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Group Title: Circular - University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences ; 399
Title: Control of plant diseases and nematodes in a home garden
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00067218/00001
 Material Information
Title: Control of plant diseases and nematodes in a home garden
Series Title: Circular
Physical Description: 19 p. : ill. ; 23 x 10 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Kucharek, Tom ( Thomas Albert ), 1939-
Dickson, Donald Ward
Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Publisher: Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 197-
 Subjects
Subject: Plant diseases -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Nematoda   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
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Statement of Responsibility: by Tom Kucharek and Don Dickson.
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: "6-30M-75"--P. 4 of cover.
Funding: Circular (Florida Cooperative Extension Service) ;
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Bibliographic ID: UF00067218
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 20682619

Table of Contents
    Historic note
        Historic note
    Front Cover
        Front cover
    Main
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
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        Page 8
        Page 9
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        Page 13
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        Page 16
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        Page 21
        Page 22
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida




Circular 399





Control of
Plant Diseases
and Nematodes
in a Home Garden


Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida, Gainesville






Control of Plant Diseases
and Nematodes in a
Home Garden

by
Tom Kucharek and Don Dickson*
Introduction
Vegetable gardening is a popular pastime in
Florida. Many Floridians, now growing their own
vegetables, find it gratifying to display their
skills. Unfortunately, many gardeners have ex-
perienced failures because of diseases and nema-
todes.
Disease causing organisms such as fungi, bac-
teria, nematodes and viruses are some of the
greatest enemies of a gardener. These pests can
not only ruin a garden but also can discourage a
gardener. What makes this situation worse is
that in most cases you can not see these orga-
nisms-you see only the damage they cause.
Can plant diseases and nematodes be controlled
in a vegetable garden? The answer is yes. Fur-
thermore, they can be controlled easily and with-
out a major drain on the pocketbook.
Know Your Disease Causing Pests -
Fungi, Bacteria, Viruses, Nematodes,
Abiotic Causes
FUNGUS (Fungi). Often called molds, fungi
plants without roots, stems, leaves or chloro-
They grow by microscopic threads (hy-
and often produce microscopic seeds
(spores) which can be dispersed by wind, water,
shovels and many other means. Spores
a leaf spot on sweet corn are approxi-
1/250 of an inch long. A mushroom is a
that is visible because hyphae have grown
.Bread mold is another example of a

Fungi enter plants and cause root rots, seedling
stem rots, wilts, leaf spots and certain
rots. Many fungi have the ability to live in
or in soil; thus, they survive from one year
another even in the absence of a host plant.
Extension Plant Pathologist and Nematologist, Agricultural
Experiment Station, respectively.

1






BACTERIUM (Bacteria). These are micro-
scopic one-celled living organisms that multiply by
cell division. A typical cell of a bacterium is
about 1/12,000 of an inch long. Bacteria enter
plants and cause leaf spots, wilts, fruit rots and
galls.
VIRUS (Viruses). These are particles contain-
ing a nucleic acid core (genetic material) sur-
rounded by a protein coat. A tobacco mosaic
virus particle is approximately 1/80,000 of an inch
long. Viruses cause leaf mosaics and mottles,
fruit mosaics, leaf distortions and stunting.
Often, it is difficult to distinguish between dis-
orders caused by viruses, herbicides and nutrient
deficiencies.
NEMATODE (Nematodes). Nematodes are
round, worm-shaped animals that live primarily
in the soil. Several different kinds of nematodes,
some of which are beneficial, are present in almost
all Florida soils. Those that attack plants are
commonly referred to as plant parasites. They
must feed on plant parts in order to complete
their development. Adults of the plant parasitic
type are about 1/25 of an inch long.
These tiny pests are armed with an oral spear
stylett) that is inserted into plant tissues and
through which liquid contents of plant cells are
sucked into the digestive system of the nematode.
One nematode which is especially damaging in
home gardens is the root-knot nematode. This
nematode enters the root tissue and feeds, stimu-
lating the development of swellings or galls.
Nearly all common vegetables are likely to be in-
jured by root-knot nematodes.
There are other types of nematodes which also
cause severe injury to vegetable crops. Two of
the most important types are the sting and stubby
root nematodes. They feed exteriorly on roots
causing the root system to be greatly stunted and
stubby in appearance.
ABIOTIC CAUSES. Another group of prob-
lems arising in home gardens is caused by non-
living agents. Nutrient deficiencies, excessive
fertilization and herbicide damage are three of the
most common. Proper fertilization and correct
weed killer usage will remedy these situations.






Chemical burns from insecticides and fungicides
are also classed in this group. A good rule of
thumb for home gardeners is to apply insecticides,
fungicides and foliar nutrient sprays separately;
mixing materials (tank mixes) in a tank is faster,
but occasionally disastrous. Using the correct
amount of a fungicide or insecticide will prevent
problems. Recommended rates of these materials
will do a good job.

USE ALL CHEMICALS WITH CARE, NOT
FEAR. KEEP ALL CHEMICALS UNDER
LOCK AND KEY WHEN NOT IN USE.




Disease and Nematode Control
Disease and nematode control in a home garden
should be approached as a total program using a
sequence of control measures. No one control
practice by itself is adequate. Table 5 summarizes
what should be done before planting and after
planting. The following text information details
those control measures.

Before Planting
The control of plant diseases and nematodes is
done best by preventing their occurrence. Control
is often difficult or impossible once they become
established in a garden. Thus, what you do prior
to planting is most important.

I. SITE SELECTION. A sunny location is
good for plant growth and for reducing disease
development. Diseases are reduced because the
retention of moisture on leaves is minimized.
Moisture is necessary for disease development.
II. DRAINAGE PREPARATION. If you do
not use elevated beds (rows) in your garden, other
drainage preparations may be necessary. If a
level garden is used it should be slightly elevated
from the surrounding area. This will prevent
rain water from washing into the garden from
outside areas, bringing with it microorganisms
that cause plant diseases.





III. SOIL TILLAGE. Turn the soil over at
least 6 inches deep. If you plan to fumigate, do
this 2-3 weeks before fumigation. The soil
should also be turned after harvest as this aids in
disease and nematode control.
IV. PURCHASE DISEASE FREE SEED.
Many fungal, bacterial and viral diseases can be
transmitted by diseased seed. This is especially
true for beans (snap and limas), and peas (En-
glish and Southern). It is best to purchase seed
produced in the western U.S.A. where the seed is
produced in a dry climate. Vegetable seed pro-
duced in that area (Oklahoma, Wyoming, Colo-
rado, etc.), will be relatively free of disease caus-
ing organisms. Potato seed pieces should be from
certified seed potatoes only. Do not use table
stock potatoes for seed as they may be carrying
diseases and, furthermore, are often treated with
sprout inhibitors. Seed roots used for producing
sweet potato transplants (draws, slips) should be
free of any signs of disease or blemish. Most
sweet potato diseases can be controlled by using
healthy seed roots.
V. FUNGICIDE SEED TREATMENT. Seed
treatment with a fungicide protects the seed and
young seedlings from decay caused by fungi.
Seed treatment is recommended, even if you fumi-
gate the garden area. And it should be considered
a must if the garden is not fumigated. Bulk vege-
table seed sold at garden shops is often treated
with a fungicide, whereas seed sold in small pack-
ets often is not treated. If the seeds appear
coated with brightly colored dye (red, blue, purple,
green), that is a sign that the seeds have already
been treated.
If they have not been treated with a fungicide,
then you can do it yourself. Purchase a seed
treatment fungicide such as a thiram material
[Arasan 50, Arasan 75, or Thiram 75]. Use rates
recommended on the label for large amounts of
untreated seed. For small amounts of untreated
seed such as those in packets apply the equivalent
of a match head or two of the fungicide to the
packet. Enclose the packet and shake well to
distribute material over the seed. See Table 1
for information concerning seed treatment of vege-
table crops.






Table 1. Seed treatment fungicides and rates of applica-
tion.
Seed Treatment
Crop Fungicide Rate
Potato* Manzate 200 1 lb/100 lbs seed
(8% dust)
Dithane M-45 1 lb/100 lbs seed
(8% dust)
Captan 7 1/2 dust 1 lb/100 lbs seed
Sweet potato** Thiram (Arasan 75) 1 lb/7.5 gal of
(Thiram 75 WP) water
All other Thiram (Aransan 50, as directed
vegetables Arasan 75 or Thiram in text
75)
*Place seed pieces in a paper bag or rotating drum for
application. Plant treated pieces immediately. Treat
seed pieces as soon as they are cut.
**Dip sweet potato seed roots, or roots of sprouts in solu-
tion for 1/2 minute and plant immediately.

DO NOT USE TREATED SEED FOR FOOD
OR FEED UNDER ANY CIRCUMSTANCE AND
KEEP IT AWAY FROM CHILDREN.

VI. USE HEALTHY TRANSPLANTS. It is
as important for transplants to be disease free as
it is for seed to be disease free. Transplants
which are purchased should be healthy, vigorous
and well cared for in appearance.
If possible grow your own transplants. Before
planting the seed, pasturize the soil and all con-
tainers in an oven by heating at 180 F. for 1-
11/2 hrs. This procedure will kill most parasitic
fungi, bacteria and nematodes. Maintain the
seedlings in a location where they will be exposed
to sunlight but not where they will be contami-
nated by splashing water or debris.

VII. SOIL TREATMENT FOR NEMATODES
AND SOIL-BORNE DISEASES. At the present
time, soil treatment with chemicals before plant-
ing is the most effective and reliable means of
controlling a wide variety of nematodes and soil-
borne diseases of vegetable gardens. Chemicals
used to control nematodes are called nematicides,
whereas chemicals effective in controlling nema-
todes, certain'soil-borne diseases (such as seedling
blights, root rots, stem rots and wilts) and weeds
are called multi-purpose soil fumigants. It is
necessary for a gardener to determine the relative
5





importance of nematodes and other pest problems
before choosing one of these materials. If nema-
todes are the primary problem choose a nemati-
cide; however, if control of soil-borne diseases
and weeds is also desired choose a multi-purpose
material. One of the most important disease con-
trol practices you can follow is the proper use of
these materials.

Nematicides and Multi-Purpose Soil Fumigants
The most widely used nematicide for treating
home gardens is DBCP (Dibromochloropropane).
It is available in small containers as a liquid or as
a granular material. Fresh DBCP granules should
be used since the active ingredient volatilizes
into a gas which leaves the granules immediately
when exposed to air. DBCP is sold under various
trade names as are the multi-purpose fumigants
(See Table 2). DBCP is popular since it can be
applied at planting time for most crops. It may
damage tomato transplants or beans if applied at
time of planting; thus, apply DBCP seven days
before planting these two crops. Do not use
DBCP on sensitive crops, including onions, irish
potatoes, sweet potatoes, beets, bell peppers or
garlic. Choose another chemical on these crops.
Other effective nematicides for treating home
gardens are DD (dichloropropene-dichloropro-
pane) and EDB (ethylene dibromide). These two
materials must be applied at least two weeks be-
fore planting. DD may be applied on all vegetable
crops whereas EDB is labelled for use only on
certain vegetable crops.
Two multi-purpose soil fumigants can be used
in home gardens-SMDC (sodium methyldithio-
carbamate) and DD-MENCS (methyl isothiocya-
nate-DD mixture) (Table 2). DD-MENCS and
SMDC can be used on all vegetable crops.

Methods for Applying Nematicides and Fumigants
Before applying nematicides or multi-purpose
soil fumigants, the soil should be worked into good
seed-bed condition prior to treatment. Old plant
debris and roots should be decomposed and soil
moisture should be sufficient for good seed germi-
nation and the soil temperature should be between
50 and 800 F.





Table 2. Rates of fumigants for controlling nematodes
and diseases of vegetables.1

Rate
Chemical Common Per 100
Type Name2 Trade Name Linear ft
Nematicides DBCP3 Nemagon 70% 1% tblsp
Nemagon 60% 2 tblsp
Nemagon 50% 2% tblsp
DD D-D, Vidden D 1/ pt
EDB Dowfume W-85, 3 tblsp
Soilbrom 85,
EDB-85, EDB
Multi-purpose SMDC Vapam, Fume V 1.0-2.0 pt
Fumigants
DD-MENCS4 Vorlex /2 pt
1For large garden areas where the area is measured in
acres see Extension Circular 193.
2 Indicates the fumigant is labeled for use as of January
1975.
3 Various liquid formulations of DBCP are available and
may contain approximately 50 to 70% active ingredient.
It is also available in various granular formulations;
see the label for rates.
4 Not available in small containers.

There are several methods that can be used in
applying nematicides in home gardens. One of
the simplest methods is to apply DBCP, DD or
EDB in-the-row. Prepare furrows six to eight
inches deep where each row of plants will grow.
A quart jar with two 10-penny nail holes punched
on the lid (on opposite sides-one to pour from,
the other to provide air access) can be used to
pour the chemical into the open furrow.
Place the amount of chemical required to treat
100 feet of row into the jar. Finish filling the
jar with water if liquid DBCP is used or kerosene
if DD or EDB is used. The chemical should be
poured into each foot of row as the gardener
walks along at a steady pace. If granular form-
ulations of DBCP are used, the granules should
be distributed evenly in the furrow. Immediately
after application cover the furrow with soil.
Another convenient method of in-the-row treat-
ment for small areas is to punch holes six to eight
inches deep on 12-inch centers. Place the fumi-
gant in the holes and cover immediately with soil.
Wetting the soil surface lightly after application
gives a tighter seal and improves the effectiveness
of nematicides.





Multi-purpose soil fumigants should be applied
over all the area (broadcast). This method of
application is more effective than row treatment
and can also be used for applying nematicides.
Instead of treating one furrow per row, the entire
area is treated by simply making a series of paral-
lel furrows 10 to 12 inches apart. Use the same
methods for dispensing the chemicals as discussed
above. Whatever the method of application used,
the soil surface should be tamped down or rolled
to prevent the chemical from escaping. The ef-
fectiveness of multi-purpose soil fumigants is
greatly enhanced by covering the area immedi-
ately with a plastic tarp or keeping the soil sur-
face wet for 7 days. The tarp should be sealed by
placing the edge in a shallow trench (dug earlier)
and covering with soil. Leave the area sealed for
seven days and aerate at least two to three weeks
before planting.
VIII. CROP ROTATION. Alternating the
crops planted on a given site within the garden or
relocating the garden spot each year reduces dis-
ease. This method should be considered a must
if you do not fumigate the soil. However, do not
expect disease control by this method to be as
effective as that achieved by soil fumigation.
The reason crop rotation is somewhat effective
is that certain pests that infect one type of plant
will not infect another type. In addition, they
are reduced in numbers when a favorable host
plant is not present. If you use crop rotation
instead of soil fumigation, it would be best to
alternate sweet corn with the other vegetable
types.
IX. RESISTANT VARIETIES. Many vege-
table varieties are not damaged at all or as much
as other varieties of the same plant species by
some pests. It is one of the oldest methods of
biological control of pests. It does not always
mean that 100 percent of the plants are resistant;
a few may be susceptible or only a small amount
of a given disease appears on each plant. The
gardener should also realize that just because a
variety is resistant to one disease does not mean
it is resistant to all diseases. For example, Walter
and Florida MH-1 tomato varieties are resistant
to Fusarium wilt but not bacterial wilt which is
8






common in north Florida gardens. Certain vari-
eties of watermelon, cabbage and sweet potatoes
are somewhat resistant to Fusarium wilt. If
you fumigate your garden you may not have to
use varieties resistant to soil-borne diseases, but
if you do not fumigate, the use of resistant vari-
eties should be considered a must.
X. PLANT SPACING. Crowding plants will
allow moisture from dew or rain to remain on
leaf surfaces longer, because of shading. Such a
situation is conducive for disease development.
Consult Extension Circular 104 for proper spacing
of plants.


After Planting
XI. OBSERVATION. This is an important
aspect of disease control. By observing the gar-
den once a day you may be able to head off major
disease problems. Many leaf spotting diseases
start as just a few spots on a few leaves and then
suddenly an epidemic explodes. Monitor those few
spots.
XII. SPRAYING. No matter how well you
fumigate or conduct previously mentioned control
practices, you may also have to apply a foliar
fungicide. Foliar fungicides will control such dis-
orders as rusts, mildews, anthracnose and leaf
spots. They are not effective against root rots or
wilts.
Dusting fungicides are available, but spraying
is more effective than dusting. For most gardens,
the use of a 1 to 5 gallon sprayer-compressor is
adequate. Its maintenance is minimal provided
that is is rinsed with water after every use. Do
not apply a foliar fungicide with a sprayer if it
has not been rinsed with an ammonia solution two
or three times (including lines) after using a her-
bicide.
It is best to use one sprayer for herbicides and
one for fungicides. When spraying, use a cone
spray pattern as opposed to a stream spray.
Spray the upper and lower surfaces of the leaves.
One quart of water should be used for every 100
square feet (1 gal./400 sq ft). The use of a com-
mercial spreader-sticker material in the spray
solution is helpful when spraying waxy leaves





such as those of onions and cabbage. For most
other crops it is adequate to place a few drops of
household liquid detergent in each quart of spray.
This will help in "spreading" the water for good
coverage. Practically all sprays act as protectants
not eradicants; thus, placement of fungicides on
plants prior to disease development is important.

Rain or overhead irrigation will wash spray
residues off the foliage. After heavy rains, it
may be necessary to repeat applications of fungi-
cides.
Tables 3 and 4 list what fungicides are cleared
for use on various crop species and what rates
should be used. Remember, complete coverage of
leaves is as important as the material you select
to use.

Certain other fungicides are available for spe-
cific usages on specific crops. Captan, at 4 tblsp/
gallon, is effective for control of strawberry fruit
rots. Basic copper sulfate, at 2 tblsp/gallon, as
a mix with maneb will control bacterial leaf spots
as well as fungal leaf spots on tomatoes. Wet-
table sulfur is effective for powdery mildew of
English peas and other crops. It is also effective
for rust.

XIII. STAKING AND MULCHING. Training
the vines of cucumbers, tomatoes and beans to
grow on trellises or wires will help control certain
fruit rots such as belly rot of cucumber or fungal
fruit rots of tomatoes. The use of plastic mulch
will reduce strawberry fruit rots and cucumber
rots where the fruit develops on the mulch itself.
Both staking and mulching simply reduce direct
contact of fruit with the soil.

XIV. INSECT CONTROL. Insects do not
cause plant diseases but they assist by creating
wounds in the roots, stem and fruits. Fungi and
bacteria often enter insect wounds, grow in the
plant and cause such diseases as root and stem
rots or soft rots. Thus, insect control is an in-
direct control measure for plant diseases. Also,
insects can transmit certain disease agents such
as viruses.






Table 3. Broad spectrum fungicides for controlling cer-
tain foliar diseases of vegetables.1


Fungicide2
Dithane M-45
or
Crop Maneb Zineb Manzate 200 Bravo
Asparagus +3 + +
Beans, blackeyed + +
Beans, lima + +
Beans, snap + + +
Beets +
Broccoli + + +
Brussels sprouts + + +
Cabbage + + +
Carrots + + + +
Cauliflower + + +
Celery + + + +
Collards + +
Corn, sweet + + + +
Cucumbers + + + +
Eggplant + +
Endive + +
Lettuce + +
Melons of all kinds + + + +
Mustard greens + +
Onions + + +
Okra
Peas, English (green) +
Pepper + +
Potatoes, Irish + + + +
Potatoes, sweet
Radish +
Spinach + +
Squash + + + +
Strawberry +
Tomato + + + +
Turnips + +



SLabel specifies what diseases are controlled by the fungi-
cide.
2 Observe the time interval from last spray application to
harvest as specified on the label.
Indicates the fungicide is labelled for use on the crop as
of January 1975.






Table 4. Rates of fungicides for controlling foliar dis-
eases of vegetables.1
FUNGICIDE FUNGICIDE RATE PER
Common Name Trade Names GALLON2
Maneb Maneb, Manzate D, 1--1 tblsp3
(some with Dithane M-22 Special
zinc)
Zineb Zineb, Zineb 75 %-11/3 tblsp
Mancozeb Dithane M-45 or 12-1 tblsp
Manzate 200
Chlorothalonil Bravo, Broad Spectrum %1/-1 tblsp
Liquid Fungicide,
L.O.V. Fungicide
1 For large garden areas measured in acres, see Extension
Circular 193 for rates.
2 Use 1 gallon of solution per 400-500 sq. ft.
STablespoons.


XV. WATERING. The way you water your
garden can influence disease severity of leaf spots,
mildews and rusts. If possible, apply the water
to the soil without wetting the foliage. Use fur-
row irrigation on the heavier and organic soils
(non-sandy). Placing soaker hoses so they dis-
charge the water down instead of up will work
well on the lighter (sandy) soils that are common
in Florida. Also, drip irrigation kits are available.
In addition, more infrequent but heavier watering
periods are recommended. Schedule your sprays
around watering periods so that watering is done
prior to spraying. If you must water with an
overhead watering method, it is best to do so in
the late morning to early afternoon.


Do it Yourself Diagnostic Key
for Some Common Vegetable Diseases
Present in Florida Home Gardens
The purpose of this key is to assist home
gardeners diagnose plant diseases and nematodes
occurring in their vegetable gardens. If the dis-
ease is properly diagnosed, the correct control
measure can be applied. Often people spray a
chemical indiscriminately to control some un-
known disorder that can not be controlled by
spraying. To use this key, first decide if leaves,
roots and stems or fruit is diseased by using num-
bers I, II or III. Then, select the disease within






the respective number that best fits your situa-
tion. It is possible that more than one disease is
occurring on your specimen.
This diagnostic key is not designed to identify
all problems. If you encounter a problem that can
not be resolved by this key, then contact your
county extension staff for additional assistance.
Also, diagnosis is done best on plants that are less
than 50 percent blemished. Dead plants should
not be used. See Table 5 for appropriate control
measures) after you have diagnosed the problem.


KEY
I. Leaves have definite spots, white growth or other
abnormal symptoms.
A. Upper side of leaves have white pow- Powdery
dery growth; common on English peas, mildew
squash, cucumbers and beans.
B. Leaves have reddish-brown raised Rust
pustules not larger than 1/8 inch that
deposit a reddish-brown or orange
color on a white hankerchief when
rubbed across pustules; common on
beans and sweet corn.
C. Leaves and sometimes stems with dis- Leaf spots
tinct dark colored or tan spots 1/16
inch to 1 inch across. Some sweet
corn leaf spots are up to 5 inches
long. Common on most vegetable
crops. See Figure 1.
D. Leaves with mosaic or mottled ap- Virus
pearance (non uniform or diffuse
shades of green and yellows. The
Figure 1.



^n S~y'






separation of these colors is not al-
ways sharp). Dark green bands ad-
jacent to leaf veins. In beans, some
leaf distortion may occur in the form
of puckering or altered leaf shape.
Stunting may follow. Fruit may
have similar symptoms and may be
distorted. See Cover photo.
E. Leaves and sometimes stems twisted, Herbicide
deformed, excessively curled and damage
leathery without change in color. (2-4 D
Leaves may be abnormally long and type)
narrow. Leaf veins are often en-
larged. Tomatoes are very suscep-
tible but most other crops are
susceptible.
F. Leaves lack symptoms A through E Soil-borne
but may have yellow to brown color problem.
that predominates on margin of (See No.
leaves and between major veins. II.)
See Figure 2.
II. Plants (including seedlings) stunted, or wilted, or
leaves turning yellow to brown, usually lower leaves
first. Yellowing and browning of leaves begins along
margins of leaves and in between major veins.
A. Seedling stem rotted near soil line, Seedling
or roots with obvious spots, or rot- blight
ting.
B. Roots have swollen knots or galls and Root-knot
may be lacking feeder roots. See nematode
Figure 3.
C. Seedling is stunted and yellow; roots Sting or
are stunted or mostly absent. Some stubby
rotting may follow these initial root
symptoms. See Figure 4. nematodes
D. White mold growth seen on outside of White mold
lower stem and nearby debris on soil. (southern
Round, mustard and seed-sized, bodies blight)
present on lower stem with mold

Figure 2.
























Figure 3.

growth. These are first white and
with age turn brown. Outer and
inner stem discolored.
E. Slicing stem lengthwise of tomato, Fusarium
sweet potatoes, watermelon, cabbage, wilt
or bean exposes two brown to reddish-
brown streaks originating from roots.
Lower leaves often yellow. Early
yellowing of lower leaves on one side
of plant only. Plants may be wilted.
See Figure 5.
F. Slicing stem lengthwise of tomato Bacterial
exposes a brown inner stem. Plants wilt of
wilted and limp, but remain green, tomato
Recovery from wilt does not occur
during cool periods of the day, or
by early morning. White streaks
Figure 4.

'l,<






of ooze are discharged within 3
minutes when a cut end of stem is
held in a glass of water.
G. Slicing stem lengthwise reveals either Sclero-
a grayish-white mold growth often tiniose
with hard black bodies 1/4 to 1/2 inch (stem rot)
in length inside of stem. Common on
many vegetables in south Florida and
rare in north Florida.
H. Lower stem and/or roots discolored Root or
without any characteristic structures stem rot
or features, other than
already
mentioned.
III. Fruit, tuber, edible root or edible part of plant blem-
ished or infected.
A. Fruit or edible root is soft and Soft rot
slimy. Offensive odor present.
Wound damage or insect tunnels
present. No mold growth present.
Common on tomatoes and peppers.
B. Fruit or edible part of plant has Scleroti-
hard back bodies 1/4-1/2 inch in niose
length. Common on cabbage, lettuce, (stem rot)
endive, beans and carrots. White
mold growth may also be present.
C. Problem fruit is strawberry and has Gray mold
a gray mold on fruit or tan spots. or hard
brown rot
D. Problem fruit is bean and has sunken Anthrac-
lesions, purple in color, or bordered nose
by purple coloring with the center
having pink mold growth. Spots on
leaves also present. Common on lima
beans.
E. Under-side of fruit in contact with Belly rot
soil has a rot that appears to be a
Figure 5.






crater. At first dry but later slimy.
Common on cucumber and squash.
F. White or gray mold growing on fruit; Cottony
soft slimy rot also present. Common leak or
on cucumber and squash. wet rot
G. Fruit has alternating areas of greens Virus
and yellows. Warts or knobs present.
H. Side of pepper or tomato fruit facing Sunscald
sun with white, or yellow, sunken
wrinkled area. Often entire side of
fruit affected.
I. Blossom-end of tomato or pepper with Blossom-
sunken, dark areas. end rot







Table 5. Control measures for plant diseases of vegetables in vegetable gardens.
+++ Excellent method of control.
++ Good method of control.
+ Some control may be obtained.
0 No control expected.
BEFORE PLANTING AFTER PLANTING






DISEASES 6 e 4 0 C 1

Fusarium wilts __+++ + +++1 +++ ____ ____ __
Bacterial wilt + +++ + ++
White mold ++ + + +++ + +


Sclerotiniose I +
'oo 0 si ro s
:eec:. g 3.ig], -+ -+-


+++ + +++ ++ + ++
+++ + +++
++ ++ + +++
+++ ++ + +++





Sting nematode +++ +++
Anthracnose + +++ + + ++ + +++ +
Rust +++ + + +++ +
Powdery mildew +++ + + +++ +
Leaf spots + +-+ -+ + 1 + +++ +
Virus +++ +++ ++- +
Soft rot + +++ +4-+
Belly rot + ___- +++
Cottony leak + ++__ + +++
Gray mold + ++- + ++ +
Sunscald Maintain healthy foliage.
Blossom-end rot Maintain proper soil fertility and moisture.
Herbicide damage Careful and correct use of herbicides.

1 Good to excellent control when available.
















FOUR KEYS TO PESTICIDE SAFETY
1. Read the label on each pesticide container
before each use. Heed all cautions and warn-
ings.
2. Store pesticides in their original labeled con-
tainers. Keep them out of the reach of children
and irresponsible people.
3. Apply pesticides only as directed.


4. Dispose of empty containers safely.


I


~11111~


'J"r
rr** BEFORE USING ANY
PESTICIDE


STOP
R A HE PRECAUTIONS















































This public document was promulgated at an
annual cost of $2,190.65, or 10.95 cents per
copy to inform the public on control of plant
diseases and nematodes in a home garden.


Single copies free to residents of Florida. Bulk rates
available upon request. Please submit details on
request to Chairman, Editorial Department, Institute
of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of
Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611.




























































3-20M-76


COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS
(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)
Cooperative Extension Service, IFAS, Ujlmvrsty of Florild
Cooper"tlng


I University of Florida I




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