• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Foreword
 Table of Contents
 Part One
 Part two
 Part three














Group Title: Its Bulletin ; no. 5
Title: A guide to teaching physical education in secondary schools
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00067136/00001
 Material Information
Title: A guide to teaching physical education in secondary schools
Series Title: Its Bulletin
Physical Description: xiii, 407 p. : illus. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- State Dept. of Education
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee
Publication Date: 1948
Edition: 3d ed.
 Subjects
Subject: Physical education and training -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Funding: Bulletin (Florida. State Dept. of Education) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00067136
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 06987717
lccn - a 53003435

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front cover
        Front Cover 2
    Foreword
        Page i
        Page ii
        Page iii
    Table of Contents
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
        Page ix
        Page x
        Page xi
        Page xii
        Page xiii
        Page xiv
    Part One
        Page xv
        Page xvi
        The nature and significane of physical education
            Page 1
            Page 2
            Page 3
            Page 4
            Page 5
            Page 6
            Page 7
            Page 8
            Page 9
            Page 10
            Page 11
        Standards and policies
            Page 12
            Page 13
            Page 14
            Page 15
            Page 16
            Page 17
            Page 18
            Page 19
            Page 20
        Safety in physical education
            Page 21
            Page 22
            Page 23
            Page 24
            Page 25
            Page 26
        Public and professional relations
            Page 27
            Page 28
            Page 29
            Page 30
            Page 31
            Page 32
            Page 33
            Page 34
            Page 35
            Page 36
    Part two
        Part two
        The regular class program
            Page 36
            Page 37
            Page 38
            Page 39
            Page 40
            Page 41
            Page 42
            Page 43
            Page 44
            Page 45
            Page 46
            Page 47
            Page 48
            Page 49
            Page 50
            Page 51
            Page 52
        The adapted program
            Page 53
            Page 54
            Page 55
            Page 56
            Page 57
            Page 58
            Page 59
            Page 60
            Page 61
            Page 62
            Page 63
            Page 64
            Page 65
            Page 66
            Page 67
            Page 68
            Page 69
        The intramural sports program
            Page 70
            Page 71
            Page 72
            Page 73
            Page 74
            Page 75
            Page 76
            Page 77
            Page 78
            Page 79
            Page 80
            Page 81
            Page 82
        The interscholastic athletic program
            Page 83
            Page 84
            Page 85
            Page 86
            Page 87
            Page 88
            Page 89
            Page 90
            Page 91
            Page 92
            Page 93
            Page 94
            Page 95
            Page 96
            Page 97
        Special programs and informal use of facilities
            Page 98
            Page 99
            Page 100
            Page 101
            Page 102
            Page 103
            Page 104
            Page 105
            Page 106
            Page 107
            Page 108
    Part three
        Part three
        Archery
            Page 109
            Page 110
            Page 111
            Page 112
            Page 113
            Page 114
            Page 115
        Badminton
            Page 116
            Page 117
            Page 118
            Page 119
            Page 120
            Page 121
            Page 122
            Page 123
            Page 124
            Page 125
            Page 126
            Page 127
            Page 128
            Page 129
            Page 130
        Basketball for girls
            Page 131
            Page 132
            Page 133
            Page 134
            Page 135
            Page 136
            Page 137
            Page 138
            Page 139
            Page 140
        Basketball for boys
            Page 141
            Page 142
            Page 143
            Page 144
            Page 145
            Page 146
            Page 147
            Page 148
            Page 149
        Developmental and conditioning activities
            Page 150
            Page 151
            Page 152
            Page 153
            Page 154
            Page 155
            Page 156
            Page 157
            Page 158
            Page 159
            Page 160
            Page 161
            Page 162
            Page 163
            Page 164
            Page 165
            Page 166
            Page 167
            Page 168
            Page 169
            Page 170
            Page 171
            Page 172
            Page 173
            Page 174
            Page 175
            Page 176
            Page 177
            Page 178
            Page 179
            Page 180
            Page 181
            Page 182
            Page 183
            Page 184
            Page 185
            Page 186
            Page 187
            Page 188
            Page 189
            Page 190
            Page 191
        Golf
            Page 192
            Page 193
            Page 194
            Page 195
            Page 196
            Page 197
            Page 198
            Page 199
            Page 200
        Recreational games
            Page 201
            Page 202
            Page 203
            Page 204
            Page 205
            Page 206
            Page 207
            Page 208
            Page 209
            Page 210
            Page 211
            Page 212
            Page 213
        Rhythmic activities
            Page 214
            Page 215
            Page 216
            Page 217
            Page 218
            Page 219
            Page 220
            Page 221
            Page 222
            Page 223
            Page 224
            Page 225
            Page 226
            Page 227
            Page 228
            Page 229
            Page 230
            Page 231
            Page 232
            Page 233
            Page 234
            Page 235
            Page 236
            Page 237
            Page 238
            Page 239
            Page 240
            Page 241
            Page 242
            Page 243
            Page 244
            Page 245
            Page 246
            Page 247
            Page 248
            Page 249
            Page 250
            Page 251
            Page 252
            Page 253
            Page 254
            Page 255
            Page 256
            Page 257
            Page 258
            Page 259
        Social recreational games
            Page 260
            Page 261
            Page 262
            Page 263
            Page 264
            Page 265
            Page 266
            Page 267
            Page 268
            Page 269
            Page 270
            Page 271
            Page 272
            Page 273
            Page 274
            Page 275
            Page 276
            Page 277
        Softball
            Page 278
            Page 279
            Page 280
            Page 281
            Page 282
            Page 283
            Page 284
            Page 285
            Page 286
            Page 287
            Page 288
            Page 289
            Page 290
            Page 291
            Page 298
            Page 299
        Swimming and water safety
            Page 300
            Page 301
            Page 302
            Page 303
            Page 304
            Page 305
            Page 306
            Page 307
            Page 308
            Page 309
            Page 310
            Page 311
            Page 312
            Page 313
            Page 314
        Table tennis
            Page 315
            Page 316
            Page 317
            Page 318
            Page 319
            Page 320
            Page 321
            Page 322
            Page 323
        Tennis
            Page 324
            Page 325
            Page 326
            Page 327
            Page 328
            Page 329
            Page 330
            Page 331
            Page 332
            Page 333
            Page 334
            Page 335
            Page 336
            Page 337
            Page 338
            Page 339
            Page 340
            Page 341
            Page 342
            Page 343
            Page 344
        Touch football
            Page 345
            Page 346
            Page 347
            Page 348
            Page 349
            Page 350
            Page 351
            Page 352
            Page 353
            Page 354
            Page 355
            Page 356
            Page 357
            Page 358
        Track and field
            Page 359
            Page 360
            Page 361
            Page 362
            Page 363
            Page 364
            Page 365
            Page 366
            Page 367
            Page 368
            Page 369
            Page 370
            Page 371
            Page 372
            Page 373
        Tumbling, pyramids and apparatus activities
            Page 374
            Page 375
            Page 376
            Page 377
            Page 378
            Page 379
            Page 380
            Page 381
            Page 382
            Page 383
            Page 384
            Page 385
            Page 386
            Page 387
            Page 388
            Page 389
            Page 390
            Page 391
            Page 392
            Page 393
            Page 394
            Page 395
        Volley ball
            Page 396
            Page 397
            Page 398
            Page 399
            Page 400
            Page 401
            Page 402
            Page 403
            Page 404
            Page 405
            Page 406
            Page 407
            Page 408
Full Text




t0


fa ewe e ta


I7?"e",


PHYSICAL EDUCATION

lit

SECONDARY SCHOOLS






BULLETIN NO. 5
Third Edition, 1948





STATE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA
COLIN ENGLISH, Superintendent




























hIEA~LTh ~
IIY 2. e












Foreword

In 1938 the State Courses of Study Committee recommended the
preparation of a physical education bulletin suitable for use in the
secondary schools. Numerous physical education teachers from over
the state participated in the development of the materials to be
included in the bulletin, and a special group spent six-weeks at the
University of Florida in the summer of 1939, placing them in final
form. The materials were published as State Department of Educa-
tion Bulletin 5, Physical Education in the Secondary Schools, in
October, 1939.

In order to provide leadership in helping Florida teachers pre-
pare youth for the extraordinary demands of war, the materials
were revised in the Spring and Summer of 1942. The revised mate-
rials so generously provided by physical education teachers from
all sections of the state were edited by a group of teachers who
met for two weeks at the Univeristy of Florida. Mr. Joe Hall of
the State Department of Education directed the work of the com-
mittee. The revised edition, Source Materials for Physical Educa-
tion in Secondary Schools, was published in June, 1942.
With the close of World War II, the State Courses of Study
Committee again asked that the materials be revised to meet pres-
ent day needs. Consequently, a group of outstanding teachers- was
invited to participate in this revision at a six-weeks workshop con-
ducted by the University of Florida during the 1948 Summer Term.

Those who attended the workshop for the entire term were:
Mike Long and Mrs. Mary Norfleet, Ft. Myers; Shirley Sherman,
Daytona Beach; Sam Messer, Charles Jenkins, Mrs. Dorothy Thoma-
son, and Louise Taylor, Miami; Jack McGriff and Martha Twitty,
Gainesville; John Parker, Mayo; Walter Middlekauff, B. I. Loft,
and Ruth Smith, Jacksonville; Carey McDonald, Callahan; Jack
Smith, John McDonald, and Betty Mae George, West Palm Beach;
Virginia Morton, Ft. Lauderdale; Richard Spoto, Mrs. Rita Owens,
and Ruth Moffatt, Tampa; Ed. J. Stack, Clermont; Ernest Priest,
Pensacola; John Golden, Stuart; and J. L. Slay, Ft. Pierce.








Dr. E. Benton Salt of the College of Physical Education, Health
and Athletics, and B. K. Stevens, Consultant in Physical Education
and Recreation, State Department of Education, served as co-direc-
tors of the workshop. They were assisted by Miss Margaret Weeks
and Mr. Herman Schnell of the College of Physical Education,
Health and Athletics. Other personnel of the College who rendered
valuable assistance during the workshop were Dean D. K. Stanley,
D. W. Halladay, Spurgeon Cherry, F. B. Haar, Gordon Mooney,
-Harry Fogleman, F. E. Philpott, and J. R. McCachren.

Dr. Katherine Montgomery, Miss Grace Fox, and Miss Mary
Titus of the Women's Physical Education Department, and Dr.
Howard Danford of the Men's Physical Education Department of
Florida State University, gave valuable assistance to the group.
In addition to preparing some of the materials, they attended ses-
sions of the workshop on several occasions and rendered other
consultation services.

During the last week of the workshop, a group of leaders who
could not attend for the entire six weeks reviewed the materials
which had been prepared. In addition to those already named,
others who attended the reviewing session were: Mrs. Sara S. Jerni-
gan and Phillip Glancy, Department of Physical Education, Stet-
son University, DeLand; John Seay, Marion County Supervisor,
Ocala; Janet Wells and Dwight Hunter, Alachua County Physi-
cal Education Supervisors, Gainesville; T. J. Bleier, Dade County
Physical Education Supervisor, Miami; W. P. Patterson, Polk
County Physical Education Supervisor, Bartow; Neville Triplett,
Physical Education Director, Winter Haven; Joe Hall, Director of
Instruction, State Department of Education, Tallahassee; and D. E.
Williams, Supervisor of Negro Education, State Department of Edu-
cation, Tallahassee. Mr. Williams was accompanied by Coach Gaither
and Mrs. Steele of the Physical Education Department of the Flor-
ida Agricultural and Mechanical College for Negroes, Tallahassee,
and W. E. Combs, Specialist in Negro Education, State Department
of Education, Tallahassee, who represented the negro schools of
Florida.









Many others from the public schools and institutions of higher
learning of the state contributed in various ways to the successful
preparation of these materials. Among these were I. F. Waglow,
Mary Lippitt, Cornelia Edmondson, Dorothy McBride, Dora Hicks,
and Zollie Maynard of the College of Physical Education, Health
and Athletics of the University of Florida.

The schools of Florida are deeply grateful to all of those indi-
viduals for the excellent work they have done.






State Superintendent of Public Instruction










CONTENTS

FOR EW OR D ................. .................................................................... .......... .... i

PART ONE
Chapter Page
I The Nature and Significance of Physical Education ......... 1
Basic Point of View ....................................... 2
Purposes of Physical Education ...................................... 3
The Contribution to Organic Development ................ 3
The Contribution to Mental Health ............................ 4
The Contribution to Social Behavior .......................... 4
The Contribution to Leisure Time .............................. 5
Essential Parts of the Physical Education Program ........ 5
Relationship of Physical Education to Allied-Fields ........ 8
Relationship to Health Education ................................ 8
Relationship to Safety Education ................................ 9
-Relationship to Recreation ......................................... 10
II Standards and Policies ........................ ......................... 12
Personnel ............ .......... .......................... 12
Facilities ............................................. 13
O outdoor ................ .............. ........................... ...... 13
IndooTr ........ ................................................................ 14
Equipm ent ................................................................ ............ 15
financee ............................ 15
Safety .......................... ...................................................... 16
Credit and Time Allotment .................................................. 16
Teacher Load ............. ................................................ 17
SScheduling ..... ......... ............ ........................................ :: .... 17 17
The Health Examination ................................................. 18
Absence from Class ........................... ............. 18
D ress ... .............................. ....................... 18
G reading .............................. ................................................... 18
'-Intram ur)ls ...................... ..... ...................................... ... 19
Inte scholastic Athletics .................... ............................. 19
Free\Use of Facilities .................................................... .... 19
Selected References ..... .................... ............ 20
III Safety in Physical Education ................................... ......... 21
Facilities and Equipment Controls .................................... 22
Leadership Controls ................................................................. 23
Program Controls ........................... ............................... 24
Student Controls .......................... ............................... 25
Suggested Projects and Activities ........................................ 25
Selected References ................... ...... ............................. .... 26
IV Public and Professional Relations ..................................... 27
Professional Training and Improvement .......................... 27
Professional Organizations .......................................... 28
Florida Education Association ............................... 28
Florida Athletic Coaches Association ................... 29
American Association for Health, Physical Educa-
tion and Recreation ........................................... 29
Other Organizations ..................................... ........... 29
Community Relations ................................. .........29









Chapter Page
Pupil Relations .--------.....-----......... ................................. 29
Faculty Relations ..................................................... 30
Contributions to Community Life ................................ 30
Media for Interpreting the Physical Education Program 31
Students .......................... ........... .............................. 31
N ew spapers ............. ................................................ 32
State and Local Organizations ........................................ 32
Demonstrations and Exhibitions ................................. 33
Assembly -Programs .................... .. ....................... 34
Radio :.. ------.... ................................................ --34
Motion-'Pictures ............................. ............................. 35
Special Communications to Parents ............................. 35
Signs and Posters ................................ .................... 35
Selected References .......................... ...................... 35

PART Two

V .,The Regular Class Program ................................. ........... 36
/ Organizing the Program ......................-..............-............. 36
Scheduling Students ................................................... 37
Selecting Activities ....................................................... 38
:. '"*Arranging the Program of Activities .......................... 39
Planning a Unit ....................................................................... 40
Orientation ........................... .................................. 40
Determiinng the Objectives ........................................... 0
Selecting Pupil Activties ............................................ 41
Skill D rills ........................................................................ 42
Skill gam es .................................................... ............. 42
Determining the Organization of the Unit .................. 42
Division of the Unit ...........---------................................. 43
Organization of Squads or Teams ........................... 43
Division of Class into Sections ............................... 44
Extra-Instructional Problems ................................... 45
Selecting Evaluation Measures .................................... 47
Knowledge Tests .............. ..................................... 47
Skill Tests ....................................................................... 47
Teacher Judgment .......................................................... 47
Pupil Judgment ...................................... .......... 48
Selecting M materials ............................................................ 48
Conducting the Unit .................................................................. 48
Daily Lesson Plans ............................................................ 48
Organization for Skill Development ...................... 49
Programs for Inclement Weather ................................. 50
Social Recreation ............................................................ 50
-Co-Recreation ...................................................... 51
Classroom Periods ..................................... ........ 51
G reading ........................................ .. .................... .... 51
Selected References .......................................... 52
VI The Adapted Program ............................................................ 53
Objectives ..................................................................................... 54
Teaching Suggestions ................................................................ 54
Organization of Program ..................................... ...... 54
Medical Examination .................................................... 55
Classification and Scheduling .................................... 57
Formulation of Program .......................................... 57
Conduct of Program .................................................... 57









Chapter Page
Guidance .... .......... ........................... 57
Selection of Activities --.........--....................... 58
Suggestions for Specific Defects ........................................ 61
Amputations ................. .................................. 61
Circulatory Disturbances ............................................... 61
Foot Disorders ............................................................... 62
Glandular Disturbances ....................................... 63
H ernia .............................................................................. 63
Malnutrition .................................................................... 64
Paralysis ................................. ................................ ..... 65
Post-Operative Defects .............................................. 66
Respiratory and Nasal Obstructions............................ 67
Spinal Deviations ..................................................... 67
Bibliography ...... ....................... .......................... 68
VII The Intramural Sports Program ........................................ _70
Purposes ................................... ..................................... 70
Suggestions for Organizing and Administering an Intra-
mural Program ...... ............................................................. 71
Selection of Activities .......................................................... 74
Units of Competition ...................................... ........... 75
Home Rooms ........................................ .............. 75
Grades ..................................................... 76
Clubs or Organizations ...................................................... 76
Color Groups ................................................................... 76
Physical Education Classes ........................................ 76
"Choose-Up" Teams ........................................... ...... 76
Types of Competition ........................... ............................. 77
Tournaments ....................................... ......... 77
Single'Elimination Tournaments .............................. 77
Double Elimination Tournaments .......................... 79
Consdlation Tournaments ..................................... 79
League ....................................... ........... ........................ 80
M eets .................... ............... ..... ......... 81
Point System and Awards ........................................ 81
Selected References .................................................................. 82
VIII The Interscholastic Athletic Program ........................................ 83
Administrative Organization .............................................. 84
Administrative Policies ........................................................... 86
Personnel ......................................... .. .... ............. 86
Health and Welfare of the Participant ...................... 86
Finances ...................... .......- .........- ...- 88/
Officials ... ..................... ...................... 89
Awards ...................------- .......----------- -- s89'
Length of Seasons and Scheduling of Games .......... 90
Scheduling of Facilities ............................................... 90
Junior High Schools .............................. .......... 90
Program .................................................... ....................... 91
Varsity .. .............................. .... .......... ..... 91
Sports Days ...................................-....... 92
Types of Competition .................... ....... 92
Methods of Organizations ................ .............. 92
Activities ....... ..-..-- ..... ---...--- ---. ............................. 93
Athletic Associations and Conferences ........................... 93
Selected References .....................-.....-. .------------- ------- 97










Chapter Page
X Special Programs and Informal Use of Facilities .................. 98
Free Time Recreation .- ...... .............................. 98
Organization of Free Periods ................................... 98
Demonstrations or Exhibitions ............................................... 101
C lubs ....................................................................................... 101
Play D ays ...................................................................................... 102
Sports Clinic ........................................ .................................... 102
Organization ....... ............................ 103
Cheerleading ........................................................................... 103
Selecting Cheerleaders ....................... ......................... 104
Qualifications of Cheerleaders ...................................... 104
Attire and Equipment ............ .............................. 104
Tips and Suggestions ....................................................... 105
Pep Meetings ................................................................ 105
Sources of Materials ...................................... 105
Camping ........................................ 106
Developing a Program in Camping and Outdoor
Education ... .... ............................................. 106
A Program of Outdoor Education for Schools .......... 107
The Future of School Camping and Outdoor Living.. 108

PART THREE
X Archery ....................................... ................................. .......... 109
O objectives ............................................................................... 109
Teaching Suggestions .......................................................... 110
Care and Selection of Equipment ................................ 110
Terminology ........................................... 111
Analysis of Fundamental Skills ........................................ 112
String and Unstring the Bow ........................................ 112
The Stance ................................ ..... 113
Nocking the Arrow .......................................................... 113
Drawing the Bow .............................. .......................... 113
Aim ing .. .. ..................... ............ .............................. 114
Release and Hold ............................... ........ 115
Skill Practice and Games ....................... .................. 115
Bibliography ................. ........ ... ............. 115
X I Badm inton ........................................ ...................................... 116
Objectives ........................... .............. 116
Teaching Suggestions ................. ........... ................... 117
Selection and Care of Equipment .................................. 117
Progression in Teaching ....................................... 117
Suggested Principles for Class Instruction ................ 118
Team Play for Doubles .......................................... 118
Analysis of Fundamental Skills ..................................... 118
Forehand Stroke ............................ ............ 118
Backhand Stroke ......................... ...................... 119
Serves ........................................................... 120
Clear or Lob ................................................ ...... ............... 122
Overhead Smash ...................... ......... ................ .. 122
Drop Shots .................................. .. ................... 123
Round-the-Head Shot ....................................................... 123
General Strategy .......................... ....................... 124
Skill Practices and Games ............. .. .........................- 125
Description of the Game ....................................... .............. 129
Selected References .......-......... ................ .......... 130










Chapter Page
XII Basketball for Girls ................................. .............. ....... 131
Specific Objectives ................................... ..................... 131
Analysis of Fundamental Skills .......................... ............. 132
Passing ...................... .................. ...................... 132
Catching ......... ............... ..................................... 134
Goal Shooting ....................................................... 134
Turns and Pivots ................. ........................................... 134
Team Tactics ................................................... ........ 135
Skill Practices and Games ................. ................................. 135
Evaluation ...... ...................................... ..................... 139
Bibliography ........................................ 140
XIII Basketball for Boys ............................................................. 141
Specific Objectives .............................................................. 141
Analysis of Fundamental Skills ............................................ 143
Skill Practices and Games ................................................. 143
Bibliography ...................................................... ..................... 149
XIV Developmental and Conditioning Activities .......................... 149
Teaching Suggestions .................................. ..................... 150
Marching ................. ... .................... 151
Definitions ................. ........................................ 151
Teaching Methods and Class Organization ................ 153
Stationary Marching Commands .......................................... 154
Moving Marching Commands ..................................... ... 156
Squad Organization and Movements ............................ 159
Platoon Organization and Movements ................ 161
Calisthenics ................................................................................ 164
Teaching Suggestions ...................................................... 165
Individual Exercise Technique ................................... 166
Continuous Exercise Technique .................................. 166
By the Numbers Technique ....................................... 167
Description of Activities ......................................... ....... 171
Grass Drills .............................................. 183
Circle Exercises ................. ..---.. .. ..................... 184
Two M an Exercises .......................................... .................. 185
Description of Activities .............................. .................. 185
Combatives ........................................ 187
Description of Activities .....................................-....- ... 187
Rugged G am es ....................................................................... 188
Description of Activities ..... ................... 188-,
Selected References ......................... ............................... 191
XV Golf ................................................... 192
O objectives ........................................................... 192
Teaching Suggestions ............................................................... 193
Analysis of Fundamental Skills .................................... .... 194
The Grip ..................... .............................................. 194
The Stance ..................................................................... 194
The Address .................................................................... 195
The Swing ................................................................. .......... 195
Strokes ...... .................. ................ .......... ... ...... 197
Golf Etiquette ................... ................................................ 199
Selected References ................................. ..................... 200

XVI Recreational Games .................... -.............-...... 201
Description of Activities ..................... ................ ........ 201
D arts ......... .... .-... ........... .... ... ........ 201










Chapter Page
Dart Baseball ................................................................. 201
Deck Tennis ........................................................... 202
,Handball ................................. ...................... ...........204
H and Tennis ......................... ............................................. 207
H orseshoes ........................................................................ 207
SPaddle Tennis ....................................... 210
P etika ....................................... ....................................... 211
Shuffleboard .................................................................. 211
Tether Ball ........................................................................ 212
Selected References ............................................................... 213
XVII Rhythmic Activities ............................................ ............................. 214
General Objectives ........................................ .............. 214
An Introduction to Rhythm .................................................. 215
Metric Patterns ....................................... 215
Suggested Plan for Teaching Meter .......................... 215
Phrasing ..................................................................... 216
Suggested Plan for Teaching Phrasing .................... 216
Analysis of Fundamental Steps ................................... 217
Selected References ........................................................... 218
Folk and Square Dancing .................................................... 218
Analysis of Fundamental Folk Dance Steps ............. 218
Calls ...................................... .......................................... 219
Teaching Suggestions ................................................... 220
Recommended Dances ....................................................... 220
Selected References ........................................ 221
Social D ancing ........................................... ............................. 222
Social Dance Etiquette ............................................... 222
Social Dance Positions ..................................................... 223
Leading and Following .................................................... 223
Analysis of Fundamental Social Dance Steps ............ 224
The Fox Trot ......................... ................................. 224
The Waltz ................................. ...... 225
The Conga ............................... ............................ 226
The Rhum ba ...................... ........ ...... ....................... 227
The Sam ba ....................................................................... 228
The Tango ....................................................................... 229
Jitterbugging ................................................................... 229
Selected References ....................... ................ 229
Tap D ancing ........................................... .............................. 230
Terminology .................................... ................................. 230
Fundamental Steps .......... .......... ....................... 230
Teaching Suggestions ............. ................................ ...... 232
Selected References .............................. .....................233
Modern Dance ................................................ ....................... 233
Movement .................................................................. 233
Locomotor Movement ............................................. 233
Axial Movement ............................................................. 233
Variations in Movement ............................................... 234
Rhythm ....................................................... 235
U underlying Beat ............................................................. 235
Primary Rhythm .................................................... ..... 236
Secondary Rhythm ...................................................... 236
Contrapuntal Rhythm ................................................ 236
Suggestions for Teaching Rhythm ............................... 236
Teaching Suggestions for Movements ......................... 237
Locomotor Movements .................................... 237
Axial Movements ....................-- ... ............. 239
Non-locomotor Movements ........................................... 240
ix









Chapter Page
Creative Activity ..... ............................. ................. ........ 241
Rhythmic .....------------------ ..................................... 242
Movement .................... -....................................... 242
Space and Level ...... ............................................. 242
Accompaniment ........ ........................... 242
Suggested Plans for Creative Activity ........................... 243
Suggested Plans for Teaching the Moder Dance .... 243
Selected References ........................................................... 243
XVIII Soccer, Speedball, and Gator Ball ........................................ 244
Specific Objectives ...... ...................................................... 245
Analysis of Fundamental Skills ............................................. 247
D ribbling ................................... ....................................... 247
Passing .............................................................................. 247
Trapping ................................. ............ ........................ 248
Throw-In ............................................... ........................... 248
Punting ........ ....................................... ................................ 248
H leading ............................................................................ 248
Charging ............................................................................. 248
T ackling ............................................................................. 249
Chest Pass, Hook Pass, Catching ................................... 249
Lifting to a Teammate ..................................................... 249
Drop Kick .. ................................................................. 249
K ick to Self ........................................................... ........ .... 249
R oll U p ..................................... ................................. 249
Skill Practices and Games ...................................................... 250
Bibliography ............................................ ............. 259
XIX Social Recreational Games ........................... ........................ 260
Teaching Suggestions ....................................... ................... 261
Selecting Activities .......................................................... 261
Teaching Activities ...................................................... 261
Description of Activities ........................................ 265
Bibliography ........... ................................................................... 277
X X Softball ........................................................... ............................... 278
O objectives .................................................................................. 278
Teaching Suggestions ............................................................. 280
Suggested Progression ......................... ......................... 280
Safety Measures .................................. ........ 280
Analysis of Skills ................................................ 281
Pitching Underhand ...................................................... 281
Overhand Throw ......................... ............................ .....281
Underhand Throw ............................... ............ ............. 282
Catching ................................................................................ 282
H hitting ....................................... ... ................................... 282
B hunting ............................................................................. 283
Playing of Positions ........................................................... 283
Catcher ............................................................................. 283
Pitcher .................................... ................................... 284
First Baseman ..................................... ...................... 285
Second Baseman ....................... .................... 285
Short Stop ............................ ............................ 286
Third Baseman ....................................... .................. 287
The Outfielders .......................... ....................... 287
Sliding g................... ........-... .......................... 287
Base Running ............................ ..................... ......... 288
Coaching Base Runners ......................................... .... 289
x










Chapter Page
Analysis of Knowledges and Understandings ...................... 290
Offensive Team Play ...................................................... 290
Hit and Run .................................................................. 290
Stealing Bases .............................................................. 290
Sacrifice Bunts ............................................................... 290
Squeeze Play ....................................... ......................... 290
Defensive Team Play .................................................... 291
Double Steal ................................................................... 291
Sacrifice Bunt ................................................. ......... 291
Squeeze Play ...................................... 292
Relaying the Ball from the Outfield .......................... 292
Running Down Players in a Box ............................... 292
The Pitch Out ............................................................... 292
Skill Practices and Games .................................................... 293
Selected References ................................................................... 299

XXI Swimming and Water Safety .......................... ................... 300
Procedures for Teaching Swimming ................................... 300
Fundamental Skills .......................................................... 300
Eliminating Fear ......................................................... 300
Bobbing ............................................................................. 301
Floating ........................................................................... 301
Finning ............................................................................. 302
Sculling ............................................................................. 302
Strokes .................................................................................. 302
Elementary Back Stroke ............................................ 302
The Breast Stroke ...................................................... 304
The Side Stroke ..... .......................... ........................ 305
The Crawl Stroke ........................................................... 307
The Back Crawl Stroke ............................................... 308
Teaching Suggestions for Diving ............................................ 309
Terminology ........................................................................ 309
Safety in Diving ................................................................ 310
Suggested Procedures for Teaching Diving ................. 310
Elementary Drills ........................................................... 311
Diving Approach ........................................................... 312
Hurdle ....................................... 313
Take-Off ........................................................................... 313
Aerial Work ..................................................................... 313
Entry ................................................................................. 313
Bibliography .............................................................................. 314

XXII Table Tennis ....... .................................................................. 315
Specific Objectives ................................................................... 315
Analysis of Fundamental Skills ............................................. 316.
The Grip ........................................................................... 316;
The Serve ........................................................................... 316
The Half Volley or Push Shot .................................... 316
The Forehand Topspin Drive ......................................... 317
The Backhand Drive ........................................ .......... 317
The Forehand Chop .......................................... ........... 318
The Backhand Chop ......................................................... 318
The Backhand Flick ......................................................... 319
The Drop Shot .............................................................. 319
The Smash .......................................................................... 319
General Coaching Suggestions ........................................ 320
Skill Practices and Games ................................... 320
Bibliography ...................................................................... 32
xi










Chapter Page
XXIII Tennis ........................................... ......... ... ... .. ............ 324
Specific Objectives ................... .. ..................... ......... 324
Analysis of Fundamental Skills .............................................. 325
The Forehand Drive ............................... ...................... 325
The Backhand Drive .................. .......... ......... 326
The Service ............................................................... 327
The Volley ............................................................................ 328
The Lob .............. ......... ....... ....... .................. 329
The Overhead Smash .......................................... ...... 329
The Chop ............................................................................. 330
Footwork and Timing .............................. .... ............... 330
Analysis of Understandings ............................. ................-..... 332
Rules of the G am e ........................................................... 332
M ethod of Scoring ...................... .............................. 332
Tennis Tactics and Strategy ........................................ 333
Types of Tennis Games .................................................... 333
Etiquette for the Player ............................................. 334
Spectators' Etiquette ............................................... 335
Teaching Suggestions ............................................................... 335
Suggested Exercises Leading Up to Tennis Skills ... 337
Skill Practices and Games ...................................... 338
Evaluation .... ..................... ....................-.. .. .............. ....... 342
Selected References ..................... .......... ..............- 344
XXIV Touch Football ......................... ..... ................ 345
Objectives ...................................... ... ................. 345
Teaching Suggestions ............................................ ................. 346
Suggested Progression of Skills ...................................... 346
Suggestions for Prevention of Injuries ........................ 346
Analysis of Skills ...................................... ......... 346
Passing ........... ..... ...... .......- -........... .......... ......... 346
Forward Passing ...................................... 346
Lateral Passing ............................................................ 346
Receiving Passes and Kicked Balls ............................ 347
Thrown Passes ....................................... .. 347
Kicked Balls .................................... .. 347
Centering the Ball ........................................ .. 347
Kicking the Ball ..................................... 348
Punting ................... ............................. 348
Place Kicking ....................... .... .... ..... 348
Drop Kicking ............................ ....... ........... 349
Eluding a Defensive Player .................................... 349
Fade-Away .................. .......... ......... 349
Pivot .................. .......... .................. ...... ... 349
Side Step ............... ................................ .... 349
Change of Pace ........................................................ 350
Tagging the Ball Carrier .............. ....................... 350
Skill Practices ............................. ... .......... .. 350
Description of the Game ..................................................... 356
B ibliography .................................................... 358
XXV Track and Field .......................----....-----......-. 359
Objectives .....-.... ....--------- --- ... 359
Teaching Suggestions ......................... .... ..... 362
Teaching Procedure .................. ...................... .... 362
Squad Selection .................. ......... ... 362
Teaching Fundamentals .............................. 363
xii









Chapter Page
Placing of Squad Members in Best Events ........... 364
Intra-Class Track Meet ........................................... 364
M otivation ......................................................................... 365
Safety Measures ............................................................. 365
Teaching Techniques ...................................................... 366
R running .................................... ...... ..... ........ ..... 366
Jum ping ......................................................................... 369
Throwing Events ........................................................ 369
Running Area ................................................................. ............. 370
Check List of Equipment and Facilities ............................... 371.
Evaluation ....................................... ............................................ 371
Selected References ................................................................... 373
XXVI Tumbling, Pyramids, and Apparatus Activities ...................... 374
Purposes ....................................................... ..................... 374
Teaching Suggestions .......................... ......... ............ 375
Effective Safety Measures ............................................... 375
Care of Equipment ................................................... 375
Placement of Equipment ........................................... 375
Warm-Up .......................................................... ........... 376/
Clothing ............................ ........ ..... 376
Use of Equipment ...................................................... 376
Class Organization ......................... ................ 377
Squad System With Pre-Trained Leaders ........... 377
Unit System ................................................................. 377
Out-of-Class Practice ............................................... 378
Progression in Teaching ................................................... 378
Description of Activities ............................................... 378
Tumbling ...................................... ............................... 378
Apparatus ............................ .................. 389
Vaulting Box ............................................................ 389
Low Horizontal Bar ................................................. 390
High Horizontal Bar ................................................ 390
The Rope ...............................- ...... ......... ......- 393
Pyramids .............................................................................. 393
Selected References ........................................................ ......... 395
XXVII Volley Ball ......................- ...- .....-- ....................- 396
Specifice Objectives ................................. ........... 397
Teaching Suggestions .................... .............. ....... 397
Analysis of Fundamental Skills ............................................. 398
Serving Skills ........... ........................ ..... 398
Passing Skills ................................................................... 398
Attack .......................... ......... ....... 399
Defense .......................... ....................... 400
Skill Practices ................................. ............................ 400,
Skill Games ........--................. ........................ ......... 405,
Description of Game ..................................... ............... 406,
Selected References .......................... ........................ ....407















PART ONE

This section deals with the overall program of physical educa-
tion. The materials included pertain to those things which are of
vital concern to administrators as well as to teachers of physical
education.
Chapter I attempts to explain the nature of physical education
and to point out its place in the total educational program. It ex-
presses the point of view which served as a guide in the prepara-
tion of materials contained in this bulletin.
Chapter II emphasizes the importance of determining standards
and policies for the local program before the school term begins.
It lists some standards and policies which should be considered in
planning the local program.
Chapter III lists some guiding principles which will insure the
safety of participants in the physical education program. It seeks
to aid the administrator and the teacher in making the physical
education program a safe one without removing the element of
adventure inherent in the activities.
Chapter IV is concerned with the public and professional rela-
tions of the physical education staff. It presents some suggestions
which should be helpful to the administrator in evaluating the con-
tribution of the physical education personnel with respect to public
and professional relations. These suggestions should also be helpful
to the physical education teacher in his efforts to improve the service
rendered to the youth of the community.















CHAPTER I
THE NATURE AND SIGNIFICANCE OF
PHYSICAL EDUCATION


All living things have needs. The extent to which these needs
are met will determine, in large degree, the kind of life which any
organism lives. If the needs of a tree for air, food, sunlight and
water are completely unmet, the tree will die. If they are satisfied
only in part, the tree will never reach its full stature but will be
stunted, dwarfed and malformed.
The higher one goes in the scale of life the greater and more
diverse become the needs of the living organism. Man, the highest
form of life on this earth, has needs so numerous and varied that
much of his existence consists of a continuous series of attempts to
satisfy these deep seated, fundamental, human drives. As in the case
of the tree, if these needs are not met the individual will fail to
reach his full stature. He may become a maladjusted, warped, frus-
trated, and even a neurotic individual. The fullest potentialities of
life are never realized by him.
One of the major needs of human beings is the need for move-
ment. This is especially true of the young of the species just as it is
of the young of all animals. Watch a six month old baby as it lies
on its back waving its arms in the air and kicking incessantly, seldom
motionless except while sleeping. The four-year old plays all day
long at a pace that would exhaust an adult and leaves its mother
at the end of the day tired simply from trying to keep her child
from injuring itself and damaging the family property.
This biologic urge for movement is Nature's method of devel-
oping the young. Without this vigorous activity the child will
develop neither physically nor mentally as it should. When the
school recognizes this deep seated need in children, carefully selects
activities designed to meet this and certain other needs and con-
ducts them with due regard to educational outcome then the school has








2 PHYSICAL EDUCATION IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

a program of physical education. Physical education, therefore, is that
area of education which aims to produce desirable changes in youth
through the medium of carefully selected and competently con-
ducted physical activities.

BASIC POINT OF VIEW

The purpose of physical education is education. Just as all
education is concerned with the greatest possible development of
the individual, equipped to live more effectively in a democratic
society, so is physical education designed to help meet the needs of
the individual and the needs of society. The major purposes of all
education are the major purposes of physical education. The chief
differences between physical education and the so-called academic
subjects such as history, for example, are to be discovered not in
their ultimate purposes for these are identical but in their subject
matter, their methods, their approaches, their educational equipment
and supplies, and the facilities which they need for the proper con-.
duct of their area of education.
Books, maps, pamphlets, reports, and other printed materials
are some of the educational tools used by the teacher of history.
Balls, bats, nets, rackets, golf clubs and horseshoes are some of the
educational tools used by the teacher of physical education. The
history class reads, reports, investigates, discusses, makes field trips,
and keeps notes on lectures by the teacher. The physical education
class is conducted very largely on a laboratory basis. Students learn
by doing. The concept of cooperation becomes meaningful as the
teacher of basketball emphasizes the importance of passing to a
teammate who is in a better position to shoot. Subordination of self
for the good of the group takes on new significance as the coach
of baseball stresses the contribution which the sacrifice bunt can
make to the success of the team. The gymnasium and the playground
are laboratories wherein students develop, under proper leadership,
many of those qualities which are deemed important in citizens in
a democracy. These qualities do not result automatically from par-
ticipation in activities but must be sought deliberately by teachers
who select activities on the basis of their educational potentialities
and conduct them in such a manner as to achieve the greatest possi-
ble educational results.








NATURE AND SIGNIFICANCE OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION 3

The teacher of history works largely through the higher cen-
ters of the nervous system. The teacher of physical education
approaches the problems of education chiefly through the neuro-
muscular system. When the armed forces attack an objective they
converge upon it by a variety of routes-in the air, by the sea, and
overland by many different roads. This is true also of the schools
and their attack upon the problems of education. Physical education
is one of the routes along which the forces of education converge
upon their objectives. A sound program of physical education is an
essential factor in the complete education of youth today.
The human being cannot be divided into a mind and a body.
The individual is a unit and reacts as a unit. Any program of educa- 4
tion based upon a supposed separation of mind and body is certain
to fail. A teacher works with human beings in whom the so-called
"mental and physical" qualities are so interrelated as to be impos-
sible of separation. There can be no isolation in mind-body relation-
ships. Physical education, therefore, seeks to educate the whole
child through the medium of physical activity.

PURPOSES OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION
Physical education, as a part of education, finds its major pur-
poses in the major purposes of general education. The dominant
purpose of physical education should be the advancement of the
democratic ideal by developing in youth those qualities which are
important in citizens'in a democracy.

THE CONTRIBUTION TO ORGANIC DEVELOPMENT
The organic systems of the body are developed largely through
physical activity. The heart, lungs and other vital organs are muscles
which grow, and develop, and remain strong only when exercised
in accordance with individual needs. Participation in vigorous
activities develops strength, endurance, agility, a sense of personal
competence, and other qualities related to both physical and mental
fitness. The desire to make an athletic team is a powerful incentive
to clean living. Health becomes particularly meaningful to youth as
a quality which enables them, if they possess it, to gain athletic
recognition. The gymnasium, locker room, swimming pool, and play-
field provide practical laboratories for the development of favorable
attitudes toward health and the practice of health habits.








4 PHYSICAL EDUCATION IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

THE CONTRIBUTION TO MENTAL HEALTH
A good program of physical education contributes to sound men-
tal health. This contribution is highly significant in a nation wherein
approximately sixty per cent of all hospital beds are filled with men-
tal patients. The mental health values of physical education lie in:
1. The opportunities for self-expression in joyous forms of
physical activity.
2. The relieving of strains and tensions of modern living, some
of which the school itself often creates, through satisfying
activities which completely absorbs the individual.
3. The developing of personalities whose interests are directed
beyond one's self.
4. The development of a sense of achievement through skillful
performance in physical activities.
5. The opportunities for becoming a member of a team and thus
satisfying the deep seated human need for a sense of belong-
ing, of being needed, of being an essential part of the group.

THE CONTRIBUTION TO SOCIAL BEHAVIOR
There is probably no quality more greatly needed in American
life today than the quality of cooperation, the willingness to sacri-
fice one's personal and selfish interests for the greater welfare of the
group. Boys and girls learn to cooperate as members of a team by
actually cooperating, not just by reading or listening to lectures
about cooperation. The wider implications of this quality must be
emphasized by the teacher so that students will see its importance
on the community, state, national and international levels.
There are other qualities of the good citizen to which physical
education, properly taught, makes a vital contribution. Among these
qualities are: obedience to the rules of games, which are closely akin
to the laws of organized society; respect for officials; fair play; good
sportsmanship; loyalty to the group; self discipline; respect for the
rights and welfare of others; an appreciation of the worth of others;
leadership; and the simple but ever important quality of honesty.
These qualities do not accrue automatically from participation
in physical education. They result only when activities are con-
ducted by a high quality of leadership which clearly understands
its goals and seeks intelligently to attain them.









NATURE AND SIGNIFICANCE OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION 5

THE CONTRIBUTION TO LEISURE TIME
What a nation does with its leisure determines to a great extent
the quality of its civilization. Whether leisure in America is to
become a time for participation in activities which degrade human
beings and destroy the moral fiber of the people will depend largely
upon how good a job education does in preparing youth to make wise
choices in their leisure. (Physical education has a major contribution
to make toward the worthy use of leisure by developing a high degree
of skill in wholesome physical activities which may be enjoyed long
after one has left school.)

' ESSENTIAL PARTS OF THE PHYSICAL EDUCATION
PROGRAM

One of the first steps in the education of youth is instruction
and practice for the purpose of mastering the tools of learning. In
physical education these tools of learning are called "fundamental
skills." Running, walking, jumping and throwing are fundamen-
tal, and all activities in physical education can be broken down into
fundamental skills. In the game of basketball, for example, catching
and passing are fundamental skills, as well as shooting, dribbling,
and pivoting. The same is true of the skills of baseball, tennis, swim-
ming, apparatus, and dancing. Boys and girls do not possess these
skills at birth, nor do they acquire them automatically. These skills
must be taught just as reading is taught. Accurate practice is neces-
sary under the persistent guidance of an observant teacher. Tools
of learning are a means to an end. One must learn how to use them;
then one must have opportunity to use them for further develop-
ment and enjoyment. Just as after the child has mastered the skills
of reading, he is given access to books and encouraged to read them,
so also in physical education, a child after learning the fundamental
skills should be given opportunity for further development and enjoy-
ment through participation in physical education activities.
The program of physical education should, therefore, provide
opportunity- for:
1. Class instruction
2. Intramural activities
3. Interscholastic activities
4. Special programs and informal use of facilities








6 PHYSICAL EDUCATION IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

The class instruction period is the time when skills should .be
developed, knowledge acquired, .social qualities developed and
strengthened, and attitudes created. All these do not just happen.
They are realized only when consciously and intelligently striven
for by a teacher who regards physical education as a method of edu-
cation and looks upon the class period as a period of instruction, not
merely as an "exercise" period.
Two types of class instruction should be provided: The regular
class period for those who may participate in all physical education
activities, and the special class period for those whose participation
needs to be limited. The health examination should be the basis for de-
termining whether or not the student may participate in the regular
class instruction. The special class should provide an individualized
program suited to the capacities and needs of the pupil. No child
who is able to attend school should be permitted to be excused
entirely from the physical eductaion program. He should be excused
only from certain types of activities. The program of physical
education should be so comprehensive as to provide activities of
value for all youth, regardless of handicaps.
Intramural activities should provide an opportunity for parti-
cipation in addition to the regular class instruction. Supplementary
time should be provided at recess, after school or on Saturday, to
give children the opportunity to use and enjoy skills developed in
the class period. All children should be given an opportunity to
participate in intramurals according to their ability. Intramurals
are not just games; they should provide competition in many other
activities; for example, tumbling, dancing, apparatus, handball. Intra-
murals give meaning and significance to much of the intensive drill
of the class period. Opportunity for co-educational activities should
be provided. A well conducted program of intramurals provides a
laboratory for the development of the qualities of a good citizen in a
democracy.
Interscholastic athletics are that phase of the total program of
physical education ih provides the opportunity for pu s to fcom-
pete with those of similar ilitther schools. Any school which
conducts interscholastic sports but offers no intramurals and no regu-
larly scheduled program of physical education for all students is
derelict in its responsibilities to the youth of its community and in
reality has but a poverty stricken program of physical education.








NATURE AND SIGNIFICANCE OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION 7

Interscholastic athletics are an integral part of the complete
programof__ph si eaucatio n- hing. Therefore,
coaches are teachers of physical education and should have special
training in this field.
Too many interscholastic athletic programs are extremely nar-
row, providing only three sports-football, basketball, and baseball.
Since interscholastic athletics are a. part of physical education, their
sole justification is their contribution to the purposes of physical
education-to the organic development of youth, to the develop-
ment of mental health, to the development of standards of ethical
behavior, and to skills and interests for leisure both now and in
later life. Narrow programs contribute very little to the adult use
of leisure because of the nature of the activities. These narrow pro-
grams should be expanded considerably to include both individual
and team sports possessing adult leisure time values.
The effect of the interscholastic athletic program upon the other
phases of the program of physical education is so great that educators
must consider it in its total relationships and not as an isolated area
of education complete in itself. Let us examine interscholastic athletics
in their relationship to the leisure objective of physical education.
Skill in an activity is the best guarantee of its continuance.
People do in their leisure what they like to do and they like
to do that which they do well. A high degree of skill is seldom
achieved except through the motivation of the interscholastic athletic
program. It has been demonstrated repeatedly that the interest mani-
fested in a sport by pupils, teachers, and the public is very greatly
enhanced when the sport is placed on the interscholastic program.
This increased interest is reflected in both the class work in physical
education and in the program of intramurals by more widespread
participation, better teaching, and greater skill development. There-
fore, no interscholastic athletic program is sound nor educationally
justifiable which fails to include a number of sports which youth
can play for many years after they have left school. Among such
sports are the following: softball, volley ball, archery, golf, swimming,
tennis, badminton, bowling, handball and horseshoes. Schools are
urged to offer on an interscholastic basis just as many of these sports
as possible.
Special programs and informal use of facilities become more im-
portant with the increasing realization on the part of educators that








8 PHYSICAL EDUCATION IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

education is not confined to formal classroom work nor to those
activities carried on during the school day. The activities in which
the child engages after school, on Saturdays and during summer
vacation are educational and if properly conducted may be educa-
tion in right ways of living.
The adolescent boy or girl needs more physical activity than
that provided in the physical education class. The intramural and
interscholastic programs provide organized, competitive activities out-
side of school hours. But these do not meet the needs of all children
nor all the needs of any of the children.
Non-competitive dancing, hiking, cycling, horseback riding,
tumbling and the like appeal to some children more than competitive
activities. If the needs of the children are to be fully met the physical
education program must provide a variety of this type of activity.
Clubs should be organized for as many of these non-competitive ac-
tivities as provision for leadership, and facilities can be made. These
should be considered a part of the physical education program.
Some children enjoy competitive activities but either do not
desire organized competition, such as that provided by the inter-
scholastic and intramural programs, or cannot participate regularly
as required by these programs. Opportunities should be provided for
these children to use the school facilities at the times when they can
participate. Oftentimes, these children can and will enter tournaments
to determine school championships in individual or dual sports.
The complete program will also include playdays, demonstrations,
programs for special occasions such as May Days, and opportunities
for camping.

RELATIONSHIP OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION
TO ALLIED FIELDS
Physical education is closely related to several other areas. For
ease of administration it has been grouped with health education and
safety and, as a result, many administrators consider the three as
synonymous terms. Others have confused physical education with
recreation. It, therefore, seems advisable to clarify the relationship
existing between these terms.
RELATIONSHIP TO HEALTH EDUCATION
Health education has as its, aim the development and mainten-
ance of desirable habits, attitudes and knowledge relating to indi-








NATURE AND SIGNIFICANCE OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION 9

vidual and community health. It begins in the home, and continues
throughout life. School health education calls for such studies (health
instruction), and activities (health service), together with such
environmental conditions (healthful school living), as will make pos-
sible the development of healthy, well-adjusted children whose be-
havior reflects their understanding of the elements of good health.
Physical education makes a distinct contribution to the school health
education program because of the many opportunities which arise
in the conduct of physical activities for developing organic power,
strength, endurance and agility; for incidental health instruction, for
the practice of health habits, and for the development of desirable
attitudes and emotional stability. No other area in the school cur-
riculum affords the opportunity for the development of organic
power, strength, endurance, and agility as does physical education.
This is physical education's unique contribution to health education.
Physical education cooperates with health specialists in providing
for the child's individual needs. The responsibility of the physical
educator in health education is with those aspects of the school health
education program which grow directly out of and are related to
pupil participation in the physical activity program.
The physical educator's responsibility for the health of pupils
includes the provision for clean and sanitary locker, shower, and
gymnasium facilities, insistence upon a thorough health examination
as a basis-for participation in the physical education program, selec-
tion of activities and control of participation to the end that the
health of pupils will be improved rather than injured. Instruction
in those aspects of living, such as sleep, diet, use of nicotine and al-
cohol, emotional control and exercise which directly affect the ability
of youth to excel in physical activities should be included. The physi-
cal educator should instill in the pupils a deep and lifelong interest
as a participant in some physical activity which will aid in maintain-
ing sound mental and physical health.

RELATIONSHIP TO SAFETY EDUCATION
Safety education is that area of education which aims to make
its contribution to the complete development of the individual in a
democracy by increasing his control over situations possessing hazard-
ous potentialities. Many of the activities in physical education are
hazardous in nature and, in part, owe their popularity to this char-








10 PHYSICAL EDUCATION IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

acteristic. Remove entirely these elements of danger which are in-
herent in the activities and they will lose much of their appeal and
value. However, a considerable portion of the accidents occurring in
these activities are due, not to hazards which are a part of the
activities, but to extraneous factors such as improper or inadequate
equipment and supplies, to unsafe places in which the sports and
games are conducted, to faculty leadership practices, to inadequate
conditioning, to poor officiating, and to lack of skill or information.
Accidents due to these causes are unnecessary, inexcusable, and
should be prevented.
Not only does safety education contribute to physical education
but physical education contributes to safe living through the develop-
ment of a variety of skills and improved body control, thus making
possible safe and healthful participation in activities. Much that is
safety has long been taught by teachers of physical education simply
as an element in good teaching but not labeled as safety education.
RELATIONSHIP TO RECREATION
Recreation aims to enrich life through enjoyable voluntary par-
ticipation in any worthwhile activity during leisure time. It seeks
to create further appreciations, abilities and interests. Recreation
programs include both non-physical and physical activities. Non-
physical recreation programs include among others, handicraft, music,
dramatics, parties, reading and discussion. Physical recreation activi-
ties include individual,, dual, and team sports, dance and games. Physi-
cal education contributes to recreation by building a variety-of
physical skills that may be used in recreation, by developing attitudes
and understanding of the worthy use of leisure time, and by pro-
moting desirable patterns of social behavior.
While this bulletin deals primarily with physical education, it
manifestly is impossible and undesirable for any area of education to
function in complete isolation from all other areas. The areas most
closely related to physical education are health education, safety edu-
cation, and recreation. Each of these fields has identical elements,
yet they are not identical. It is to be hoped that school administrators
will acquire a clear understanding of the nature, scope, and function
of each area so that in their schools the organization and administra-
tion of each may be on a high level. At the same time, teachers of
physical education must realize that physical education should be









NATURE AND SIGNIFICANCE OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION 11

a great medium of education rather than a technique, that in teach-
ing baseball, for example, they should be more concerned with what
happens to the boy than with what happens to the ball, and that they
are dealing with the whole child who reacts to the total teaching en-
vironment.












CHAPTER II
STANDARDS AND POLICIES


It is the responsibility of the school administrator to establish
conditions leading to more effective teaching. The administrator, to-
gether with the physical education staff, should formulate policies
in order that the physical education program can contribute most
effectively in helping general education realize its goals.
Administrators should refer to nationally accepted standards
and policies rather than rely upon certain local practices. There are
standards and policies which have been developed by certain organ-
izations that reflect the best thinking of leaders in the education field.
They have been expressed in the form of state laws, regulations, and
joint deliberations of state and national bodies. Organizations which
have taken the lead in setting up these guides are The National
Education Association, American Association of School Administra-
tors, The Society of State Directors of Health and Physical Education,
and The American Association for Health, Physical Education and
Recreation.
The following standards and policies have been adapted to meet
conditions and problems in Florida schools. They are the result of
a careful study of existing national standards and are offered here
as a guide for the administrator.

PERSONNEL
Teachers of physical education should be well prepared for their
duties. They should have a major in physical education from an ac-
credited institution of higher learning. By state board of education
regulation they must be certified in this field. The athletic coach is a
teacher of physical education and as such should meet these require-
ments.
The school administrator should delegate responsibility for or-
ganizing and conducting the physical education class, intramural,
and interscholastic programs. The head of the physical education de-








STANDARDS AND POLICIES 13

apartment should coordinate all phases of the program. He should
avail himself of the services offered by the county and state super-
visory staff. In those counties where a supervisor of physical educa-
tion has been employed marked progress in the development of a
program has been evidenced.
The school administrator should employ sufficient personnel
to conduct the program. The staff needed can be determined in the
spring after the program for the next year has been planned.
The administrator should realize that effective teaching may be
stimulated by adequate supervision. First hand knowledge of existing
conditions and procedures can be gained through class visitation by
the principal. This knowledge will aid him in coordinating the teach-
ing staff into a smoothly functioning team directed toward the goal
of improving the quality of instruction in the school.
The principal should guide, encourage, and develop professional
growth within the educational organization. He should make it pos-
sible for the teaching personnel to be away from school to attend pro-
fessional meetings in accordance with the County School Board policy
in this matter.
FACILITIES
The physical education program will increase in effectiveness
in proportion to the improvement of facilities up to the point where
all reeds of the program are adequately met. The factor that deter-
mines the size and number of facilities needed is the greatest number
of pupils who are to use them at one time. Facilities should be planned
for school and community use. This will eliminate unnecessary dupli-
cation. Probably the best thought dealing with this subject has been
reported in a guide prepared by participants in a national facilities
conference.

OUTDOOR
A survey of various national standards indicates that minimum
play areas, exclusive of buildings, should be from 7 to 10 acres for
junior high schools and from 10 to 15 acres for senior high schools.
The National Council on Schoolhouse Construction suggests a
minimum site of ten acres plus an additional acre for each 100 pupils
of ultimate enrollment."1 Play areas should be level, without obstruc-
tions and well drained.
1. Proceedings Twenty-third Annual Meeting National Council on Schoolhouse Construction
p. 42.








14 PHYSICAL EDUCATION IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

It is essential that adequate play areas be provided for basketball,
touch football, volleyball, soccer, softball, and track. Facilities should
also be provided so that it will be possible to include in the program
such activities as tennis, table tennis, badminton, archery, horseshoes,
deck tennis, paddle tennis, handball, and swimming.

New facilities should be planned cooperatively by the administra-
tor and the physical education staff with community representation.
It is not always advisable to be guided by the facilities in use at an-
other school because such practice may lead to the inclusion of the
mistakes as well as the good points. Local conditions must be.con-
sidered in planning the program and it's facilities. The services of
the school architect of the State Department of Education is available
to all county boards of education and to individual schools as well.
This department's resources include books, charts, diagrams, articles,
and catalogues, and every effort is made by the staff to keep in-
formed on new developments.

INDOOR
It is desirable to have gymnasium space of sufficient size for both
boys and girls. National standards suggest a minimum floor area of
65 x 90 feet with a ceiling height of 20 feet. Hardwood floors, smooth
walls, recessed drinking fountains, scientifically planned heat, light,
ventilation, and acoustical controls are important.

In those schools which do not have gymnasiums, classrooms should
be provided for use during inclement weather. Lockers, showers, and
dressing rooms should be adequate to accommodate all students in
the period which has the largest enrollment. Clear floor space of 8
to 12 sq. ft. per pupil during peak loads is recommended for locker
rooms. Suitable storage space should be provided for clothing of stu-
dents while they are participating in the program. Locker rooms
should be so situated that entrance may be gained without disturb-
ing the rest of the school.

Shower rooms for boys should be constructed with gang showers.
The girl's shower room should be provided with both gang showers
and individual shower booths. If individual showers are used there
should be sufficient shower heads to take care of one-third of the
largest class. These should be placed at shoulder height. Thermostatic









STANDARDS AND POLICIES 15

temperature control will prevent scalding. The floor surface should
be of non-slip material, e.g., concrete-broom finish.

EQUIPMENT
The amount of supplies and equipment needed in any particular
school depends upon the program that has been planned rather than
upon a sales talk or the popularity of certain equipment used else-
where. It should be noted that while the initial cost is usually greater,
the economy effected in the long run justifies the purchase of quality
equipment.
Through the cooperation of the industrial arts department, as-
sistance may be secured in constructing some of the equipment need-
ed. Such articles as table tennis tables and paddles, jumping stand-
ards, shuffleboard sticks and discs, and quoits may be made economic-
ally by such departments.


FINANCE
The program of the physical education department should be
financed on the same basis as that of other departments in the school.
Facilities and equipment sufficient to conduct a broad program of
physical education should be provided from the regular school budget.
The financing of a physical education program should not have to
be dependent upon such funds as gate receipts from athletic contests,
carnivals, and student fees.
Some counties have demonstrated the feasibility of a centralized
purchasing plan. This has resulted in substantial savings without
sacrificing quality. Where a county purchasing plan is not practical,
small schools might consolidate their orders to effect this savings.
Manufacturers should be invited to submit bids, with orders
going to that company which offers quality products at the lowest
cost. Care must be exercised to select reputable firms. Whenever a
local firm can approximate the bid, it might be advisable for that
firm to receive the order. Experience has taught the advisability of
purchasing quality equipment manufactured according to official
specifications. By the close of the school year the program for the
following year should have been planned, an inventory of equipment
taken and needs itemized so that bids may be submitted.









16 PHYSICAL EDUCATION IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

SAFETY
The administrator should delegate responsibility for many of the
following safety precautions:
1. Provision of clean, safe playing areas and equipment.
2. Regular inspection of the areas and equipment.
3. Proper supervision of all playing areas, activities, and equip-
ment.
4. Suspend temporarily or permanently any activity for which
the equipment is faulty or in which facilities offer a hazard.
5. Provision for complete first aid equipment and supplies to-
gether with a trained faculty member to administer first aid.

CREDIT AND TIME ALLOTMENT
By State Board of Education regulation, 180 minutes of physical
education per week is required for which 1/4 credit per year is given.
Where a physical education class program is offered 300 minutes
per week, /2 credit per year may be given. Physical education credit
may be given for participation in the physical education program
only. Athletes should not be required to participate in the physical
education class program during the time they are competing in ath-
letics; but should return to the physical education class at the termi-
nation of that season.
Time for health instruction must be provided outside the time
allotted to physical education. The physical education class should
be an instructional period rather than one of a recreational nature.
In schools offering less than 300 minutes of physical education
per week, the State Board of Education requires 12-3/4 units above
the ninth grade for graduation. In schools offering 300 minutes per
week, 131/2 units above the ninth grade are required for graduation.
Obviously the credits above 12 were intended to apply to physical
education, but it is not specifically so stated, nor will it be so inter-
preted. Occasionally there will be some student who must be exempted
from physical education. Where this rare exception occurs, the addi-
tional units required for graduation must be earned in some other
field.
It is recommended that the exemption of students from the in-
structional class period be considered in the following manner. All









STANDARDS AND POLICIES 17

factors concerning the student's physical and social needs should be
discussed by a committee. This committee may consist of the prin-
cipal, the student's guidance counselor, the physical education teacher
and the teacher of the other subject in question. The educational out-
comes and values of physical education and the other activity in ques-
tion should be considered in the light of the needs and best interests
of the pupil. The student requesting exemption should produce evi-
dence of having demonstrated proficiency in two or more activities
with marked carry-over value, such as swimming, golf, handball, ten-
nis, or rhythmic activities.
The above rule applies to all students with the exception of those
who are in the Diversified Cooperative Training program, the
R.O.T.C. program, or those who are 21 years of age, or are taking less
than one-half a normal school load.

TEACHER LOAD
The teaching load of the physical education instructor should
be equivalent to that of the classroom teacher with a maximum of 50
per class. For efficient work the class assignments should not exceed
5 clock hours or the equivalent class periods per day, or'1500 minutes
per week. This should include after-school responsibilities, estimated
on a clock hour basis comparable to the assignments for the regular
school day. These responsibilities will include team coaching, intra-
mural sports, playground supervision, or other extra-curricular as-
signments. The teacher should not be expected to handle more than
250 pupils in the instructional class program during a given day.
Preferably he should not be responsible for more than 200 pupils.
Where sufficient coaching personnel is available, it is recommended
that a coach have not more than one sport responsibility for the year.

SCHEDULING
Physical education should be scheduled by grades in order to
provide for a teaching progression within the total program. The rela-
tionship between 10th grade physical education and 11th grade physi-
cal education is comparable to 10th grade English and 11th grade
English. In order to schedule physical education by grade levels,
this subject should be placed on the school schedule so that it does
not conflict with other required subjects for students in a particular









18 PHYSICAL EDUCATION IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

grade. In small schools where the enrollment is such that it becomes
necessary to combine grades, then the 7th grade should be paired
with the 8th, the 9th with the 10th and the 11th with the 12th.
The needs of students should be the chief concern of those sched-
uling physical education classes. Equal opportunities should be af-
forded both boys and girls in the use of facilities. Cooperative plan-
ning will tend to eliminate the monopoly of facilities by either group.
THE HEALTH EXAMINATION
Every student should have a health examination at least once
every 3 years. On the basis of this examination, the instructor will
be better able to plan the individual's program. Those participating
in varsity sports should have an examination annually as required
by the Florida High School Athletic Association. If possible, he
should have an examination at the beginning of each sport. Bulletin
No. 4, "Florida's School Health Program", gives detailed informa-
tion on the procedures to be followed in securing and conducting
health examinations for school children. When a student returns to
school following a serious illness, the administrator should advise
the parents to consult with the family physician who would then
prescribe activities in which the student may participate.
ABSENCE FROM CLASS
Policies in regard to absence from physical education classes
should conform to similar policies in effect for other phases of the
school program.
DRESS
Students, in all cases where dressing facilities are available,
should be required to change clothes and dress appropriately for
physical education classes. Personal hygiene, economy and freedom
of movement are the basic factors to be considered in the choice of
clothing for physical education activities. If religious beliefs present
problems in the matter of dress, emphasis should be placed upon
change of clothing rather than the type of clothing to be worn.
GRADING
The student's achievement is generally expressed in the form of
a grade. The method for recording grades in physical education should
conform to the general plan followed by the school. In addition, the









STANDARDS AND POLICIES


teacher should devise measures that will give the student a more
comprehensive picture of his progress.

INTRAMURALS
The total physical education program should include a variety
of intramural sports. The intramural program affords students an
opportunity for participation in various activities which otherwise
would be available only to those engaging in interscholastic athletics.
It is that phase of the program in which skills are put into practice,
and leadership qualities and social ideals developed. Facilities, equip-
ment, and supervisory personnel should be made available for con-
ducting this program. Suggestions for organizing and conducting an
intramural sports program will be found in Chapter VII.

INTERSCHOLASTIC ATHLETICS
The interscholastic program is an integral part of physical edu-
cation, and makes a definite contribution to the educational develop-
ment of the pupil.
The Florida High School Athletic Association establishes stand-
ards and policies governing athletic competition between white mem-
ber schools while the Florida Interscholastic Association governs the
colored program. The Florida High School Athletic Association Bul-
letin contains all standards and policies. The Girls' Advisory Council,
a division of this Association, is responsible for determining the
standards and policies for athletic competition among girls. A dis-
cussion of the interscholastic athletic program will be found in Chap-
ter VIII.

FREE USE OF FACILITIES
The responsibility for offering a program during the time the
pupil is not in the classroom challenges the ingenuity of the entire
faculty. Activities should be offered on a leisure time basis that
allows for the free use of available facilities and incorporates the
skills learned in all departments of the school.










20 PHYSICAL EDUCATION IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

SELECTED REFERENCES
LaPorte, Wm. Ralph, The Physical Education Curriculum (A National Pro-
gram) 2d. edition, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1938
Mustaine, W.W.H., (State Education Dept., Albany, N. Y., Chairman)
"Report of Committee on Objectives and Policies," The Research Quar-
terly Vol. V, No. 4, Dec. 1934
National Council on Schoolhouse Construction. Proceedings of the Twenty-
Third Annual Meeting. The Council (H. C. Headdin, State Department of
Education, Nashville, Tenn.) 1946.
National Facilities Conference Participants, A Guide for Planning Facilities
for Athletics, Recreation, Physical and Health Education. Athletic
Institute, Chicago, Illinois, 1947.
The Public School Program in Health, Physical Education and Recreation,
Journal of Health and Physical Education, Vol. X, No. 8, October, 1939
Williams, J. F. and Brownell, C. L., Organization and Administration of
Physical Education. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Company, 1947.












CHAPTER III
SAFETY IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION


Many of the activities of physical education are hazardous in
nature and, in part, owe their popularity to this characteristic. If
the elements of danger were removed entirely from these activities
they would lose much of their appeal and value. However, a con-
siderable portion of the accidents occurring in these activities are
due, not to hazards which are a part of the activities, but to extra-
neous factors.
The gymnasium, swimming pool, shower and locker rooms, and
playing fields are potentially hazardous areas. The 1947 edition of
Accident Facts shows that almost one-third of all accidents on high
school premises occur in these areas. Nevertheless, approximately fifty
per cent of the physical education accidents involving high school
pupils are reported to have occurred as a result of extraneous factors.
A public institution which does not adequately protect its students
from unnecessary hazards is derelict in its responsibility to the stu-
dents and the public which it serves.
The physical educator should be concerned about the safety
of his pupils in-so-far as (1) many physical education activities are
inherently hazardous in nature, (2) the teacher has a moral responsi-
bility to protect those pupils who are compelled by law to attend
school and to take part in physical education and (3) the teacher
has a legal responsibility to exercise due care in the conduct of his
program, e.g., the teacher is always liable for his own negligence.
Most of the causes of accidental injuries in secondary school
physical education can be attributed to four factors: hazards in the
environment, faulty equipment and supplies, inadequate leadership
or supervision, and the nature of the activity itself. Therefore, in
planning procedures for increased safety in physical education, four
areas of control are suggested; (1) Facility and equipment controls,
(2) Adult leadership controls, (3) Program controls, and (4) Student
controls.









22 PHYSICAL EDUCATION IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS


FACILITY AND EQUIPMENT CONTROLS
Many of the accidents in physical education activities are at-
tributable to structural hazards, congested activity areas, lack of
proper maintenance, and inadequate storage facilities. These prob-
lems may not be solved entirely by the supervisor or instructor of
physical education; however, he should work for continuous improve-
ment.
Safe physical education and recreation areas include:
1. Planning for as many activities in the available space as can
be accommodated safely. Overcrowding produces accidents.
2. Adapting or modifying activities to conform to the limited
space. For example, using a 14 or 16 inch softball instead
of the 12 inch ball where batting space is a problem.
3. Arranging activity areas so that players do not face the sun.
4. Providing the best possible playing surface for the activity
and the climatic conditions, and periodically inspecting and
repairing the grounds.
5. Locating permanent apparatus, equipment and game spaces
(such as horseshoe and jumping pits) along one side of the
playing area.
6. Plainly marking playing areas.
7. Removal of rocks, stones, broken glass and similar objects
from the playing field.
8. Elimination of such improvised bases and boundary lines
as trees, rocks, sidewalks, and buildings and use of proper
bases and clearly marked lines.
9. Enclosing area by a well-constructed fence.
10. In the gymnasium providing
a. Non-slip, smooth floors
b. Adequate lighting
c. Guards over light fixtures, windows
d. The elimination or padding of pillars or projections over
or near the playing surface
e. Doors which open away from the playing floor
f. Wherever glass is used it should be of the safety type
g. Apparatus well-fastened and inspected before use








SAFETY IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION


h. Adequate clearance at the sides and ends of courts
i. Safe bleachers
j. Recessed drinking fountains.
Adequate and safe equipment and supplies involve:
1. Selection of safe equipment from a reputable manufacturer,
and its correct placement and use.
SPeriodic inspection of facilities and equipment including im-
mediate repair or placement when needed.
3. Adequate, durable, properly fitted, protective personal
equipment, checked for cleanliness and safety before use.
4. Proper storage for equipment and supplies.

LEADERSHIP CONTROLS
Effective leadership controls require the active interest and co-
operative action of administrative personnel, teachers and students.
The administrator:
1. Secures the services of teachers and coaches with adequate
training in physical education, including instruction in first
aid.
2. Sets up an accident reporting system and interprets data
to the staff.
3. Arranges schedules of pupils to allow for classification at
least by grades and for classes not to exceed forty in number.
4. Becomes thoroughly acquainted with information regarding
legal liability and financial protection in case of accidents.
5. Provides for regular health examinations for all students,
and for an adequate follow-up program, including modified
classes for those unable to participate in the normal program.
6. Recommends the elimination of existing hazards to the prop-
er authority.
The physical education teacher:
1. Believes in the prir.eiple that the welfare of the pupil is
of paramount importance and refuses to permit him to play
when he is not in good physical condition regardless of any
pressures that may be exerted.
2. Makes certain that students know and understand the rules
and hazards connected with each activity and applies the
best safety practices in all physical education and athletic
activities.








24 PHYSICAL EDUCATION IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

3. Gives intensive instruction in the proper techniques of ex-
ecuting the fundamental skills of all games and sports.
4. Insists that students be in condition and wear the proper
protective equipment for each sports activity.
5. Permits no student to participate in strenuous activities
without the approval of school or family physician and
parents.
6. Gives careful and adequate supervision to all practices,
classes, and games, and provides good officiating for all
levels of competition, including scrimmage.
7. Does not allow students to re-enter an activity before re-
covery from injuries which might impair their health and
safety.
8. Helps the student to develop leadership qualities and a
sense of responsibility for his own safety and that of others.

PROGRAM CONTROLS
The physical education teacher should:
1. Choose activities which are adequate to abilities, needs, and
interests of the student.
2. Match skill ability in competition and control fatigue by
having adequate reserve strength.
3. Emphasize seriousness of attempting activities beyond skill
or capacity.
4. Adapt activities for students who are restricted with respect
to participation.
5. Use educationally sound teaching procedures.
6. Provide for individual attention.
7. Establish procedures for physical examination, follow-up
work, reporting of all accidents connected with the depart-
ment, first aid treatment, and legal liability and financial
protection.

STUDENT CONTROLS

Each student must be brought to realize that safe participation
is most important in the enjoyment of physical education activities.
There are several basic causes of accidents attributed to personal
characteristics, such as:








SAFETY IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION 25

1. Poor physical condition-illness, fatigue, poor diet, handi-
caps. The physical education teacher should recognize these
conditions and act accordingly. They may necessitate varia-
tions in the program, conferences with parents and pupils,
and a completely individualized approach to each problem.
2. Lack of knowledge and understandings-unaware of hazards
involved in the particular activity, rules of the game, general
school safety regulations, personal limitations or faulty atti-
tude. These understandings should be a part of the teaching
program, as important as the skills.
3. Emotional unbalance-strong emotional states, poor judge-
ment, worry, tensions. When a student is affected by such
factors the physical education teacher should strive to gain
his confidence and help him control or eliminate them.
4. Lack of interest of desire for attention. A more challenging
program with ample opportunity for all to excel will help
with this type of problem.
5. Accident proneness of the individual. Extra precautions are
necessary for this individual.
Safety is something to be lived, not memorized. Give the student
something to do. Lead him to feel that safety is not a negative concept
but a positive way of doing things which results in more fun and
adventure than one could possibly have without safety.

SUGGESTED PROJECTS AND ACTIVITIES

1. Organize a student leadership club for your physical educa-
tion program.
2. List with the help of your students the sports commonly
played in your school and develop safety suggestions for
each sport.
3. During a movie or slide lecture on a sport have the students
list hazards noticed or good safety practices being carried
out. Then discuss.
4. List common injuries resulting from your own school pro-
gram and discuss ways of eliminating recurrence of these
injuries.
5. Collect information from the accident reports and re-evaluate
safety rules and regulations in the light of your finds.









26 PHYSICAL EDUCATION IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

6. Teach interested students to become good officials.
7. Develop with the students' help a working code of safe con-
duct for spectators as well as participants in athletic contests.
8. Work with your students in maintaining a safe place to
play, in using safe equipment and facilities, and in exercising
personal safety controls.

SELECTED REFERENCES
Accident Report Committee, "Keeping Student Accident Records," Safety
Education, 27 (September, 1947). p. 13.
Allen, Homer, "Sports Officials Safeguard Players," Safety Education, 26
(December, 1946) p. 8.
American Association of Schol Administrations. 18th Yearbook, Safety
Education, Washington, D. C.: The Association, 1940. 544 pages.
American Red Cross. Swimming and Diving, Life Saving and Water Safety,
First Aid Textbook. Washington, D. C.
Danford, Howard G. "Safe and Sound," Safety Education, (October, 1944)
................................. "Safe at All Bases," Safety Education (May, 1939).
............................, "Safety in School Athletic Equipment and Recreational
Areas," The American School Board Journal, 113 (December, 1946), p. 33
Lloyd and Others. Safety in Athletics. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Com-
pany, 1936.
National Education Association. The Physical Education Instructor and
Safety. Washington, D. C.: the Association, 1948. 48 pages.
National Safety Council. Check and Double Check. Chicago: the Council,
1945.
............................ Accident Facts, 1947 Edition.
....................... Safety in Physical Education and Recreation. Chicago: the
Council, 1946.
Stack, Herbert J. and Siebrecht, Elmer B. Education for Safe Living. New
York: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1942. 388 pages.










CHAPTER IV
PUBLIC AND PROFESSIONAL RELATIONS


If the school is to adequately fulfill its mission, that of helping
the individual to live abundantly and to contribute most to society
both now and in the future-it must seek the aid of all agencies and
the individual in the community.
Unless, the school, home, church and other agencies dealing with
the child coordinate their efforts, each is likely to find the results of
its efforts being offset by that of the others. This coordination of ef-
fort involves a constant interpretation of the school program to the
community and an understanding of the program of other agencies
by school personnel.

PROFESSIONAL TRAINING AND IMPROVEMENT
Physical education is a phase of education and the background
of those who teach in this department must necessarily include a
thorough knowledge of the purposes of education. It is the duty of
all teachers to strive for a better understanding of the educational
needs of the child. Adequate preparation for teaching is of greatest
importance in realizing this purpose.
The qualification for teaching physical education in a secondary
school should be a college degree, with a major or a minor in physical
education. Such training in this field is desirable and, considering the
present offerings of the professional educational departments in col-
leges and universities, there is little excuse for the unqualified teacher.
It should be emphasized that accomplishing the purposes of edu-
cation demands continual improvement of the instructor's methods
and practices, and continuous study of the nature and needs of the
child. Summer courses in fields of particular interest or a program
toward the completion of a Master's degree serve to help in the con-
tinuous professional improvement of the physical education teacher.
But, the training should not stop here. There is a great deal of litera-
ture in the form of books, magazines, and pamphlets pertaining to








28 PHYSICAL EDUCATION IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

physical education and the general field of education which should
be secured and read by all teachers. In addition to these, attendance
at workshops and professional meetings are helpful in improving the
quality of teaching.

PROFESSIONAL ORGANIZATIONS
Active participation in the professional organizations will enable
the instructor to have a better understanding of school problems and
will help him in the solution of local problems. The personal contacts,
which the teacher makes as a member of these organizations, in-
fluences his local program through the acquisition of new ideas and
methods.
Some of the professional organizations in which the physical
educator should be interested are as follows:

1. FLORIDA EDUCATION ASSOCIATION
The Florida Education Association, which is an affiliate of the
National Education Association, is the official association of the
teachers of Florida. All teachers regardless of their special field should
be members of this association. One of its sections, the Health, Physi-
cal Education and Recreation section, is affiliated with the American
Association of Health, Physical Education, and Recreation. Every
teacher of physical education should participate actively in the activi-
ties of this section. The Health, Physical Education, and Recreation
section includes a state division of the National Section of Women's
Athletics.
a. Districts
The Florida Education Association is divided into districts which
hold annual meetings in the fall. The physical education personnel in
each district should encourage, lend support, and make every effort to
see that the Health, Physical Education, and Recreation Section func-
tions at these meetings.
b. County
Physical education teachers should organize on a county wide
basis in the more populous counties and function similarly to the
health, physical education and recreation section of the Florida Edu-
.cation Association.







PUBLIC AND PROFESSIONAL RELATIONS


2. FLORIDA ATHLETIC COACHES ASSOCIATION
The Florida Athletic Coaches Association studies problems with
the view toward improving the present practices in boys' interschol-
astic athletics. This body makes recommendations to the Florida High
School Athletic Association.

3. THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR HEALTH,
PHYSICAL EDUCATION, AND RECREATION
The American Association for Health, Physical Education and
Recreation is a department of the National Education Association. It
publishes the Journal of Health and Physical Education and The
Research Quarterly, both of which are most valuable to the physical
educator who is interested in keeping abreast of current trends in his
field. The purposes of this association are to promote a wide and in-
telligent interest, to acquire and disseminate accurate information,
and to provide such means of promotion as will secure an adequate
program of health, physical education, and recreation.

4. OTHER ORGANIZATIONS
Other organizations of interest are: The National Recreation As-
sociation and The National Safety Council.

COMMUNITY RELATIONS
No individual teacher within the school system has a greater op-
portunity to contribute to the wholesome growth and development
of the pupil than does the teacher of physical education. The intense
interest of the student and townspeople in physical education activi-
ties, and the informality of the play situation provide an opportunity
for excellent community-teacher relationships.
In order to realize the full possibilities of his influence, the phys-
ical education teacher should be one who can inspire the admiration
and confidence of pupils, faculty, and others in the community. His
personality, actions and appearance should reflect the ideals of the
profession as a whole.
PUPIL RELATIONS
It has been stated elsewhere, that the physical education class is
a laboratory where the individual develops concepts not through read-
ing about them but by actual practice. This fact alone indicates the







30 PHYSICAL EDUCATION IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

possibilities for the guidance of pupils in right ways of living that are
offered the physical educator. The necessity for making rapid decision
in the "heat of the game" causes the pupil to react without premedi-
tation and thus more naturally. The understanding provided by the
natural responses to situations, together with the feeling of comrade-
ship which comes from the baring of one's emotions in the presence of
others, causes the physical education teacher to enjoy a relationship
with the pupil- which the quieter atmosphere of the classroom can
never offer. It is important, therefore, that the physical education
teacher exemplify those characteristics deemed desirable for success-
ful living in a democracy in all of his relations with pupils/

FACULTY RELATIONS
It is important that all members of the faculty understand the
program of physical education. Their support for the program will
be gained only when they realize that it seeks to accomplish the same
ends as other phases of education and differs only in the methods
and activities employed. The physical education teacher should seek
opportunities to interpret the program to the faculty. One method of
doing this is in faculty meetings. He should seek to have faculty meet-
ings so scheduled that he can attend and participate.
When decisions are made the physical education teacher should
lend whole-hearted support to them. He should be cognizant of the
fact that because of his influence with pupils, his support or lack of
support often determines the attitude of the pupils toward a faculty
decision.
The professional respect which other members of the faculty have
for the physical education teacher often- determines the amount of
support which they give to the program. therefore, in addition to pro-
fessional ethics, the physical educator should possess the ability to dis-
cuss intelligently the problems of education with other members of
the faculty.)

CONTRIBUTIONS TO COMMUNITY LIFE
The physical educator will find that he can offer a great deal of
service within the community and on numerous occasions must dem-
onstrate this ability. In order that these contributions will be of value,
he must realize the importance of a definite understanding of the
community in which he lives. He should be conscious of the attitude







PUBLIC AND PROFESSIONAL RELATIONS 31

of the general public, as well as the leaders, toward the needs and
problems of his students. He must be aware also of the problems
which exist within the community. He must acquaint himself with
the recreational facilities, welfare, agencies, service clubs and with
the possibilities for coordinating his work and program with these
agencies. With this in mind, the teacher should willingly participate
in community affairs because in so doing, he indirectly improves the
relationship between the school and the public as well as strengthens
his own position and potentialities)

MEDIA FOR INTERPRETING THE PHYSICAL
EDUCATION PROGRAM
The physical education program, by the very nature of its ac-
tivities, is one phase of the total school program in which the com-
munity is vitally interested. It must be stressed, however, that the
manner in which this information is presented will largely determine
its success. There are a number of methods which may be used to
good advantage.

STUDENTS /
That the public gains its major impressions of the school from
the students is a generally accepted fact. This means then, that the
student develops opinions of the physical education program, makes
them known to his parents who, in turn, pass them on to others in
the community. Inasmuch as physical education activities appeal to
the great majority of the students, we must consider them as a most
important source of publicity. The program then, must be developed
around the needs of the individual student in order to produce max-
imum interest, understandings, and desired objectives. Such emphasis
can achieve far reaching results and will do much toward realizing
a greater degree of success in other attempts toward improved public
relations.
Since the physical education program reaches each boy and girl
in the school, the physical educators have an excellent opportunity to
promote favorable reactions to the program. Boys and girls remem-
ber the inspiring teacher; therefore good teaching is the faculty mem-
bers' greatest asset in improving public relations. The teacher
must equip himself with knowledge, leadership, and personality








32 PHYSICAL EDUCATION IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

to inspire the students toward appreciation for and interpretation
of a good physical education program.
NEWSPAPERS
Newspapers are a powerful factor in the moulding of public
opinion. Since so many benefits may be derived for the school pro-
gram through the medium of newspaper publicity, it is to the
advantage of the physical educator to give some serious thought to
the organization and presentation of material to the newspapers.
Experience has shown that when educators express a willingness
to cooperate with the newspaper and give concrete evidence through
properly arranged and concisely worded stories, the newspapers be-
come very liberal with space for school news. Physical educators should
take advantage of these opportunities.
In writing a newspaper story the exciting facts are stressed in
the headlines. The elaboration of these facts continues in the first
paragraph and each following paragraph should tell the remaining
facts in decreasing order. Stirring information should be included
in the form of unusual elements, broad important features, and the
human interest angles.
As the coordinator prepares his own stories to send to the news-
papers they will fall into one of these different types:
1. Advance stories and notices given prior to events, stating
in the future tense the basic elements.
2. Stories reporting events as soon as they occur.
3. Feature stories in which the writer explains, interprets, de-
scribes, and develops in popular forms, some interesting subjects for
the purpose of informing, entertaining, or giving practical guidance.
4. Follow-up stories which are features of past events which
should be brought to the attention of the public.
5. Editorials which bring out the personal backing of any phases
of the program by the editorial staff.
Newspapers desire this style of news writing, and when they re-
ceive material in this accepted pattern, they will be inclined to give
larger amounts of space to stories of the physical education program.
STATE AND LOCAL ORGANIZATIONS
State and local organizations which are concerned with the im-
provement of the physical welfare of children are other opportunities
offered the physical education program in its public relations. The








PUBLIC AND PROFESSIONAL RELATIONS


Parent Teacher Association affords an excellent opportunity for the
physical education teacher to interpret the program with special em-
phasis on material for parent's consumption. This organization is
interested in matters which form the very foundations of health and
physical education. These interests include the child's physical ac-
tivity program, the improvement of playground facilities, and the
procurement of athletic equipment.
Community-school relations can be improved with the assistance
of many civic organizations, such as Women's Clubs, Business and
Professional groups, Kiwanis, Rotary, Lions, Optimist, and Junior
and Senior Chambers of Commerce. Many times the opportunity arises
to acquaint these organizations with the worthwhile work being done
in physical education. Once interested in the activity program and
familiar with its problems, these groups can be of great assistance.
The two veterans' organizations, the American Legion and the
Veterans of Foreign Wars, are vitally interested in the boys and girls
of the nation. The Legion is noted for promoting the enactment of
physical education legislation.
The physical education teacher should welcome every opportun-
ity to appear before these groups. He should recognize the fact that
the most influential citizens compose the membership of these organi-
zations and should plan his talks carefully. The following are some
ideas that might be stressed in these talks:
1. The broad and diversified program of activities which are
adapted to the immediate and future needs of the participants.
2. The participation which includes every single boy and girl
in some capacity.
3. The need for equipment and facilities in order to expand the
complete program of physical education.
4. The correlation of community recreation and the use of avail-
able facilities for all age groups.

DEMONSTRATIONS AND EXHIBITIONS
The demonstration or exhibition in the physical education pro-
gram may be used successfully to create public interest and develop
community support. Many activities of the program lend themselves
to this type of publicity.
More detailed information on demonstrations and exhibitions
may be found in Chapter IX.








34 PHYSICAL EDUCATION IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

ASSEMBLY PROGRAMS
School assembly programs afford excellent opportunities to fa-
miliarize the student body and the faculty with the aims and accom-
plishments of the physical education program. Since there is a contin-
ual need and demand for new and worthwhile assembly programs, the
resourceful physical education teacher usually finds the school ad-
ministrator receptive to the physical education type of program. There
are several kinds of programs in effective use at the present time,
such as,
1. Demonstration of regular class work.
2. Safety Education.
3. Quiz on new sports or sports of the season.
4. Movies of the various phases of the physical education pro-
gram. A type of film that has been used effectively, when available,
is the picture featuring any local activity such as, a football game,
intramurals, or a swimming meet.
RADIO
The radio has become one of the most effective means of mould-
ing public opinion in everyday life. This field presents numerous pos-
sibiblities, as yet undeveloped, for the physical education program.
Radio station managers are generally sports minded citizens vi-
tally interested in the recreation and social welfare of the commun-
ity, and they often times will go out of their way to make choice spot
announcements available for interscholastic use. Spot announcements
are convenient and effective, because they can be inserted at almost
any time of day, often following a popular program that draws a
large audience.
Other methods of using the radio to acquaint the public with the
physical education program are:
1. Some schools have had noteworthy success with broadcasting
the pre-game pep rally as a radio program. This appeals to the gen-
eral public especially because of the spontaneous and enthusiastic par-
ticipation of youngsters of varying ages and personalities. The school
band can be featured as a part of this broadcast.
2. Special programs, on allowed time, which bring out a dra-
matic presentation of the complete physical education program, or
any selected phase.








PUBLIC AND PROFESSIONAL RELATIONS 35


MOTION PICTURES
The motion picture is a potent force in the development of public
opinion although it has been used sparingly in school publicity. Most
of the Florida schools have visual aid equipment which may be
used to present movies on physical education. Films may be secured
from the General Extension Division of the University of Florida.
Another means of visual aid in public relations is motion pictures
of the pupils at work or play in the school. The help of amateur pho-
tographers from the school patrons may prove most effective, and help
arouse interest in the over-all program of physical education. The
public should be invited to the showing of pictures which will acquaint
them with a broader program of physical education.

SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS TO PARENTS
Letters to parents describing proposed health examinations, forms
for parental permission for participation in sports, and proposed vac-
cination or nutrition campaigns are common examples of the special
communications. Publicity of this type is specific and direct, often
calling the recipient to immediate and constructive action.

SIGNS AND POSTERS
Signs or posters should be arranged so that the facts to be pre-
sented may be told in a single glance. Only one idea or thought should
be presented. The ideal poster should carry a picture or illustration
with not more than a half dozen words in clear type or hand lettering.
Color is more attractive than black and white but more expensive.
Posters can be made up through cooperation with the art classes of
the school.

SELECTED REFERENCES
Nixon, Eugene W. and Cozens, Frederick W. Introduction to Physical Edu-
cation. Third Edition. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Company, 1947.
Chapter XV.
"Physical Education as a Profession". A Report by The Committee on
Vocational Guidance. Research Quarterly, American Association for
Health, Physical Education and Recreation, Vol. 13, No. 2, 1942. pp
131-145.
Sharman, Jackson R. Modern Principles of Physical Education. New York:
A. S. Barnes and Company, 1937. Chapter IX.
Voltmer, Edward F. and Esslinger, Arthur A. The Organization and Admin-
istration of Physical Education. New York: F. S. Crofts and Co., 1946.
Chapters VI and XV.




















PART TWO


This section deals with the organization of the various phases of
the physical education program. It has been pointed out in Chapter
I that a total physical education program consists of the class pro-
gram; the intramural sports program; the interscholastic athletic
program; and other special programs carried on outside of the regular
school day.
If the instructional needs of all pupils are to be met, the physical
education class program must include activities suitable for the child
whose participation must be limited as well as those for the child who
can participate in all types of activities. The activities and the organ-
ization of these two groups of programs differ so widely that it seems
advisable to discuss them separately.
Therefore, Chapter V is designed to aid the teacher in planning
and conducting the regular class program for the pupil who can par-
ticipate in a wide variety of activities while the class program adapted
to the needs of the pupil whose participation should be limited is dis-
cussed in Chapter VI. Suggestions for planning and conducting the
intramural, interscholastic, and other out-of-class programs will be
found in Chapters VII, VIII, and IX respectively.










CHAPTER V
THE REGULAR CLASS PROGRAM


The point of view has been expressed in Chapter I that a fun-
damental necessity in physical education is a planned program based
on sound principles and philosophy, and so arranged as to meet the
present and changing needs of the individual pupils. It is assumed
that the teacher, in planning the program, will first determine the
goals to be attained, the relationship of physical education to other
phases of the curriculum, and the type of program needed. These
factors have also been discussed in Chapter I. The next step in
planning the total program is the determination of the administrative
policies and standards for the particular school situation. Sugges-
tions for these have been presented in Chapter II. Having com-
pleted these two steps, the teacher is now ready to plan each phase
of the program.
This chapter is designed to aid the teacher in planning the class
program for those pupils whose health examination indicates unres-
tricted participation. It suggests procedures and practices that may
be used in planning and conducting this phase of the total program.
The planning of the class program inovlves two rather definite
phases. The first phase is concerned with the organization of the
yearly program including the scheduling of students for classes, the
selection of activities, and the arrangement of activities. After the
activities have been determined the teacher is ready to make defi-
nite plans for the teaching of each. This is the second phase of the
planning process-planning the units of instruction.
In addition to suggestions for these two phases' of the planning
process, this chapter includes suggestions concerning the conduct of
the class program.
ORGANIZING THE PROGRAM
The following principles .and suggestions should be observed by
all schools in setting up the program of activities:
1. Boys' and girls' programs should be planned and coordinated









REGULAR CLASS PROGRAM 37

so as to make efficient use of the facilities and equipment
available.
2. The total program should offer as many varied activities as
time and space will allow.
3. It is desirable to have joint participation of boys and girls
in some activities. Some phases of rhythms, social games, and
many individual or dual sports may be taught on a co-educa-
tional basis.
4. An activity should be offered long enough for pupils to
become moderately skilled in it; but as a general rule six weeks
should be the maximum length of time given to any one activ-
ity in a school year.
5. Activities should be so arranged as to provide for continuous
advancement throughout the entire secondary physical educa-
tion program with definite objectives for each grade.
6. Special effort should be made to include in the program
activities that will be of interest to the student in his leisure
time during school and post-school life.
7. Teachers should realize the value of public relations and
should plan the program to include activities suitable for dem-
onstrations.
8. The program should be so flexible that, if it seems advisable
to change it, the continuity of the whole program will not be
interrupted.
9. Physical achievement tests should be given periodically,
preferably, at the beginning of the year, at the end of the first
semester, and at the end of the year. Accurate records must be
kept for this to be of value to the instructor and other members
of the faculty.
10. Plans should be made in advance for classes during incle-
ment weather. This is particularly important where indoor
facilities are limited.
SCHEDULING STUDENTS
As has been pointed out in Chapter II, the physical education
staff should meet with the principal at the time the total school
schedule is made. At this time the method of scheduling the physi-
cal education classes should be determined. This involves ascer-
taining the total number of pupils of each sex, the number of instruc-








38 PHYSICAL EDUCATION IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

tors available, and the number of class periods per day. By divid-
ing the total number of pupils of each sex by the number of class
periods in the day, the approximate number of pupils of each sex
who must be assigned to each class period is determined. Instructors
can then be assigned to the various classes. In doing this, the after-
school duties of the instructors should be taken into consideration.
Consideration should then be given to the method of assigning
pupils to classes. The practice of scheduling pupils on the basis of
free periods should not be followed.
Pupils should be assigned to physical education classes by grades.
This allows for progression of instruction from year to year. As has
been previously stated, the physical education class is an instruc-
tional period and should be considered in the same light as other
instructional periods. In small schools where grades have to be
grouped together, pupils from consecutive grades should be assigned
to the same class, i.e., seventh and eighth, ninth and tenth, or
eleventh and twelfth should be the grouping. Since physical educa-
tion is required of all pupils, other subjects should not be scheduled
for a grade at the time of the physical education class.
SELECTING ACTIVITIES
After the principal and physical education staff have deter-
mined the method of scheduling students for classes, the staff must
next determine the activity units to be taught at each grade level.
Much care and thought should be given to the selection of these.
Some of the factors which should be considered in selecting activity
units are:
/ 1. The age, sex, number, interests, needs, physical development
and previous training of the students.
S2. The size and number of outdoor facilities and the size and
location of indoor facilities.
3. The amount of equipment available and the possibilities of
securing additional equipment.
4. The type of community; its interests, attitudes, prejudices
and opportunities.
5. The climate and seasonal interests of the community in
various sports.
6. The complexity of the activities together with the length
of periods and the number of weekly meetings of the classes.









REGULAR CLASS PROGRAM 39

The three groups of activities below constitute a suggested list.
The activities are divided into three groups to aid the teacher
in arranging the schedule so that a broad and well balanced pro-
gram will be offered. The program for any class should include
some activities from each group. Since the percentage of time
allotted to each group will vary with the age level and the needs
of the particular group, no attempt is made here to indicate the
percentage of time which should be given to each. The activities
starred are those which may be used successfully by mixed groups of


boys and girls.
GROUP I
Apparatus
Grass Drills (boys)
Marching
Rugged Games
(boys)
Tumbling, and
Pyramids
Calisthenics
Circle Exercises
Combat Stunts
Two-man Exercises


GROUP II
Basketball
Field Ball
Gator ball (boys)
Soccer
Softball*
Speedball
Touch football
(boys)
Track and Field
Volley Ball*


GROUP III
Aquatics
Archery*
Badminton*
Bait Casting*
Bowling*
Croquet
Darts*
Deck Tennis
Golf*
Handball (boys)
Hand Tennis
Horseshoes*
Paddle Tennis
Party Games
Petika
Quoits
Rhythms* (social
dancing, square
dancing, and
folk dancing)
Shuffleboard*
Table Tennis*
Tennis*
Tether ball


ARRANGING THE PROGRAM OF ACTIVITIES
After the activities have been selected, a tentative yearly pro-
gram should be drawn up. In doing this, careful thought should









40 PHYSICAL EDUCATION IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

be given to a specific time schedule to avoid conflicts in the use of
areas and equipment between the boys' and girls' program. When
an agreement has been reached by the instructors relative to the
program of activities, a conference should be held with the principal
to review, adjust, and approve the organization of the program.

PLANNING A UNIT
While there are several methods of presenting subject matter,
the unit plan is the one upon which the planning suggestions below
are based. These suggestions and the source materials in Part III
are based on the unit plan because it, perhaps more than any other,
allows for enough flexibility to meet the needs of individuals.
Before introducing a unit to the pupils the teacher should make
tentative plans as to ways of arousing the interest of the group,
things to be accomplished during the unit, organization of the unit,
methods of evaluating progress and materials to be used. These plans
need to be carefully made so that, in planning with the pupils, the
instructor can successfully guide them.
ORIENTATION
The first step in the planning process consists of determining
ways of creating interest in the sport. This should be done well in
advance of the beginning of the unit so that the last class period
of the previous unit or the first meeting or two of the new unit may
be used to introduce the pupils to the new material. This may be
done in several different ways. Where the game is entirely new to
the group a discussion of the origin, history of the activity, and
general nature of the game may be presented to the pupils. If the
game has been played by the class in previous years, a review of the
rules of the game and a discussion of the skills covered in previous
units might be the approach. Whether the game has been played
by the group before or not, showing a movie of the game or having
some outstanding athlete in the community discuss and demonstrate
skills are good ways of arousing the interest of the pupils in the
activity.
DETERMINING THE OBJECTIVES
The next step in the planning of a unit is the selection of objec-
tives. These are the immediate goals to be attained. They should








REGULAR CLASS PROGRAM 41

be determined on the basis of the needs and interests of the pupils.
"The length of the unit-, the previous experiences of the group, the
amount of facilities and equipment available, and the number and
abilities of the children are some of the facttolr wliich must be con-
sii-.red-l in drl,'terlini.iini l, the nu mib,'r in'l kinil i f o l Ij'.'rti\ e :for 'any
one teaching uniL_-
The children should participate to some extent in the final
selection of objectives. Any experience is more meanful to people
when the participants recognize their needs, help in the selection
of the goals to be accomplished, and are stimulated to seek ways of
attaining the goals. So the teacher should plan objectives which will
meet the needs of and, at the same time, have meaning to the chil-
dren. Then, during the planning period .which takes place at the
beginning of the unit, the children should help in the final selec-
tion of the goals.
The objectives of a teaching unit should be so stated as to be
measurable, i.e., they should be specific rather than general. Specific
objectives are included in the source units in Part III.
SELECTING PUPIL ACTIVITIES
The third step in the planning of an instructional unit is the
determination of activities in which the pupils may engage in their
efforts to attain their objectives. Here, again, the pupils should
participate in the determination of these either by selecting them
with the guidance of the teacher or by accepting those selected by
the teacher. In either case the teacher should have planned care-
fully the possible activities that can be used .to accomplish the
objectives.
The variety of activities which may be employed to accomplish
a given group of objectives is almost unlimited. Seeing movies on
the game, having experts to demonstrate or lecture, attending con-
tests between outstanding teams or players, and reading interest-
ing articles or books dealing with the subject matter are examples
of types of activities.
The activities given in the source units in Part III include
only the skill drills or practices and the skill games which may be
employed to develop skill in the game. These types of activities nor-
mally occupy most of the pupils' class time because physical educa-
tion is largely a matter of education through physical activity.








42 PHYSICAL EDUCATION IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

1. Skill Drills
Skill drills or practices are helpful in the development of
skill because no game elements of competition or scoring are
present. While it is true that children tend to improve in skill
as they play the game, they can generally develop skill more
efficiently if they have some opportunity to practice the skills
in situations where the excitement and emotional stimulus of
competition are not present. However, the teacher should be
always cognizant of the fact that because the competitive element
is not present the child's interest in the activity will be short.
So the practice periods should be of short duration. It should
also be noted that if the drill follows a particular pattern, the
practice can proceed without the teacher having to be with the
group at all times. This also saves time in explanation when the
drill is used on more than one occasion.
2. Skill Games
Skill games are modifications of official games. They are
games which usually involve the use of only one or two of the
skills of the official game. Just as the beginner needs to prac-
tice skills in situations where no game element is present, he
also needs to use skills in games that are less complex than the
official game. Sometimes a skill game which permits the use of
a larger number of players than the official game can be devel-
oped. Where facilities are limited this type of game is very
valuable.
In planning the unit, then, the teacher should select skill prac-
tices and skill games which are suitable for the particular group of
children and which will best accomplish the objectives which have
been selected. If the children are planning the unit with the help
of the teacher, this pre-planning by the teacher will be invaluable
in guiding the children.

DETERMINING THE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNIT
The next step in planning a teaching unit is the determination
of the organization of the unit. Certain decisions concerning the
unit organization need to be made during the planning period. These
include such things as whether or not the unit will be divided into a
practice period followed by a tournament; whether or not perma-









REGULAR CLASS PROGRAM 43

nent squads or teams will be organized; whether or not the pupils
will be divided into ability groups; and how extra-instructional
problems will be handled. Each of these are discussed below.
1. Division of the Unit
Secondary school pupils frequently desire to participate
in tournament or league play during the class period. This of
course adds interest to the program 'and tends to motivate the
pupils to improve their skills. They sometimes express a desire
to "not have the tournament interrupted by practice periods."
This desire can be satisfied by using the first two, three or
four weeks of the unit as a practice period and the last two or
three weeks for a tournament. This corresponds to the pre-
season practice of a varsity team followed by the season of
scheduled games; This does not mean that there would be no
games during the practice period. Skill games, corresponding
to varsity scrimmage, and regulation games, corresponding to
intra-squad games of the varsity, may be played during the
practice period. However, once the tournament is begun, the
class periods should be used for regulation games and any
instruction given would be of an incidental nature.
Where it does not seem advisable to divide the unit into
two parts, tournament play can be carried on at intervals dur-
ing the unit. For example, three days of each week could be
used for practice and the other two days for tournament play.
In some sports the practice could take place during the first
part of each day's class and the tournament during the latter
part; or, again, one part of the class could participate in a
tournament while another section is practicing skills.
Of course, it is not necessary to have a tournament in every
unit. It is sometimes advisable to have pupils participating with
different team mates each time they play the game.
2. Organization of Squads or Teams
The practice of dividing the class into groups is almost
universally employed because of the opportunities provided for
the development of leadership and for increased participation.
The groups may be organized as squads or as teams.
Most physical educators agree that most individuals improve
in skills more rapidly when practicing with players of approxi-









44 PHYSICAL EDUCATION IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

mately the same level of ability-consequently, squads are often
formed on the basis of ability, i.e., the best players are placed
in squad one, the next best in squad two, and so on with the
poorest players being placed in the last squad. The level of
ability of the players may be determined by achievement tests,
judgment of the instructor, or by the pupils themselves. Squads
are sometimes formed with no relation to their abilities. They
may be formed from the alphabetical listing of the class roll for
the purpose of checking roll; on the basis of neighborhood
grouping for social development; or in other ways to accomplish
some special aim. The number in a squad will vary with the pur-
pose, the size of the class, the facilities available and other local
factors.
It is sometimes advisable to organize groups as teams instead
of squads. The advantages in this type of grouping are that no
regrouping is necessary for team play and being a member of
a team often motivates individuals to improve their skills. The
number of players on a team would vary, of course, with the
game being played. However, it is wise to have several sub-
stitutes so games will not have to be forfeited because of ab-
sences. The equalization of competition should be one of the
first considerations in forming teams. Again, as in the case of
squads, the make-up of the team could be determined by tests,
instructor's judgment or pupil judgment.

3. Division of Class Into Sections
Where there is a wide variation in ability within a class
it is often advisable to divide the class into two or more sec-
tions. The section might be designated as '' Class A," Class B''
and (in exceptionally large classes) "Class C" with each being
treated as a separate class. Each section might have different
objectives and activities from those of the other sections. Any
of the methods given for the formation of squads or teams may
be used successfully in forming the section. One simple and
effective method of dividing the pupils is to announce to the
group that the better players are to go to "Class A" and the
poorer players to "Class B" and then let each child decide
for himself to which section he should go.








REGULAR CLASS PROGRAM 45

4. Extra-instructional Problems
The methods of dealing with certain extra-instructional
problems should be determined during the planning periods.
Such problems as the type of costume to be worn, the method
of checking roll to be used, the time to be allotted for dressing
and showers, and the method of handling equipment should be
determined during the planning period. Suggestions concern-
ing these are given in the following paragraphs:
a. Dress-It has been pointed out in Chapter II that children
should change clothes for physical education classes when dress-
ing facilities are available. The costumes worn should be com-
fortable, easily laundered, sensibly modest, inexpensive and
appropriate. While the type of dress to be worn is usually
determined at the beginning of the year, the nature of some
sports is such that a special type of costume might be more
appropriate than the regular one. For example, it may be
advisable to have boys wear long pants when doing work on the
horizontal or parallel bars; or girls may wish to have special
costumes for certain dance units. At any rate, any new unit
should be examined to determine if a special type of costume is
necessary.
b. Checking Roll-The method of checking the roll will usually
be the same for each unit throughout the year but may vary
with certain units. Any variation in method from the one used
in previous units should be planned for during the planning
of the unit. Any one of several methods may be used suc-
cessfully.
The verbal system in which each pupil's name is called by
the instructor is a waste of time except when used at the begin-
ning of the year as an aid in learning the names of new pupils.
The squad system may be used in the locker room or at the
play area. When used in the former, check sheets are placed at
designated places and squad leaders check while pupils are
dressing. Where the roll is checked at the play area, pupils
report to their squads at the beginning of the period and the
leader reports attendance just before activity begins.
The' number system may be used where a gym floor, side-
walk or wall is available for painting numbers. Each pupil is








.46 PHYSICAL EDUCATION IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

given a number and at the beginning of the class takes his place
on or in front of that number. The instructor can quickly
spot the vacant numbers and check the names of the pupils
who are assigned those numbers as being absent.
c. Time Allotment for Dressing and Showers-The time given
to dressing at the beginning of the period and showering and
dressing at the end of the period will normally be the same
for each unit throughout the year. However, as in the case
of the type of dress and the system of checking roll, there may
be units where more or less time is needed. So, again, the unit
must be examined to determine if the time given in previous
units is adequate. Usually, girls need a little more time than
boys for dressing and senior high school pupils need more than
junior high school pupils. From five to eight minutes should
be sufficient time for dressing at the beginning of the period,
while from ten to fifteen are necessary for showers and dress-
ing at the end of the period.
d. Method of Handling Equipment-During the planning
period an efficient method for getting equipment to the play
area should be determined. Any one of several methods may be
employed successfully. The nature of the unit, the organization
of the class and the level of the group in regard to the devel-
opment of a sense of responsibility for equipment are factors
which should be considered in determining the methods to be
used. Some of the methods which have been successfully used
are described below.
A Box or Dufflebag, in which all equipment to be used is
placed, may be carried to the play area by the instructor or
designated individuals.
Leaders may check out equipment for their squads or teams.
Any Individual may draw equipment. In this method, if
equipment is designated for squads, the first squad member
dressed checks out equipment for his squad.
It is just as important that a method be determined for
having the equipment returned at the end of the period. This
method will usually be the same as the one employed in check-
ing out equipment. Many learning situations are inherent in
the matter or handling equipment and no opportunity should








REGULAR CLASS PROGRAM 47

be overlooked to help children form good habits and attitudes
in this matter.
In addition to the care of equipment during the class period,
methods of caring for equipment at other times should be plan-
ned. Checking to see that all equipment is put away at the end
of the day, checking balls to see that they have the right
amount of pressure, and storing equipment properly when it is
not in use are constant responsibilities of the teacher.

SELECTING EVALUATION MEASURES
After the objectives, activities to accomplish the objectives, and
the unit organization have been determined, the next step in plan-
ning a unit is the selection of measures for evaluating progress.
When making his plans the teacher should determine suitable means
of measuring progress in the development of skill, the acquisition
of knowledge and the improvement in attitudes. If the teacher deter-
mines suitable measures prior to the planning with the pupils he
is then ready to guide their planning.
A number of different types of measures are available and in
most cases several types will be needed to adequately evaluate the
progress made in the unit.
1. Knowledge Tests
Written tests of both the objective and subjective type may
be used to determine the understanding which the pupils have
of the rules and strategies of the game and of the proper tech-
niques of performing skills.
2. Skill Tests
The ability of the pupils to perform the skills of the game
may be measured by skill or performance tests. It should be
noted that individuals vary from day to day in their ability
to perform skills and often their performance in a test will be
different from that in a game. Consequently, only tests which
have been proved to be valid and reliable should be considered
as accurate measures of progress.
3. Teacher Judgment
The judgment of the teacher is another method of measur-
ing progress, which is often more reliable than the more objec-
tive measures. This judgment of the individual's progress in








48 PHYSICAL EDUCATION IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

the accomplishment of the objectives should be based on observa-
tions made while he is playing the game, participating in drills
and performing in skill tests. Teachers will find a rating scale
to be checked while the pupil is performing a valuable device
in evaluating accomplishments.
4. Pupil Judgment
* Pupils should be encouraged to evaluate their own progress
as well as that of their classmates. They should show progres-
sive ability to analyze performance. This not only serves to
motivate the performer" but it becomes a learning process for
the evaluator.

SELECTING MATERIALS
The final step in the planning of a unit is the selection of mate-
rials to be used. During the planning period the instructor should
select those books, periodicals and phamplets which he will need to
read in his preparation for teaching the unit. He should also select
materials which the pupils may use. These may include books, peri-
doicals, phamplets, movies, pictures for the bulletin board, and game
-equipment.

CONDUCTING THE UNIT

In carrying out the plans which he has made for a unit, the
teacher is confronted with such problems as: planning daily lessons,
programs for inclement weather, and grading. Some suggestions for
each of these are included in the following paragraphs.

DAILY LESSON PLANS
One of the problems which faces the instructor in conducting
the class program of physical education is the planning of daily les-
sons. This should be done from time to time as the unit progresses
rather than at the time the unit is planned. While some teachers do
plan the daily lessons in advance of the unit, this is not generally
recommended for the simple reason that the needs of the children
on any one day cannot be anticipated accurately very far in advance.
The detailed plans for any one daily lesson, then, should take place
following the previous meeting of the class. In making the plans
for the day's work, the teacher should evaluate the progress of the








REGULAR CLASS PROGRAM


pupils to that point and base the new lessons on the needs evident
from his evaluation.
The type of plan made will vary considerably with the abilities
and experiences of the teacher. The young teacher will necessarily
plan each detail of the lesson very carefully; whereas the experi-
enced teacher may use only a brief outline. Plans usually take one
of the following forms:
A Descriptive Form in which a narrative description of the
plans for the day is given.
A Time Schedule in which the day's plans are outlined in
chronological order with the time to be spent on each
phase indicated.
1iitings in which brief chronological listings of the day's events.
are made.
The usual type of physical education lesson is one which takes
place on the playground or in the gymnasium and consists largely
of activities of a physical nature. In planning this type of lesson
the teacher will usually include plans for dressing and showers,
roll call, handling of equipment, and activities and procedures for
the warm-up and conditioning phase of the lesson. These have been
discussed under the heading "Planning a Unit." He must also be
concerned with how to organize the class for the most efficient
development of the skills of the game.

1. Organization for Skill Development
The following are some suggested ways of organizing a class
for instruction.
a. All of the class may practice a skill at the same time
with the instructor in direct charge.
b. The class may be divided into groups with:
(1) each group participating in the same skill game
or drill
(2) each group participating in different skill games
or drills with rotation taking place at intervals
(3) one or more groups participating in skill drills,
one or more in skill games and the others in
the official game









50 PHYSICAL EDUCATION IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

(4) one group practicing skills under the direction
of the teacher, while other groups are playing
the official game
(5) each two groups competing in the official game
In most cases a combination of two or more of the above
methods will be used during the period. An example of this
might be where, following a demonstration of passing a foot-
ball, each of the groups engages in the same drill for a five
minute practice period followed by a game between each two
groups. However, there are times when the entire activity period,
with the exception of the warm-up part, might be used for play-
ing the official game. Occasionally, the entire period might be
used for skill games. But it is not generally recommended that
an entire period be used for skill drills. Some opportunity
should be provided for play in each period.
PROGRAMS FOR INCLEMENT WEATHER
In those activities that require outdoor participaiton the teacher
is often faced with the problem of what to do on days when the
weather is too cold or damp for outside work. There are several
ways in which these class periods can be used for certain types of
learning more effectively than can outdoor periods.
1. Social Recreation
Boys and girls frequently have opportunities to plan
parties or attend social meetings of the party type and conse-
quently should not only know how to conduct themselves but
should also know how to plan for this type of activity. Incle-
ment weather offers one good opportunity for boys and girls
to participate together and to learn how to plan social func-
tions of this type.
These periods might be used for teaching activities which
could be used in social recreational situations. Where this is
the main purpose the period is usually planned by the teacher
and one class period has little relation to another period. How-
ever, the material could be organized as a unit which continues
through the year. This would provide for much broader learn-
ings than the above. The pupils could be given the opportunity
to actually plan the day's activity as if it were a particular








REGULAR CLASS PROGRAM


party. This could be done by appointing committees to plan
for certain types of parties such as a "birthday party," a
"church social" or a "school party." These committees would
prepare their programs outside of class with the guidance of
the teacher and have them ready to present as "rainy day"
programs. Suggestions for social recreational games may be
found in Chapter XIX.

2. Co-Recreation
Another type of program which may be used during incre-
ment weather is a more active type of program for boys and
girls together. Boys and girls can and should participate together
in many of the games of the physical education program. Such
games as volley_ ball, badminton and others can be played in the
gymnasium by the boys and girls together on days when they
cannot play outside.

3. Classroom Periods
While the above types of programs provide valuable learn-
ing experiences it should be recognized that in most units sev-
eral classroom periods are needed. By careful planning, these
can be held on days when the weather does not permit play out-
of-doors. It is generally agreed that for the most efficienlearn-
ing of rules and _-ame strategies. some discussion, blackboard
diagrams, movies and lectures are necessary. Many of those
do not have to be given at a particular time. So inclement
weather may provide opportunities for this type of activity.

GRADING
It has been stated in Chapter II that the method of grading in
physical education should conform to the plan used in other areas
of the school program. If six-week grading periods are used for
other subjects, it should be used for physical education. If the
remainder of the school gives letter grades of A. B. C. D and E,
the physical education grades should also be letter grades. Some
of the factors which might be considered in grading are progress
in the development of game skills, level of attainment reached in
game skills, level of attainment in physical condition, understand-
ing of rules, strategies and techniques of activities, and attitudes.









52 PHYSICAL EDUCATION IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

No general agreement exists among leaders in the field as to the
weight which each of these factors should be given in the composite
grade.
In addition to the record of grades kept on each pupil, other
information should be filed in the physical education office. These
include such things as the activities participated in, physical fit-
ness test scores, achievement test scores, and data on physical
growth. Forms for this information should be developed in each
school so that permanent records can be filed.

SELECTED REFERENCES
Blanchard, Vaughn S. and L. B. Collins. A Modern Physical Education Pro.
gram for Boys and Girls. New York: A. S. Barnes and Company, 1940.
Brace, David K. Health and Physical Education for Junior and Senior High
Schools. New York: A. S. Barnes and Company, 1948.
Irwin, Leslie W. The Curriculum in Health and Physical Education. St.
Louis: The C. V. Mosby Company, 1948.
Kozman, Hilda Klote, Rosaland Cassidy and C. O. Jackson. Methods in
Physical Education. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders and Company, 1947.
Salt, E. B., Grace S. Fox, Elsie M. Douthett and B. K. Stevens. Teaching
Physical Education in the Elementary School. New York: A. S. Barnes
and Company, 1942.
Sharman, Jackson. Teaching of Physical Education. New York: A. S. Barnes
and Company, 1936.
Williams. J. F. and C. L. Brownell, The Administration of Health and Physi-
cal Education. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders and Company, 1946.
Voltmer, Edward F. and Arthur A. Esslinger. The Organization and Adminis-
tration of Physical Education. New York: F. S. Crofts and Company,
1946.











/ CHAPTER VI
THE ADAPTED PROGRAM


Chapter V dealt with the regular class program of physical edu-
cation. The purpose of this chapter is to help teachers plan programs
for those children who cannot participate in all of the activities of
the regular physical education program because of physical deviations.
Some authorities estimate that approximately 12% of the children
in the United States are limited in their physical capacities to the ex-
tent that they need a program adapted to their need. This does not
neces. srily _ean a special program but an adaptation of the regular
one. The incapacities range from the serious to the minor, the con-
spicuous to the inconspicuous, from rheumatic fever and cerebral
palsy to defective teeth or vision. Physical education, as a part of
total education, must fulfill its share of the educational obligation by
providing for the individual needs, interests and desires of the atypical
student.
Formerly, those schools which recognized their duty to the han-1
dicapped child provideqa "eorrpetive" program. In it, the medical
physician indicated the weakness and the phyiscal education teacher
prescribed a series of formal exercises which tended toward the cor-
rection or protection of the individual's defects.
Of tth trend S aivity no da e
ability of the handicapped pupil and to his educational needs. The
educati o)inl ne'-lk-- if thfl- itypi n1l -.ti~ t itni-r i-it )iy 'tho activities
which help him adjust emotionally, physically, and socially to his
environment. PlY,!i.-n! ,lsf,:p.! .e_. ..u;ally b.'tl"l"ml" in_!!_ by oemtj_ ial
maladjustments; therefore, the main consideration should be the de-
ve-lopriii-nit :tf an intc r egrat Pi;_:p liity.
Activities should be selected that will provide physical exercise ii
keeping with the abilities of the iiidividual, mental relaxation social
contact and recreational pleasure with a minimum expectancy of in-
.jury. In many cases relmedialfbr compensatory 'Vialie will b.- r.alizei,
through these activities.









54 PHYSICAL EDUCATION IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

OBJECTIVES
In the effort to meet the needs and interests, and to allow for
the various ability levels of the atypical student, the program aims to:
1. Reduce the tension and nervous strain inherent in the handi-
capped person and aggravated by atomic age living.
2. Suppress introversion by diverting attention from the han-
dicap.
3. Provide activities which serve as safety valves for basic
drives, urges, desires and emotions.
4. Provide those activities which will tend to aid the handicap-
ped in his adjustment to life in becoming a contributing mem-
ber of the community.
5. Provide those activities which may remedy, compensate for,
or protect the handicap.
6. Provide the opportunity for the thrill of competition, a feel-
ing of going all-out to win the game.
7. Educate in the appreciation of spectator sports.
8. Educate the individual in carry-over activities which may
be used in after school years as well as present leisure time.
TEACHING SUGGESTIONS
While no effort has been made here to give the teacher complete
information, it is hoped that the suggestions included will be helpful
in conducting a program.
APPROACH
Teaching should begin with individual activities, such as archery,
in which mistakes affect only the participant. This lessens self-con-
sciousness and provides an opportunity to build self-confidence be-
fore participating in larger scale activities. As the handicapped us-
ually lacks a background of sports he finds physical adjustment more
readily in individual sports.
As soon as the student has reached the stage where he is willing
to participate, his program should include active team sports adapted
to his handicap. This phase of physical education is invaluable to his
needs for group adjustment and in learning cooperation in team play.
ORGANIZATION OF PROGRAM
It should be recognized that. the adapted program is in reality
a series of programs for individual students. It is also evident that in









ADAPTED PROGRAM 55

most cases these programs cannot be planned until adequate medical
information concerning the individual is available. The first step,
then, in organizing the program is the medical-examination. After
the report has been received from the physician the teacher can deter-
mine how the students can best be scheduled for classes. The third
step in the organization of the program would be guiding the individ-
ual in the formulation of his particular program. Each of these steps
will be discussed in order.
1. Medical Examination
Each student should be examined by a physician, preferably
his family physician, before being assigned to a physical education
class. In addition to the regular health examination form (See Bulle-
tin 4) the physician should have been provided with a, form for
designating the type of program to which the student should be as-
signed. The form below is suggested as one which might be used for
this purpose. The teacher may wish to add other points or delete some
of those included on the form.
PHYSICAL EDUCATION RECOMMENDATIONS
P a tien t D a te.............................................................. D a te ----------------------------------
Patient ....................................... ---.......................
Diagnosis .
Is the condition permanent? .... .........
If not, for how long do special arrangements need to be made? ....................
Is this child under your constant supervision?..... .... ..........
If not, do you wish us to urge that the child return to you for a check-up? ........
If so, when?.................... .. ......................................
Recommendations Concerning Activities (Check)
Avoid activities requiring excess breathing (basketball, soccer,
sprinting, distance running) Yes-- No-
Avoid activities requiring physical contact (boxing, touch foot- .
ball, baseball) 'Yes- 1No
Avoid excessive fatigue Yes-.'No-
Avoid activities which are accompanied by extreme excitement Yes- No-
Participate in activities that allow intervals of relaxation,
(Touch football, tennis, handball) Yes- No-
Participate in activities that require little or no running Yes- No-
Participate in activities that require little physical exertion
(table games, horseshoe, croquet) Yes- No-
Spectator participation only Yes- No-
Sun bathing and walking only Yes- No-
Rema.rks




M. D.










56 PHYSICAL EDUCATION IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

In order for this form to be most effectively used, it is desirable
that the physician have an understanding of the types of programs
being offered. This information may be provided him either by a letter
accompanying the form or by an explanation of the various programs
on the back of the form. The following is a suggested letter of ex-
planation.

............................................... HIGH SCHOOL

Dr......................------- .. --- -
Dear Sir:
At various times we receive requests from physicians asking that a certain
Q boy or girl be excused from physical education. Usually no reason is given
and no limit is indicated as to how long the student should be excused. We are
S quite desirous of establishing a better understanding between the physical
education instructor and the doctor so that the child may reecive as many
benefits as possible from our program.
Since it is impossible for the instructor to confer with or call upon each
doctor, we are making a few statements in this letter to acquaint you with
our program and our beliefs so that we may better cooperate with you in
assisting the child.
1. We offer two types of physical education and give credit for them.
They are:
(a) Regular physical education
(Includes vigorous participation in activities such as: Boys:
Touch football, volleyball, basketball, wrestling, stunts, rhythmic
activities, apparatus work, and tennis. Girls: Soccer, speedball,
volleyball, tennis, basketball, stunts and tumbling. calesthenics,
baseball, folk dancing, square dancing, and track.)
(b) Adapted physical education
This is an individually planned program which permits the stu-
dent to participate in only those activities suitable to his physi-
cal condition. The strenuousness of this program may be reduced
to sitting or walking in the sunshine, development of spectator
interest in sports, and table games.
2. The following considerations are also given:
(a) For the girl during her menstrual period: She is placed in the
adapted program. If she is in severe pain, she is permitted to rest
and advised to see her doctor. We do not advise jumping or
basketball at this time.
(b) For the convalescent student: After an illness, operation. or a
broken bone, rest and then gradual participation in restricted
physical education as..the doctor advises.
We will appreciate your filling in the enclosed blank for any of the students
under your care who need special recommendations as to physical education.
Our classes are open for visitation at any time.
Signed:


Instructor


Principal









ADAPTED PROGRAM 57

2. Classification and Scheduling
When the report of the medical examination is received the pu-
pil should be classified according to his particular physical defect.
The latter part of this chapter lists ten of the more common types of
defects and suggests activities for them. By classifying the student ac-
cording to his defects the teacher is better able to guide the student
in the formulation of a program to meet his needs.
Next, the teacher should consider the matter of scheduling the
student for physical education. In many cases the needs of the student
can best be met by assigning him to a regular physical education class.
However, it should be understood that the instructor will limit his
activities in accordance with the individual's capacities. Where it is
possible to assign a student in this way, he is provided with opportuni-
ties for normal social relationships with his classmates.

3. Formulation of Program
The atypical student should formulate his own program in ac-
cord with the doctor's suggestions and with the assistance of the phys-
ical education teacher. This not only should individualize the program
but also promote interest in the program and should aid the student
to develop an appreciation of his potentialities as well as his restric-
tions.

CONDUCT OF PROGRAM
The teacher should see that activities progress according to plan.
Since the therapeutic value of activities is somewhat dependant upon
the interest of the participant, it is important that the teacher sees
that this interest is maintained. It is even more important that he be
alert to opportunities for guidance and counseling.

1. Guidance
An adapted physical education program is essentially aguid-
ance program in every sense of the word with physical activities
the m st important tools. Educational administrators have long
emphasized te exce ent opportunity offered to physical educa-
tion teachers for guidance not only in health but also in other
areas. The very nature of the activities offers unusual opportuni-
ties for guidance. Here the child "cut loose" and shows his true
emotional behavior. The child can be observed under stress and








58 PHYSICAL EDUCATION IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

there are great possibilities for the establishment of personal rela-
tionships which are potentially useful for guidance in all five
areas-dynamic, vocational, educational, health, and socio-emo-
tional.
When a student is faced with the additional burden of a
physical handicap, the difficulty of making adequate adjust-
ments in the above mentioned fields is increased enormously. He
must have help and understanding on a very personal basis. All
phases of his adjustments are interrelated and guidance in any
of the areas must recognize this interrelation. This should be giv-
en serious and continuing consideration in Adapted and/or
Corrective physical education.

2. Selection of Activitics
The same consideration given the student in formulating his
program must be continuous throughout his participation. In de-
termining the activities in which the student is to participate a
careful study of the physician's recommendation must be made.
This will indicate his physical needs. In determining his social
and emotional needs it will be necessary to hold conferences with
him in order to establish a friendly and persona] relationship.
It should be emphasized that each student's program should
be planned to meet his individual need. As has been stated above
he will in most cases participate in the regular class program.
However, he will take part in only those activities from which
he will benefit.
S A well planned and directed program should cause the stu-
dent to realize his need and should promote a desire to overcome
his weaknesses. Whenever this occurs, every effort should be made
to provide him with the opportunity to participate in remedial
and corrective exercises.
The following chart suggests appropriate games for the ten
most common defects. Games which are considered of definite
value to the majority with a certain handicap are marked "x".
"No" is written opposite any activity which is detrimental to
that group while a dash indicates limited participation only.











ADAPTED PROGRAM 59



Malnu- Paraly- Spinal
S triton sis Deviations


INDIVIDUAL




Apparatus x No x x x -

Aquatics x K x x X x x x x No x x x x

Archery x x xxx x x x x x x x x x x

Bagpunching tl x x x x x x X x x x x

Bait and Fly Casting x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x

Baseball Throw x r xa x x x x x x x x x x x

Basket Shooting x x x x x x x x x x x x x x

Basketball Throw x x x x x x x x x x x x x

Bicycling x a x x x x x x x x No x

Camping X C A x x x X x x x x x x x x

Dance (Folk and Social) x x x x x x x x x x x x

Fishing x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x

Football (Kick) x x x x x x x x x No x x x

RForward and Backward Roll x x x x x x x x x

Headstand No x x x x x x x x x x -

Hiking X X X X X X X X x- X X

Juggling x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x

Medicine Ball Throw x x x x x x x x x x x x

Rope Spinning x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x

Skating x x x x x x x

Track and Field x No No x x x

ATHLETIC GAMES

Badminton x x x x x x x x x x

BasketBall x x x No x x No x


Limited participation
x Generally valuable
No Forbidden











60 PHYSICAL EDUCATION IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS



SMalnu- Paraly- .3 Spinal
Striation sis Deviations


loe a x xx x o a
Z






Bowling x x x x x x x x x x x x x

Captainban x x x x x x -

Croquet x x x x x x x x x x x No x
------------ ---- -

Deck Tennis x x x x x x x x x x x x x
DodgeBall x x x x x x x
---- - - -
a a













Golf x x x x x x x x x x -



Horseshoes x x x x x x x x x x x x

KickBaseball x x x x x x

Newcomb x x x x x x x x x x x x x x

Relays x- x x x x x x -
Golf -,







Shuffleboard x x x x x x x x x x x x No x

Soccer --- ------ --Xxx-
Soccer x x x x x

Softball xx x x x x x x x

Sydbll -x----x----xxx--
Speedball x x x x x x -.

Squash Racuets x x x x x

TableTennis x x x x x x x x x x xx a x x X
Soce- X--I-I- --- IX)L--- -----X





Tennis x x x x x x x x x x x

TetherBall x x x x x x x x x x x x x

Touch Football x x -' No x x -

Volley Ball x x x x x x xx x x x





Limited participation
r Generally valuable
No Forbidden








ADAPTED PROGRAM 61

SUGGESTIONS FOR SPECIFIC DEFECTS
The remainder of the chapter contains a discussion of ten com-
mon defects for which adapted physical education programs should
be provided. Some of the most frequent defects (defective teeth, vis-
ion, tonsils, adenoids, skin and hearing) are omitted because children
with these types can usually participate in the regular class program
of physical education. Suggestions are given under Correctives for
those conditions which may be improved by formal corrective ex-
ercises.

AMPUTATIONS
1. Interpretation: Students who have an arm or a leg missing
would fall.into this classification.
2. Needs: By the time the child is allowed to return to school
the training in substitution for the physical handicap has
been accomplished. However, his adaption to the group is in
its initial stage. He may be overly sensitive, discouraged,
afraid of not being socially accepted, bitter, or feel that the
world owes him a living. His needs are mainly mental and
social. He still possesses a desire for adventure, a desire for
participation, a desire for response as well as all of the other
wishes common to mankind. He must be given the opportun-
ity to satisfy these needs.
3. Suggestions: The corrective training for the amputee should
have taken place before he returns to school. The school should
provide activities which promote organic development, which
challenge and stimulate, and which offer promise of success)
(See Chart.) (Whenever possible, it is desirable to have him
participate in games without modification of the rules. Am-
putees frequently consider a modification of the rules a dis-
play of sympathy and resent it.

mCIRULATORY DISTURBANCES
1. Interpretation: Heart disease (including the rheumatic,
syphilitic, arteriosclerotic, nephritic and doubtful heart cases)
and organic heart disturbances come under this classifica-
tion.








62 PHYSICAL EDUCATION IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

2. Needs: The "heart case" needs confidence in his ability to
participate in selected activities. Most children with heart
disturbances who are able to attend school derive definite
benefit from exercise.
3. Suggestions: Game activities may be given cardiac when
precautions are taken for careful supervision-more time to
rest, shorter running distances, and observance of signs of
fatigue. The ultimate aim is to improve organic vigor through
"protective" exercise.

FooT DISORDER: /
1. Interpretations: Those students who have abducted feet,
weak feet and flexible flat feet are in this class. While a rigid
flat feet is a foot deformity, it is structural in nature and
should be cared for by an orthopedic surgeon.
2. Needs: Students with foot disorders need to be taught the
essentials of foot hygiene, with emphasis on correct shoes and
parallel walking.
3. Suggestions: Avoidance of fatigue is essential. Those with
foot disorders can participate with comfort in most sports ac-
tivities if the feet are used correctly and activity is not pro-
longed. Only those stunts involving heavy landings or land-
ing on one foot must be avoided by the student with weak fee-t
4. Correctives: Games involving use of the feet in picking up
objects (such as marbles) are a valuable aid in building up
the muscles of weakened arches. Some usable adaptations
are "jacks", "going to Jerusalem" and "basket shooting"
with a cup and marbles.
Actual corrective exercises, too, are valuable to the stu-
dent with foot disorders. He may sit on a chair with knees
bent at right angles, feet flat on the floor and parallel. While
keeping his heels in their original position, he should try to
raise the arches of the feet as high as possible by curling
under the toes (plantar flexion.)
Lying on his back with his hands under his head, he
should raise and lower each leg alternately. The knees should
be straight and the foot turned inward to form an arch while
pushing through the heel (inverted and dorsi-flexed),








ADAPTED PROGRAM


A bicycle, from which the pedal guards have been re-
removed leaving only the round pedal bars, provides a fine
opportunity for exercising weak feet by curling the toes
around the bars and pedaling.
While standing correctly with feet four inches apart,
the student with flat feet should roll the weight of the body
to the outer borders of the feet, curl under the toes (plantar
flex) and hold thirty seconds before relaxing. These are only
a few of the many remedial exercises of value to the student
with weak feet. The bibliography suggests several books which
contain a variety of activities from which to choose.

LGLANDULAR DISTURBANCES
1. Interpretation: Those students suffering from a deficiency
or overactivity of the adrenal, thyroid, para-thyroid, pineal,
or pituitary glands fall in this classification. Glandular dis-
turbances result in personality disturbances and emotional
instability.
2. Needs: The mental, even more than the physical, needs of
the child with glandular imbalance must be met. Where the
organs of the body are functioning incorrectly the effect is
psychic as well as physical. Activities should provide an out-
let for the fundamental drives with special consideration for
the atypical group's desire for social approval,
3. Suggestions:'-, n this handicapped group, more than in any
other, individual attention and recommendation of activities
is necessary. The student with an overactive adrenal gland
requires vigorous team sports while the hypoadrenal and
hypothyroid cases require "protective" exercise. Recreation-
al swimming is especially helpful for those with a pituitary
deficiency. The nervous irritability of the overactive thyroid
case requires the quiet activities of the organic heart group)
HERNIA /
1. Interpretation: This term is used to indicate a protrusion
of the abdominal viscus from its normal position. It is caused
by a weakness of the abdominal muscles stemming from a
lack of exercise, physical weakness in general, relaxed abdom-
inal rings, or sudden vigorous internal pressure.








4 __ PHYSICAL EDUCATION IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

2. Needs: In cases of slight deviation the doctor may prescribe
a truss and exercises to increase muscle tone in the abdomen.
Where an actual protrusion occurs it is an operative case.
Some students suffering from hernia participate in active
sports without strain; others, because of parental reminders
fear vigorous activities. The student should be made to real-
ize his limitations and the danger involved in being over-
active. However, parents should be advised to have the opera-
tion as soon as possible in order to avoid the feeling of in-
competence and loss of initiative which is the result of con-
stant repression.
3. Suggestions:) ports and games are dangerous. Light recrea-
tional activities, such as archery, is desirable, as well as ex-
ercises which tend to strengthen the abdominal wall without
strain or fatigue. Good posture is essential.
4. Correctives: Standing correctly with chest high and abdo-
men in, lift knees alternately to the chest.
Standing in a stride position grasp hands behind the
neck. Bend the trunk to the left side and exhale return to
to the erect position and inhale, then to the right side while
exhaling again. This should be executed with a continuous
chest lift and care to avoid leaning back from the waist.
With both heels resting upon an object at least a foot
off the floor, lie on back on the floor. Alternate raising each
leg until it is at right angles with the body and exhale. Low-
er and inhale.
Standing correctly, raise to toes then slowly bend knees
to a half squat. At the same time stretch arms out to the sides
shoulder high, then up overhead. Exhale keeping abdomen
in. Inhale upon returning to the original good standing posi-
tion.

'MALNUTRITION
1. Interpretation: This term refers to both overweight and
underweight persons.
2. Needs: Underweight students usually admit a definite in-
feriority complex by the time they reach the high school level.
Overweight students are usually self-conscious and easily em-








ADAPTED PROGRAM 65

barrassed. They never quite become adjusted to bearing the
brunt of school mates' jokes. Lack of success with the opposite
sex adds to the adjustment problems. There is a danger of
emotional disturbance. But a student with a willing attitude
in an understanding environment can make personality and
physical adjustments as well. The malnourished students
need an opportunity to compete against opponents of equal
weight, or in activities in which weight or lack of it will not
be a handicap, but may even be an asset.
3. Suggestions: Both overweight and underweight students
need exercise. Shot-putting and weight throwing are activi-
ties in which the overweight person might excel. Golf, archery
and bowling offer opportunities for the underweight to gain
recognition. Other recreative activities are suggested on the
chart.
PARALYSIS
1. Interpretation: Under this heading come students who are
handicapped by muscle distrophies caused by a previous siege
of infantile paralysis and those who are handicapped by the
muscle contractures and spasm of cerebral palsy (spastic
paralysis).
2. Needs: These children shun sympathy and tend to become
suspicious of the motives of others. This stems from the
desire to be liked for what they can do rather than be accept-
ed for their misfortunes. Although there is a feeling of se-
curity with adults, lack of self-confidence makes adjustments
with children of equal age difficult. Of the two, those suffer-
ing from spastic paralysis have the greatest problems of ad-
justment. Both need opportunity to develop confidence; they
need to be shown that they can participate successfully in ac-
tivities chosen on the basis of their individual differences;
then they should be encouraged to play within the limits of
that ability.
3. ulggesfions: The student handicapped by paralysis should
be taught relaxation. Tension, undue excitement, and over-
exertion tend to exaggerate his muscular disability. In order
to overcome the lack of self-confidence typical of this group,
single response activities must be the beginningTimekeeping,








66 PHYSICAL EDUCATION IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

umpiring and scorekeeping for more active team games of-
fer opportunities for identification with and satisfaction
through those games. However, these substitutes should not
prevent the handicapped from more active participation as
he improves, nor should they take the place of his play in the
recreative sports prescribed for him. Fulfill the needs of
this group especially, games which they will be able to carry
on after completing school should be stressed&.)

POsT-OPERATIVE DEFECTS
1. Interpretation: Those students who have returned to school
following a long illness, a short acute illness, or an operation
are included in this classification. They are usually healthy,
normal students who would ordinarily participate in the reg-
ular physical education program, but whose bodies are weak,
ened through infection, operation, or disuse.
2. Needs: At first the individual needs rest and relaxation. Ac-
cording to the individual's illness and physical condition, he
may be gradually given exercise. Rational activity, within the
recuperative student's limitations, can improve the func-
tioning of the various systems of the body and help
regain muscle tone. There should be no serious personality or
adjustment problems during this temporary period or re-
building. However, there is a tendency among the recupera-
tive to be either overactive or almost entirely inactive.
3. Suggestions The importance of sufficient rest, gradual in-
crease in exercise, sunshine, wholesome food, and fresh air
should be stressed. The student must be made to realize that
a higher standard of health is his first objective, fitting back
into his place in his group. Formal corrective exercises are a
beginning in the reconditioning phase following his rebuild-
ing, the student may be allowed to participate in the recrea-
tive sports which can be adapted to his condition. These should
be okayed by his physician in periodic check-ups. Shuffle-
board, darts, archery, and perhaps golf (as it may be played
in a leisurely fashion) should prove "protective" enough at
the end of one month.








ADAPTED PROGRAM


4. Correctives: Corrective exercises may be employed to great
advantage in the recuperation process. Those ordinarily pre-
scribed for heart cases are suggested.

RESPIRATORY AND NASAL OBSTRUCTIONS )
1. Interpretations Asthma, hay fever, bronchial asthma, colds,
nasal blocks, and allergies which cause nasal discomfort are
included in this category.
2. Needs: The student handicapped by the respiratory and
nasal obstructions mentioned above usually has a difficult
problem of adjustment. He may often miss periods of school
because of nasal congestion and discomfort. He usually dis-
plays signs of insecurity, introspection, and preoccupation
with his discomfort and may suffer depression and melan-
cholia. He is subconsciously hopeful that something will hap-
pen to bring permanent relief. His main need is to get his
mind off his troubles and to build up his general health.
3. Su(t /,,.v t: Recreative activity which is not too strenuous,
yet guides the individual away from introversion, is the key-
note in meeting the needs of this group/As students suffering
form respiratory disturbances are ini weakened physical con-
dition; care must be exercised in preventing participation to
any approach of fatigue. The physical education teacher
should encourage them to follow strictly the rules of health-
ful and hygienic living, and should stress the importance of
medical care.

PINAL DEVIATIONS
1. Interpretation: Postural defects, lordosis (hollow back),
kyphosis (round back), and scoliosis (lateral curvature) are
discussed in this grouping.
2. Needs: Since there are so many individuals whose body
alignment is poor, from the tall person who wants to appear
shorter to the one actually confronted with a spinal curva-
ture, the students in this category very seldom feel out of
place. Students with spinal'deviations need the same outlets
for their drives, emotions, and,desire for competition as do
their companions. They also need help in the reduction of









68 PHYSICAL EDUCATION IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

their deformity, strengthening of the muscles of the trunk,
and restoration of body balance.
3. Suggestions: Except for cases where the student complains
of pain, the competitive games offered in the regular phys-
ical education program are valuable in meeting this atypical
group's needs. Strengthened trunk muscles and improved
body balance may best be accomplished in the physical edu-
cation class by gymnastics, in which proper posture or bal-
ance adaptations are necessary to succeed. Gymnastics also
promotes greater flexibility of the trunk. Gymnastics and
posture work may aid in the reduction of spinal deviations;
however the work of correction, especially in structural
scotiosis, belongs to the orthopedic surgeon.

4. Corrections: As the corrective exercises for this group re-
quire a more thorough understanding than can be derived
here, and as one or two examples would not even serve as
starters, the reader is referred to the extensive bibliography
which follows. The bibliography is extensive so that those
interested might read several versions of each handicapped
group presented in this chapter.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
American Association for the Advancement of Science. Mental Health.
Lancaster: The Science Press, 1939.
Berman, L. The Glands Regulating Personality. New York: The Mac-
: Millan Company.
Carey, E. J. "Scoliosis", The Physiotheraphy Review, Vol. XII (Nov.. Dec.,
1932) p. 528.
Carnett, J. B., and W. Bates, "Some Phases of Body Mechanics", Journal
of Health and Physical Education, Vol. LV (April, 1933), p. 28.
Cobb, Walter F. Health for Body and Mind. New York: D. Appleton-
Century Co.. Inc.. 1936.
Crowden, G. P. Muscular Work, Fatigue and Recovery. London: Isaac
Pitman and Sons, Ltd., 1932.
Davis, J. E. Principles and Practices of Recreational Theraphy for the
Mentally Ill. New York: A. S. Barnes and Co., 1936.
Dickson, F. D. Posture, Its Relation to Health. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippin-
cott Co., 1931, p. 213.
Dickson, F. D. and Diveley. Exercises for Health and Correction. Philadel-
phia: J. B. Lippincott Co.. 1923.
Dobbins & Abernathy. Physical Education Activities for Handicapped Chil-
dren (Monograph Book V.) Albany: University of the State of New
York, 1937.
Drew, L. C. Individual Gymnastics. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger, 1929,
p. 276.










ADAPTED PROGRAM 69

Goldthwait, Brown, Swaim, and Kuhns. Body Mechanics in Health and
Disease, 3d. ed., Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott, 1941.
Haggard, Howard. and Fry. Anatomy and Personality. New York: Harper
Brothers, 1936.
Hanser, Emil. "The Muscle Factor in Adolescent Scoliosis". Journal of the
American Medical Association, vol. XCVIII (April 30, 1932) pp. 1535-1538.
Hawk, C. L. "Treatment of Mild Scioliosis by Developing the Musculature
of the Trunk", Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Vol. X (April, 1928)
pp. 330-335.
Hawley, Gertrude. The Kinesiology of Corrective Exercise. Philadelphia: Lea
& Febiger, 1937.
Haynes. R. S. "Postural Reflexes in Relation to Correctoin of Improper
Body Position". American Journal of Diseases of Children, Vol. VI (Dec.
1928) pp. 1093-1107.
Heald, C. B. Injuries and Sports. London: Oxford University Press, 1931.
AKozman, Cassidy and Jackson. Methods in Physical Education. Philadelphia,
London: W. B. Saunders Co., 1948. p. 270.
Lovett, R. W. Lateral Curative of the Spine and Round Shoulders. Philadel-
phia: P. Blakiston's Son & Co., 1931, p. 217.
Lowman, Colestock & Cooper. Corrective Physical Education for Gorups.
New York: A. S. Barnes & Company, 1935.
Lowman, C. L. "The Orthopedic Surgeon as a Sociologist," The Physio-
theraphy Review, 19 (March-April, 1939) 81.
McCurdy & Larson. The Physiology of Exercise, 3d. ed. Philadelphia: Lea
& Febiger, 1939.
Mesendieck, B. M. The Mesendieck System of Functional Exercises. Port-
land, Maine: The Southworth & Anthoensen Press, 1937, p. 154.
New York City Dept. of Education. Report of the Sub-Committee on Orthope-
dically Handicapped Children. New York: The Board of Education, 1941.
Nye, Dorothy. New Bodies for Old. New York: Funk & Wagnalls Co., 1936.
Rathbone. J. L. Corrective Physical Education. Philadelphia, London: W. B.
Saunders Co., 1944.
Riggs, A. F. Play: Recreation in a Balanced Life. New York: Doubleday,
Doran and Co., 1935.
Robinson. G. C. The Patient as a Person. New York: The Commonwealth
Fund, 1939.
Schneider, E. C. Physiology of Muscular Activity, 2d. ed. Philadelphia: W. B.
Saunders Co., 1939.
Stafford, George T. Preventive and Corrective Physical Education. New
York: A. S. Barnes and Co., 1946.
Stafford, George T. Sports for the Handicapped. New York: Prentice-Hall,
Inc., 1939.
Stafford, George T. Exercise During Convalescence. New York: A. S. Barnes
and Co., 1947, p. 281.
Wright, J. "Protective Body Mechanics in Convalescence", American Journal
S of Nursing, Vol. XIV (Sept., 1945) pp. 699-703.
Wright, Wilhemina G. Muscle Function. New York: Paul B. Hoeber, Inc.
1938.











CHAPTER VII


THE INTRAMURAL SPORTS PROGRAM



The intramural sports program is an integral phase of the
physical education program. It provides opportunities for volun-
tary participation in those activities in which instruction has been
given in the regular class program. The term intramurals has
been derived from the Latin word intra meaning "within" and
the Latin word muralis meaning "walls." Intramurals, then, are
out-of-class activities which are carried on within the school. They
involve organized competition, but the teams represent divisions
within the school, never the school as a whole.
This chapter attempts to state the purposes and give sugges-
tions for organizing and administering an adequate program of
intramural athletics.

PURPOSES

Participaiton in the intramural sports program produces many
intangible results in the way of helping the individual successfully
meet the everyday problems of living in a democratic society. Some
of the more specific reasons why this phase of the program should
be promoted are to:
1. Add to the pleasure of the members of the student body
who participate
2. Give all pupils an opportunity for participation in com-
petitive activities which are taught during and outside of the
physical education period
3. Develop a love of sports through active participation
4. Provide for participation in sports and games that will afford









INTRAMURAL SPORTS PROGRAM 71

a basis for a wise selection of activities in leisure time both
for the school days and in the future
5. Develop wholesome special relationships involving coopera-
tion, sportsmanship, leadership, followership, fellowship, and
group loyalty
6. Provide an opportunity for boys and girls to acquire addi-
tional satisfaction from participation in sports beyond that
provided in the physical education class program
7. Motivate and enrich the other phases of the physical educa-
tion program.


SUGGESTIONS FOR ORGANIZING AND ADMINISTERING
AN INTRAMURAL PROGRAM

Since this phase of the school program is growing in importance
as a part of the student's school life, it is being recognized as having
distinct problems of organization and administration. Unfortunately,
there are some situations in which an intramural program is not
feasible due to limited facilities, limited personnel, or the problem
of students being transported from rural areas. However, in most
schools the program can and should be promoted. The following sug-
gestions should be helpful to these schools.
It is recommended that the intramural program be conducted
after school if local conditions permit. There are other times during
the day for carrying on an intramural program but it should be
emphasized that this period should not in any way replace the physi-
cal education class program. Those responsible for the planning
of activities such as band, glee club, dramatics, intramurals, etc.,
should plan their program jointly at the beginning of the school
year to avoid conflicting schedules.
The organization of the school would of necessity influence the
administration of an intramural program. The leaders of the intra-
mural program may be appointed by the department of physical
education or may be elected by the student body under the super-
vision of that department.








72 PHYSICAL EDUCATION IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

The following is a suggested organizational chart illustrating the
Intramural Governing Body:


The work of the Intramural Governing Body involves the estab-
lishment of policies for the conduct of the program, the selection
of sports to be included and the scheduling of participation, both
for practice and for tournament play. This body is composed of:
the chairman who is the student director; a faculty advisor wh6
guides and helps direct the whole program; an assistant director;
a treasurer; a publicity chairman; sports managers; officials chair-
man; and a recording secretary. The suggested duties of these- mem-
bers might be as follows:
1. The Director
a. To coordinate the work of the whole board
b. To preside over board meetings
c. To call meetings whenever necessary for the proper
functioning of the program.
d. To make appointments to offices not elective
2. The Assistant Director
a. To help coordinate the workings of the whole board
b. To check on equipment and scheduling of activities
c. To investigate forfeits or defaults in competition








INTRAMURAL SPORTS PROGRAM 13

3. The Treasurer
a. To devise methods of raising money for financing the
program if it cannot be financed by an appropriation
of the school board
b. To purchase awards for those deserving recognition in
in the program
4. The Publicity Chairman
a. To prepare for publication all written data on the intra-
mural program in:
(1) Newspapers
(2) The school paper
(3) Pamphlets and handbooks
(4) The P. T. A. bulletin
(5) Letters to the parents
b. To promote the presentation of reports and announce-
ments such as:
(1) Talks to civic clubs and other interested groups
(2) Radio talks
(3) Assembly programs
(4) Pep meetings
c. To make arrangements for the use of visual aides such as:
(1) Pictures in school annual
(2) Motion pictures
(3) Posters
(4) Posting schedules and team standings
(5) Scrapbooks containing records of the intramural
program
(6) Games and demonstrations open to the public

5. The Sports Managers
a. To be responsible for the type of competitive organiza-
tion to be used in their particular sport
b. To cooperate with the chairman of the officials commit-
tee in arranging for officials for the tournament or the
meet
c. To meet with the competing group leaders or team man-
agers or captains at the beginning of a season to discuss
any problem or question about the sport








74 PHYSICAL EDUCATION IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

d. To see that adequate announcement of their particular
sport is made
e. To make sure that all details of scoring both of the
games and of the individual achievement is furnished
the recorder
6. Officials' Chairman
a. With the help of the faculty advisor, to train officials
for the various types of activities *
b. Upon the request of the sports manager, to furnish the
necessary officials for the contest
c. To check on the proper equipment for playing each game
d. With the members of this committee, to interpret any
difficult or confusing rules to any group
7. Recording Secretary-or Recorder
a. To keep the minutes of the board meeting and post them
on the intramural bulletin board
b. To keep a permanent record of all points scored by indi-
viduals participating in the program
c. To keep a permanent record of all the tournaments and
other contests and the results of each contest

SELECTION OF ACTIVITIES
When planning the program of activities the following sugges-
tions should be considered:
1. Select activities which will include the major portion of the
student body
2. Include in each season activities that are being taught in
physical education classes during that season.
3. Precede each competitive tournament with preliminary
training or practice
4. Consider seasonal interest in an activity and the availability
of equipment and facilities
The following activities have been grouped for the purpose of
convenience. However, it should be understood that no activity
need necessarily be confined to one group. Any game may be
adapted to fit the particular needs of the program.








INTRAMURAL SPORTS PROGRAM 75


1. Team Games
Touch Football
Soccer
Softball
Track and Field
2. Individual or Dual Games
Deck Tennis
S Golf
Handball
Horseshoes
Paddle Tennis
Shuffleboard
Table Tennis
3. Aquatics
Diving
Swimming-Speed and
Form


4. Gymnastics and Tumbling
Apparatus Activities
Tumbling
5. Dance
Folk and Square
Modern


Basketball
Speedball
Volleyball


Archery
Badminton
Bowling
Croquet
Darts
Tennis
Tether Ball

Water Games
Synchronized Swimming


Pyramid Building


Social
Tap


UNITS OF COMPETITION

There are several methods of organizing units of competition. The
type used should be determined by the individual schools depend-
ing on local conditions. The following are examples of the methods
most accepted.


HOME ROOMS

This method is popular because it has sufficient permanence to
insure group spirit and necessary interest. It also stimulates inter-
est on the part of the home room teacher. However, since it might
necessitate competition between grades, it is not recommended for
small schools.








76 PHYSICAL EDUCATION IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

GRADES
Grade teams are common but this method has the disadvantage
of groups of unequal ability competing against each other. Where
this is used in schools organized on a 6-6 basis, junior high school
grades should compete among themselves and senior high school
grades among themselves.

CLUBS OR ORGANIZATIONS
The members of these groups are usually so devoted to their own
specialized fields (glee clubs, dramatics, etc.) that they can give
little attention to intramural teams. However, their interest in their
individual clubs may foster desirable competition.

COLOR GROUPS

This plan is suited to small schools. Color teams are formed by
dividing the entire school into groups. Where this is done, competi-
tion may be equalized by divisions within the group. For example,
color teams in the 11th and 12th grades may compete against each
other, and color teams in the 9th and 10th grades may compete
against each other.

PHYSICAL EDUCATION CLASSES

In some situations physical education classes serve as desirable
units because the plan tends to bring about a closer relationship
between the regular class program of physical education and the
intramural program.

"CHOOSE-UP" TEAAS

"Choose-up" teams may be formed by allowing the students to
do the choosing or by having the students who wish to participate
sign up at a designated place, later to be divided into teams. One
way of doing this is to select captains and they in turn choose teams.
If this method is used, the captains may first rate the players as
good, fair, and poor. Then each captain selects a player from each
group until all have been chosen. Each captain should be given a
chance to choose first by the following method: ONE has first choice
in the first round, THREE has first choice in the second round,
and TWO has first choice in the third round.








INTRAMURAL SPORTS PROGRAM 77

TYPES OF COMPETITION

There are several ways of organizing intramural competition.
The three general types-tournaments, leagues and meets-will be
discussed in that order.
TOURNAMENTS
All bracket tournaments should be arranged in such a manner
as to create the best competition. This may be done by distributing
(seeding) the stronger teams so they will not meet in the early rounds
of the tournament. When it is necessary to provide a "bye" it
should always be drawn by lot or awarded to the seeded teams.
There are three types of tournaments to be considered.
1. Single Elimination Tournament
The quickest possible method of providing a basis for com-
petition is the elimination tournament. This type of tournament.
lends itself well to large groups. A lack of time and inadequate
facilities will determine its use. The main disadvantage is that
no provision is made for extended participation even though
participation is the objective. The teams or players are bracketed
in pairs and the winners from each round of play are again
paired until a final match is played between two survivors as
shown below:
A M0,V Tue Wved. N-I = l
S7:00 3

3:00 -- -

S9:00 //-



The entire system of brackets with the time and place for each
game should be constructed and posted before the tournament begins,
the winners' names being inserted as soon as games are finished.
If the original number of contestants is a perfect power of two,
this plan needs no modification, but this seldom occurs. When the
number of contestants is not a perfect power of two, only enough
games are played in the first round to reduce the entries to a per-








78 PHYSICAL EDUCATION IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

feet power for the second round. The number of byes necessary to
accomplish this is always equal to the difference between the num-
ber of contestants and the next perfect power of two above. Those
who are to draw byes in the first round may be determined by lot.
Thus in case there were 11 teams, the number of byes would be 16
minus 11 or 5. The number of rounds necessary is the power to
which 2 must be raised to equal or exceed the number of entries;
thus to exceed 11, 2 must be raised to the 4th power (24 equals and
16) and the number of rounds is 4.














\
8 0




61 .












If a few individuals or teams are superior these should be seeded,
so that they cannot meet until the finals or semi-finals in the tourna-







,
INTRAMURAL SPORTS PROGRAM 79

ment. io do this in a tournament of 16 entries the four superior
players or teams are placed on lines 1, 15, 7, and 9.

2. Double Elimination Tournament

This plan compensates for "off-nights" when contestants
are not up to form, and gives an individual (or team) that is
defeated in the first round an opportunity to come back and win
in the finals. It also makes a longer tournament and provides
more participation. In the following chart player No. 1 defeated
player No. 2, but No. 2 who becomes 2 X, won through the
losers' brackets and again met No. 1 in the finals. Winners
proceed to the right in First Elimination, losers to the left in
Second Elimination. If the winner of the first elimination flight
loses to the winner of the second elimination flight, another game
between the two must be played to determine the flight champion.
No individual may be eliminated until he has lost two games.




x/



CHAMPIONSJ








r__ ___ _- _. _ __--

3. Consolation Tournament

This plan is similar to the Double Elimination Plan. The
only variation is that all losers remain on the left side of the
bracket and all winners remain on the right. The final result
will produce the tournament champion and consolation cham-
fN pion. The chart below shows a consolation tournament.








80 PHYSICAL EDUCATION IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS


LEAGUES
In this type of competition it is desirable for every team to
play every other team at least once. Where this is done, it is usually
designated as a Round Robin. The diagram below is one method of
making a schedule where there are an even number of teams.
1st Day 2nd Day 3rd Day 4th Day 5th Day
n ir-i) 1-2 1-4 1-6 1-5 1-3
3-4 2-6 4-5 6-3 5-2
5-6 3-5 2-3 4-2 6-4
The formula followed here is to leave Team One in the same position
and rotate the other teams in a counter-clockwise direction for each
successive round.
If an odd number of teams are participating, the same procedure
would be followed. However, one team would draw a bye in each
round. So the word bye is inserted in the diagram for the next
even number above the highest odd number. The diagram below
shows the schedule for a five team league. Bye has been inserted as
if it were a sixth team.
1st Day 2nd Day 3rd Day 4th Day 5th Day
1-2 1-4 1-Bye 1-5 1-3
3-4 2-Bye 4-5 Bye-3 5-2
5-Bye 3-5 2-3 4-2 Bye-4
In this type of competition winners are usually determined on a
percentage basis. The percentage for each team is determined by
dividing the number of games played into the number of games
won by the team.




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs