• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Historic note
 Title Page
 Main














Group Title: Circular - University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences ; 428
Title: Citrus grove records
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00067162/00001
 Material Information
Title: Citrus grove records
Series Title: Circular Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Physical Description: 9 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Muraro, R. P
Jackson, Larry Keith, 1939-
Florida Cooperative Extension Service
University of Florida -- Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
Publisher: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1977?
 Subjects
Subject: Citrus fruit industry -- Economic aspects   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: R.P. Muraro and L.K. Jackson.
General Note: "11-10M-77."
General Note: Cover title.
Funding: Circular (Florida Cooperative Extension Service);
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00067162
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 51253811

Table of Contents
    Historic note
        Unnumbered ( 1 )
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Main
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida




i ''


CITRUS GROVE

RECORDS
R.P. Muraro and L.K.Jackson


Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida, Gainesville
John T. Woeste, Dean for Extension


- ~~~~-~------~ lcl----~-~









CITRUS GROVE RECORDS
R. P. Muraro & L. K. Jackson'


Good grove records are just as important as
good cultural practices in the management of
citrus production operations. There is no basis for
comparison with other seasons or other groves
without them, nor is there any way to see if an
adequate return is received for the investment.
Records should be studied carefully in years
with favorable returns as well as in those occa-
sional years of poor returns since they can help
increase efficiency in production and management.
A complete record might be considered a piece of
equipment which will assist in determining more
efficient operations and better management which
should result in more favorable financial results
at the end of the fiscal year.
Variations among groves and grove practices
eliminate the possibility of finding all factors or
practices that are responsible for the yields and
profits of the best groves. The programs and
practices used on profitable groves can seldom,
if ever, be used in toto on other groves with equal
success, but comparisons of production techniques
may be beneficial.
The most corhmon fiscal period for citrus grove
records is September through August. However,
any fiscal period is satisfactory as long as
monthly records are kept. Results measured in
fruit yields should be from the bloom that oc-
curred in the spring of the fiscal period in ques-
tion. For example: A grove record for September
1976 through August 1977 would produce fruit
harvested in the period of September 1977
through August 1978 and would be chiefly the
result of grove practices and treatments during
the 1976-77 period.
Records should be kept each season on every
grove and should include the following:
1. Inventory of equipment owned.
2. Grove chart and inventory of trees by age,
variety and rootstock.
3. Dates and description of all operations.
4. Costs by operations.
5. Tonnage, analysis and composition of fer-
tilizers applied.
6. Sprays applied and spray and dust ma-
terials used.
7. Amount and date of irrigation water ap-
plied.


8. Rainfall record for the year.
9. Temperature record particularly low
temperatures.
10. Boxes harvested, disposition and financial
returns by variety.
11. Number and variety of resets planted with
location.

Record Forms
Forms best suited to supply the desired infor-
mation should be used. Large columnar sheets
are often used to good advantage, as are monthly
data sheets with seasonal summaries. The num-
ber of groves involved should also be considered
before deciding on forms.
Outlines of a few forms that might be used in
keeping a grove record are given in this publi-
cation. Information which is received from these
forms over a period of years will be helpful in
finding more profitable methods of organization,
operation and management of the grove. Such in-
formation is also valuable in obtaining credit
when needed and in preparing income tax returns.


Grove Inventory
Table 1 is a form for recording tree numbers
by variety, rootstock, age and planting distance.
This inventory is made at the beginning of each
season. The first inventory may necessitate an
actual tree count or can be made up from a grove
chart or plat (see Table 7). Each succeeding tree
inventory may 'be readily made from the previous
one by adding one year to all ages, adjusting tree
counts for trees removed and adding resets.


Equipment Inventory
Table 2 is an inventory sheet for equipment
owned by the grove operator. The first item on
this inventory sheet is an estimate of the value
of the land and trees in the grove. This figure
should be the amount the grove is considered to
be worth for long-time fruit-producing purposes.
This figure also is useful for determining an
interest charge on investment in land and trees.
An interest charge on the investment should be


lExtension Agent, Farm Management and Extension Horticulturist, respectively. The authors wish to acknowledge the work of the late Zach
Savage, Agricultural Economist, University of Florida, upon whose work much of this publication is predicated.








considered in all business operations. The inven-
tory may be summarized and prorated to the vari-
ous grove records included on an acreage or use
basis if this equipment is used on more groves
than those included in the particular account.
There is no equipment inventory to be recorded
where grove work is done by a caretaker, since
these costs are included in caretaking charges.

Grove Receipts
Table 3 is designed to show on-tree receipts
and boxes of fruit handled or picked by method
of sale. The data desired are the number of boxes
of fruit by variety and the amount of money the
fruit brought on the tree.

Grove Expenses
Table 4 is an example of a monthly expense
sheet. A large multiple column sheet could be
used with a column for the date of grove opera-
tion. However, such a method does not provide
for as much detailed information as Table 4.
Table 4 is divided into 3 sections:
The first section is designated as General Ex-
penses. This section is for recording labor, gaso-
line, oil, repairs, insurance, irrigation and all
other expenses where equipment is owned by the
operator. Purchases of equipment may be item-
ized and entered in the miscellaneous column if
such is to be written off as current expenses.
Equipment that is to be charged to more years
of operation than the current one, should be en-
tered on the equipment inventory sheet (Table
2) in the "additions and repairs" column.
The second section is for fertilizer analysis and
tonnage schedule. This division is used only in
those months when fertilizer is applied. Attempts
at a grove analysis from the standpoint of ferti-
lizer added will be of little value unless complete
information is recorded. Therefore, it is impor-
tant that the fertilizer tonnage and complete
fertilizer analysis be recorded. The columns at
the right of the sheet allow for recording the
total cost of each fertilizer application as well as
the cost per acre.
The third section is for the spray and dust
analysis and schedule. Columns are provided to
record the type of spray program being applied
as well as the materials used in each spray pro-
gram along with the cost of those materials. Col-
umns at the right of the sheet allow for recording
the cost per tank and the total cost for each
spray program.


Accumulative Grove Expenses
Often a grower will want to determine expendi-
tures as of a particular date. Table 5 enables the
grower to keep an accumulated cost by date and
by grove practice. This sheet will be useful when
summarizing the grove records at the end of the
fiscal year as well as aiding in developing a cash
flow chart for financial planning.

Summary Statement
A summary sheet for combining costs and re-
turns for a season is shown in Table 6. This is a
summary statement for the grove for one year,
and renders an easy comparison with other
groves in other seasons. There are several points
that should be taken into consideration in making
such comparisons. The most important of these
are the average age of trees and varieties of fruit
in each grove. Also, the summary statement
shown on Table 6 will allow direct comparison of
citrus grove care costs which are now being made
available by the Cooperative Extension Service.

Tree Chart
Growing orchard crops such as citrus is a long-
term investment, unlike many other agricultural
endeavors. Therefore, every effort should be made
to maintain each tree at top efficiency. There is
nothing the grower can do to assist in this effort
that will be more valuable than a grove tree chart
or plat. One method of making such a chart is
shown on Table 7. This chart will assist in check-
ing questionable trees to determine whether their
production is profitable or whether they should
be replaced.
A grove history showing the source and variety
of rootstock and scion should be included with
the grove chart. Knowledge of the parent trees
will assist growers and technical workers when
grove problems develop.

Concluding Statement
Keeping and using records analytically contrib-
utes to the efficiency of any citrus enterprise. It
is important to maintain data regularly on grove
conditions and production costs. Grove practices
and elements of management become more mean-
ingful when responses are available on paper for
study and comparison. Keeping good grove rec-
ords is merely an exercise unless they are used
regularly. These records are important manage-
ment tools and should be consulted before making
changes in programs that may affect returns.







Citrus Grove Record

Business Year: to
(name, number, etc.)


Condition:


Acres:

Legal description:

Soil type:

Kind of cover crop:


Sec. Twp.
If irrigated
source of water:

Light: Medium:_


TREE RECORD

Planting Number of
Class Variety Rootstock Age distance trees Acres


Early Oranges



Midseason
Oranges




Late Oranges



Seedy
Grapefruit



Seedless
Grapefruit








Tangerines




Temples



Other:


Totals


Range



Heavy:




Table 2.


Grove and Equipment Inventory


(name, number, etc.)


Business Year: to


Make these entries beginning of business year Make these entries end of business year
.I IIT .


Property and
description


Quantity


Value
as of


Additions
and
repairs


Machinery
sold


Value
as of


Appre-
ciation/
deprec.


Real estate:
Land $ $ $ $
Trees
Buildings:




Irrigation:
Wells or lake
Pumps
Motors
Mains: surface
underground


Volume or
traveling gun
Permanent
sprinklers

Equipment:
Tractor
Disc
Chopper
Mower
Fert. spreader
Sprayer
Duster
Water & supply
truck or tank
Trailer
Truck
Auto




Miscell. tools
Grove supplies


Totals $
$ $ $ $ $


Grove:


% for
other
accounts





Grove Receipts


Business Year: to _


(name, number, etc.)


Method Value Marketing expenses Net return
Variety of fruit of received Pick & Pack & Per
& number of boxes sale' ($/box, p.s.) haul selling box Total
$ $ $ $


Date






















Tota



Date





Total


Eliminations (CE),


e





l


S$ $ $_ $

Miscellaneous Receipts
Item and description Value
Crop insurance payment $



$


'Cash sale (CS), Participation (P), Consignment (C), Fresh (F), Bulk (B), Cannery or
etc.


~t





Grove Expenses


Grove:


Business Year: to


(name, number, etc.)


General Expenses

Item Truck & Gas Other Irrigation Irrigation Miscellaneous
Date description Quantity Labor tractor and grove repairs gas and oil grove work Total
repairs oil equip.






Total $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $





Fertilizer Schedule

Quantity Analysis Cost Cost
Variety per acre per
N P2Os K20 MgO MnO CuO ZnO Fe203 B203 Lime or Dolm. Application Material Total acre


$ $$ $





Total $ $




Spray And Dust Schedule

Spray Quantity/cost per 500 gallon tank Concentration per tank: T l Cost
program Quantity/cost per 500 gallon tank (dilute, 2X, 5X, 10X, etc.) Total
Variety(P. bloom ____TKS_____________rt____ ____________ -_ __ __ __ = Tota
(P. bloom, Copper Zinc Manga- Chloro- Ethion Tri- Kel- Oil Benlate Other Other Sulphur Cost per tanks Appl. Material Total
S. oil, etc.) nese benzilate __ thion thane dust tank




_Total__ __ $ $ $ $


Total ______ ____ ___ ____________ ___ ______ ____________ _____$___ $ $$


Table 4.




Table 5.


Accumulative Grove Expenses


m--u-


(name, number, etc.)


Business Year: to


Labor, Young Accumul.
Date Description Disc Chop Mow general Herb- Ferti- Spray/ Hedging Topping Tree Irrigation tree Miscel- Grove Total total
grove wk. icide lize dust removal care laneous taxes costs costs


_$ $ $ $ $ $ $ _$ $ $ $ $ $ $


















Total $ $ $ $ $ $ $
















Total __________ ___$ $ $ $ $ $ __$ __$ __$ $ $ $ $ $ $ $




Table 6.


Summary of Grove Record*


Grove:
(name, number, etc.)
Acres in Grove: T


'otal Boxes of Fruit:


Business Year: to


Boxes Per Acre:


Item Grove total Per acre Per box
for year


Total Revenue .. ......................

Grove Expenses:
Disc ..................................

Chop ..............................

M ow .... ............................

Labor, General Grove Work, Pull Vines ....

H erbicide ..............................

S pray .... ...........................

D ust...................................

Fertilizer .................................

Hedging and Topping ..................

Brush Removal ........................

Tree Removal .........................

Young Tree Care .......................

Irrigation ..............................

Miscellaneous ..........................

Grove Taxes ..........................

Interest Expense .....................

Depreciation on Buildings & Equipment .....

Total Grove Expenses ................

Net Returns ................................


$ $ $


$ $ $

$ $ $


*Include costs of labor, power and material for operations when applicable.





Table 7.


Tree Chart of Citrus Grove*
(Example)


21
3
41
5
6
71
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32


Legend, Year Set, Number of Trees
and Acreages


Year
Set Trees Acres


P-Pineapple Oranges ....
V-Valencia Oranges .....
G-Seedy Grapefruit .....
M-Marsh Seedless Gpft .
T-Tangerines ...........
R-Resets ...............


1952
1952
1952
1952
1952
1971


.01
2.43
.40
2.01
.03
.11


2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
MW M M V MW M M MI M M
M M M M M M M M V M
M G V M M V M M M M
MMMMMMMMVM
G G V M M G M M M M
V M VMMGM M M MM

G M V M G M M M V M
M V V M V M V M M V
V M V G G G M M V M
G V V M M M V M V M
M V V M M M M M V M
G G M M M M M R M M
MM M M M M M M V V
M G M M MM V V V V
V V M M M V V V V V
M G M M M M M M M V
M M M V R M V P V V
M M M V V M M V V V
G G M M V M M V V V
M G M M M M M V M V
G V M M G G M M V M
V V V V V V M V V V
V V V V V V V V V V
V V V V V V V V V V
V V V V V V V V V T
V V V V V V V V V V
V V V V V V V V V V
V V V V V V V V V R
V V V V V V V V V V
V V V V V V V V V V
V V V V V V V V V V
V V V V V V V V V V


*Author's note: A tree chart as above is somewhat unique, as a mixed planting is represented. Frequently,
a chart will show only a single variety in a block and symbols could be used which represent tree condition
or yield. An integral part of any chart would be a listing of scion variety, rootstock, source of trees and tree
age plus any permanent features such as buildings, wells, roads or the like.


352 5.05

Planting distances 25 ft. x 25 ft.
In charting a grove, use paper having parallel
lines drawn horizontally and vertically with the re-
sulting squares of sufficient size for writing in sym-
bols for each tree. In most cases the chart should
be oriented on the charting paper with the top of
the sheet representing north, or as near north as
possible. For purposes of locating individual trees
on the chart the lines and columns should be num-
bered. One good method of numbering is shown on
this chart. Begin at upper left, or northwest, corner
and number downward for lines. Begin at same
position and number to right for columns. Then two
numbers will represent the position of any tree on
the chart. For example, the designated position of
the Pineapple orange tree would be 17-9. (Line
17, column 9).













































This publication was promulgated at a cost of $968.21, or 9.7 cents per copy, to provide informa-
tion to citrus producers on the importance of good grove records in the management of citrus pro-
duction operations.



Single copies are free to residents of Florida and may be obtained from the County Extension Office. Bulk rates are available upon
request. Please submit details of the request to C.M. Hinton, Publication Distribution Center, IFAS Building 664, University of Florida,
Gainesville, Florida 32611.



11-10M-77

COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS
(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)
Cooperative Extension Service, IFAS, University of Florida
and United States Department of Agriculture, Cooperating
K. R. Tefertiller, Director


TIE1%..111. IEEWICH EXTENSION




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs