• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Title Page
 Foreword
 Table of Contents
 Organization and administration...
 Educational program of the...
 Bibliography
 Back Cover














Group Title: Bulletin - State Department of Education ; 53A
Title: A guide for organizing and developing a kindergarten program in Florida
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00067230/00001
 Material Information
Title: A guide for organizing and developing a kindergarten program in Florida
Series Title: Its Bulletin
Physical Description: 51 p. : illus. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- State Dept. of Education
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee
Publication Date: 1955
Edition: Rev.
 Subjects
Subject: Kindergarten   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Bibliography: p. 46-51.
Funding: Bulletin (Florida. State Dept. of Education) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00067230
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 09320612
lccn - a 56009148

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front cover
    Front Matter
        Front matter
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Foreword
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Table of Contents
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Organization and administration of the kindergarten
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Values of early childhood education
            Page 9
        Legal provisions for kindergartens and nursery schools
            Page 10
            Page 11
            Page 12
        Teacher certification
            Page 13
        Physical facilities
            Page 14
            Page 15
            Page 16
            Page 17
            Page 18
            Page 19
            Page 20
            Page 21
            Page 22
            Page 23
            Page 24
    Educational program of the kindergarten
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Planning programs
            Page 31
            Page 32
            Page 33
            Page 34
            Page 35
        Providing for child health and physical well-being
            Page 36
            Page 37
            Page 38
            Page 39
        Use of community resources
            Page 40
        The home and school work together
            Page 41
            Page 42
            Page 43
        Using records
            Page 44
            Page 45
    Bibliography
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
    Back Cover
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
Full Text

Ire jm Qacsiai^ a;sd Gw mJfumdri a

RGARTEN PROGRAM -.

I ir BULLETIN 58A REVISED
*


.STATE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION, Tallahassee, Florida
S -THoAs D. BALEry, Superintendent JANUARY 1955
L,. '.

















UNIVERSITY
OF FLORIDA
LIBRARIES











A GUIDE FOR ORGANIZING AND DEVELOPING


A KINDERGARTEN PROGRAM IN FLORIDA












BULLETIN NO. 53A


Revised

JANUARY, 1955









STATE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION


TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA


THOMAS D. BAILEY, State Superintendent of Public Instruction







32~ 5. & L3 g7.
/7:431.!:,)b

/- o V53 5














Foreword


This bulletin is a revision of an earlier bulletin by the same name
which was developed shortly after the kindergarten program was
incorporated as a part of the State Minimum Foundation Program.
The earlier bulletin was developed by a committee which drew upon
the thinking of those interested in Early Childhood Education in a
series of regional meetings.
When the supply of the bulletin was exhausted a committee was
designated to secure the suggestions of public school kindergarten
teachers and their supervisors and principals, for revision of the kinder-
garten bulletin. This committee, consisting of Dr. Sara Lou Hammond
and Mrs. Margaret Casson, Florida State University; Dr. Janet
McCracken and Manette Swett, University of Florida; and Charlotte
Stienhans, State Department of Education, utilized these suggestions
in preparing this revised edition. We are indebted to this committee
for their work in preparing this material. Our appreciation is expressed
to Richard L. Lemon and Charles V. Lowery, Assistant School Archi-
tects, State Department of Education, who gave valuable assistance to
the committee in matters pertaining to the designing of kindergarten
rooms and in preparing the drawings. We also wish to thank Thomas
N. Morgan for reviewing the section on School Laws and State Board
of Education Regulations, and J. T. Kelley and M. Mitchell Ferguson
for reviewing the section on Teacher Certification.
We sincerely hope that this bulletin will serve in strengthening
our kindergartens.


State Superintendent of Public Instruction












A GUIDE FOR ORGANIZING AND DEVELOPING
A KINDERGARTEN PROGRAM IN FLORIDA



Part I

Organization and Administration of the Kindergarten -----------
Values of Early Childhood Education -..... --------.._..-
Legal Provisions for Kindergartens and Nursery Schools ---
Teacher Certification --.--- ....---....
Physical Facilities ----.----......----.-- -------..--....----------
Plan of a Desirable Classroom ----------.... --------....
Perspective Drawing of a Classroom .--------------......
Materials, Equipment and Supplies ------
Illustrations-Equipment -------------..------.....---


Part II


Educational Program of the Kindergarten
Planning Programs---........-..-..-----......---....
Principles of Program Planning-............
Length of School Day...................-------...
Scheduling the School Day---....--.........
Sample Schedules ---------------------------


...-...--.. 29
..--........ 31
......... 31
.--....-. 33
34


------------.. 34


Providing for Child Health and Well-Being --------....
Setting up the School Plant for Good Health
and Physical Well-Being --...----.... ---......
Work with Parents ......------..-..-------

Use of Community Resources --- .. --
Care and Maintenance of the Kindergarten Plant.


The Home and School Work Together.

Using Records.. ..-..---------------.


Bibliography ----


Page
7
9
--- 10
--- 13
- 14
--- 25
.--- 26
-16
.... 23


- ---- 36


------ 37
38

S- 40
41


.- 41


-------------------------------
----------.------..-.-------.-..
-----------.----...--.--.-----.-


--------.-.------- 44










































































































iP
























I


ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION


OF THE


KINDERGARTEN















VALUES OF EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION
In the kindergarten, attitudes and habits are developed as children
work and play together in an environment which provides physical,
mental, emotional, spiritual and social growth. Recognizing that these
early years in the child's life are of the greatest importance, this bulletin
has been provided to assist in developing an adequate kindergarten
program. Every boy and girl who attends kindergarten in Florida
should have an opportunity to:
1. Live, work and play with others in a program of learning activi-
ties that provide daily practice in sharing possessions, assuming
responsibility for his own acts, acting as a leader and follower,
and adjusting individual wishes or plans to the good of the
group.
2. Develop a sense of security and well-being in a school situation.
3. Have experiences with books, stories, music, dramatic play,
science and art materials. These activities not only will enrich
the life of the child, but will provide experiences which increase
vocabulary and will arouse an interest in reading.
4. Use materials freely and constructively which may result in
increasing initiative, creative power, independence and motor
coordination.
5. Develop motor skills and coordination through play with ap-
propriate apparatus. This improved motor control is reflected
by better handling of classroom equipment-blocks, pencils,
scissors, crayons, as well as other equipment.
6. Express himself freely within a group situation and be stimu-
lated to independent thinking in organizing and communicating
his ideas.
7. Establish desirable health habits such as proper eating prac-
tices, relaxation during rest period, toilet routine and hand-
washing.








LEGAL PROVISIONS FOR KINDERGARTENS
AND NURSERY SCHOOLS

LAW AUTHORIZING KINDERGARTENS
AND NURSERY SCHOOLS
In accordance with Florida Statutes (Sec. 228.16) counties in
Florida are authorized to use state funds for the support and main-
tenance of kindergartens. The legal authorization for such use of
public funds is as follows:
"SUPPORT OF PUBLIC SCHOOLS. The public schools shall be
supported and financed as prescribed below and in Chapters 236
and 237; Provided, that no matriculation or tuition fees shall be
charged pupils whose parents are bona fide residents of Florida,
except as prescribed herein.
"(1) NURSERY SCHOOLS. Nursery Schools, where organ-
ized as public school classes, shall be supported and main-
tained from county taxes, district taxes, or from such funds
supplemented by tuition charges, or from funds from Federal
or other lawful sources, exclusive of state sources.
"(2) KINDERGARTENS. Kindergartens, when organized as
public schools or public school classes comprising children
who have attained the age of four years and nine months on or
before the first day of the" calendar month within which
schools open in any county during any year, shall be con-
sidered as part of the elementary school organization and
shall be supported and maintained by funds from state,
county, district, federal or other lawful sources or combina-
tions of sources."

LAW OR BASIS FOR KINDERGARTEN UNITS.
NUMBER OF PUPILS
When initiating a kindergarten program a county should comply
with the school law and the regulations of the State Board of Education
regarding average daily attendance and enrollment. The law is as
follows:
"Section 236.04. UNITS FOR KINDERGARTENS. Instruction
units for kindergarten pupils in counties qualifying under law and regu-
lations of the State Board for such services shall be computed by allow-
ing one such unit for each 25 pupils or major fraction thereof in average
daily attendance in kindergartens in the county when teachers are em-








played on a full time basis; Provided that the State Board shall have
authority to authorize one unit for each class of twenty or more pupils
in isolated centers where fewer than twenty-five pupils of kindergarten
age are available; and Provided, further, that when kindergartens are
being organized in any county the State Board shall have authority to
authorize during any year one unit for each class of twenty or more
pupils proposed by the county board to be organized in any new center
in the county; Provided, also that if at any school the kindergarten and
one or more elementary grades are taught by one teacher, instruction
units shall be computed on the basis of all kindergarten and elemen-
tary pupils in attendance in schools of such classification."

FINANCIAL EFFORT
Section 236.07 (8) reads in part: "If a county requests that instruc-
tion units for kindergartens be included in its Minimum Foundation
Program and is entitled to such units under the laws of the state, the
financial effort required of that county as prescribed herein shall be
increased by five per cent."

ENROLLMENT
State Board of Education regulations, adopted July 3, 1947, page
160, as regards minimum and maximum enrollment by school classifica-
tion read thus:
"a. The minimum number of pupils required for establishing kin-
dergartens shall be 25 children. The desirable enrollment
should not exceed 30 pupils for any one teacher.
"b. In schools designated as isolated by the State Board of Educa-
tion where less than 20 children desire kindergarten experi-
ence and the number of kindergarten pupils plus first grade
pupils would make a desirable teaching load, not to exceed
27 pupils, and when a qualified teacher and sufficient space
are available, a combination kindergarten and first grade may
be established. The program for such a combination shall be
approved by the State Department of Education."
It is strongly recommended that the maximum number admitted
to a unit be placed at 30, for a teacher can not render satisfactory
service if the enrollment is too heavy. In cases where a county must,
because of space limitations, operate double sessions of kindergarten,
it is necessary to have a different teacher for each session. If for
expediency one teacher assumes a double session temporarily, addi-
tional assistance and a lightened responsibility should be assigned.








ENTRANCE AGE OF PUPILS
Children who have "attained the age of four years and nine months
on or before the first day of the calendar month within which schools
open in any county during any year" are eligible to enter kindergarten
(Section 228.16, Florida statutes). The county board should determine
the local policy as to late entrance of children of legal kindergarten
age. If the class is small and there is ample space and equipment, it
would seem advisable to permit late entrance of kindergarten children
in view of the fact that even a few months of kindergarten will be
highly beneficial to every child.

LENGTH OF SCHOOL DAY
Section 227.13 (18), Florida Statutes, define the school day as "that
portion of the day in which school is actually in session" and provide
that the day shall comprise "not less than three net hours in kinder-
garten and nursery school grades." According to State Board of Edu-
cation regulations, adopted July 3, 1947, page 159, "the length of the
day for the kindergarten teacher shall be the same as for other ele-
mentary teachers, including the kindergarten program of activities,
parent conferences, home visits, and assistance with the instructional
program of the school (giving individual instruction, relieving elemen-
tary teachers, etc.)."

APPLICATION FOR APPROVAL
The county board must submit an application for kindergarten
units to the State Department of Education in accordance with State
Board Regulations, adopted June 3, 1947, which are as follows: "Coun-
ties initiating kindergartens shall submit an over-all plan to the State
Department of Education for approval. This plan shall include teacher
personnel, program of activities, physical facilities and program for
transportation." Forms for this purpose are furnished by the State
Department of Education. On Form A, application is made for the
number of units needed. Normally all applications for new units must
be submitted on this form by May 15. Form C is completed by the
individual teachers and submitted to the county superintendent for his
approval and forwarded to the State Department of Education.








TEACHER CERTIFICATION
Regulations of the State Board of Education concerning certifica-
tion of kindergarten teachers were adopted July 3, 1947 and revised
and adopted April 3, 1951, and July 21, 1953. Prospective kindergarten
teachers should write to the Certification Section, State Department of
Education, Tallahassee, Florida for current regulations governing certi-
fication of kindergarten teachers.








PHYSICAL FACILITIES


LOCATION OF KINDERGARTEN
Placement of Permanent Classrooms. The kindergarten should
be on the ground floor and included as an integral part of the elemen-
tary school. It may be a part of the main building or located in a
separate unit. If it is a part of the main building, it is advisable to
keep the kindergarten and primary grades on the ground floor in one
wing. It should have a separate entrance and direct access to the
outdoor play space.
Temporary Housing. Temporary buildings such as war surplus
units or houses, may be used provided they are on the school grounds.
However, permanent rooms for kindergartens are certainly much more
desirable. No temporary housing should be placed in use as kinder-
garten rooms unless adequate light, heat, ventilation, and toilet facili-
ties are assured so as to protect the children's health, comfort, and edu-
cational opportunities. (See following sections for descriptions of
adequate facilities.)

INDOOR SPACE
Size of Classroom. The minimum space requirements should pro-
vide for thirty square feet of floor space per child. A patio adjoining
the classroom is highly desirable. If possible, the kindergarten room
should have a movable partition or glass doors so that the indoor and
outdoor facilities may be used as one. There should be many oppor-
tunities for working in the open air and sunshine. On page 25 a plan
of a desirable kindergarten room has been portrayed. The dimensions
of the playroom-1300 feet are rather larger than the minimum which
has been specified, but it should be understood that the illustration is
intended only to suggest desirable kindergarten space and arrange-
ment. Local plans for kindergarten rooms could comprehend larger
or smaller space depending upon local needs and local resources. It
should be noted also that the proposed play area which has been illu-
strated with the desirable kindergarten room is somewhat larger than
the minimum play space suggested on page 16. Here again there is no
effort to specify definite proportions but only to point out that such a
paved play area would be suitable and desirable for a kindergarten
program.
Floor Covering. The covering for floors should be durable, noise-
reducing, resilient, and easy to clean. A variety of good materials meet








these requirements, including hardwood, rubber tile, asphalt tile, and
vinyl plastic tile. Floors should be warm and free from draft.
Sound Control. Ceiling materials should have definite accoustical
qualities. In some instances, it is well to consider accoustical treatment
for walls or portions of walls.
Windows. Sufficient windows should be provided and arranged
in such a manner as to insure good cross ventilation and light distribu-
tion. They should be low enough for the children to see out. The
window sills on one wall should not be more than 28" above the floor.
Tack Board Space. There should be ample space for tack boards.
It is desirable to have tack boards along the full length of the inside
wall. The material should be soft enough to receive thumb tacks easily.
The most desirable arrangement is one in which the boards are easily
accessible to the children and the bottom of them should not be more
than 20" above the floor. Little value is received from display space
more than 50" from the floor.

Cloakroom or Lockers. It is recommended that each child have
his own individual locker in which to keep clothing and supplies. Indi-
vidual lockers are of value in helping the child to establish proper
habits of caring for clothing and supplies. Moreover there is less
danger of spreading contagious diseases when children wraps are kept
separate in individual lockers. Careful thought should be given to the
need for shelves, lockers and cabinets to provide whatever facilities are
needed for the program. It is often desirable to provide some lockers
or storage cabinets on casters for use in partitioning off areas and for
increased flexibility of activities in the room. There should be low
built-in shelves along a convenient wall space for toys, blocks, books
or science materials. Depth, height and width of these shelves should
vary in order to care for larger toys, large paper, blocks and supplies.

Toilet Facilities. Toilet facilities should be a part of the kinder-
garten unit. This is especially important if the kindergarten unit is in
a structure apart from the main building. The water closets should be
10" in height. Lavatories, which might be located in the classrooms,
should be 24" in height. There should be a mirror and towel containers
placed at appropriate heights. When the regular school toilet rooms
are used, it will be necessary to provide at least one small toilet.
Lighting. As in all classrooms, methods of good light control
must be employed in the planning of kindergarten units to insure an
ample quantity of light of good quality and distribution. The type and








color of paint applied to walls and ceilings will be an important factor
in the achievement of good lighting conditions. Psychological effect
of colors on children should be considered. Warm, gay colors look well
in rooms with north light, while cool colors may be enhanced by south
light. Expert advice should be obtained in the selection of colors and
color schemes.
Heating. Adequate heating should be provided so that a tem-
perature of 68 degrees to 72 degrees can be maintained throughout the
day. The heating system should be so designed that the temperature
line is within 30" of the floor. The thermostat should be placed at the
breathing level of kindergarten children when seated. This is lower
than in a usual school room.

OUTDOOR SPACE
Area. The play space for a group of 30 pupils or fewer should
be at least 4500 square feet. If shared, a plan for use should be de-
veloped and policies established for the special care of the kinder-
garten equipment. If possible, this should be fenced in with an
entrance from the kindergarten room. Hedge fencing and good land-
scaping can enhance the appearance of the plant.
Shade and Sun. There should be a balance of shade and sun for
this area.
Play Space. There should be a hard surface area where balls may
be bounced and wheel toys used. Out-of-doors storage space should
be provided for toys. In selecting a surfacing material for this area,
consideration should be given to drainage and ease of maintenance.
There should be a grassy spot for play and also a spot for pets and
gardens. The play space should be used as an integral part of the
plant. By all means take advantage of the sunshine. Many of the
activities usually scheduled for indoors in other sections of the country
should be carried on out of doors in Florida.

MATERIALS, EQUIPMENT AND SUPPLIES
A good kindergarten provides children with a variety of materials.
These are the media through which children develop physical strength
and motor coordination, dramatic play, creative activities, and social
adaptation. There should be available, therefore, large pieces of
apparatus for climbing, balancing and building. 'These should include
packing crates, ladders, balls, seesaws, carts, and large and small build-
ing blocks. These materials should be available for both indoor and








outdoor activities. Raw materials with which to create and manipulate
should be available also, for example, clay, paints, large crayons, finger
paints, etc. Simple books with good pictures and stories of interest
and quality should be had by the children. The children will enjoy
looking at or handling such books, but the teacher will read them to
the children, not teach the children to read. These books are not to be
read by a five-year-old. Opportunities for musical experiences should
be provided also by songs, rhythms and simple tone instruments.
Not only should materials in variety and abundance be made
available to children, these should also be used creatively. The teacher
will make an effort to see that children feel free to express themselves
through language as well as materials. She will never ask children to
color or copy and she will avoid such expressions as "Let's paint a
cow," "Put a chimney on the barn," or "Now, build a store." The
teacher knows that in the arts young children are their own best tech-
ers, and that her responsibility is to provide suitable materials and con-
ditions under which creative activity takes place.
Equipment and supplies for the instructional program of the
kindergarten need not be expensive. Frequently, the materials which
children enjoy most are those which are homemade or which they
bring from home. Left-over scraps of cloth from home or the home
economics department, orange or grapefruit crates, cereal boxes, empty
spools, wheels, feed sacks, old clothes, cleaned and renovated for
"dressing up" are a few of the many inexpensive materials which are
available in all communities. Others will occur to ingenious teachers
with imagination.
Children frequently like to bring their toys from home to share
with one another. Dolls, toy trucks, engines, doll carriages, toy tea
sets and other materials are usually available if the teacher is wise in
tapping such resources. Children will also bring and share picture
books, if encouraged to do so.
If the school has shops or if older boys with tools and skilled
hands are available, frequently work and play materials may be built
inexpensively. Handy parents with tools also may contribute such
equipment. Cots, work benches, work tables, hollow and solid blocks,
ladders, etc., are a few of the materials which have been built locally.
However, some supplies must be purchased and these are of two
kinds: (1) those to be purchased as part of a long-time purchasing
plan and (2) those supplies which should be included in the yearly
budget.








MATERIALS TO BE PURCHASED ON A LONG-TIME
PURCHASING PLAN
Estimated for 25 children, list not inclusive.

FURNITURE AND FURNISHINGS
Rectangular tables, preferably light in color, twenty-two inches to
twenty-four inches in height should be provided. Each table should
seat from four to six children. Movable chairs and tables are desirable
because they can be moved to one side of the room. This makes pos-
sible a large floor area for rhythmic games, dramatizations, and other
activities. Children of this age need experience in working together.
A table provides opportunity for this social experience. Special tables,
circular, triangular or other shapes, have value for science, books,
displays, and exhibits.
Twenty-five chairs, twelve to fourteen inches in height, should also
be a part of the permanent equipment. The height of table should be
ten inches greater than that of the chair.
Teacher's desk
At least one steel filing cabinet with locks.
A large work bench, or several individual benches, each equipped
with a vise.
A storage box or rack to take care of lumber.
Two double easels for large painting. Easels may be covered with
oilcloth for ease of cleaning.
Cots for resting are highly desirable when children remain at
school for the full day. Sheets and a small blanket may be brought
from home by the pupils. In other kindergarten situations individual
pads or mats may be used. It is important that these be thick enough
to protect children from cold, if the floors are not heated. If there is
question of drafts, other protection will be needed. Cleaning and
storing of the cots, pads, and mats must be done carefully to avoid the
spread of contagious diseases.
One earthenware churn or jug for clay.
An adequate supply of tools (not toys) hammer, saw, nails, bit and
screwdriver.
Primer size typewriter.








Musical Instruments
One piano
Phonograph and records
Drums
Triangles
Tambourines
Wood blocks
Cymbal
Small xylophone
Rhythm sticks
Bells

Toys
Large balls, 6" to 12" in diameter
Puzzles, simple wooden, interlocked or framed
Wheel toys
Wagons
Tricycles
Trucks
Tractors
Large beads and spools
Trucks, cars, trains, boats, airplanes (of various sizes, dependent
upon sizes of blocks or other equipment with which they will be used)

Equipment For Dramatic Play
Low screens-may be used in setting up playhouse; approximately
3' high.
Playhouse furniture and equipment
Table and chairs
Cupboard and dishes
Clothesline and pins
Dolls with clothing
Doll Carriage
Ironing board and iron
Toy telephone
Broom, dust pan, wash tub
Old clothes for "dressing up" and chest for storage
Live doll cradle
Toy animals
Sink with removable dishpan
Dressing table and mirror








Equipment For Construction
Blocks
Hollow-large enough to make structures that children can actually
use.
Suggested sizes:
1 dozen 12" x 12" x 12"
2 dozen 12" x 12" x 6"
3 dozen 24" x 12" x 6"
Solid building blocks may be cut in proportionate lengths from the
same piece of lumber, such as 51/2", 11", 22" lengths. All pieces are cut
from 1/z" x 25/" lumber.
Cleated Boards
A cleat should be bolted to the bottom of the play plank 6 inches
from the end to keep the plank from slipping when placed on boxes or
sawhorse. The play plank may be placed across the sawhorse to make
a seesaw or on two boxes as a walking board for children to practice
balancing. It is suggested that the planks be 6' or 8' in length and of
1" x 8" or 10" boards.
Science Equipment
Aquarium
Terrarium
Pet cage
Thermometer
Glass jars
Magnifying glass
Garden tools
Watering can
Magnets: bar, horseshoe
Books and Library Equipment
Books. The library corner should be made as attractive and in-
viting as possible. It is important to have many, many well selected
books to meet the varied interests of five-year-olds. Books should be
changed often so that the children will not tire of them. Bibliographies
of children's books are included in the list of books for teachers at the
end of this bulletin.
Bookcases. There should be one or two small movable units for
children's books. These should be placed near the library table.
Library Table and Chairs. A library table in a well-lighted sec-
tion of the room is vital. The table may be circular or square. The







finish and height of table and chairs should be the same as classroom
tables and chairs.
Outdoor Equipment
Jungle gym
Low horizontal bars
Swings
Slides
Walking boards
Saw horses
Large sewer pipe anchored in cement
Ladder, 5', safety cleat on end
Climbing pole
Covered sand box
The floor of the sand box is covered with brick or about 4 inches
of gravel to facilitate drainage and is then filled with from 18 to
24 inches of sand. It is necessary that the sand box be covered
in order to keep dirt and refuse out of the sand. 50 to 60 square
feet of space would be desirable.
Utensils for sand play
Drag boxes
Cautions
The outdoor sand box should be located so as to be in the sun
a part of the day and must be covered when not in use.
Stationary equipment is expensive; select carefully in terms of
total amount of money to be spent. Some of the most successful
equipment is made through the cooperative efforts of teachers
and parents.
Equipment must be carefully and safely installed.
Equipment must be kept in good repair.
Adequate provision needs to be made for the storage of outdoor
equipment when not in use.

MATERIAL FOR 25 CHILDREN TO BE INCLUDED ANNUALLY
IN THE BUDGET
(This list of materials is not inclusive. Provision should be made
to supplement it throughout the year.)
Art Supplies
3 reams 18" x 24" newsprint (ends of rolls of newsprint may sometimes
be secured as waste materials from newspaper offices).








1 roll of yard wide wrapping paper (this may sometimes be secured
through storekeepers)
2 reams 12" x 18" manila paper
6 packages construction paper of assorted colors 12" x 18"
1 ream 18" x 24" finger paint paper or rolls of glazed shelf paper
5# each of red, blue, yellow, green powdered tempera
3# each of orange, violet powdered tempera
2# each of black, brown powdered tempera
6# of powdered finger paint, assorted colors (recipes for teacher-made
substitutes may be found in "Art in the Lives of Florida
Children," Bulletin No. 37)
1Vz dozen boxes large crayons, flat on one side, of assorted colors
(about %" in diameter)
Colored chalk, large size (1" to l/z" in diameter)
2 dozen easel brushes, round and flat (1" and 1%" in width), 12" handles
100# clay-wet clay from local clay beds if possible; otherwise, pow-
dered clay
2 quarts paste and 5# bag of wheat paste (if wheat paste is to be used
for mixing finger paint, additional powder would be needed)
1/2dozen scissors, medium pointed
Scraps of lumber-soft mill ends
5# assorted length, large head nails
6 yards oilcloth (for use in covering tables and easels)

Other Supplies
First Aid Supplies (see Florida Bulletin No. 4D, A Program of
Health Services for Florida Schools)*
Office Supplies
Pair of large scissors
Stapler
Paper Cutter
Scotch tape
Thumb tacks
Straight pins
Duplicating paper and ink (for use in communicating with
parents)
Twenty-five books, suitable for five year olds should be added
*All bulletins referred to are listed in the bibliography with the ad-
dresses needed in securing them.








each year. It is recommended that at least one dollar per
child be available for purchase of these books. Do not sacri-
fice the quality of books for quantity. Where there is a cen-
tral school library, purchases shall be made by the librarian
and withdrawn by the kindergarten teacher throughout the
year. (See the Bibliography for Teachers for lists of children's
books.)








LOCKER UNITS
These lockers may be con-
*a structed in units. If rollers are
S0 used, they may be moved about
SA in the classroom and serve as
partitions for groups.


LOCKER UNITS
Two apple boxes placed upright on
top of orange crate may serve as lock-
ers. Coat hooks may be inserted in-
side the apple box for wraps.


















































PLAY PLATFORM
This play platform offers many pos-
sibilities for dramatic play and can be
used by a number of children at the
same time. It can be built around a
tree and serve as a tree house platform.









24



























EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM


OF THE


KINDERGARTEN

































































30








PLANNING PROGRAMS


PRINCIPLES OF PROGRAM PLANNING
In the traditional sense there are no required subjects in the kin-
dergarten. The program, therefore, is never rigidly prescribed. How-
ever, there are certain curriculum principles which the teacher of five-
year-olds should apply to the planning of the daily program. A few of
the most important of these follow:
1. A good kindergarten program provides many opportunities for
social adjustment. Most five-year-olds are individualists, and
one of their most important developmental tasks is to learn to
play and work with other boys and girls. They, must learn, by
experience, to share toys and equipment, to take turns, and to
plan and act with individuals and groups. This need for social
adjustment can be met in part by such activities as playing
games; planning trips, parties and celebrations; collecting; go-
ing on picnics; and acting out stories, poems and music.
2. A good kindergarten program develops from the immediate
environment of the children. Five-year-olds are interested in
all that goes on about them. Their immediate environment
points up and emphasizes such interest. For example, rural
children are more likely than not to be interested in animals,
plants, rocks, the stars, farm machinery, insects, birds, water,
and seeds. A Florida rural child is interested in specific birds,
water life, and so on which are a part of the environment in
which he lives. Urban children in Florida, on the other hand,
will most likely be interested in machinery, transportation-
particularly boats and aeroplanes-and, the birds, insects and
trees which compose their immediate environment.
3. A good kindergarten program allows plenty of time and ade-
quate opportunities for children to express themselves freely
through many media. Children of kindergarten age like to
work with things; to get their hands into water, to paint with
their fingers or with brushes, to pound nails into wood, to
"dress up" in the clothes of adults, or even in a highly colored
scarf, to work with clay, and to build with blocks or other con-
structive materials. Children do not grow tired of using such
materials provided they are encouraged to use them creatively
and as they wish. Materials, liked by five-year-olds, should be
provided in abundance, and should be easily accessible, and
time should be provided for their use each day.







4. A good kindergarten program allows a child to use his whole
body and to develop wholesome attitudes toward it. The
kindergarten is a place for children to use their voices in talk-
ing, singing, and whistling. It is a place for laughter and dram-
atizing. It is a good place to dance, to engage in rhythms and
to sing. The school day should help establish also the rhythm
of bodily functions in the taking in of food, in resting, sleeping,
elimination, and in the establishing of all acceptable health
habits. The whole child comes to the kindergarten and those
who plan for his welfare should take this fact into considera-
tion. The school day in the kindergarten should have both
balance and rhythm.
5. A good kindergarten program utilizes the experiences of chil-
dren, especially in a readiness program which meets their
needs as five-year-olds and at the same time builds firmly for
the experiences of being six. It has been well established by
many authorities that five-year-old children are not ready for
formal learning experiences. True, it is possible to teach five-
year-olds to read, to count by rote, and even to identify all the
pictures in an encyclopedia. However, the practice is not only
questionable but fraught with danger. Many five-year-olds
pushed into formal learning before they are ready develop
frustrations about reading or numbers, learn to hate school,
and become so emotionally disturbed about the process that
they may be ever after dubbed "slow learners." There is some
evidence that encouraging five-year-olds to read may lead even
to permanent eye injury from which they never recover. How-
ever, the good kindergarten program does not ignore the so-
called formal subject matter fields. On the contrary, it pro-
vides experiences which get children "ready" for them. These
experiences include listening to stories, told or read, looking at
illustrations in books, making up stories, telling experiences in
a sequence, dramatizing stories or experiences and reporting
on trips. The modern teacher is alert also for experiences to
assist children in acquiring and understanding mathematical
concepts as in measuring materials for cookies, discussing time
as measured by days, months and the seasons, and in counting
chairs, books and pencils.
6. The good kindergarten program considers the interests and
needs of parents as well as children. When the program is
planned for five-year-olds, the teacher should take into account
that different families have special needs. Whether the kinder-








garten should be a half or a whole day, for example, should be
determined, in part at least, by whether the children live on
isolated farms and need the companionship of other five-year-
olds. Moreover, since young children are so closely identified
with their parents, the kindergarten teacher should make every
effort to discuss policies and plans with them. Provision should
be made also in the teacher's professional load for parents'
meetings, conferences with parents, and for frequent home
visits. Both the program and the school day should provide
time for the work of teachers with parents.

LENGTH OF SCHOOL DAY
Many kindergartens in the United States have been organized on
the basis of a one-half school day. This practice provides time for
teachers of five-year-olds to visit and confer with parents. From its
inception, leaders in the kindergarten movement have laid great stress
upon the education of parents as an important phase in the education
of young children. Because of increased enrollments, many question-
able practices have crept into the half-day kindergarten program. As
a consequence, some kindergarten teachers are now teaching children
in two shifts-one in the morning and one in the afternoon. Teachers
cannot give the needed individual care, guidance and education to
large numbers of five-year-old children. This practice should never be
allowed to develop in Florida. In a real sense it can become the
"stretch out" system of industry applied to teachers and children. It
is recognized that the kindergarten teacher has some obligation to the
total school program. However, kindergarten teachers should not be
exploited to the degree that their other activities interfere with their
parent education program. To be well served, young children should
be taught in small groups by teachers with plenty of time for indi-
viduals.
In some situations kindergartens are maintained on a full day
basis. This program usually runs from 8:30 or 9:00 in the morning to
3:00 or 3:30 in the afternoon, for five days a week. Five-year-olds
transported to consolidated schools are often forced, because of bus
schedules, to remain at school the whole day. All day kindergarten
programs for such children not only seem sensible but desirable.
Children of working mothers also need full day kindergartens. Careful
attention should be given to planning the afternoon program; it is
especially important that provision be made for rest on cots. The same
principles apply to full day kindergartens that hold for half day
programs.








SCHEDULING THE KINDERGARTEN DAY
Samples of suggested programs are given. A word of caution
seems necessary here. These programs are not patterns. They are not
intended to be used as such, and teachers are warned against making
such use of the programs. As a matter of fact, programs depend upon
so many factors that a program to fit all situations is not possible. Some
of the factors which influence the scheduling of a program follow. The
personalities of the children and the teacher will determine how the
arrangement of the program is made. Indeed, time allotments should
change during the year as the teacher understands better the needs of
her children as they mature. The past experiences of the group will
determine the points where emphasis will come. Teachers should
work for a day which has rhythm to it. The day should always include
periods of rest, play, toileting, etc. When the out-of-door play is
scheduled for other children will in part determine when the kinder-
garten children will use the playground. Programs should provide also
for conference time with parents. This is arranged by experienced
kindergarten teachers in many different ways. Sometimes conference
periods are arranged for a week before school. Sometimes such periods
are provided by shortening the school day during the first weeks of
the school year. This is a problem which teachers must face when a
schedule is made, especially when constructed for a whole day kinder-
garten. A plan which has worked well in such a kindergarten is to
shorten the program to a half-day on Mondays or Fridays, thus leaving
time for the scheduling of conferences with parents.

SAMPLE SCHEDULES
Below are given samples of a few programs. These should be
considered temporary and tentative, only.

Tentative Program for the Five-Year-Olds Who Spend the Whole
Day in Kindergarten
8:30 9:30 Children arrive, are welcomed warmly and affectionately
by the teacher, are given a health check up and are
toileted. Such activities as watering the plants, feeding
pets, getting out materials are begun. Small group ac-
tivities are begun in using materials and in carrying
through plans. Children decide what to do individually
or in small groups, working at work bench, modeling
in clay, painting at easels, finger painting, water play,
looking at books, playing house, dramatic play. Small








groups of children or individuals are free to move from
one interest to another. Toward end of period the
children gather in a group about the teacher to discuss
activities of interest to the total group. If the weather
is pleasant many of these activities may be carried on
out of doors.
9:30 10:45* (Toileting, hand washing, mid-morning lunch of crack-
ers, fruit juice or milk. Children rest with shades drawn
and lying down, if possible.)
Out-of-Door Play.
While highly organized games are not desirable for
children of this age level, this creative play requires
careful planning and very close supervision. (See section
on out-door equipment, page 21.)
10:45 11:30 Large group activity is organized. The children listen
to stories, poems, discuss trips, make plans, sing songs,
talk about holidays, etc.
11:30 12:00 Children get out and make up cots with sheets and
blanket, wash hands and prepare for lunch. If children
eat lunch in a lunch room, time must be provided so
they do not feel hurried. If lunch is served in the
kindergarten the children should help get ready for it
by assisting with table setting, and the like.
12:00 12:45 Lunch.
This should be a pleasant period where children are
taught to take turns, to be considerate and to wait to be
served.
12:45 1:45 Preparation for Naps.
Nap with shoes off, on cots with windows darkened, the
room cool and quiet.
1:45 2:45 Individual or small group activity. Out-of-door play
period using seesaws, sand boxes, jumping ropes,
jungle gym, swings, tree houses, out-of-door play houses,
and the like.
2:45 3:15 Large group activity. Music: rhythms, singing, listen-
ing to music or dramatizing poems "to say and play" or
discussing growing things, cocoons, insects, rocks or
whatever children have brought to school.
3:15 3:30 Discuss plans for next day and get ready for dismissal.

*Adjustments in mid-morning lunch need to be made in terms of
time and adequacy of breakfast and the lunch hour schedule.








Tentative Program for the Five-Year-Olds Who Spend a Half Day
in School
8:30 9:30 Children arrive, are warmly welcomed by the teacher,
are given a check up and begin on responsibilities in the
care of the room-such as watering the plants, feeding
pets, and getting out materials. Small group activities
or activities by individuals-block building, dramatic
play, painting, clay modeling, playing house, working
at work bench, looking at books. (If weather is pleasant
many of these activities may be carried on out-of-doors.)
9:30 9:50 Large group activity. Children gather in a group about
the teacher to discuss activities of interest to the total
group. Songs, stories and rhythms are enjoyed.
9:50 -11:15 Toileting, hand washing, mid-morning lunch of fruit
juice and crackers or milk and crackers. Children rest
with shades drawn and the room quiet. They should
lie down, if possible, on cots or floor rugs.
Out-of-Door Play
While highly organized games are not desirable for
children of this age level, their creative play requires
careful planning and very close supervision. (See sec-
tion on out-door equipment, page 21.)
11:15 11:30 Story or poems, singing or rhythms, or out-of-door play
period. Making plans and getting ready for dismissal.

PROVIDING FOR CHILD HEALTH AND
PHYSICAL WELL-BEING
The responsibility of maintaining and promoting good health and
physical well-being makes definite demands upon the following areas
of the total kindergarten program:
1. The teacher's work before school begins.
2. The daily program (see pages 34-36).
3. Work with parents.
4. Use of community resources.
The kindergarten works for good health in each of the following
areas:








Setting up the Physical Plant for Good Health and Physical Well-Being
The plant must be conducive to the good health and physical well-
being of all who live and work there.

1. The complete kindergarten plant-indoors and outdoors-must
be arranged to provide for:
a. easy and safe access by the children
b. easy supervision by the teacher

2. The indoor area must:
a. be located on the ground floor
b. be adequately large
c. be built and furnished so that it can be kept thoroughly
clean
d. be well heated (especially the floor)
e. be well ventilated, and neither too dry nor too damp
f. include the separate kindergarten bathroom and locker
facilities which should be directly accessible from indoor
and outdoor play area
g. be well lighted in every part
h. be safe from fire and accident hazards (fans, electric out-
lets, wires, and poisonous materials)
i. include an isolation room for children who become ill at
school. First aid equipment should be available in each
classroom.

3. The outdoor area must:
a. be adequately large and well equipped (See "Make It for
the Children" ACEI, Revision Edition, 1948, Bulletin
No. 40)
b. be enclosed with a fence
c. always be kept in good repair to avoid accidents on
equipment
d. include a shady or covered area
e. be surfaced so that it is comfortable to play on, as dust free
as possible, and quick drying. (A combination of grassy
and paved areas is the best plan for surfacing)
f. provide challenging facilities for the many different kinds
of physical activities for which five-year-olds' bodies call:
climbing, jumping, running, skipping, pushing, block-build-
ing, ball playing, throwing, swinging, and trapeze play.
g. be used for a large part of the kindergarten program. In
the Florida climate, there is every reason to spend most of








the morning session outdoors, particularly since it is pos-
sible to take most activities outdoors-painting, modeling,
carpentry, sand box play, doll play, story time, and even
music, if there is a portable victrola.

Work with Parents
At the Beginning of School
A large part of the teacher's work with parents before the opening
of school is concerned with the health of the kindergarten children.
The guidance she can give the parents in regard to the child's health
is of great importance.
1. The teacher assembles the material she will need to give each
mother at the time of her first conference before school opens:
a. the blanks provided by the State Board of Health for re-
cording the child's health history, immunizations, disease
experience, and findings of the physician at the time he
makes the child's pre-entrance physical examination.
b. a mimeographed list of immunizations required before
school opens.
c. a mimeographed statement of school procedure when a
child has been exposed to a communicable disease, either
at school or away from school.
2. At the first conference the teacher
a. gives mothers the State Board of Health* blank to take
along to be filled out by child's doctor when he examines the
child before school entrance.
b. discuss with the mother the material asked for on the blank.
c. give the mother the list of immunizations necessary before
school entrance. These should include:
(1) vaccination against smallpox
(2) immunization against typhoid fever
(3) immunization against diphtheria and recent Schick test
(4) immunization against tetanus
(5) immunization against whooping cough
d. advises mothers of health services made available to chil-
dren in the community by public health agencies and how
to use them.
e. calls to the mother's attention the fact that any physical

*Teachers may secure these blanks from the County Health Unit
or directly from the State Board of Health, Jacksonville, Florida.








defects discovered by the doctor should be attended to
immediately if child is to gain maximum benefits from his
kindergarten experience.
f. calls to each mother's attention the advisability of taking
the child to a dentist before school opens. Any defects in
first teeth need attention right away, and a visit to the
dentist just for a "check up" when no work is necessary
makes a good beginning for the child. The dentist may be
prepared to give any anti-cavity treatment which the
mother will want for her child.
g. gives each mother a statement of school procedure when
a child has been exposed, either in or out of school, to a
communicable disease, and talks this over with the mother.
h. instructs mother also about the necessity for keeping her
child at home when he shows any signs of ill health
(especially "colds"), in order to give him the best chance to
recover quickly and to protect others in the group from
exposure to infection.
i. instructs each mother about the necessity for teaching the
child safe procedure for going to and from school before
he goes alone.
3. The teacher checks with each mother by phone or post card
before the opening day of school to make sure the required
immunizations and recommendations made by doctor at the
child's examination have been carried out.

During the School Year
1. In conferences throughout the year the teacher discusses with
each mother their mutual observations and their work con-
cerning:
a. child's physical development and his progress in perform-
ing physical activities.
b. child's progress in learning to perform good habits in meet-
ing his physical needs of eating, sleeping, resting, toileting,
washing, dressing, mater-of-factly, pleasantly and with in-
dependence and intelligence.
c. child's progress in learning to carry out intelligent safety
practices in his living.
d. progress in helping child adjust to and overcome, if pos-
sible, any physical defect or deficiency.








2. The teacher works with the parent on the carrying out of all
recommendations made by doctors and dentists at their ex-
aminations.
3. When necessary, the teacher helps parents take advantage of
free services offered by public health agencies and com-
munity organizations.
4. At least one of the group meetings for parents during the year
may be devoted to a talk and discussion on some aspect of
good health for five-year-olds. The public health doctor or a
pediatrician might be called on as the speaker for such a
meeting.
5. The teacher suggests, and makes available to parents, books,
pamphlets, and magazine articles, which will enable them to
work for the child's health.
6. The teacher's letter-reports to parents summarize the important
points regarding the child's health and progress in learning to
live healthfully and safely.

Use of Community Resources
In or near almost every community there are resources to aid in
the maintenance and improvement of child health and physical well-
being. The teacher must inform herself regarding available resources
and make appropriate suggestions for their use by the parents.
1. The public health department will cooperate in providing:
a. immunizations.
b. physical examinations.
c. information as to where and how other help for health
problems can be obtained.
2. The teacher needs to make sure that the public health services
brought to the school are made available to each of the
children.
3. Service organizations in almost every community have projects
providing care for certain physical needs of children (vision,
hearing, dental work, and the like) or any unusual children's
physical problems not covered by the regular civic club
projects.
4. Child Guidance Clinics are operated in several counties in
Florida as well as at the State Universities.








Care and Maintenance of the Kindergarten Plant
The complete plant must be kept clean and in good repair in order
to insure a sanitary and safe environment for the children's kinder-
garten living.
1. An adequate number of maintenance staff members must be
employed and well supervised in carrying out their duties.
The kindergarten teacher should plan with the principal and
maintenance staff for adequate cleaning.
2. Floors, tables, chairs, cupboards, bathroom fixtures, and mate-
rials children use must be kept clean for constant and hard use.
Daily cleaning is necessary. When the room is used by two
groups of children, it should be cleaned for each session.
3. Adequate tools and materials should be provided for cleaning
and repairing equipment, and these must be stored in places
inaccessible to children.
4. The Board should be urged to require maintenance staff mem-
bers to present evidence of their own good health at regular
intervals.
5. If rugs are used for resting, these must be laundered frequent-
ly. If cots are used, the sheets must be kept clean.

THE HOME AND SCHOOL WORK TOGETHER
Briefly stated, the job of the kindergarten is to offer guidance for
each child's development. One of the most important activities of the
kindergarten teacher is the work which she does with the parents of
her pupils. She helps each of them to achieve a thorough understand-
ing of the development of the child and the environment he needs.
From the standpoint of time, alone, the guidance the child receives in
his home is the most important to his welfare, because the large part
of childhood is spent at home with the parents. Since the kindergarten
teacher is trained to be a student of early childhood development, she
is able to offer help to the parents in their common interest of working
for the child's optimum development. The parents, on the other hand,
after long and intimate acquaintance with the child's behavior and
growth, are able to contribute to the teacher's understanding of the
child and his needs.








A partnership is necessary-a teacher-parent working relationship.
It is the teacher's responsibility to establish this relationship with each
of the parents. The success of such a partnership depends upon:
1. the importance which the teacher places upon it;
2. the techniques which she uses in conferences;
3. her willingness to contribute a good share of tact, good humor,
and thought. 0
There are many techniques by which the kindergarten teacher
develops this working relationship with her group of parents:

Initial Conference Between Mother and Teacher (Before School Opens)
The teacher's primary purpose at this conference is to make it
pleasant, friendly and interesting. The mother should leave the con-
ference feeling that she has begun a friendship which will result in a
great deal of benefit to her child.
1. The teacher needs to have everything in readiness for the con-
ference. The appointment must be carefully made, and the
materials which she is to give each mother must be ready.
2. Besides material concerning the child's health, as outlined in
another section of the Bulletin, it is well for the teacher to have
ready for the mother to take home a statement of kindergarten
policies: purposes, brief information about the daily program,
hours, expenses, and the like. Some Florida kindergartens
have prepared attractive booklets presenting this information.
3. The teacher needs to be able to devote her undivided attention
to the conference. If the child comes with the parent provision
should be made for him to become acquainted with the kinder-
garten room. Adequate time should be allowed, but it should
not be over-long. A 30 to 40 minute length is usual.
4. A group conference early in the school year may well be held
to clarify school policies and discuss topics of general interest
and concern.

Parent's Observations at School
Mothers (and fathers) are invited and urged to visit the kinder-
garten during school hours to observe the child in his group. Not only
does the teacher make the parents know they are welcome, but she
makes arrangements for observation with each one individually. In








some kindergartens, such parent observations are frequent enough that
the children gradually take very little notice of the comings and
goings of the parents, thus making a more normal school situation for
the parent to observe. A small group of mothers may observe at one
time. The observation may be followed by a group conference. Such
a conference may be the beginning of a parent study group.
Before the kindergarten visit it is well to suggest to the parent
some of the things he may look for as he observes. These observations
are valuable as the basis for a conference after the visit has been made.

Parents' Participation in Kindergarten
Parents have skills, talents, and hobbies, that may never come to
light unless the kindergarten teacher calls upon them. A mother or
father may give a "concert" on an instrument, paint a picture while
the kindergarten children watch, or carve or build out of wood. All
these make for a rich kindergarten program and for excellent school-
parent relationships. Parents may plan with teacher for trips, excur-
sions, and assist with the trips. Parents also may collaborate on forms
of reports to be used in the kindergarten. A discussion of terms used
in reports will help to insure parent understanding.

Parent Group Meetings
Teachers should plan interesting, practical group meetings with
the parents. Outside speakers are sometimes helpful, but almost
every group of parents will enjoy and profit most from meetings where
various parents give short talks and discuss common problems under
the direction of a discussion leader. An informal atmosphere character-
izes these meetings. Night meetings are recommended in order that
fathers may participate.
With some groups of parents, one or two "work meetings" during
the year may be successful, pleasant, and worthwhile. At such a
meeting, the fathers build, paint, and repair kindergarten equipment
and materials, while the mothers sew, fix dolls, and work on the
decorations of the kindergarten.

Reading Material for Parents
The kindergarten will profit greatly by providing a bookshelf con-
taining material which parents will want to read-books for parents
and children. Parents may pool money and buy books for home use.
There are many sound and popularly-written books on home guidance
of young children. The women's magazines today carry in every issue








good articles on various aspects of child guidance, and Parents' Maga-
zine should surely go to every kindergarten. Children's story books
may be borrowed by the parents to read aloud to the children at home.
Because the kindergarten teacher comes first, she sets the stage
for the parents' relationship with school throughout the child's whole
school career. With so many means for making a good beginning in
home-school cooperation, every kindergarten teacher should be able
to make a good beginning with every home. This, then, on a long-
term basis, is the kindergarten teacher's great responsibility and great
opportunity.


USING RECORDS

Information about children is necessary in order to evaluate
growth effectively. When education was concerned mainly with
academic progress, the report card was sufficient to record this
progress. Today whatever influences children is a part of education
and recording and reporting are a vital part of the educative process.
These records are built of and by all who are concerned. The type
and number of records are determined by the purpose for which they
are to be used.

Reasons for Records
Records help to acquaint the home and the school with areas of
the child's life which may not be easily observed. Records also help
to insure knowledge of individual needs of children and families. They
may serve as a check on pupil's growth in behavior habits, health
habits, knowledge, abilities, and interests; a means of research; a guide
to procedure; special data to hand to the next teacher, parent,
or specialist, to insure a continuity of development.

Types of Records
Group records
1. Attendance
2. Eating, sleeping and elimination (for school with all-day
programs)
Spot records for particular children are helpful and not so
voluminous as a continuous record kept for each child
3. Any necessary bookkeeping records








Current Individual Records
1. Health history-regular report of the physician and record of
follow-up treatment
Height and weight records
Reports of illnesses, disease, accidents
2. Contacts with parents
a. Initial interview
1. Family background
2. Individual background
b. Casual conversations (daily contacts)
c. Scheduled conferences
d. Communications sent to parents
3. Adjustment, behavior and progress (with entries from time to
time during the year)
4. Psychological tests
Special examinations
5. Samples of drawings, paintings and other creative expressions
6.. Teacher's final report

Permanent Cumulative Records
Pertinent facts of value to parents and future teachers should make
up the cumulative record. The types of records listed on page 88
would provide much of the needed material.
This folder tends to show the growth of the child from year to
year. These folders are kept in the regular school file and should be
summarized and kept up-to-date regularly.









BIBLIOGRAPHY


Administrators
Alschuler, Rose H. (ed.), Children's Centers. New York: William Morrow and
Co., 1942. $2.00.
American Association of School Administrators. The Expanding Role of Education.
26th Yearbook, Chapter 2. Washington: The Association, 1201- 16th St.
N. W., 1948. $3.00.
Association for Childhood Education International, 1200 Fifteenth Street, N. W.,
Washington 5, D. C.:
Better School Homes for Children. Bulletin #19, 1946. 25c. (pamphlet)
Portfolio for Kindergarten Teachers. Bulletin #2, 1951. 75c. (leaflets)
Portfolio on More and Better Schools for Children Under Six. Bulletin #6,
1950. 75c. (leaflets)
Recommended Equipment and Supplies for Nursery, Kindergarten, Primary,
and Intermediate Schools. Bulletin #39, 1953. $1.00. (pamphlet)

Parents
BOOKS
Gesell, A., and Ilg, F. L. Child Development: An Introduction to the Study of
Human Growth. New York: Harper and Bros., 1949. $5.00.
Jenkins, Gladys G., Shacter, Helen and Bauer, Wm., These Are Your Children.
Chicago: Scott, Foresman, 1953. $3.50.
Spock, Benjamin, Common Sense Book of Baby and Child Care. New York:
Duell, Sloan and Pearce, 1946. (Also Pocketbook of Baby and Child Care).
35c. Pocket Books (Publishers)
Hymes, James L. Jr., Effective Home-School Relations, Prentice-Hall, Inc., New
York. 1953. $3.50.

MAGAZINES
The National Parent Teacher. $1.25 per year
National Congress of Parents & Teachers
600 South Michigan Blvd.
Chicago 5, Illinois

Parents Magazine. $2.50 per year
The Parents' Institute, Inc.
52 Vanderbilt Ave.
New York 17, New York

Childhood Education. $4.50 per year
Association for Childhood Education International
1200 Fifteenth Street, N. W.
Washington 5, D. C.:









PAMPHLETS
Association for Childhood Education International
1200 Fifteenth Street, N. W.
Washington 5, D. C.
Children and TV-Making the Most of It. 75c
Dealing With Fear and Tension. 50c
Discipline for Freedom. 50c
Four-and Five-Year Olds at School. 50c
Helping Children Grow. $1.25

Department of Elementary School Principals
National Education Association
1201 Sixteenth Street, N. W.
Washington 6, D. C.
Happy Journey. 40c

Public Affairs Pamphlets
22 East 38th Street
New York 16, New York
Enjoy Your Child Ages 1, 2 and 3 by James L. Hymes, Jr.
Three to Six: Your Child Starts to School by James L. Hymes, Jr.
Making the Grade As Dad by Edith & Walter Neisser
How to Tell Your Child About Sex by James L. Hymes, Jr.
Comics, Radio, Movies and Children by Josette Frank

Children's Bureau
Federal Security Agency
Social Security Administration
Washington 25, D. C.
Your Child From One to Six. 20c
Into Childhood. 20c

Bureau of Publications, Teachers College
Columbia University
New York, New York
Parent-Teacher Series (60c each)
A Good School Day by Viola Theman
Answering Children's Questions by C. W. Hunnicutt
Being a Good Parent by James L. Hymes, Jr.
Discipline by James L. Hymes, Jr.
Understanding Young Children by Dorothy W. Baruch
Your Child's Leisure Time by Mildred Letton

Child Study Publications, The Child Study Association of America
132 East 74th Street
New York 21, New York
Two Primers for Young Parents:
How to Give Your Child A Good Start by Aline Auerbach. 20c
What Makes A Good Home: The Beginnings of Emotional Health by








Anna W. M. Wolf. 20c
Discipline Through Affection by Aline Auerbach. 15c
Aggressiveness in Children by Edith L. Atkin. 30c
Jealousy and Rivalry in Children by Mary Hawkins, M. D., Terry
Spitalny, Rhoda Harris and Ruth Breckner, M. D. 25c
Helping Children to Accept Death by Margaret S. Mahler, M. D. 15c

69 Bank Street Publications
69 Bank Street
New York 14, New York
Packet for Parents ($1.25)
Angle on Toilet Training by Irma S. Black
Ages and States by Lucy Sprague Mitchell
Answering Children's Questions by Louise P. Woodcock
Fives to Eights & How They Grow by Barbara Beber
How Does It Feel to Be Bad by Barbara Beber
Learning to Be Socially Acceptable by Irma S. Black
New Baby Comes to Our Home by Irma S. Black
Personality In the Making by Louise P. Woodcock
Play Boys & Girls by Jessie Stanton
You Can't Hurry Them by Louise P. Woodcock
We Begin to Talk by Louise P. Woodcock
What is Education Before Six by Jessie Stanton
What to Expect of a Young Child by Irma S. Black

The National Association for Mental Health
1790 Broadway
New York 19, New York
Some Special Problems of Children-Aged 2-5 Years by Nina Ridenour &
Isabel Johnson (25c)
Eating Problems of Children: A Guide for Parents. 15c

Science Research Associates
Fears of Children by Helen Ross. 40c
When Children Face Crisis by George J. Mohr. 40c


Teachers
Florida State Department Bulletins
A Program of Health Services for Florida Schools, Bulletin No. 4D.
A Guide to Teaching Science in the Elementary School, Bulletin No. 7.
Recommended Library Books for Florida Schools, Bulletin No. 22-D.
Arithmetic in the Elementary School, Bulletin No. 26. Pgs. 13-17, 25-31,
and 33-37.
Social Studies in the Elementary School, Bulletin No. 30. (Charts between
pages 20-21, 26-27, and 30-31.)
Experiencing the Language Arts, Bulletin No. 34.
Art in the Lives of Florida Children, Bulletin No. 37.
Music for Florida Children, Bulletin No. 40.









A Guide to Child Development Through the Beginning School Years, Bulletin
No. 53.
Association for Childhood Education International, 1200 Fifteenth Street, N. W.,
Washington 5, D. C.
Bibliography of Books for Children. Bulletin No. 37, $1.00.
Children's Books for Eighty-five Cents or Less, Bulletin No. 86, 50c.
Portfolio for Kindergarten Teachers, Bulletin No. 2, 75c.
Uses for Waste Materials, Bulletin No. 41, 50c.
Portfolio on Materials for Work and Play, Bulletin No. 5, 75c.
Forest, Isle. Early Years at School. McGraw Hill Book Co., Inc., New York,
1949, $4.50.
Children's Catalog; 8th ed. rev. New York: H. W. Wilson Co., 1951.
Foster, Josephine C., and Headley, Neith E. Education in the Kindergarten.
American Book Company, Atlanta, 1948, $4.75.
Cans, Roma, and others. Teaching Young Children. World Book Company,
Yonkers-on-Hudson, New York, 1952, $4.00.
Hefferman, Helen, Editor. Guiding the Young Child. D. C. Heath and Co.,
Boston, 1951, $4.25.
Sheehy, Emma D. The Fives and Sixes Go to School. Henry Holt & Co., New
York, 1954, $5.00.
Wills, C. D. and Stegman, W. H. Living in the Kindergarten. Follett Publishing
Co., Chicago, 1950, $5.50.
The 2-5 World Newsletter
Published Monthly, $2.50 per year
127 E. 56 St., New York 22, N. Y.
References listed for administrators and parents should be familiar to the
teacher and of value to her. In such areas as music and science specific references
are not listed. Helps in these areas may be found in general books on kindergarten
procedure.


Sources of Materials in Early Childhood Education
American Association of University Women
1634 Eye Street, N. W., Washington 6, D. C.
Association for Childhood Education International
1200 Fifteenth Street, N. W., Washington 5, D. C.
Child Study Association of America
132 E. 74th St., New York 21, N. Y.
U. S. Children's Bureau
Social Security Administration
Washington 25, D. C.
National Association for Nursery Education
University of Rhode Island
Kingston, R. I.









National Recreation Association
315 Fourth Avenue
New York 10, N. Y.
U. S. Office of Education
Department of Health, Education and Welfare
Washington 25, D. C.

Films
A Child Went Forth (twenty minutes) (sound)
Available from Audio-Visual Center, Indiana University, Bloomington,
Indiana.
A Day In the Life of a Five-Year-Old (twenty minutes) (sound)
Available from Audio-Visual Center, Indiana University, Bloomington,
Indiana.
Frustrating Fours and the Fascinating Fives (twenty-two minutes) (sound)
Available for loan from the General Extension Division, Gainesville, or for
purchase from McGraw-Hill Book Co.
Pre-School Adventures (thirty minutes) (silent)
Available from Audio-Visual Center, Indiana University, Bloomington,
Indiana.
And Then Ice Cream (ten minutes) (sound)
Available from New York University Film Library.
Helping the Child to Accept the Do's (ten minutes) (sound)
Available from Encyclopedia Britannica Films, Inc., 1948.
Helping the Child to Face the Don'ts (ten minutes) (sound)
Available from Encyclopedia Britannica Films, Inc., 1948.
When Should Grown-Ups Help? (thirteen minutes) (sound)
Available from New York University Film Library.


Filmstrips
Children in the Primary School-Ages Six, Seven, Eight Years.
Available from the Association for Childhood Education International, 1200
15th St., N. W., Washington 5, D. C.
Group Life for the Pre-School Child.
Available from the New York University Film Library, 26 Washington Place,
New York 3, New York.

Kindergarten and Your Child.
Available from Audio-Visual Materials Consultation Bureau, Wayne
University, Detroit, Michigan.
What Has the Nursery School to Offer?
Available from the Association for Childhood Education International, 1200
15th St., N. W., Washington, D. C.


50









David's Bad Day.
Available from Young America Films, Inc., 18 East 41st St., New York City 17,
New York.


Sources of Films and Suggestions for Their Use
Portfolio on Audio-Visual Materials, Leaflet No. 7
Association for Childhood Education International, 75c
1200 Fifteenth Street Northwest,
Washington 5, D. C.






Date Due

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