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 Historic note
 Front Cover
 Main














Group Title: Circular - University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences ; 302D
Title: External parasites and fly control for poultry
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00067214/00001
 Material Information
Title: External parasites and fly control for poultry
Series Title: Circular
Physical Description: 35, 1 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Koehler, Philip G ( Philip Gene ), 1947-
Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Publisher: Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1980
 Subjects
Subject: Poultry -- Parasites -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: P.G. Koehler.
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: "July 1980."
General Note: "8-3M-80"--P. 36.
Funding: Circular (Florida Cooperative Extension Service) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00067214
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 20536057

Table of Contents
    Historic note
        Historic note
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    Main
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida
























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P. G. KOEHLER ,

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Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida, Gainesville
John T. Woeste, Dean for Extension


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EXTERNAL PARASI
AND FLY CONTROL FOR.


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EXTERNAL PARASITES
AND FLY CONTROL FOR POULTRY*
P. G. KOEHLER*

Arthropods are important pests of poultry in Florida espec-
ially where proper management practices are not implemented.
Lice and mites are the most common pests of poultry in Florida
although the fowl tick and the sticktight flea may also cause
serious problems. Though not a parasite of poultry, the house
fly is a major concern to poultrymen, especially in caged oper-
ations.

Fowl Body Louse ong
(Actual size 1/16" long)


CHEWING LICE
Chewing lice are small, wingless, flattened insects with a broad
head. All the biting lice have similar life cycles. Their entire lives
are spent on the host and, except for occasional clinging to flies,
biting lice are transmitted from generation to generation on the
same host species. Lice are highly host specific and are not usu-
ally transmitted from wild to domestic birds.
Lice tend to be more of a problem in household flocks than
commercial flocks since commercial breeders do not permit par-
ent-offspring contact. In backyard flocks the hen incubates the

*Associate Professor Extension Entomologist, Department of Entomology and Nematology. Institute of
Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Galnesville.,
2







egg and cares for the chick. Thus, louse populations are easily
transmitted from one generation of chickens to the next.


The development of the common pigeon louse exemplifies a
typical life cycle of poultry lice. As many as 60 eggs are laid by
the adult female louse and are glued to the host's feathers. The
eggs have an incubation period of 3 to 5 days if the temperature
is optimal. Nymphs hatch from the egg and pass through three
nymphal instars each lasting approximately seven days. The
third stage nymph then molts to the adult stage. It usually takes
approximately 30 days to grow from egg to adult.
Biting lice do not suck blood from their host bird, however,
they may ingest blood from irritated skin. Normally bird lice
feed on the protective sheaths of growing feathers, feather fibers,
down, skin, scabs, blood, mucous and even their own eggs and
cast-off skins. Infested birds normally exhibit skin irritation,
damaged plumage and generally poor condition. Young birds
often die from the invasion of secondary disease. The most seri-
ous effect on older birds is the reduction in egg laying.
In Florida, the major lice which attack poultry are the shaft
louse, the fluff louse, the wing louse and the chicken head louse.


Shaft Louse
(Actual size 1/16" long)














Shaft, Fluff and Wing Lice
The shaft louse is usually the most serious louse pest of
chickens. It feeds on the barbs and scales of the feathers causing
little host irritation. It is usually not found on young chickens








because of their lack of well-developed wings. The adults,
nymphs and eggs are usually all found on the feathers and gen-
erally damage the plumage. The shaft louse will also occur on
ducks, turkeys and guinea hens if they are housed close to in-
fested poultry.
The fluff louse is a small louse species approximately 1 mm
in length. It is usually found among the fluff under the vent
feeding on the fluff.
The wing louse is usually found among the barbules of the
wing feathers. It is found among the feathers of young and old
birds. When heavy infestations occur, areas of the host's skin
are made bare. Infested birds commonly scratch themselves with
their claws, causing intense irritation.

Chicken Head Louse
The chicken head louse is a serious pest of young chickens or
turkeys that constantly nibbles at the skin scales. It is frequently
found on the head and neck of poultry.
Lice become a problem when proper maintenance practices are
not routinely followed. In all cases, good control of lice can be
attained with the application of sprays or dusts to the birds.
Premise treatment is of little value in louse control operations.


MITES
The mites which attack poultry have similar life cycles with
four stages egg, larva, two nymphal stages and adult. The
nymphs and adults have piercing-sucking mouthparts and take
blood meals from birds.
Several mite species can be found on poultry in Florida; how-
ever, the most important mite is the northern fowl mite. Other
mites such as the red chicken mite and the tropical fowl mite
may also cause severe problems.

Northern Fowl Mite
The northern fowl mite is a common external parasite of do-
mestic fowl and wild birds throughout the temperate regions of
the world. It has been shown to produce economic damage by
causing anemia, lowering egg production and weight gain, and
causing death to birds. The mites will also bite man, causing
itching and irritation to the skin.
The adult female mite lays eggs on the host bird. Depending
on the temperature and humidity, the eggs will hatch in 1 to 2
































days. The larvae which hatch from the egg do not feed and molt
to the nymphal stage in about eight hours. The nymph has biting
mouthparts and pierces the host bird's skin for a blood meal.
The nymphs mature to adults in 4 to 7 days.
Adult female mites take a blood meal and complete egg laying
in two days. The number of eggs laid average 2 to 5 per female
mite. The complete life cycle from egg to egg-laying adult can
take place in 5 to 7 days or longer, depending on temperature and
humidity. Adult mites spend most of their lives on the host but
will also wander from the birds. The preferred site on the host
is the vicinity of the vent although the back is also a preferred
site.
Although female mites do not lay large numbers of eggs, mite
populations can rise rapidly after a bird has been initially in-
fested. When conditions are optimal, newly-infested birds may
support mite populations in excess of 20,000 per bird in 9 to 10
weeks. Mite populations of approximately 200,000 per bird may
cause death from blood loss or exsanguination. Mite populations
vary seasonally with the largest populations in mid-winter.
Mite control is easily realized if reapplication of insecticides
is made in 4 to 7 days.












L N






Ii









Chicken Mite
(Actual size 1/200" long)
Common Red Chicken Mite
The common red mite is found on domestic fowl throughout the
world, parasitizing chickens, turkeys, pigeons, wild birds and
occasionally man. Older fowl exhibit similar symptoms of infesta-
tion as those parasitized by northern fowl mite. Young chickens
will usually die when attacked by this mite. The red mite also
serves as the vector for avian spirochaetes.
The red mite hides in cracks and crevices during the day and
crawls onto the host at night for a blood meal. The life cycle is
similar to the northern fowl mite and also can be completed in
as little as seven days. Premise treatment as well as bird treat-
ment aids in the control of this mite since much of its life is
spent off the host.


Tropical Fowl Mite
The tropical fowl mite is widely distributed in South America,
the Caribbean and southern United States. It is a mobile species
and will feed during the day or night. Besides domestic fowl, the
tropical fowl mite prefers English sparrows and transmissions
from wild birds to domestic fowl are quite common.











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Fowl Tick
(Actual size 3/16" long)

FOWL TICK
The fowl tick, also called the blue bug, injures poultry by
sucking blood, causing loss of weight, blemishes and lower egg
production. The tick is especially difficult to control since it hides
near the roosts of birds during the day. At night, however, the
nymphs and adults climb -onto the birds and engorge themselves
with blood.
The female tick lays 25 to 100 eggs at one time in clumps and
one female may produce as many as 700 eggs in her lifetime. The
eggs hatch in 1 to 4 weeks into larvae which climb onto the birds
for a blood meal. The larvae remain on the host up to five days
until fully engorged. The feeding sites become severely irritated
after the extended period of feeding. The larvae drop off the host
and molt into the nymphal stage about seven days after hatching.
The nymphs readily feed on birds at night and mature to adults
in about 40 days after molting 3 to 4 times, each molt requiring
a blood meal. After each feeding the tick returns to its hiding
place. At night there is often movement of large numbers of ticks
from hiding places to hosts and back.
The fowl tick can live for extended periods of time without a
blood meal. Therefore, leaving facilities vacant for a long period
of time will usually not destroy a population.
Sanitation is the best control of the fowl tick. Thorough spray
applications of pesticides will help control ticks but are not com-
pletely effective. Fowl tick problems require persistence to re-
duce widespread fowl tick problems.







STICKTIGHT FLEA
The sticktight flea can be a severe pest of poultry in Florida.
Symptoms of infestations are dark-brown spots on the face, comb
and wattles where the fleas are embedded in the skin. Young fowl
can be killed and older fowl may reduce egg laying as a result of
the irritation and blood loss.
The adult males and females of the sticktight flea are usually
found in the heads of fowl. The females remain attached for 2 to
3 weeks. The female lays eggs which fall to the ground and hatch
into larvae which feed on organic matter. Within 2 to 4 weeks
the larvae pupate. The life cycle is completed in 1 to 2 months.
Usually these fleas are more prevalent in the cooler months of
the year.
CONTROL OF POULTRY ECTOPARASITES
Precautions in Pesticide Application
Although pesticides are used to protect poultry from pests, it
is important to remember that any pesticide should be considered
an active poison. Follow these suggestions to apply pesticides
safely:
1. Always read and follow label directions. The label should be
read both before purchasing a pesticide and before applying a
pesticide. At the time of purchase the label should be read to
determine if the product can be used as desired, if the formula-
tion is proper for the job, and if the right application equipment
is available. Law requires that labels on poultry insecticides
clearly state "For Use On Poultry." Before applying the pesti-
cide, the label should be read again to determine the necessary
protective equipment, special warnings and first aid measures,
correct mixing, rate of application, when to apply, and restric-
tions on its use.
2. Keep pesticides out of reach of children, pets, irresponsible
people and livestock. Pesticides should be stored in a locked area
outside the house away from food or feed.
3. Keep pesticides in their original containers. Dispose of
empty containers promptly and safely.
4. Never use more insecticide than is recommended. Overdoses
of pesticides not only are potentially fatal but also can weaken
birds and predispose them to disease. Young birds because of
their low body weight are particularly susceptible to overdose of
some pesticides.
5. Pesticides should not be applied in combination with other
pesticides or drugs because the combination of chemicals may
produce undersirable effects.
6. Protect yourself from the effects of pesticides. Never smoke,








eat or chew while spraying or dusting. Avoid inhaling sprays or
dusts. If pesticides are accidentally spilled on skin or clothing,
remove contaminated clothing immediately and wash contami-
nated skin thoroughly.
Bathe, washing face and hands thoroughly, and change to
clean clothing after pesticide application. Wash clothes before
re-use.
If symptoms of illness occur during or shortly after spraying,
call a physician and take the pesticide label to the hospital with
the patient.
Do not use your mouth to siphon liquids from containers or to
blow out clogged lines or nozzles.
Do not spray with leaking hoses or connections.
Do not work in the drift of a spray or dust.
7. Eggs should be gathered before spraying or dusting birds
with pesticides.
8. Do not contaminate feed or water during pesticide applica-
tion.
Residues
The chlorinated hydrocarbons (DDT, chlordane, dieldrin, al-
drin and others) have a zero tolerance in poultry meat and eggs
and are not recommended on poultry or in poultry houses. Poul-
try producers are cautioned against the use of anything but rec-
ommended materials for insect control. The use of any insecti-
cide not clearly labeled "For Use On Poultry" can lead to illegal
residues in meat or eggs, resulting in seizure, economic loss, and
a tarnished image of the industry.
To avoid excessive residues, use the insecticides recommended
at the time recommended and in the amounts recommended.
Formulations
Insecticide formulations commonly used on poultry are formu-
lated as emulsifiable concentrates (EC), wettable powders (WP),
and dusts (D). Emulsifiable concentrates are liquids that are de-
signed to be diluted with water and thoroughly mixed before
application as sprays. Wettable powders are mixed with water
to form a suspension of insoluble particles in a liquid. Agitation
of suspensions must be maintained during spray operations
otherwise separation may occur. If separation occurs, the spray
may contain too high a concentration for safe use or too low a
concentration for effective control. Also clogging of lines or noz-
zles may result. Dusts are prepared as a ready-to-use formula-
tion and are particularly useful in cold weather when sprays
would stress birds.








Spray System Recommendations
1. Distance of nozzles from vent of bird 8 inches
2. Nozzle type 500 flat fan
3. Distance between nozzles 8 inches (2 nozzles will cover
a cage 18" deep)
4. Pressure 80 psi
5. Size of oriface 08


Calibration
The job of a pesticide applicator is to coordinate the gallons or
lbs/min and the birds/min. The requirements of a good applica-
tion are:
1. A good operator.
2. A delivery system of the proper type, correctly adjusted.
3. Speed coordinated with the output.
Calibration is the calculation of the time to travel a distance
so the correct amount of insecticide is delivered per bird. It is
important to do this calculation before spraying to insure proper
application.


Steps in Calibration
1. Measure ounces of spray solution from one nozzle per min-
ute (2 x output per one-half min).
2. Multiply ounces from one nozzle by total number of nozzles.
3. Divide total number of ounces from all nozzles by 128
ounces (128 ounces = 1 gallon). This figure equals the gallons
min delivered by the spray system.
4. Determine from label the number of birds one gallon of
diluted spray should cover (usually 100-125 birds/gal).
5. Multiply # gal/min by # birds/gal to determine the num-
ber of birds to be treated per minute.
6. Determine the number of birds per linear ft of cage.
7. Divide the # of birds treated/min by # of birds/linear ft.
This is the distance that must be traversed in 1 min to apply the
recommended rate of insecticide.
Example: An applicator is using 2 nozzles to cover cages 10"
wide and 18" deep. There are 3 birds per cage. He wants to spray
carbaryl (Sevin) at the recommended 6 oz of 50 %/ WP in 5 gal of
water per 500 birds.
Step 1-The applicator collects 154 fl oz of spray from one
nozzle in one minute.








Step 2-154 fl oz x 2 nozzles = 308 fl oz/min.
308 fl oz/min
Step 3- 128 f oz/gal = 2.4 gal/min.
Step 4-500 birds per 5 gal = 100 birds/gal.
Step 5-2.4 gal/min x 100 birds/gal = 240 birds/min
3 birds/cage x 12 in/ft
Step 6- 10 inch/cage = 3.6 birds/ft.
10 inch/cage
240 birds/min
Step 7 3 birds/ft = 66.7 ft/min.
3.6 birds/ft
Therefore, if the house is 300 ft in length, it should take the
operator 4.5 minutp.s to spray one row of cages at the proper rate.


Problems with Spray Systems
Control of external parasites on poultry requires that an ef-
fective pesticide be properly applied. Besides problems with cali-
bration and application of proper rates, lack of control can also
be traced to poor application techniques.
Problems of poor application techniques usually are of two
types:
1. Lack of adequate coverage.
2. Lack of penetrating ability.
It is difficult to get both good coverage and good penetration.
For instance, a wide angle nozzle (80-1200) gives good coverage
but poor penetration. A narrow angle spray (500-650) provides
less coverage but greater penetration. To overcome more limited
coverage, two 500 nozzles could be used to cover the same dis-
tance as one 800 nozzle.

Penetration-The ability of a spray to penetrate the vent area
is dependent upon the size of the droplet and the distance it must
travel. The optimum distance a nozzle should be from the vent
is 8 inches. If the nozzle is 14 inches from the vent, penetration
of the spray is reduced. At 8 inches from the target, a 500 nozzle
will cover 8 inches horizontally and an 800 nozzle will cover 14
inches.

Wetting Agents
The feathers of chickens are often oily, making it difficult for
sprays to stick and penetrate to the skin. Surfactants or wetting
agents may be added to the formulated spray to aid in breaking
the surface tension of the feather.








Animal Toxicity Recognition
The initial sign of pesticide poisoning in animals is a quieting
of the bird's attitude and loss of interest in its surroundings. It
will lie quietly and move very little. Toxicity symptoms usually
occur within 48 hours of treatment.
The initial lethargy will usually be accompanied by diarrhea.
More advanced poisoning usually exhibits difficulty in breathing.
If made to move the animal will move stiffly and stumble.
Many animals will recover without treatment if the dosage of
toxicant has not been too high.

House Fly
The poultry farm cannot be kept entirely free of house flies.
In caged poultry operations where conditions for house fly de-
velopment are ideal, it is extremely difficult to prevent breeding.
However, by good management practices and the proper use of
the more effective insecticides, the flies can be restrained to a
lower level than is now found in many poultry operations.
Several kinds of flies have been found to breed in poultry
manure, but the house fly is the most troublesome.
House fly eggs are laid in almost any type of warm organic
material. Animal or poultry manure is an excellent breeding
medium. Fermenting vegetation such as grass clippings and
garbage, also provide a medium for fly breeding.
The whitish eggs, which are laid in clusters of 75 to 100, hatch
within 24 hours into tiny larvae or maggots. In 4 to 6 days the
larvae migrate to drier portions of the breeding medium and pu-
pate. The pupal stage may vary in length considerably, but in
warm weather can be about three days. When the adult emerges
from the puparium, the wings are folded in tight pads.
The house fly crawls about rapidly while the wings unfold and
the body dries and hardens. Under normal conditions this may
take as little as an hour. Mating occurs immediately. A house fly
may go through an entire life cycle-egg, larva, pupa to winged
adult-in 6 to 10 days under Florida conditions. An adult house
fly may live an average of 30 days. During warm weather two
or more generations may be produced per month. Because of this
rapid rate of development and the large number of eggs produced
by the female, large populations build up.
House flies are strong fliers and can become widely distributed
by flying, wind currents, vehicles and animals. Generally, how-
ever, flies are abundant in the immediate vicinity of their breed-
ing site. Under certain conditions, they may migrate 1 to 4 miles,
but are more usually limited to one-half to 2 miles.








Resistance
Resistance is a complex problem associated with chemical con-
trol of insects. Recognized some 50 years ago, it is not a new
problem. Defined, resistance is the ability of an insect population
to withstand exposure to insecticides. This is acquired by breed-
ing from insects that have survived previous exposures to an
insecticide that did not wipe out the whole population. The sur-
viving insects are resistant because either biochemical mechan-
isms (enzymes) enable them to quickly break down the insect-
icide or behavioristic adaptations enable them to somehow avoid
the insecticide.
How extensive is house fly resistance in Florida? A recent
USDA statewide study was made to determine resistance of
house flies to dimethoate (Cygon, DeFend) and ronnel (Korlan).
Flies were collected from dairies and poultry farms in 32 loca-
tions throughout the state and compared to a susceptible strain
of house flies.
Flies from poultry farms were 3.8 to 54.5 times more resistant
to ronnel than the susceptible strain. Also fly strains from poul-
try farms were 1.8 to 28.5 times more resistant to dimethoate
than the susceptible strains. Generally, house flies on poultry
farms are more resistant to ronnel than dimethoate. Dimethoate
has not been in use as long as ronnel; therefore, resistance to
dimethoate may become more widespread.

Fly Control
Fly control on caged poultry farms must be considered a major
management factor in Florida. The management of manure is a
demanding farm practice. A well-planned operation is necessary
to:
1. Minimize fly production.
2. Reduce odors and other public nuisances.
3. Maintain the fertilizer value of the manure.
4. Provide better public relations.
A large portion of the management programs must revolve
around sanitation. One of the best management practices should
include removal of the manure on a frequent, regular program.
In addition, the poultryman must control excess moisture in the
droppings.
Wet manure is ideal for fly breeding. To provide the best fly
control, implement water management practices. Have a master
drainage plan to avoid the build-up of rainwater in undesirable
areas. Provide adequate elevation in houses so water drains to








low areas outside the house. Be fanatic about stopping leaky
water troughs. Finally we must use chemicals wisely. Basically
we want to consider larvicides and baits.

Larvicides
Larvicides are coarse sprays directed over the droppings to
leave a residue that kills the larvae. Careful attention must be
paid to thorough coverage and proper dosage. Begin on a 5 to 6
day clean-up schedule then go to a 7 to 10 day maintenance sched-
ule. When control is achieved cut costs by spot treatment.

Baits
Baits are insecticides formulated on sugar or similar fly at-
tractants. These are scattered on walkways or dry areas for best
results.
House fly management in cage houses requires a complete pro-
gram. This should include:
Initial clean-up with contact/residual spray with one of the
suggested materials.
Initial larvicide clean-up on a 5-6 day schedule then a 7-10
day schedule.
Spot treat with larvicide to cut costs and eliminate trouble
spots.
Use twice weekly bait applications throughout the heavy
breeding season.

THE CONTROL CHART
Keys to Pesticide Safety
1. Before using any pesticide, stop and read the precautions.
2. Read the label on each pesticide container before each use.
Heed all warnings and precautions.
3. Store all pesticides in their original containers away from
food or feed.
4. Keep pesticides out of the reach of children, pets and live-
stock.
5. Apply pesticides only as directed.
6. Dispose of empty containers promptly and safely.

Trade Names
The use of trade names in this publication is solely for the
purpose of providing specific information. It is not a guarantee or








warranty of the products named and does not signify that they
are approved to the exclusion of others.

Residues
To avoid excessive residues, use the insecticides recommended
at the time recommended and in the amounts recommended.

The Label
These recommendations are for guidelines only. The user must
insure that the pesticide is applied in strict compliance with label
directions.
The improper use of insecticides may result in residue in eggs.


Key to Abbreviations
B = Bait RP = Roost Paint
D = Dust S = Spray
DP = Dip SB = Spray Bait
F = Fog SM = Smear
M = Mist TD = Tail Dip









THE CONTROL CHART

Minimum days
from last
application to
Pest of Tolerance freshening Safety
Poultry Insecticide (ppm) or slaughter Formulation Application directions restrictions

Chicken Red coumaphos .1 (eaas) 0 S Premise treatment. Mix 6 oz Repeat as


Mite (Co-Ral) 1.0 (meat and


of 25% WP in 5 gal of water.
Apply 1 gal per 1000 sq ft.
Force spray into cracks and
crevices for thorough


necessary.


coverage.


malathion 0.1 (eggs)
4.0 (meat)


S Mix 2 tbsp of 57% EC or
2.5 oz of 25% WP in 1 gal
water per 100-150 birds.
Treat birds directly. Use as a
supplement to premise
treatment.

4%D
4% D Dust individual birds with
5% D shaker duster.

4% D Premise treatment.

5% D







THE CONTROL CHART (Continued)

Minimum days
from last
application to
Pest of Tolerance freshening Safety
Poultry Insecticide (ppm) or slaughter Formulation Application directions restrictions


Chicken Red malathion
Mite (Cont.)


S Premise treatment. Mix 4 tbsp
of 57% EC or 5 oz of 25%
WP in 1 gal of water. Apply
liberally to cracks, crevices
and roost areas.

RP Mix 1-2 fl oz of 57% EC in
1 gal of water. Brush solution
on surfaces at 1 pt to 150 ft.


naled
(Dibrom)


.05 (eggs,
meat and
fat)


stirofos .75 (fat)
(Rabon) .1 (meat)
.1 (eggs)


S Mix 1 pt of 36% EC in 20
gal of water. Apply 1 gal of
solution per 100 birds.
Repeat as necessary.


.5% S Mix 2 lbs of 50% WP in 25
gal of water. Apply 1 gal per
300 birds. Spray vent with
high pressure.


Do not treat
chickens under
6 weeks of age
or turkeys
under 3 months

Do not repeat
within 14 days.









THE CONTROL CHART (Continued)

Minimum days
from last
application to
Pest of Tolerance freshening Safety
Poultry Insecticide (ppm) or slaughter Formulation Application directions restrictions


Chicken Red stirofos
Mite (Cont.)


Mix .5 gal of 24% EC in 25
gal of water. Apply 1 gal per
300 birds. Spray vent with
high pressure.

3% D Apply 1 Ib per 300 birds or 1
Ib per 100 sq ft of floor area.

50% D Premise dusting. Apply 2.5 oz
per 100 sq ft of litter.


Box dusting. Apply 2.5 oz
per 50 birds.


.75 (fat)
.1 (meat)
.1 (eggs)
.05 (eggs,
meat and


0 1% + .25% RP


Roost paint-Mix 1 gal of
23% + 5.7% EC in 25 gal
of water. Brush solution into
cracks and crevices using
1 pt per 100 ft.


stirofos
(Rabon)
+
dichlorvos
(Vapona)







THE CONTROL CHART (Continued)

Minimum days
from last
application to
Pest of Tolerance freshening Safety
Poultry Insecticide (ppm) or slaughter Formulation Application directions restrictions

Chicken Red stirofos .5% + .1% S Mix 1 gal of 23% + 5.7% Do not repeat
Mite (Cont.) dichlorvos EC in 50 gal of water. Apply more often than
as high pressure mist to every 14 days.
vent and fluff area.

Premise treatment-Mix 1 gal
of 23% + 5.7% EC in 50
gal of water. Apply 1-2 gal
per 1000 sq ft to litter
surface.

Chiggers malathion 0.1 (eggs) 0 S Treat area thoroughly with
4.0 (meat) 1-1.5 pt of 57% EC per acre
before placing poultry on
range.

4% D Apply 25 Ibs of 4% D or 20
Ibs of 5% D per acre before
5% D placing poultry on range.










THE CONTROL CHART (Continued)

Minimum days
from last
application to
Pest of Tolerance freshening Safety
Poultry Insecticide (ppm) or slaughter Formulation Application directions restrictions

Depluming sulfur DP Mix 2 oz (325 mesh) sulfur
Mite and 1 oz soap in 1 gal water.
Dip on warm days only.

Fowl Tick carbaryl 5 (meat and 7 S Premise spray-Mix 1 Ib of


(Sevin)


50% WP in 3 gal water for
3000 sq ft.


Mix 1 Ib of 80% WP in 5
gal of water for 5000 sq ft.

malathion 0.1 (eggs) 0 S Premise treatment. Mix 6-7 fl
4.0 (meat) oz of 57% EC in 1 gal of
water. Apply to walks, ceil-
ings and adjacent areas.
Force spray into cracks and
crevices.






THE CONTROL CHART (Continued)

Minimum days
from last
application to
Pest of Tolerance freshening Safety
Poultry Insecticide (ppm) or slaughter Formulation Application directions restrictions

Fowl Tick stirofos .75 (fat) 0 1% S Premise treatment-Mix 1 gal
(Cont.) (Rabon) .1 (meat) of 24% EC or 4 Ib of 50%
.1 (eggs) WP in 25 gal of water. Spray
walls, ceilings, cracks and
crevices thoroughly.

stirofos .75 (fat) 0 .1% + .25% S Mix 1 gal. of 23% + 5.7%
(Rabon) .1 (meat) EC in 25 gal of water. Spray
+ .1 (eggs) walls, ceilings, cracks and
dichlorvos .05 (eggs, crevices thoroughly.
(Vapona) meat and
fat)

Lice carbaryl 5 (meat and 7 5% D Apply 1 Ib per 100 birds. Do not use


(Sevin) fat)


Premise dusting-Apply 1 Ib
per 40 sq ft.

Box dusting. Apply 2.5 Ibs
per box per 50 birds.


more often
than every
4 weeks.









THE CONTROL CHART (Continued)

Minimum days
from last
application to
Pest of Tolerance freshening Safety
Poultry Insecticide (ppm) or slaughter Formulation Application directions restrictions

Lice (Cont.) carbaryl S Direct spray-Mix 6 oz of
50% WP in 5 gal water per
500 birds.

Direct spray-Mix 4 oz of
80% WP in 5 gal per 500
birds.

coumaphos .1 (eggs) 0 S Spray birds directly. Mix 6 oz Do not


(Co-Ral) 1.0 (meat and
fat)


of 25 % WP in 5 gal of water.
Apply 1 gal per 100-125
birds.

Premise treatment-Mix 6 oz
of 25% WP in 5 gal of water.
Apply 1 gal per 1000 sq ft.
Force spray into cracks and
crevices for thorough cover-
age.


reapply within
7 days.


Repeat as
necessary.








THE CONTROL CHART (Continued)


Pest of Tolerance
Poultry Insecticide (ppm)

Lice (Cont.) malathion 0.1 (eggs)
4.0 (meat)


Minimum days
from last
application to
freshening
or slaughter


Formulation


Application directions


4% D Premise treatment-Apply to
5% D litter at rate of 1 Ib per 50-60
sq ft. Apply with rotary duster,
puff duster or by sprinkling


4% D Dust bath box 1 Ib per box
5% for every 30 birds.
5% D


S Premise treatment-Mix 4 tbsp
of 57% EC or 5 oz of 25%
WP per gal of water. Force
spray into cracks and crevices.

Mix 2 tbsp of 57% EC in 1
gal of water per 100-150
birds. Spray birds directly.


Safety
restrictions


Remove box
when dust
has been
used.











THE CONTROL CHART (Continued)

Minimum days
from last
application to
Pest of Tolerance freshening Safety
Poultry Insecticide (ppm) or slaughter Formulation Application directions restrictions


Lice (Cont.) malathion


Mix 2.5 oz of 25% WP in 1
gal of water per 100-150
birds. Spray birds directly.

4% D Direct application. Dust birds
5-% D individually with shaker can.

TD Mix 8.5 fl oz of 57% EC in
15 gal of water per 400 birds.
Hold birds by wings and dip
3-4 inches of tail in solution.


naled .05 (eggs, 0 S Mix 1 pt of 36% EC in 20 gal Do not treat
(Dibrom) meat and of water. Apply 1 gal of solu- chickens under
fat) tion per 100 birds. Repeat as 6 weeks of
necessary. age or turkeys
under 3 months.







THE CONTROL CHART (Continued)

Minimum days
from last
application to
Pest of Tolerance freshening Safety
Poultry Insecticide (ppm) or slaughter Formulation Application directions restrictions


stirofos .75 (fat)
(Rabon) .1 (meat)
.1 (eggs)


.5% S Mix 2 Ibs of 50% WP in 25
gal of water. Apply 1 gal per
300 birds. Spray vent with
high pressure.

Mix .5 gal of 24% EC in 25
gal of water. Apply 1 gal per
300 birds. Spray vent with
high pressure.

3% D Apply 1 Ib per 300 birds or 1
Ib per 100 sq ft of floor area.

50% D Premise dusting-Apply 2.5
oz per 100 sq ft of litter.

Box dusting-Apply 2.5 oz
per 50 birds.


Lice (Cont.)


Do not repeat
within 14 days.










THE CONTROL CHART (Continued)

Minimum days
from last
application to
Pest of Tolerance freshening Safety
Poultry Insecticide (ppm) or slaughter Formulation Application directions restrictions

Lice (Cont.) stirofos .75 (fat) 0 .5% + .1 % S Mix 1 gal of 23% + 5.7% Do not re-
(Rabon) .1 (meat) EC in 50 gal of water. Apply peat more
+ .1 (eggs) as high pressure mist to vent often than
dichlorvos .05 (eggs, and fluff area. every 14
(Vapona) meat and days.
fat)
Premise treatment-Mix 1 gal
of 23% + 5.7% EC in 50 gal
of water. Apply 1-2 gal per
1000 sq ft to litter surface.

Northen carbaryl 5 (meat and 7 5% D Apply 1 Ib per 100 birds. Do not use


(Sevin) fat)


Premise dusting-Apply 1 Ib
per 40 sq ft.

Box dusting-Apply 2.5 Ibs
per box per 50 birds.


more often
than every
4 weeks.


Fowl Mite







THE CONTROL CHART (Continued)

Minimum days
from last
application to
Pest of Tolerance freshening Safety
Poultry Insecticide (ppm) or slaughter Formulation Application directions restrictions


S Direct spray-Mix 6 oz of
50% WP in 5 gal water per
500 birds.

Direct spray-Mix 4 oz of
80% WP in 5 gal per 500
birds.


coumaphos .1 (eggs)
(Co-Ral) 1.0 (meat and
fat)


S Spray birds directly. Mix 3 oz
of 25% WP in 5 gal water.
Apply 1 gal per 100-125
birds.


Premise treatment-Mix 6 oz
of 25% WP in 5 gal of water.
Apply 1 gal per 1000 sq ft.
Force spray into cracks and
crevices for thorough cover-
age.


Do not re-
apply with-
in 7 days.


Repeat as
necessary.


Northern
Fowl Mite
(Cont.)


carbaryl










THE CONTROL CHART (Continued)

Minimum days
from last
application to
Pest of Tolerance freshening Safety
Poultry Insecticide (ppm) or slaughter Formulation Application directions restrictions

Northern malathion 0.1 (eggs) 0 4% D Premise treatment-Apply to


5%--- litter at rate of 1 Ib per 50-60
5%D
sq ft. Apply with rotary
duster, puff duster or by
sprinkling can.

4% D Dust bath box 1 Ib per box
5%-- D for every 30 birds.
5% D


Remove box
when dust
has been


used.

S Premise treatment-Mix 4
tbsp of 57% EC or 5 oz of
25 % WP per gal of water.
Force spray into cracks and
crevices.

S Mix 2 tbsp of 57% EC in 1
gal of water per 100-150
birds. Spray birds directly.


Fowl Mite
(Cont.)


4.0 (meat)







THE CONTROL CHART (Continued)

Minimum days
from last
application to
Pest of Tolerance freshening Safety
Poultry Insecticide (ppm) or slaughter Formulation Application directions restrictions


Mix 2.5 oz of 25% WP inl
gal of water per 100-150
birds. Spray birds directly.

4% D
% D Direct application. Dust birds
5% D individually with shaker can.

TD Mix 8.5 fl oz of 57% EC in
15 gal of water per 400 birds.
Hold birds by wings and dip
3-4 inches of tail in solution.


naled .05 (eggs, 0 S Mix 1 pt of 36% EC in 20 gal Do not treat
(Dibrom) meat and of water. Apply 1 gal of solu- chickens un-
fat) tion per 100 birds. Repeat as der 6 weeks
necessary. of age or
turkeys under
3 months.


Northern
Fowl Mite
(Cont.)


malathion











THE CONTROL CHART (Continued)

Minimum days
from last
application to
Pest of Tolerance freshening Safety
Poultry Insecticide (ppm) or slaughter Formulation Application directions restrictions

Northern stirofos .75 (fat) 0 .5% S Mix 2 Ibs of 50% WP in 25 Do not repeat


(Rabon) .1 (meat)
.1 (eggs)


gal of water. Apply 1 gal per
300 birds. Spray vent with
high pressure.


within 14
days.


Mix .5 gal of 24% EC in 25
gal of water. Apply 1 gal per
300 birds. Spray vent with
high pressure.

3% D Apply 1 Ib per 300 birds or 1
Ib per 100 sq ft of floor area.

50% D Premise Dusting-Apply 2.5
oz per 100 sq ft of litter.

Box dusting-Apply 2.5 oz
per 50 birds.


Fowl Mite
(Cont.)








THE CONTROL CHART (Continued)

Minimum days
from last
application to
Pest of Tolerance freshening Safety
Poultry Insecticide (ppm) or slaughter Formulation Application directions restrictions

Northern stirofos .75 (fat) 0 .5% + .1 % S Mix 1 gal of 23% + 5.7% Do not repeat
Fowl Mite (Rabon) .1 (meat) EC in 50 gal of water. Apply more often
(Cont.) + .1 (eggs) as high pressure mist to vent than every
dichlorvos .05 (eggs, and fluff area. 14 days.
(Vapona) meat and
fat)
Premise treatment-Mix 1 gal Do not re-
of 23% + 5.7% EC in 50 gal peat more
of water. Apply 1-2 gal per often than
1000 sq ft to litter surface, every 14
days.

Scaly Leg crude oil DP Apply to feet and lower legs Do not get


Mite


by dipping.


oil on
feathers.









THE CONTROL CHART (Continued)

Minimum days
from last
application to
Pest of Tolerance freshening Safety
Poultry Insecticide (ppm) or slaughter Formulation Application directions restrictions

Scaly Leg sulfur SM Apply 1-5% sulfur in lard to
Mite (Cont.) feet and lower legs after
scales have been loosened
by soaking in warm soapy
water.

Sticktight malathion 0.1 (eggs) 0 4% D Boxdusting-15 Ib of 4%
Flea 4.0 (meat) D per box per 100 birds.
5% D 12 Ib of 5% D per box per
100 birds.

4% D Premise dusting in brooder
house-2 Ib of 4% D per
100 chicks or
5% D 1.5 lb of 5% D per 100
chicks.

Range pen dusting-1 Ib of
4 % D per 20 sq ft.
5% D .75 Ib of 5% D per 20 sq ft.







THE CONTROL CHART (Continued)

Minimum days
Type of from last
application application to
for fly Tolerance freshening Safety
control Insecticide (ppm) or slaughter Formulation Application directions restrictions


Baits and dichlorvos .05 (meatand
Adulticides (Vapona) fat)
.05 (eggs)


.5% B Ready-to-use. Apply 1/ lb of
bait per 1000 sq ft where
flies congregate.


0.5-1.0% M or F


Mix 1 gal of 23% EC in 25-
50 gal of water or 28-56 gal
of oil. Apply at rate of 1 qt
of .5% M per 8000 cu ft or 1
pt of 1.0% M per 8000 cu ft.


dimethoate .02 (eggs) 0 1% S Mix 2 qt of 23.4% EC in 12.5
(Cygon) gal of water. Apply 1 gal to
500-1000 sq ft.

malathion 0.1 (eggs) 0 S Mix 4 tbsp of 57% EC to 1
4.0 (meat) gal of water. Apply to walls,
ceilings, and adjacent areas.
Repeat as necessary.








THE CONTROL CHART (Continued)

Minimum days
Type of from last
application application to
for fly Tolerance freshening Safety
control Insecticide (ppm) or slaughter Formulation Application directions restrictions

Baits and naled .05 (eggs, 0 1 % M or F Ready-to-use. Apply accord-


ing to label directions.


S Mix 2 pt of 36% EC in 40 gal
of water. Spray structures but
not animals. 1 gal for every
500 sq ft.

Mix 2 pt of 36% EC in 40 gal
of water. Add 1/2 Ib of sugar
or /2 pt of syrup. Spray struc-
tures 1 gal to 500 sq ft.

B Add 1 teaspoon of 36% EC
to 1 Ib of sugar in a quart jar.
Shake vigorously for 2 min-
utes. Apply according to
directions.
1% M or F Mix 2 pt of 36% EC in 40 gal
of water. Apply as fog or mist,


Adulticides
(Cont.)


(Dibrom)


meat and
fat)


I




gal of water. Add 3 oz of
sugar per gal. Apply 1 gal
per 500-1000 sq ft.


synergized 0.1 (meat and
pyrethrins fat)


M or F Apply according to label
directions.


Larvicides dichlorvos .05 (fat,
(Vapona) meatand
eggs)


.5% S Mix 1 gal of 23.4% EC in 50
gal of water. Apply 1-2 qt
per 100 sq ft of manure.


dimethoate .02 (fat, 0 S Mix 1 qt of 23.4% EC in 5 gal
(Cygon) meat and of water. Spray poultry
eggs) manure.

stirofos .75 (fat) 0 1 % 5 Mix 4 Ib ot 50% WP in 25
(Rabon) .1 (meat) gal of water. Apply 1 gal per
0.1 (eggs) 100 sq ft of manure.

Mix 1 gal of 24% EC in 25
gal of water. Apply 1 gal to
every 100 sq ft of manure.

stirofos .75 (fat) 0 1% S Mix 1 gal of 23% + 5.7%


(Rabon)
+
dichlorvos
(Vapona)


EC in 25 gal of water. Apply
1 gal to every 100 sq ft
of manure.


.1 (meat)
0.1 (eggs)
+
.05 (fat,
meat and
eggs)


Apply as a
coarse spray
to droppings
or manure
piles on a
prevention
schedule.
Repeat as
manure is
added. Use
only on drop-
pings where
poultry can-
not contact
the material.
Do not spray
directly on
poultry or feed
and water. Re-
peat as neces-
sary. Reduce
costs by spot
treatment of
trouble spots.











































This publication was promulgated at a cost of $739.40, or
24.6 cents per copy to inform poultry producers on external
parasites and fly control. 8-3M-80



COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLOR-
IDA, INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES,
K. R. Tefertller, director, In cooperation with the United States aF
Department of Agriculture, publishes this'Information to further the
purpose of the May 8 and June 30, 1914 Acts of Congress; and is
authorized to provide research, educational Information and other
services only to individuals and Institutions that function without regard to race, color,
sex or national origin. Single copies of Extension publications (excluding 4-H and Youth
publications) are available free to Florida residents from County Extension Offices.
Information on bulk rates or copies for out-of-state purchasers Is available from C. M.
Hinton, Publications Distribution Center, IFAS Building 664, University of Florida,
Gainesvllle, Florida 32611. Before publicizing this publication, editors should contact
this address to determine availability.




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