revised, 1943
No. 7 A Guide to Teaching Science in Elementary Schools.
No. 9 A Guide to Improved Practice in Florida Elementary Schools, 1940
No. 12 A Guide to Teaching Industrial Arts
No. 21 Teaching Physical Education in the Elementary School, Revised, 1946
No. 22A Library List, 1947
No. 22B The Audio-Visual Way
No. 22K Suggestions for Teaching the Actions and Effects of Alcohol and
Other Narcotics, 1941
No. 26 Arithmetic in the Elementary School, 1942
No. 27 State Adopted Library Books for Florida Schools, 1942
No. 30 Social Studies in the Elementary School, 1944
No. 46 Guide to Teaching in the Primary Grades, 1944
No. 47 Guide to Teaching in the Intermediate Grades, 1944
No. 51 Developing Understandings for Living in an Air Age, 1946
No. 53 Guide to Child Development through the Beginning School Years, 1946
Bible: Suggestions for Bible Reading in Florida Public Schools, 1940
Spanish for Florida Elementary Schools, 1942

Florida School Bulletins
Following are special issues of the Florida School Bulletin particularly
helpful to faculties in developing curriculum plans:
Dec., 1943 Library Manual for Florida Schools
Nov., 1945 Bibliography on Florida Resources
Dec., 1945 Resources-Use Education, Suggestions to Teachers
Jan., 1946 Library Books: Supplementary Lists
Mar., 1946 Developments in Audio-Visual Aids
Apr., 1946 Planning for Improvement of Instruction in Reading
May, 1946 State Adopted Free Textbooks for Use in Elementary and
Secondary Schools
Oct., 1946 Program of study in Florida Secondary Schools-Tentative
Revision
Dec., 1946 Florida School Standards-Tentative Revision
Mar., 1947 Out-of-Doors Florida as Instrinntion]s Material










A SUGGESTED PROGRAM OF STUDY 41


INDEX TO OTHER FLORIDA CURRICULUM BULLETINS


Arithmetic
Bulletin No. 9, 196-219
Bulletin No. 26
Bulletin No. 46, 54-60
Bulletin No. 47, 71-79
Bulletin No. 53, 36
Arts and Crafts
Bulletin No. 9, 220-244
Bulletin No. 46, 72-77
Bulletin No. 53, 35
Bulletin No. 12
Audio-Visual Aids
(See materials) Florida School
Bulletin, March 1946
Bulletin No. 22B
Aviation
Bulletin No. 51
Character Development
Bulletin No. 2, 190-210
Bulletin No. 9, 55-58
Bulletin No. 53, pp. 10-13
Daily Schedule
Bulletin No. 9, 63-73
Bulletin No. 46, 11-16
Bulletin No. 47, 11-16
Devotionals
Suggestions for Bible Readings
in Florida Public Schools
Discipline
Bulletin No. 2, 190-210
Bulletin No. 9, 55-63
Bulletin No. 53, 11
Evaluation
Bulletin No. 2, 251; 272-306
Bulletin No. 9, 301-308
Bulletin No. 47, 6
Grouping
Florida School Bulletin,
April, 1945
Bulletin No. 46, 1, 23-24
Bulletin No. 47, 1
Guidance
Bulletin No. 2, 155-210
Bulletin No. 9, 58-60
Bulletin No. 46, 1-6
Florida School Bulletin,
April, 1945


Florida School Bulletin
January, 1947
Handwriting
Bulletin No. 9, 135-136
Bulletin No. 46, 31-34
Bulletin No. 47, 37-40
Bulletin No. 53, 32-33
Health and Safety
Bulletin No. 2, 25-27
Bulletin No. 4
Bulletin No, 9, 246-270
Bulletin No. 46, 45-53
Bulletin No. 47, 64-70
Bulletin No. 53, 8-10; 12, 13; 37-39,
45-46
Bulletin No. 22K
Junior Primary
Florida School Bulletin
April, 1945
Language Arts
Bulletin No. 9, 121-150
Bulletin No. 46, 20-44
Bulletin No. 47, 20-50
Bulletin No. 53, 31-34
Library
Bulletin No. 27
Bulletin No. 9, 52-54
Bulletin No. 53, 54
Florida School Bulletin,
January 1946
Florida School Bulletin
December 1943
Materials
(See Audio-Visual,
Textbooks etc.)
Bulletin No. 2, 232-253
Bulletin No. 27
Florida School Bulletin,
December 1943
Florida School Bulletin,
November 1945
Florida School Bulletin,
December 1945
Florida School Bulletin
January 1946
Florida School Bulletin
March 1946
Florida School Bulletin,
May 1946









42 PROGRAMS OF STUDY IN FLORIDA ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS


Florida School Bulletin,
March 1947
Mathematics (See Arithmetic)
Music
Bulletin No. 9, 220-244
Bulletin No. 46, 63-71
Bulletin No. 47, 83-91
Bulletin No. 53, 35
Organization of Curriculum
Bulletin No. 2, 87-125; 211-271
Bulletin No. 9, 47-118
Philosophy
Bulletin No. 2, 38-86; 98-104;
307-310
Bulletin No. 9, 76-84
Physical Education
Bulletin No. 9, 264, 265
Bulletin No. 21
Bulletin No. 46, 60-63
Bulletin No. 47, 80-83
Bulletin No. 53, 37-39


Planning
Bulletin
Bulletin
Bulletin
Bulletin


2, 87-153, 190-271
9, 47-115; 273-296
46, 5-6, 12
47, 5-6, 12


Promotion, policies of
Florida School Bulletin,
April 1945
Bulletin No. 46, 6
Bulletin No. 47, 6
Reading
Bulletin No. 9, 121-135; 138-145
Bulletin No. 46, 20-30
Bulletin No. 47, 20-36
Bulletin No. 53, 32
Florida School Bulletin,
April 1946
Reporting to Parents
Bulletin No. 53, 41
Bulletin No. 9, 60-61
Resources-Use Education
Bulletin No. 2, 15-25; 129-154
The School Bulletin,
November 1945
The School Bulletin,
December 1945


The Florida School Bulletin
March 1947
Florida: Wealth or Waste?
Safety (See Health and Safety)
Science
Bulletin No. 2, 122-124
Bulletin No. 9, 173-195
Bulletin No. 46, 45-53
Bulletin No. 47, 67-70
Bulletin No. 7


Schedules
Bulletin No.
Bulletin No.
Bulletin No.


9, 65-75
46, 11-16
47, 11-16


School Standards
Florida School Bulletin,
December 1946
Social Studies
Bulletin No. 2, 190-210
Bulletin No. 9, 151-172
Bulletin No. 30
Bulletin No. 46, 45-53
Bulletin No. 47, 51-63
Bulletin No. 53, 40
Bulletin No. 51
Spanish
Spanish for Florida
Elementary Schools,
Teachers' Guide
Spelling
Bulletin No. 9, 136-137
Bulletin No. 46, 34-37
Bulletin No. 47, 40-43
School Environment
Bulletin No. 2, 96-97; 190-210
Bulletin No. 9, 55-56
Bulletin No. 46, 16-19
Bulletin No. 47, 16-19
Unit Teaching
Bulletin No. 2, 211-271
Bulletin No. 9, 279-287;
91-113
Workbooks (See Materials)
Bulletin No. 46, 10
Bulletin No. 47, 10
Bulletin No. 53, 41




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