Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Table of Contents
 Back Cover

Group Title: Bulletin ;, 77
Title: A guide, art in Florida elementary schools
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00067129/00001
 Material Information
Title: A guide, art in Florida elementary schools
Series Title: Bulletin
Alternate Title: Art in Florida elementary schools
Physical Description: 75 p. : ill. ; 22 x 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- State Dept. of Education
Publisher: State Dept. of Education
Place of Publication: Tallahassee
Publication Date: 1969, c1968
Copyright Date: 1968
Subject: Art -- Study and teaching (Elementary) -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 63-68).
Funding: Bulletin (Florida. State Dept. of Education) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00067129
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 21325193

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page i
    Front Matter
        Page ii
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Table of Contents
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18a
        Page 19a
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 21a
        Page 23
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 25a
        Page 25
        Page 26
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        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 29a
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    Back Cover
        Page 76
Full Text


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a guide...

art in florida elementary schools


bulletin 77


To maintain an independence of thought and a sense of
human value in generations that are destined to lead and
live in the future, Florida's schools must provide programs
that foster independence, intellectual courage, industry,
and consideration for man's dignity. Art Education is
germane to such purposes of education and serves them
in a unique fashion.
Art, by its nature, depends upon the individual and his
ability to express his understandings, ideas and feelings,
creatively. Personal judgements and choices are the very
essence of art. At whatever levels art is being taught, it is
the teacher's function to help students to "see" and act
with greater sensitivity and understanding. Art enables a
student to approach problems at his own level; it requires
that he project and test his own criteria and standards of
excellence against the standards and criteria that the
school helps to evolve.
This guide reflects Florida's art education philosophy
It is intended to help elementary teachers in the important
process of educating our children. V '

Commissioner W

Copyright 1968 by State Department
of Education, Tallahassee, Florida.

In 1960 the State Department of Education, on recom-
mendation of the Curriculum Materials committee, insti-
tuted plans for a guide for the teaching of art in the
elementary schools. In the ensuing years, the State
Elementary School Art Guide Committee's membership
changed a number of times and involved a large number
of elementary classroom teachers, art specialists, super-
visors and administrators.

During these years theory and method, as well as the

substantive aspects of teaching and learning in art, have
changed greatly. The State Art Guide reflects change in
art education theory and practice, in a larger sense, as
well as increasing sophistication of the total educational
enterprise in Florida. If parts of the guide seem eclectic,
it may be observed that on many fronts the same aesthetic
values, concepts, problems, and processes are being ex-
amined. This seems to indicate that art education, like
all art endeavor, is a live mass of energy and ideas con-
tinuously evolving in the hands of creative people.

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balance in the art

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for example:

ALTHOUGH many experiences will be planned with the broad major
objectives in mind, an individual lesson or unit might be organized
about a specific objective which would, in turn, contribute to the
development of the capacities desired. For example, it would be
possible and, in certain situations, highly desirable for students to
have intense involvement with color, per se, since an understanding
of the structural and expressive values of color would contribute to
a realization of any of the stated objectives. Conversely, in express-
ing ideas and feelings creatively with art materials, it would be
desirable to consider manipulative skills needed, suitable materials
and processes, and the overall organization of the visual statement.
Understanding of and involvement with the following examples will
lead toward achievement of the major goals.

Children will be able to perceive, discuss, and use color forces
in their work and that of others.

A. Teacher Preparation:
The following materials will be needed:
Watercolor paper
Drawing paper
Brown kraft paper
Tempera paints (blue, red, yellow, white and black)
Shallow containers for paint
Squeeze bottles for paint
Small round brushes
Water can (coffee cans)
Paper towels
Newspapers (to work on; for a place to hang or place
wet paintings to dry)

B. Stimulation:
Have each child do a color experiment by:
Wetting the paper on both sides.
Pour, or dribble, tempera paint in the three primary
colors across the paper.
Tilt the paper in many directions to allow the colors to
flow into one another.

Ask the students:
What happens when blue and yellow run together?

What happens when red and yellow run together?
Does something else happen when red and blue run
By tipping the paper in a certain way, could you mix
colors of your own choosing?
Could you create a pattern in mass and color?
Can you make the white paper a part of your design?
What happens if all the colors run together?
Do you want this to happen?
Can you make it happen again?

Have a discussion relating to color experiments:
Can someone show where one color runs into another,
making a gradual change?
This is called "transition." (Teacher writes word on
Can you find where one color reappears or is used
somewhere else?
Show where one shape or mass of color looks like
another shape on your page.
Where in our room does one shape of color repeat itself
somewhere else?
Where in our classroom does a color repeat?
Wouldn't you like to do another page of color now?
Students repeat the original starter once or twice more.

C. Production:
Allow the starter products to dry.
Select the one you like the best.
Turn the paper in all directions to find "something" in your
paint. Your neighbor might be able to help you see two or
three different ideas. Select your favorite.

Using a small brush and white or black paint (you might
want to use both), create a design or picture by emphasiz-
ing what you have seen in your color masses.

The teacher can place on the board a list of words which
suggest several emotions such as:


D. Evaluation:
How does the painting make you feel? (Refer to list of words
on board.) Let children add their own words to list.

What makes you feel this way about your painting?

Let's select two paintings and compare them to see how
they are alike and different. Later, select a third and
fourth. Who can find one which is different from all of

Who used black paint?

Who used white paint?

Who used both? What did this do for the painting?

Who used white or black paint so that you could hardly see
it? Who used it so that you could see the lines all the way
across the room?

Who used tiny lines?

Who used big fat lines?

Someone show where they saw a "picture" in their colors
and made it into something.

Someone show where they saw a "picture" but did not
use it.
Who had an "accident" with their colors and made a
discovery? Could you do it again? How?
What direction do the lines in your painting take?

Go on from here:
Look at Jackson Pollack's painting. Where do you think he
started? What other ways might he have started?
Look at paintings by Marc Chagall and Kandinsky. Do they
work like Pollack?
How do they work the same?
How do you think they paint differently?
Do the lesson again starting with a mood or feeling you wish
to express. Use colors which you feel express this mood.
Do the lesson again using only related colors.
Or contrasting colors.

The child will be able to mix the primary colors to make
secondary colors.
The child will be able to make a design out of an arrange-
ment of these colors using repetition, pattern, and line
The child will be able to use the emotional qualities of
colors and shapes to convey a specific mood or feeling.

The child will be able to perceive line qualities in his surround-
ings and relate and use them in his own work.


: A. Teacher Preparation:
SThe following materials will be needed:
2 sheets of paper, 12"x18" or larger, per child. Paper may
l- be all the same kind or different:
White drawing
Colored construction

B. Stimulation:
The child has many individual meanings for the word
"line." Getting him to talk about these may point out new
ones to a fellow classmate:
Have you ever been in a line?
What kind of line was it? Some are straight, was yours?

J .., "4Where did your line take you?
Different kinds of lines often go to the same place, but
they get there in different ways.
S-- What other kinds of lines can you tell about?
Look around your classroom for awhile. Don't say any-
Sthing, just look, and see how many different lines you
see in the objects around the room.
Now, tell us where you found some straight lines. Has
anyone else found some curved lines? Where?
A*0Some things are fat, some are thin. What about lines?
Who can find both a fat and thin line? Where?
Could you point to them?

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Are some lines shorter than others? Which ones?
Has anyone ever seen these lines before? What were
they like?

Lines seem to be all around us:
Do you think you could make some of your own lines?
Let's try!
Who could draw one kind of line on the board?
How many other boys and girls could draw some
differently? (Children take turns drawing lines.)
Who could point to an example of straight lines? Curved?

How are some other lines the same and different?
Now, let's see what you can do with your own lines.

C. Production:

Materials needed:

Sheets of paper to each child.
Crayons, assorted colors.
Let the child first use one sheet of paper to draw as many
different kinds of lines as he can:

Do all your lines look different?

Could some look a little the same? For example, a long
straight line and a long curved line. How are they the
same? Different? How else could they look alike?

Look around the room and see how many lines you see.
Now, do you have any of them on your paper?

Using a second sheet, do a line drawing of 1-3 objects you
see in one part of the room. You may include the room

Don't try too big an area.


D. Evaluation:

How will you recognize success?
Put all the drawings up for display and discussion.
Lines can be used in many ways. You have shown quite a
Look at the drawings for awhile-they not only look
different because of the kinds of lines you used, but also
because different people drew them.
Some drawings may only have a few kinds of lines because
of the object. Others may have several kinds.
There are a lot of lines that look somewhat the same. For
example, all fat ones. Who can point some of them out?
What other lines are the same?

Some objects are soft and smooth-what are some? What
kind of lines would best show these?

Some objects are bold and strong-could lines show this
in a drawing? What kinds of lines?

What kind of lines would you use to draw:
A comb?
A fluffy cat?
A sharp knife?

You have found many ways to use lines, but do you think
there might be other ways?

What would you like to make your lines with next time?

Do they have to be on paper?

Lines, lines, lines, lines in drawing, lines in painting, lines in
sculpture, lines in collages, lines in stitchery, lines everywhere.

Lines often lead you to a place, they have direction.

Lines often come in order, they create rhythm.


Lines do more-teachers and students will find their own. Here
are some ideas to add to:
Paper Strip Design: Child is to arrange onto background a
large variety of strips of colored paper-length, color, and
width may change.
Line Drawing to Music: Choose variety of music. Child is
then given paper and drawing media. Each piece of music
may suggest different lines to different children.
Nature Drawing: Line drawing of natural objects-twigs,
leaves, etc.
Crayon Etching
String Painting
String Printing
Wire Sculpture
And more What are they?

Students will name and point out a variety of lines recog-
nized in objects around them.
He will use lines in a variety of media.

Students will be able to demonstrate by discussing, pointing
out, and identifying shape forces.

A. Teacher Preparation
The following materials will be needed for the stimulation
and production of this lesson:
Large manila or construction paper
Box of paper scraps
Pre-cut circles or triangles
Large basic shapes in primary colors with the modifica-
tion of these same shapes in the secondary colors
The teacher should have pictures and objects displayed in
the room that will begin to involve the boys and girls in a
variety of shape qualities pertaining to one immediate sub-
.. ........ -. .ject or i-Rterest. These visuals will illustrate the "basic
shapes" in math or in art; or wheels and cogs, as related
to man in the industrial world; or shapes found in nature;
or shapes "in and around" the school.
(Suggestions: large reproductions, commercial vertical file
material; visuals lifted from magazines; slides, film strips,
and transparencies; three-dimensional objects; cylinders
and boxes.)

B. Stimulation

The teacher may use a number of approaches to get the
children more involved:
Hold up and discuss the large basic shapes in primary
colors with modifications of these shapes in the secon-
dary colors.
What are these shapes? How do they differ?

What is an ellipse?
Can you find similar shapes in this room?
Can you find these shapes in the designs in the textiles
worn by boys and girls in the class?
What do these shapes suggest to you?
Do you get different ideas when you stack, fold, overlap
or crimp these shapes?
Can you make a motion with your hand that visually de-
scribes the outline of this shape-a circle or a square?
Can you show with your whole body how a triangle is
shaped? A rectangle? An ellipse?

Other ideas which might be good to further interest are:
Slides with good examples of the use of shapes pertinent
to the unit of work or the particular involvement in which
the class is engaged. (Such as Egypt, China, African
plant life, basic shapes in American architecture, etc.)
Each slide should be shown out-of-focus to involve boys
and girls in an awareness of shape. (Now bring the slide
into focus for a closer scrutiny-what about color and
Reproductions (large) can be set up for the boys and
girls to "look at" and "feel with their eyes"-ask them
to look for shapes. How many shapes are repeated?
How often has the artist used a round shape? Which
do you think might be his favorite shape?

C. Production:

Activities to grow out of the foregoing motivation are nu-
merous. A suggested few:
Lower grades children will be given pre-cut circles or


triangles and instructed to glue these to a background
sheet of their own choosing. (limit number to one or two

Teacher will remind them to consider distance from one
circle to another and also the space around the shapes.
What does this suggest to you?
Are you reminded of something when you see these two
shapes on this larger sheet of paper?
Now, have the children choose crayons, cray-pas or
watercolor markers with which to "complete the pic-

Upper and lower grades pull scrap from scrap-box.
Paste on large rectangle of paper, turn paper and look
at shape from other side. Decide which is most pleasing
to you as an individual and complete the idea with

Upper grades small scraps from the scrapbox, plus
pre-cut shapes are placed at the disposal of the boys
and girls with the suggestion that they are to arrange
any number of the shapes on a larger sheet of paper.
They have the limitation of using scraps or shapes as a
whole-they cannot cut or tear, but all of the possibilities
in overlapping, folding, crimping and stacking may be
used. When the arrangement is decided upon, adhere to

D. Evaluation:
Children might display their work and discuss "what and
why" or they might have a "show and tell" time with the
teacher involving them again with similar questions that
were brought out when the slides or the reproductions of
artists' works were viewed earlier.


Do a pencil drawing of different sized shapes overlapping each
other. Paint in the design changing the color where lines cross
and create new shapes.
Cut several shapes out of colored tagboard. Connect pieces by
cutting slits into them and sliding them together. Arrange
these shapes at different angles, creating a three-dimensional
Cut a variety of similar shape contours out of old rubber inner
tube. Arrange these into a design or subject (such as an ani-
mal) and glue them onto a cardboard background. Do not
overlap any shapes. Paint over this design, turn it over, and
press onto a sheet of paper to transfer the design. Any type '.
of paper can be used to print on, including newsprint, colored
construction, manila, white drawing, or colored tissue.

Because of this involvement, the student will be able to
show his ability to use, discuss, and point out the following
shape forces: two-dimensional contour, size, positive and
negative, and direction.
He has also demonstrated his understanding of the poten-
tials and limitations of the materials and tools he has used.

The child will be able to examine forms in natural and man-made
materials and organize them into a meaningful expression.

Preparation of Materials
Have children bring in small machine parts or man-made items they
have found around the house.
Prepare glue, tape, paint, crayons, scraps of cloth.

Stimulation-talk on a walk
Let's take a slow walk.
Have you ever picked up a rock and found it comfortable in your
Did you put it in your pocket to keep?
Let's look for something you would like to keep on our slow walk.
It could be metal, or wood, or stone.

^ Stimulation-back in the room
Pick up the found objects that you discovered, one by one.

AL Look at each one very carefully, on all sides.
Have you ever seen that shape before? Where?
r Pick up another object and ask, where have I see this form before?
How many students have a long, skinny form?
i How many have a round form?
Who has a different one?
Can you describe it?
Does anyone have a graceful object?
Why do you think it is graceful?
Who has wooden objects?
Does anyone see a mark made by a saw on the object?
What other designs do you find on wood?
Yes, knots and grains.
Do you find a pattern made by an animal or a bird?

SIs there a fungus or a mold growing on your form?


- ~4
- ~

We have looked at the little details, and we have studied the overall
Artists have a way of finding unusual things in the details of found
Have you discovered something special in your piece of sculpture?
Is it a face? Or an animal? Just what is it?
In the center of each table is a box, with all the small, man-made
objects you collected yesterday.
Sometimes, when you add a little stone here, or a ballpoint spring
there, you can create a whole new sculpture.

Arrange different combinations of small objects with the larger form
you found on our walk.
When you are pleased, make it permanent.
Glue it.
Elmer's glue, which is on your desk, takes 24 hours to dry.
You might need to use masking tape to hold your object together
until the glue dries.
Man has always enjoyed decorating objects.
In your mind's eye, you have imagined just what your animal will
look like when it is completed.
With paint and crayon, and inks, you can complete your idea.
Just a little bit of paint can be very effective in the right spot.
Let's not cover up our found objects, for there is a lot of personality
in wood and stones and metal. We want to bring it out, not hide it.

Child as a producer.
We must have an exhibit within our school of your work. It is so
wonderful, everyone should have the opportunity to enjoy it.


Child as a critic.
Did you create something new from something old?
Did you create something unusual from something usual?
Did you use many different materials in making your object?
How many did you use?
Did you elaborate and build upon your existing idea and details?
What were the existing details of your found object?
Did you create your own details?
Did you cover up the material your object was made of?
Can you still tell if your object was wood, stone, or metal?
Did you try to bring out the personality of the materials you used?
What was the original form of your object?
Can you still recognize the form?
Does the object seem to grow out of the original form?
What do you want people to think when they look at your form? Do
you think they will?


Aibit skill in use several unusual forms
'in forms of object und on a slow walk.
join and decorate m into a sculpture.

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Each child should demonstrate, to the extent that he can, his ca-
pacity to: (1) have intense involvement in a nd response to personal
visual experience in spatial relationships; (2) acquire a knowledge of
man's visual art heritage as expressed in his creations for enclosing
space (architecture).

Teacher Preparation Scope:
SPACE is the area in which the other visual elements such as line,
shape, texture, color and form find their ground (environment).
S- In turn, these elements lend to space its very nature, define its pres-
ence, and indicate that it is everchanging.
Perception of space is self-centered, i.e. based on the observer's
frame of reference. Perception of space can range from a small en-
. closed area to limitless outer space.
Knowledge of how to manipulate space on a two dimensional plane
or in a three dimensional volume is essential to the individual for
visual expression of an idea and for understanding the visual ex-
pressions of others.
Materials: One sheet of 12x18 paper, two sheets of 9x12 and one
box of crayons per student.

On the blackboard, the teacher letters, without comment and with a
slight pause between each question:
What does space mean to you?
Have you ever emptied a wastebasket?
What is an empty basket? What is an empty place?
Imagine yourself closed in an empty closet.
What is around you?
Is this school room an enclosed space?
Who closed it in?

Who drew the plans for the builder to enclose this space?
Could you give the name of one famous architect?

"This is the enclosed space of a fish bowl where our fish live."
"Will someone draw the enclosed space of a teepee? a church? a

"Each of you has three sheets of paper. Select one for a box, one
for your room at home, one for an auditorium. Then draw yourself
stuffed in the box, alone in your room and alone in the auditorium."

"Now compare your three drawings of enclosed space. Does each of
these three types of space make you feel differently? What does each
space say or do to you? How is outer space different from (and
similar to) out space? What does an architect have to keep in mind
when he designs a building? Does your idea of space change as you
ride a bicycle? a car? airplane? or look at TV?

Teachers should use their imaginations in planning learning situa-
tions appropriate for the readiness level of children. This planning
will enable children to achieve illusionary space concepts through
overlapping, diminishing sizes, contrasts and transitions in dark
and light, and how lines, shapes, and colors can be arranged to
cause the eye to move and create the illusion of space.

Each child should: visualize and verbalize his concept of
enclosed space, his reactions to different types of space.



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Children will perceive, discuss, and use textural qualities in
their own work and that of others.

A. Teacher Preparation
Needed are a collection of objects with obvious actual tex-
tural surfaces, such as:
leaves, etc.
box, closed, with one hole cut in a side
All these textures are to be placed in this box.
Additional materials for later use in lesson:
Each child should have crayons and three sheets of
12"x18" newsprint paper.

B. Stimulation
Present box of textures to learners:
What do you think that I have in this box?
What size could it be?
Could it be alive?
If this were your box, what would you put in it?
Who would like to see what I have collected in my box?
There is one rule: you cannot use your eyes to look in
the box.
How can you tell what is inside?


That's right, you can smell it, listen to it, or feel inside
it with your hand. In that way your hand will be doing
the seeing.
Who is brave enough to be the first one to feel in the box?
(Children take turns feeling in the box.)
Can you tell what some of the objects are?
What word could you use to tell how it feels?
Do you know of anything else that feels the same way?
Why? What is it?
(Children usually relate their experiences.)

Materials: Each child-2 sheets newsprint, crayons
When you return to your seat, try to draw the way the
objects in the box were shaped and the way they felt.
Make your line move over the objects the way your
hand did.

Evaluating visual statements:
Place drawings on wall for better viewing.
Who can point to some shapes felt in the box?
Teacher points to lines that look bumpy, smooth, scratchy,
How do you think these objects felt?
All the objects in the box have a special feel. We call
this its surface or texture.
An object can have a rough surface or smooth surface,
depending upon what it is made of.
What would the surface of a cotton ball be? Or a rock?
Are they different? Why?

C. Production:
Materials: Each child-1 sheet newsprint, crayons
Would you like to use your eyes this time to see what kind
of textures are collected in the box?

How many of you would like to keep these surfaces for your
You cannot keep them for good, but you can have them
long enough to make a picture of them.
(Pass out textures.)
Put your texture under the paper and rub the side of the
crayon across it. Like magic, the texture's picture will

D. Evaluation:
Do all your pictures look the same?
How do they look different?
Do they have a real feel of texture? They have a pretend
surface or illusionary texture. (Write word "illusionary" on
Who would like to say the word? Fun to say, isn't it?
Who has an illusionary surface that looks bumpy, rough,
Can you think of some other objects we could use to make
these magic illusionary surfaces with?
This space is reserved for YOU! If you haven't tried it, get
your crayon, get a texture, and try it!

Take the class on a texture hunt around school. Their equip-
ment for the hunt is a crayon and sheet of newsprint.
They should return with as many different illusionary textures
as possible.
Make a display of these texture pictures, along with actual tex-
The box may be included in the display to encourage visiting
students to experience the same learning situation.
View painting or print and point out different illusionary sur-
faces. Discuss how the artist made them and what tools and
kinds of lines he used.

Create actual textural surfaces in a flat piece of clay using a
variety of gadgets.
Change the surface of a sheet of paper with scissors. Cut into
the fold back different repeated shapes. Glue on another piece
of colored paper.
Collage of actual textures:
Collect a variety of actual surfaces, such as fabric, cotton,
sticks, sand, etc.
Arrange and paste down on paper, overlapping some.
Collage of illusionary textures: Collect illusionary surfaces
from magazines, paperbacks and other printed matter.
Paste down, using overlapping.
Texture printing with plastic clay: impose a texture on flat
piece of clay, using pencil or gadgets. Paint over with thick
paint. Press down on paper in repeated design.
Illusionary surfaces in etchings: color entire heavy sheet
of 9"x12" or smaller paper. Paint or color over with black.
Scratch into with point of scissors, making textures cover-
ing the entire paper.
Can you think of more?



The child will recognize and point to actual textures or
Will be able to use textures in his own work.
Will discuss textures in the work of others.

if i

art appreciation
art appreciation I. EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVE:
To produce sensitive perception through a comparison of the
visual qualities in four paintings by artists from four different

A. Teacher Preparation:
Select four large (18"x24") prints of paintings from four
different periods in history (i.e., Rembrandt, Boucher; Van
Gogh, Braque; Rubens, Delacroix; Cezanne, Picasso; or,
Michelangelo, Fragonard; Manet, and Miro.
Mat these on cardboard and set on chalkboard tray.

B. Stimulation and Evaluation:
1. Age differentiation:
Which picture do you think is the oldest one?
Vincent Van Gogh Which picture is the newest picture? Why do you think
"The Church at Auvers"

2. Subject matter:
What are the pictures about?
These pictures tell us about an idea that the artist had.
Is there more to see in a picture than that?
What are some of the other things you see? What is
this in addition to (subject matter). Select a part of a
specific picture.
3. Perceiving surface textures:
If you rubbed your hand over the picture, what would
you feel?
Is the paint rough?
What is the word we use to tell how something feels
L__.when we touch it? You might think of a smooth stone
or a soft kitten or sticky candy. These are surfaces or
Georges Braque textures.

Let's look for all the surfaces in these pictures. How
are the surfaces different in these two pictures? How
are they similar or alike?

4. Colors:
Tell about the colors.
Which picture makes you feel warm?
Does one make you feel nice and cool? Which one?
Which artist used many of the same colors?
Can you point out on the picture where one color is
used again (repeated) many times? Think about these
repeated colors as stepping stones. Can you walk from
one to another with your finger? Try it.
Which artist used bright colors?
Which artist used dull colors? How do they make you
5. Shapes: (form)
What kinds of forms did the artist use?
Are some of them round? Can you find some that are
like a square? Some like a circle?
What other shapes do you see? Point to them.

6. Motivation of artist:
Why do you suppose the artist used these special kinds
of forms in his picture?
Would other forms have done just as well for what he
wanted to show?
What kinds of forms would you have used?
7. Conjecture:
What kind of person do you think the artist was who
painted each picture?
Let's guess why he wanted to paint this picture.
8. Culture:
What kind of world did he live in? Was it like our world?
How was it different?


9. Appreciation:
Which picture would you want to hang up in your room?
Why? Is it because it makes you feel like one of these:
happy, calm, relaxed, or excited? Which one?

10. Artists' working methods:
Which artist painted his picture very quickly?
Which artist was a very careful worker. How do you
Are they both good ways to work? Which do you think
is the better way to work? Why?
One artist planned very carefully before he began to
paint. Which one? Why do you think this is the one?
This is called a deliberate way of working.
One artist planned as he painted. Which one?
This is called a spontaneous way in which to work.
They are both good methods!

We found that the pictures are all from different times in
man's history. We found that they are all different and yet
If we put four more pictures on the chalkboard tray, could
we look for these same qualities?

There are many questions which the teacher can ask the stu-
dents in this type of lesson plan. Encourage students to ask
their own questions. Many will occur to the teacher which have
not been suggested here. Good! These should be regarded as
more important than those written in this lesson plan, because
they will be pertinent and fresh.
See the bibliography list in this guide for suggested art history
books. You will find more ideas for further discussions of this
type from these books and where to secure reproductions.

Another time, you might like to compare sculpture pieces.
What about architectural styles?
Art works from one period of time could also be compared to
show how individuals differ even though they are living at the
same time.
It would be interesting to compare several works of art from
one country, too.
Several works of art by different painters, but of the same
subject matter, could be compared. Paul Rubens
"Flemish Kermess."
You could also compare children's work from other rooms in
this same way.

Frans Hals
"Banquet of the Officers of the St. George Guild." (detail)

Children will be able to see, point out, and talk about forces
in the visual elements: line, color, volume, and texture in
works of art.

The child experiences an extension of himself into architectural

A. Teacher Preparation:
1. Scope:
Architecture is enclosed space. The architect must
consider function and aesthetic values. He must also
be concerned with using contemporary materials.
Activities in architecture, depending upon the age level
and capacity of the students, may range from a very
simple experience in manipulating materials to activi-
ties involving space and volume, which relate to the
lives of children.
Older children may become involved in engineering
problems of tension, stresses, and strains. Actual floor
plans may be drawn, as well as elevations and perspec-
tives. A good opportunity is found here to correlate
with arithmetic lessons in the reducing to scale and the
reading of a ruler.
Younger children will enjoy building imaginative designs
in many different colored construction papers, merely
for the aesthetic enjoyment which is inherent in this
type of activity.
Other areas included in the study of architecture are:
traffic-flow patterns
adaptation to environment
modular construction

2. Materials:
Several pieces of scrap cardboard
Empty paper cartons (milk)

Small scraps of wood
Tin cans
Wire scraps

B. Stimulation:
The teacher begins:
How would it feel to be a baby chick inside an egg?
How would it feel to be a butterfly just breaking out of a
How would it feel to be inside a flower bud?
How does it feel to climb a tree and find yourself among
the branches?
Have you ever crawled through a drain pipe?
Have you ever crouched under a table? Hidden under a
bed? How did it feel?
A man builds a house or a building to provide shelter from
rain, the snow, the sun, heat and the cold. But, a smart
man considers how it will feel to be living or moving inside
that house or building.

C. Production:
The teacher gives each student a "kit" consisting of some
materials listed above.
The teacher encourages the students to build a design much
in the same way they might build a "house of cards." When
the child hits upon an arrangement which he likes, he can
glue the parts together.
While the group is trying out ideas, rearranging materials,
and deciding upon a final design, the teacher may ask them
to think about:

How does your construction look from the outside?
How would it feel to be inside looking out?
How would it feel to walk through it?
Would you feel secure? Safe? Free? Protected? Weight-
less? Spacious?

D. Evaluation:
The following day arrange a display of the students'
Let the class discuss their constructions.
Are any two of these designs alike? How?
Are there any of these which you would like to live in? Why?
Are there any that would be fun to walk through?
How would you feel inside this one? This one?
Did anyone use a repetition of shapes in his design?
Who used round forms? Who used square forms? Can you
find other kinds of forms?
The projects should show that the children were more con-
cerned with enclosing space and the feel of space, than
with making a "realistic" design (i.e., a hotdog stand, a
hotel, a dog house, etc.)

Construction is an excellent way for students to experience a
perception of space.
Other projects might include, however, the drawing of floor
plans for a dream house, designing a new school room, or draw-
ing the front view of a house in which the child would like
to live.
Ask an architect to come and explain his work.
Look at slides or reproductions of important buildings, such as
the Parthenon, Hagia Sophia, various Gothic Cathedrals, and
modern architectural structures.
Biographies of famous architects, such as Gustave Eiffel, Sir
Charles Barry, Eliel Saarinen, Mies Van der Rohe, Louis Sulli-
van, Frank Lloyd Wright, and Pierre Le Corbusier could be
found in the library.

Students will be able to use materials in a new and imagina-
tive way.
Construct a model building.
Discuss the elements of architectural space.
Tell how architectural space affects him and how he thinks
it can affect others.

Given an opportunity to perceive visuals of one subject matter,
students can relate lines, shapes, surfaces, and colors to a
design for the technique of Batik.


A. Teacher Preparation:
1. Scope:
The field of fabrics is a very open field. The material
used is somewhat limited as any material process is.
However, the way it is used is wide open. No longer
are there rigid, confining rules.
For example, weaving is no longer just for the result of
fabric. Weavings for decorative wall hangings or as
three-dimensional sculptures are very acceptable now.
Stitchery is no longer confined to embroidery, but is
now opened to be a very expressive field. Using thread,
yarns, fabric, found objects, buttons, etc., one is now
able to use this in a free way, not restricted to just
certain stitches in a rigid form.
Batik, another form of fabrics, is a method of using wax
resist and dye on fabric in order to achieve a design.
It, too, has been opened into a very free expression.

2. Materials:
An assortment is needed of two and three-dimensional
visuals, all in the theme of underwater or sea life.
These can include shells, driftwood, sand, visuals of
fish, and other underwater creatures.
Make an arrangement of these visuals:
Paraffin wax
Bee's wax (ratio: 1/2 & 1/2)
Hot plate
Small pot for wax
Larger pot for water
Coldwater dye

Pans for dyes
Cotton material (if material is new, wash before using
to remove sizing)
Manila paper

B. Stimulation:
Present visuals to learners. Discuss the qualities of lines,
shapes, and colors in these underwater objects.
During this discussion, students draw with crayons the
lines, shapes and surfaces which they see, onto a sheet of
9"x12" manila paper.
Who can point to some shapes that are similar to geometric
Don't forget to record these on your paper.
Who can recognize and point to some different kinds of
Can you point to some shapes with similar outlines?
What colors are often repeated? List them.
On your second sheet of paper, with crayons, rearrange the
shapes, lines and surfaces into a design.
Don't be concerned with subject matter-just shapes,
lines, surfaces and colors.
Encourage overlapping of shapes, lines and colors.
Do these designs again, using not more than two colors
plus the white of your paper.

C. Production:
Batik is an age-old method of decorating fabrics using wax
and dye.
Batik technique: students should first transfer design to
material with pencil.
Heat wax in a double-boiler. (This prevents the wax from
catching on fire.) Brush onto areas which are to be left
white. Dip into first dye bath, the lightest of the two which
you are going to use. Allow to dry.
Apply second wax, covering those areas you wish to remain


the color of the first dye bath. Dip into second dye color.
Allow to dry.
To remove wax, place material between newspaper and iron.
Change newspaper frequently, as it absorbs the wax and
becomes saturated.

D. Evaluation:
When dry and wax is removed, arrange Batiks on the bulle-
tin board with some of the original color designs and
Can you find a place where a color makes your eye move
around the batik?
Can you point to a new color made by overlapping of two
Can you find some other examples of overlapping?
Can you point to some shapes similar to those in the under-
sea pictures?
Can you see in some places where the wax cracked and let
the dye through to the material?

Repeat Batik technique with a subject matter and colors chosen
by students.
Batik can also be done with whipped commercial candle wax,
eliminating the need for heating and melting the wax. This is
ideal for younger children.
Try Batik technique on paper, using wax crayons and colored
Stitchery and weaving can also be tried as a form of fabric
Stitchery, using large needles, fat yarn, and meshed onion
sacks is excellent for younger children.
For older children, substitute burlap and add thinner yarns and
threads. Almost any subject matter can be used in stitchery.
It is simply drawing with thread and yarn.
Weaving can be done many ways, depending upon level of stu-
dents and materials available.
Stiff cardboard can be used as the loom, cutting slits in the


top and bottom for the yarn to be inserted. Yarn can be of any
choosing. You might even try unraveling rugs and using that
Found objects, such as branches, umbrella frames, chicken
wire, old embroidery hoops, etc., can also be used as frames
for weaving.
Cardboard cylinders (oatmeal box) are also excellent frames.
One might add found materials into the weaving itself such as:
corn shucks, grass, wire, strips of fabric, or twisted paper
(magazine wrapping, tin foil, etc.).

Learners are able to perceive and point to qualities of
shapes, lines, textures, and colors in two and three-dimen-
sional visuals. They are also better able to use and relate
these in their own design for Batik, experimenting with
overlapping and Batik technique.

The child will be able to express his own thoughts and ideas in clay.

Think of an animal, a wild animal.
Think of your animal as being a comfortable rug in front of a fire-
How do you suppose your animal would look?
Would he be all spread out?

While you are thinking about animals, shape your clay into a ball.
Pat it flat as a pancake.
On a piece of oil cloth, roll the clay as dough is rolled.
Two pieces of wood on each side of the clay may be used as a guide
for rolling uniform thickness.
You have before you a piece of clay, rolled like dough.
Instead of cutting out biscuits, draw your animal in the clay, spread
him out like an eagle.

As you draw your outline, think.
Is your animal very large? How large?
Does he have a tail?
Does he have four legs?
Are his legs tall?
Does he have a long neck?
How else can you describe your animal?
You must bring your animal to life.
Does your animal have a design on him?
Can you think of other animals that have designs on them?
Does your animal have a rough texture?
Can you think of an animal that does?

Use the sticks, screws, combs, bolts in the center of the table to
press patterns in the clay, or texture your animal.
Your animal must be able to see and hear, so make his eyes and ears.

What is your animal going to do?
Will he sit?


Children delight in the touch of clay
Children move and clay moves
Children are as flexible as clay
Children can arrange clay
Clay can change children


Clay is one of our natural
are natural people.

resources, but then children


Will he run away?
Is his head bent low?
Will be bite?
Does he have a tail?
Will he wag it?
Is he hungry?
How does he feel?
Can you show how he feels?
Can you get into the position of your animal?
Try it.

Now, gently lift him off the oilcloth.
Put him into your position.

Immediate Evaluation
How many sides of the animal did you see when he was on the
How many do you see now?
You can see all sides of the animal now.
When you give an animal life, and show everyone how he feels, then
you express your thoughts in clay and the piece of clay is a part
of you.

Follow-up Evaluation
Relate child as a producer by exhibiting his work.
Obtain the child's evaluation of his work.
Where would you exhibit your clay piece in your home for two
Relate child as a critic by exhibiting local artist's work (3-D) or
showing slides of 3-D art work in history.
Which piece of art work would you like to take home for a week?

Materials for Learning
Pictures of animals, films on animals, a trip to the zoo.
One and one half pound of clay per child
Oilcloth for each child
2 sticks and one dowel
Texture tools: nails, sticks, gears, comb.

The student will be able to per-
form, from the inception of the
idea, create the design, to the
finished product, an object in

The child is able to perceive mass in figures and use it in his
own work.

A. Teacher Preparation:

1. Scope:
Drawing can take many forms and express many ideas,
emotions, and experiences. The more acquainted the
child is with drawing in all its forms, the better able he
will be to express himself. He may choose to draw in
Either the searching line, mass, or contour approach.
The following lesson will emphasize both the mass and

2. Materials:

A sturdy table is needed for some students to pose on,
and also the following materials:
9"x12" manila or newsprint paper (9 sheets for each
colored chalk

B. Stimulation:
Begin a discussion relating to the differences between mass
shape and line contour. Use objects around the classroom
for examples.
What shape is this book?
(Teacher-draw outline of rectangle on board.)
These outside lines are the outline or contour of the book.
(Write on board "contour or outline"-outside lines)
When we fill this shape in, we give it mass.
(Color in rectangle and write "mass" inside.)
The mass is the whole shape-all its insides.

The contour is just the outside lines.
Who could find another object and draw its contour on the
board? Pick an easy one and remember, what does con-
tour mean? Just draw the outside lines of the shape.

Now, who else could show us on the board what the mass
of this shape is?

Let's look at another object in the room that is really a lot
of shapes put together.
You, or your body, is called a figure. What would we be
drawing if we were to do a figure drawing?
Right, we would be drawing people. (Have boy stand on
table in front of class.)
Now, what would a contour of this boy be? Yes, the lines
we draw around the outside of his body.
But what about all that meat inside? What is that?
If we did a mass drawing without doing the outline first,
what would it look like?
First, we really have to look at the figure.

There are a lot of small shapes or parts which are put
together to get one big one. See if you can find some and
compare them.
What shape is the model's head?
What do the arms and legs look like? They look a little like
long rectangles, don't they?
Spread out your hand and cover your face with it. Is it any
smaller or larger than your face?
Where do the model's arms come out of his body?

If you put your arms down by your side, where do your
elbows come? Try it.
What comes between the shoulders and the head?
How long are your legs compared to the rest of your body?
Really look before you try to draw.


C. Production:

Distribute to each child:
9 sheets of paper
1 piece of dark chalk
1 dark crayon
Let two children take turns posing on the table. Each child
is to take about four poses each, no more than about 10
For each of the first 8 poses, the drawing will be very quick
mass drawing, one drawing for each sheet of paper. Using
the side of a small piece of colored chalk, the drawer should
only be interested in the mass shapes and their relation-
ships within the figure.
Do you still see the mass shapes of the figure?
With each pose, the placement of these masses will change.
Quickly see if you can record just the mass of the figure
(part by part). Do not include any contour lines for now.
What about the eyes, nose, and fingernails? Forget them
for now-all we want are the masses of shape, no details.
Remember how the parts are related you will have to
really look!
On your last drawing, spend about 30 seconds on the mass
drawing and then we will add some details to it.
Using your crayon, go back over the last drawing adding
in the contour and detail lines. Again, you will have to use
your eyes and look!

D. Evaluation:
Put each child's last drawing and one other up for dis-
Who can tell by the drawings what position the person
posing was in?
Would someone like to point to a drawing and then show
how you think the model was posed?


Who else will try another drawing and show its pose? "
Was the mass drawn first in the drawings?
What is mass?
Figure drawing is sometimes awkward to do at first so do "
not worry too much what these first attempts look like.
They were just quick exercises to get you to look at the _
figure and note how its parts are related.
Would you like to try to draw figures again sometime?

Set up a still life and do a drawing using only the masses of
shape-do not include the contour lines.
Try the same still life again, this time using the contour
More time could be spent doing just a contour line drawing
of the figure without first doing the mass.
Contour drawings can also be done using natural objects such
as twigs, blossoms, seed pods, etc.
A group of figures might be posed and drawn in either mass,
contour, or searching line approach, possibly all three.
Try drawings with several other materials, such as:
Colored paper Charcoal
Newspaper Pen and ink
Manila paper Brush and ink
Brown Kraft paper Brush and paint
White drawing paper Cray-Pas
Charcoal paper

Be able to recognize and point to the mass of any object.
Can use the side of a crayon to draw the mass of a figure
from line model.
Can recognize the contour of an object and draw it.

Children will use the printing process to reproduce ideas and
visual images.

A. Teacher Preparation:
1. Scope:
Printing is "pulling a print" or image from a relief
surface. There are positive and reverse prints. Silk
screening and stenciling leave a positive print -the
same as the original design; while block printing, gad-
get printing and vegetable printing are reverse prints.
"Pulling from a surface" makes a reverse print.

B. Stimulation:
The teacher begins by discussing "printing."
What is it?
Smaller children may say that they "print" their names.
Teacher then asks if the daily newspaper is delivered to
their homes. She leads the discussion along the lines of
whether everyone gets the same paper or "is each paper
If they are the same, and there are thirty boys and girls in
the room, and literally thousands of people in town, and
everyone gets the same words and pictures-how is this
If it were hand-done, one-at-a-time, the thirty in the room
might not get a paper but once every two weeks, and cer-
tainly not twice a day. It is PRINTED.
A large machine repeats the same words and pictures, or
design, over and over again after the writers and photog-
raphers and typesetters get the design worked out and
make the print plates needed from which to repeat this
newspaper design.
The class is going to print today-each boy and girl will
need a double-page from a newspaper to look at and to

check carefully to see how many different things can be
found printed in the newspaper other than "words."
When everyone has had time to look, give them an oppor-
tunity to share what was found that was "special" or
The newspaper now goes on top of the desk to protect it
from paints and inks while printing is done.

C. Production:
There are many approaches to printing. Here are some
suggested ways that might be used at certain levels of
Assortment of gadgets
Foil T.V. trays, tin pie plates
Paper (try several types)
Construction, assorted colors
Paper bags
Tissue paper
Old wrapping paper
Lower Grades gadget printing.
What are gadgets?
A collection of small, everyday objects such as buttons,
spools, sponges, straws, bottle tops, cork, bent pipe
cleaners and washers make excellent gadgets.
Foil T.V. trays and pie plates are practical containers for
the paint that small children need for their experience with
Suggest that light colors might be more effective on dark
paper-dark on light. Experiment and discover.
Choose three gadgets and the background paper. Demon-
strate, putting gadget in the paint, removing excess paint;
and, mention the order or way these are to be arranged on
paper. Have several types of paper from which children
might choose.

Upper and Lower Grades vegetable printing.
assortment of vegetables
tempera paint
colored ink
assorted papers
Suggest vegetables that are interesting when cut across
the grain, such as onions, bean hulls, lettuce, carrots and
Foil trays can be used for the tempera or colored inks as
in the previous suggested activity.
Choice of paper is important. Suggest manila, assorted
construction paper, paper toweling, and tissue.
Brushes are needed to brush on the color rather than using
the "dipping" method mentioned previously.
Talk about "graphics." Discuss order, organization and
arrangement of repeated shapes on surface of the paper.
Mention effectiveness of overlapping provided the first
print is dry before the second is placed on top of it.

Upper Grades Innertube, 3-M Plate or Shirt Cardboard
on Cardboard.
3-M Plate, or innertube rubber
Talk about "graphics." Consider positive and negative
prints. Plan carefully so that there is an understanding
that a "pulled print" will be "left-handed."


Designs will be cut with the scissors from old innertube,
or 3-M Plate, or shirt cardboard and adhered to a rectangu-
lar piece of cardboard. This is your "print plate."
Ink will be rolled over the plate with a brayer that has been
rolled over a piece of glass or formica serving as an ink
After choice of paper is made and placed over the plate,
use a clean brayer to go over the back side of the paper.
Pull the print.

D. Evaluation:
This study helps the child to develop manual dexterity and
discriminating taste. Making a print encourages careful
and thoughtful preparation of the design and makes the
child more conscious of the texture and form of his sur-
roundings, thus making him perceptually aware.
Printmaking is a tool to awaken the child's means of com-
municating with others. ..

Display of finished prints and a discussion of other possibilities
for printing should certainly follow.
A field trip to see how many examples of how many different
types of printing can be found would be another possibility.
Rubbings of leaves and different textures in and around school
might also be pursued.
Still other possibilities would include block printing, brayer
printing, and string printing.

The child will be able to name several methods of graphics.
He will be able to use two methods of printing.
He will be able to exhibit skill in overlapping and placement
of prints in picture making.

MM 0

They express verbally and with gestures their aesthetic re-

A. Teacher Preparation
1. Select reproductions of art, as the pictures seen here.
2. Actual works of art, as the sculpture photographed.

3. Objects found in nature, as the shells.

4. Prepare a list of words describing human emotion
(i.e., soothing, relaxing, shocking, funny, humorous,
frightening, etc.). Letter or write these words on a
tr y ^' blackboard or on a large piece of paper which can be
A seen by all children.

5. Jot down a group of questions which cannot be an-
swered "yes" or "no" or with a fact response.

6. Display one or two of the objects selected in 1, 2, or
3 above.

7. Ask children to come up and sit in a circle, ten at a
time, or the whole group, whichever works best for you.
"We are going to talk about these two objects. First,
I wonder if we could say these words and discuss
or show each other what feelings they suggest to us.
Would someone show us with their arms or whole body
how it feels to be relaxed like a wet sock. How would
someone else do it?" Discuss and dramatize each

Now let's look at these two objects, No.__ and
No. for example:

a. Which word most nearly describes how the first
object makes you feel?

b. Does someone else find a different word that de-
scribes how it makes you feel? We do not have
to agree.

c. Who will show us, with your whole body, or face,
how it makes you feel?
d. Would someone else do it a different way? Show us.

Now let's look at number 2!
e. What word most nearly describes how this one
makes you feel?
f. Does someone find a, different word? Remember,
we do not have to agree.
g. Can someone think of another word that describes
his feelings? We can add more words.
h. Number 1 and number 2 cause some of us to feel
differently. Can anyone suggest why? Can anyone
else think of a different reason? Turn the picture
upside down. How does it make you feel now? Dis-
play the third object. The teacher should select
an object that would cause similar feelings to
numbers 1 or 2.
i. Which of these first two most nearly makes you
feel like this third one? What word would you use
to describe this feeling?
j. Which one, number 3 or number__ makes you
feel the most soothed or shocked?

B. Evaluation:
1. What have we been doing?
2. What would you say to your mother if she asked this
question? What new words did we use?
3. What do these words say to us?
4. What are some other ways of expressing how objects
make us feel?

Children are able to point out, match and describe shape con-
tours, sizes and directions.


A. Teacher Preparation

1. Same as number 1 situation, except this time the list
of questions will lead learners to see specific shape
forces and various ways artists have arranged these
2. Display charts of black shapes similar to the illustration
shown here.
Who knows what people call or name these black things?
Would they be called lines, colors, shapes, or textures?
That's right, most people would call them shapes.
Would someone else come and point out shapes which
have similar outside edges? These shapes are different
in some ways. How are they different? Yes, they are
different in size. Some are small, middle-sized, and
large. Who can tell us one word which means the out-
side edge of a shape? Who will guess? (If no one
guesses tell them the outside edge of a shape is called
the contour.)
Who will point out some shapes that have different
contours than (Mary) pointed out before? How are the
edges different? Many shapes that we see have dif-
ferent contours.
Let us look at the shape contours in these art objects
and what we see in our room. Let us find and point to
shape contours that are similar to the black shapes in
these charts. Who will point out one? Who can find
another? But how are the shapes different from those
in the chart? In what direction do the ones in the chart
seem to point? Show us with your hand. What direction
does the one in the picture or in the room seem to
point? Show us. Which shapes have holes in them?
These holes are called negative shapes.

Learners are able to match, point out, and discuss
emphasis of shape. (Arrangement)
When you look at this what shape do you see first?
(Squint your eyes so that you can just see the object.)
Does anyone else see another shape first? Show us.


What did the artist do to cause us to see these first?
(Teacher will use the same or similar questions as
learners look at another art object.)
We have discovered that artists make certain shapes
or parts of their art more important than other parts,
and they use different ways to make parts important.
Let us write some of our discoveries on the board. Tell
me what to write. (Size, where it is placed; color, darks
and lights; contrast, etc.)
Why do you suppose this artist wanted to make this
part or shape important? In this one, why do you sup-
pose this artist made this important?
Learners are able to match and point out where artists
used similar shape forces again. (Repeated shape
Where did this artist use a similar shape contour again
and again? Where did this artist use a shape about
the same size again? Show us.
Where did the artist use shapes that point in almost
the same direction? In different directions? Show us.
Why do you suppose the artist did this?

B. Evaluation:
When you make a picture, a print, or a sculpture, what
might you use that we have talked about or pointed out?
If this were your sculpture or picture, what would you
change? What would you add to take away? Why would
you do this?
Many of you would add or take away a subject. What else
could you add or take away? How could you change what is
there? What other material could you use? What specific
shape or color might you change? Where would you place
it? Show us. How big would you make it? Show us with
your finger or hands.

The children are able to express, by talking about and
dramatization, how whole objects make them feel.
They are able to judge which objects cause them to feel the
most relaxed, frightened, etc.
Children are able to point out and match shapes with simi-
lar and different contours, sizes, and directions.
They are able to point out shapes that are emphasized and
shapes that artists used again (repeated). They are able
to speculate as to why the artist arranged shapes as he did.


F r


puppet with movable mouth

Each pupil should demonstrate, to the extent that he can, his
capacity to: (1) become intensely involved in his response to
personal visual experiences; (2) think, feel, and act creatively
with art materials; (3) develop a sensitivity to the appropriate-
ness and potentials of materials and tools in the construction
of 3-dimensional forms.

A. Teacher Preparation
1. Scope: Sculpture
A piece of sculpture in the round is an object that can
be viewed from all sides and is expressive of an idea
rather than a function.
A low or high relief is sculpture attached to a back-
The object or piece of sculpture can be developed by
means of:
a. the Additive Process:
(1) Modeling with clay, asbestos, sawdust, salt
clay, etc.
(2) Construction with wood, wire, paper, metal,
plastic, etc.
b. Subtractive:
(1) Carving into wood, plaster, wax, etc.
Each process has its own unique contribution to the de-
velopment of insights into the particular potentials and
suitability of materials, tools, and skills.
Each process also offers a different kind of kinesthetic

L '


For instance, the

son to push in or sq





as well as

ing a


in the round.

inherent desire within

out something that yields



a desire to form

a per-
to the



Building or addin

that did not


one thin

exist before

to another to form

is a creative


act that gives


Carving or cutting

a mea




from a meaningless

is anoth

formation of material.

er type of






e" projections

of the



paper bags to carved wood.


stretch from

the subtractive

cereal boxes


to welded metal.


and wax

to marble.



an assortment

of materi

can be

e construction o



the puppets.

boxes, paper


This display would
socks, sponge rub-

ber, all kinds of paper


r, tissue,





sta p

, polyme

r glue wil


Discussion of the va

and types of material

and tools

on display

as a form of


for ideas.

Discussion with



the points of what

makes a puppet look and act like


a puppet?

Such questions

is he?

Who will

does he


Where have you seen puppets?
How many kinds have you seen and heard?
How can they move their mouths?
Demonstrate the possibilities of using two small boxes
hinged together; or, one small box cut in two and hinged;
or, the mouthlike action of the bottom of a sack; or, the
possible shapes that a piece of rubber sponge can take; or,
the illusions that can be created with the hand in the foot
of a sock.

C. Production
Encourage the student to make his puppet with any of
these materials with two requirements in mind:
1. It must fit his hand
2. The mouth must be movable.
Display the finished puppets on bottles or tacked to a bulle-
tin board. Discuss their good points such as how much
they look like imaginary characters, how each is different.

D. Evaluation
Teachers can rate their efforts in guidance as successful if
they have stirred the imagination of each child to the point
that each puppet is different and the child projects himself
into his creation to the degree that he considers his puppet
an actual creature.


A. Playlets can be talked out by grouping several of puppets
and their creators together. The reverse approach is ob-
vious: a play is first written and then puppets designed for
the characters.
B. A stage can be constructed from a simple set-up in an open
doorway with a cardboard to conceal the live actors, or a
sophisticated screen arrangement with appropriate spot-
lighting, stage accessories and scenery, may be used.
Scenery, while necessarily sparse, does establish scale and
heighten the dramatic illusions.
C. A marionette is a version of a puppet that involves the
creation of a whole body manipulated by strings from
above. These vary from simple jointed limbs of boxes,
pieces of wood, styrofoam, etc., to highly perfected limbs
of carved wood. The joints of any marionette must be com-
pletely free moving.

Each child should, at his own level:
A. Make a puppet with some degree of individuality.
B. Use materials in imaginative and ingenious fashion.
C. Recognize that the puppet is a form of sculpture made
by the additive process.
D. Recognize how he has used the visual elements in the
making of his puppet.
E. Relate his puppet to others that he has seen on T.V.,
on stage, or in books.

judging success

Evaluation is a human process which
places value on certain behaviors. What
people do, that can be observed, is be-
havior. What a child does in making art
or talking about art can be evaluated
without giving him a grade, but a grade
cannot be given without placing value on
what he does. In this discussion, ways
of placing value on what children, art
teachers, and artists do while making art
and talking about art will be considered.
One of the teacher's biggest tasks is
to decide what it is he wants students
to do. In what ways should children be-
have when they are making and talking
about art, or ce_'~rn; g their responses
in other ways to art objects?
What should children achieve through
the discipline of art? Educators and art-
ists have been dodging this question for
half a century or more. It has been said
that there is no way to measure ability
in art. Society indicates that art is too
personal, however value has been placed
on a certain class of human endeavor
which has been labeled "art." A sincere
attempt should be made to describe this
endeavor. How do people behave when
they produce art and respond to it as art
critics? If this can be described, that
which is being evolved will become clear.
Perhaps, then, art experiences can be
evaluated as effectively as those in math
or science.
There is evidence that artists and art
critics have developed the ability to:
Demonstrate increased awareness of
environment (Perceive visual and
tactile form)
Conceive and solve art problems cre-

Make art with emotional appeal and re-
spond emotionally to objects (Make
aesthetic responses and judge-
Organize, relate and arrange forces
in visual elements (Make qualita-
tive discriminative responses and
These are behavioral objectives toward
which teachers can strive in teaching
children, but they are vague and general
and do not describe specific observable
behavior. They are, therefore, of little
value to a classroom teacher.
How do people behave when they per-
ceive acutely or make aesthetic responses
and judgements? Teachers must place
value on what students do, and they need
help in describing specific student be-
haviors. Art education does not propose
to make professional artists or art critics
of children, just as math education does
not attempt to make mathematicians of
all students. But, if what these people
do could be described in simple terms,
there would be more possibility of assist-
ing children to behave like artists and art
If children are encouraged to evaluate
their own work, both individually and as
a group, they will learn one important
behavior trait of an artistic person. They
will be constantly involved in evaluating
their own work and changing it for im-
provement. Students will understand
better what they are expected to do if
they share in describing behaviors that
will help them achieve educational ob-
jectives, such as seeing visual relation-
ships, creating new personal symbols,
creating for a purpose or function, and

understanding the nature of tools and
materials. Simple checklists may be in-
vented for older students.by the teacher
or with the students. Checklists on which
students evaluate their own products and
behavior, can measure effective behavior,
changes in attitudes, or expressed objec-
tives. Such judgements often have more
meaning to the student than those made
by the teacher or other students. The
teacher cannot judge these changes un-
less they are evidenced through overt
Checklists should be developed from
statements describing how one behaves
to achieve specific objectives. Teachers
and students might list general Educa-
tional Objectives at the top of a sheet
and then decide upon several specific
behaviors which will lead toward each
objective. Below are some examples of
such a list. The teacher may use any or
all of this list, but should also go on to
involve his students in the development
of their own list.
In Criticism
A teacher should assist students to sup-
port their value judgements through the
application of critical theories. Critical
theories are tools which help people to
evaluate, such as the theory of formal
analysis (the relationship of visual ele-
ments); social utility (the suitability of
a work within a social context); or, func-
tionalism (does a work of art perform
well in the manner for which it was de-
signed). Some behaviors which will mea-
sure the use of these critical tools may
be found in the attached "Art Criticism



5 4 3 2 1
Mo 8 0o

The Child Makes Aesthetic Responses to Objects
..The child expresses through gestures, dramatizations, and talking, how objects cause him to respond emotionally.

. .The child demonstrates interests by touching and talking about objects found in nature, man-made objects, and
art objects.

The Child Demonstrates His Curiosity by Asking Questions about:
.. How the artist started and developed his ideas.

...How and why the artist used materials and tools the way he did.

...Why the artist arranged qualities in visual elements the way he did.

...Describes and points out differences and similarities in objects and works of art.

The Student Is Able to Make and Describe Two or More Specific Suggestions as to What He Might Do To
the Object If It Were His:
.. How he might change shapes, colors, textures.

.. How he might take out or add subject matter or images.

... How he might use a specific, different, material or tool.


The Child Demonstrates Increasing Awareness of His Environment: (Perceives Acutely Visual and Tactile Form)
..Portrays his concept of our environment in his art work.

..Talks about things he has done or seen.

... Is able to recognize and name familiar objects he sees in works of others and can put them in relationship with
his own world and work.

.. Can name some textural surfaces, such as rough, smooth, bumpy, etc., and point to real objects with these surfaces.

... Is able to name a real surface in a painting, graphic prints, etc.

. ..Uses and arranges real textures in his art work.

Solves Art Problems Creatively:
...Experiments with various media and approaches.


5 4 3 2 1

0 Z

...Changes his idea as he is working. Accepts suggestions from others and often puts these suggestions to use.

... Uses his own ideas, does not copy.

... imagines, pretends and expresses visually or verbally.

...Tries new tool & material methods and techniques.

. ..Thinks of and tells of his new ideas.

Is Self-Directed:
...Views his own art work from various distances, possible sides.

...After looking, makes changes such as taking out and adding subject matter, changing color, shape or texture forces,
materials or tool technique.

..Is independent and works on his own without formal instruction.

.Can continue work already underway after a time lag.

...When finished with one solution, becomes involved in another art problem or clean-up.

Organizes and Arranges Forces in Visual Elements:
... Uses and arranges a variety of visual forces in his work to achieve emphasis, transition, tension, etc.

...Can name and point out some of these visual forces and elements and how they are arranged in his work and works
of others, such as: color; contrast in dark and light, transition in hue.

...Is able to recognize and point out similarities and differences among forces and elements: shapes; various contours.
sizes, directions.

...Relates new forces and elements learned with those he has learned in the past by using them and talking about
them in his own work and that of others.

Often Makes Art With an Emotional Appeal:
...Expresses verbally and with gestures how the art made him feel, such as relaxed, scarey, happy, etc.

These are just some examples of behaviors that can be expected from a child who is achieving the larger objectives.
This behavior will vary according to the classroom situation, art lesson, material, and large objective emphasized in
each lesson or by each teacher.

the learning individual

Conception of Self
The child is the central and most inte-
gral part of his world. He perceives all
experience in relation to himself. Physical
needs are of prime importance. Sensory-
motor activities serve as a basis for con-
cept formation. The child's ability to cope
with immediate stimuli are determining
factors in the development of attitude; be-
havior and self worth.

A Child With a Positive Self-Concept Will:
-feel secure in experimenting with
-acquire a sense of pride through his
-want to pursue new media and
-be confident that his ideas are valued
-transform potentially destructive
emotions into effective visual form
-be able to give as well as receive
constructive criticism
-ask for help
-readily take part in activities
-be eager to develop skills for control
and fluency

A Child With a Negative Self-Concept Will:
-act out or withdraw during the

-demand more than his share of
-regard his ideas with fear
-be dissatisfied with his work to the
extent he does not want it seen
-avoid using tools and materials
-strives to imitate an adult model
-be unable to appreciate the work of
-express displeasure at having art at

Developmental Characteristics
The learning process takes place
through the sequential fusing and integra-
tion of the cognitive and affective domains.
Concept formation develops through the
synthesis of sensory (motor), visual-verbal,
evaluative forces working in a positive
The young child's art effort develops
through these processes and is character-
ized by:
-Large figures and objects
-Little regard for spatial relationships
-No emphasis on background
-Short interest span

-Use of color in its purer form
-Working freely in large movements
-Portraying what is emotionally out-
standing to him; proportion
-Unawareness for establishing order;
draws and paints in a sequence in
which objects come into his mind
-Concern for process not product
-Little regard for adult interpretation

Opportunities for Learning
The child realizes maximum opportunity
for learning when sensitivity toward en-
vironment is obtained through motiva-
tional experiences.
In offering this opportunity the child
must be free from adult taste, interpreta-
tion, patterns and values.
As the child establishes these first re-
lationships, or primal earnings through
emotional participation he develops skill
-Visual discrimination
-Verbal fluency
-Spatial relationship
-Auditory perception
-Identifying basic colors
-Observing differences in texture
-Becoming aware of color intensity
-Recognizing proportion


C; '

-Figure ground perception
-Form constancy
-Aesthetic awareness
-Motor control
-Creating two and three dimensional
-Expanding imaginative powers
-Recognizing the media processes
-Developing understanding of great
forms of art
-Collecting, categorizing, shaping,
-Decision making about visual forms
-Discovering possibilities in materials

Relationship to His Environment
Environmental conditions and length of
exposure are proportionately related to
the child's growth and development.
An atmosphere conducive to positive
art learning:
-Provides for individual differences
-Develops art experiences which en-
rich the lives of pupils and com-
-Provides for individual as well as
group activities
-Allows a permissive environment in
which pupil is free to create
-Recognizes the importance of giving
guidance that is stimulating and
challenging rather than limiting or
-Relates learning in other areas to
creative activities in the visual arts

-Includes great works in art as a
factor in an aesthetic setting
-Produces interaction and a feeling of
security between the pupil and his
peers as well as pupil and his adult
-Allows the child to find his own
understandings and become sensitive
to his environment
-Foster the becoming of an individual
-Allows for time and space concom-
mitant with attention span
-Gives impetus to self direction

Relationship to the Group
Since the child, normally, develops ar-
tistic expression commensurate with his
age level, he begins to symbolize or repre-
sent his Ijnrlpr-t'ilri es of the world he
Reason is governed by fears, wishes,
and fantasies; little social collaboration is
shown in speech in that the child does not
use words appropriate to the person ad-
dressed but engages in repetitious mono-
He makes friends on the basis of a
common goal or aim. Influence from a
socio-cultural group is nominal. (Thus far,
human relationships develop from child to
parent, child to child, child to teacher, and
child to others.)
His art forms reflect this level of de-
velopment in:
-Portrayal of what is emotionally out-
standing to him
-Revealing of self in his own way
-Readily portraying an immediate
happening or experience

-Not always relating color to

-Taking pride in a product when he
believes it is finished

-A kinesthetic kind of movement

Evaluation of his Achievements
The development of aesthetic judge-
ment, interpretations, and values are con-
tinuous factors in the child's personality
development, awareness of self, and ulti-
mate potential. Strength is given to the
program when the child, as well as the
teacher and parent, becomes involved in
the evaluative process.

Used educationally, evaluation is:
-A tool used by teachers in recording
individual differences

-A means of helping the parent under-
stand his child's growth

-The development of tolerance
-Respect for every individual's effort
-The knowledge that his effort is
valued first by himself, his peers and
his adult group

-Learning to see and become aware

-Learning to verbalize
-Being able to respond emotionally
with media
-Being able to operate in a democratic

-Extending and using visual-verbal

responsibilities of the teacher

It is important for a teacher to know what
she is expected to do, what leadership she
should assume, and the kind of initiative
and sense of responsibility she must in-
spire in the child. She must know what
to do and what not to do-how to inspire,
guide, and teach without interfering with
each child's right to determine his own
organization, shapes, and colors in his art
work. Art is a personal and individual
thing; teaching it requires flexibility and

Enjoy Your Children
One of the most important things a
parent or teacher can do for a child is to
enjoy him. Appreciate what he does. Chil-
dren glow and prosper in an atmosphere
where the adults who guide them empha-
size their positive qualities, their accom-
plishments, and their uniqueness, and
minimize the very obvious fact that they
still have much to learn. When children
sense a teacher's disapproval, they be-
come self-conscious and overanxious to
please. The classroom is invaded by ten-
sions and fears, and the free flow of ideas
and creative expression is reduced. Chil-
dren have a desire in common with every-
one: they want to be liked. When they feel
the teacher's concern for their welfare, her
interest in them, her pleasure in their
company, they respond in a gratifying way.

Generate Enthusiasm
Since the teacher sets the tone for work-
ing conditions, she must feel a certain
zest for art activities and enter into them
with the children in a spirited and amiable
manner. Her enthusiasm is quickly com-
municated to the pupils and reflected in
their attitude toward art and problem solv-
ing. They have the eagerness to begin and
the drive to continue working through the
obstacles and disappointments that arise
as they work.

Provide Motivation
During the motivation, emphasis should
be put on variety, upon different ideas,
upon another thought, with the premium
of praise being placed on original ideas.
The ideas which each child ultimately uses
and the manner in which he expresses
them should be his own. When the art
work is completed, it should be impossi-
ble to pick out ideas, forms, or approaches
that are common to even a few pieces of
children's art.

Offer Guidance
After the motivational discussion, as
the children begin a period of intense out-
pouring of their ideas, the teacher be-
comes less directly active than she was
during the motivational discussion. She

does not withdraw entirely from the pro-
cess, for children are always sensitive to
the influence and example of theirteacher.
Study the children but do not interrupt
during the first spontaneous phase of
their expression, and guard each child
against interruptions of any kind. A child
may look up from his work for a smile of
encouragement or a nod of approval from
his teacher during the creative process,
but he is essentially alone. He is an in-
dividual expressing the personal and dif-
ferent part of his being. Feeling this
aloneness, the child needs to make con-
tact with his teacher if only to look up and
see that she is there and aware of him.
As his first ideas take a shape on the
page, the child's problems increase, his
working speed slows, and sometimes he
needs help. The teacher should use the
technique of questioning and discussing;
never should she show a child how to draw
a form or let him copy a form or tell him
what to do or how to do it. Look at what
he has already accomplished, try to see
what he is attempting, and ask questions
about the problem the child has set for
himself, such as: "Are the people in your
picture in the city, in the country, or on a
prairie? How can you show us?" Or: "Your
design has dark colors on one side and
light colors on the other. Do you think
the colors need to be made more equal"

When a gentle interpersonal relation-
ship has been established, the child will
feel safe to reveal his problems and con-
flicts, or to disregard suggestions. Help
him to see what he can do with his idea.
Guard against asking such questions as,
"What is this?" or "What are you trying
to do here?" They only add to the child's
feeling of inadequacy.
Another source of discouragement is
the discrepancy between the visual con-
cept the child had before he started to
work and the form which he creates. His
undeveloped motor control, his lack of
detailed knowledge, the limitations of the
material, and his lack of skill in using it
contribute to his difficulty in expressing
an idea as he imagined it. Teachers must
never forget that the keys to growth are
encouragement and praise for every hon-
est effort and achievement. They can
assure children that artists of all ages
occasionally feel disappointment and frus-
tration in their attempts to "get it right."

"I Can't Draw It"
Most teachers have encountered the
problem of the child who says, "I can't
draw it," or "I don't know how to do it."
This plea for help is accompanied by agi-
tation and discouragement and sometimes
by tears as well. The child needs under-
standing and sympathy as much as he
needs help and guidance. When a child
says he can't draw or model a form, it
means that something has happened to
discourage him with his work, perhaps
because adult art has been held up to him

as a standard or people have found fault
with his products. He thinks that if he
makes the "right" shape--something
more photographic or naturalistic he
will win approval.
The only way to cope with this problem
is to rebuild the child's feeling that his
way is the right way for him. What he
says he wants is just the opposite: he asks
someone else to show him how to draw or
copy a form. Talk to him about what he is
trying to draw or shape, and help him to
form a definite mental image of it. Ex-
plain that many mature artists create
shapes of people and animals that are not
naturalistic; show him examples of this
kind of art. All this takes time and tact;
it cannot be done with one casual remark.
Sometimes -h,- children who are suffer-
ing this kind of discouragement turn to
abstract art and do it constantly. You can-
not let abstract work become an escape
for those who do not want to face the task
of creating identifiable forms. Teachers
should constantly foster flexibility by guid-
ing children from one type of art expres-
sion to another.
If, after all avenues of approach have
been tried, the child still cries, "I can't
draw," a talk with the parents may be
useful. Explain to them that there is often
a difference between the shapes found in
creative art and in the more photographic
or representational kind. Talk to them
about the purposes of art in education
and solicit their cooperation in expressing
pride in all their child does, including his
art. Point out that the feeling of defeat

always impedes progress. Help them to
understand that a child who is reasonably
successful in other areas of school work
can be successful in art, and that it is
very important for a child to know and feel
this possibility for success.

Exhibit Children's Art
Children's art adds charm and beauty
to every classroom. The work of the whole
class should be displayed without any
preferential order. It is more attractive
when hung with the aesthetics of the whole
grouping in mind, regardless of opinions
of quality. For instance, place a dark pic-
ture beside a lighter one, a simple beside
a complex; contrast them and one will
accent the other. Be careful not to hang
any child's work twice until every child's
work has been shown once.
Exhibiting art work not only furnishes
an incentive but is also an educational
experience. Each child studies his work
for its own qualities and its relationship
to the products of others. He sees the
strengths of their work and learns from
their different ideas, solutions, and view-
points. Children are further inspired if
their work is displayed outside the school
in a public place-a store window, the
public library, or the halls of an office
building. Banks, utility companies, and
newspaper offices are always looking for
displays with community interest. This is
good public relations since people are in-
volved with the schools of their com-

munity-as taxpayers if not as parents-
and are interested in the concrete results
of education.
Art can be presented through other
media. The staff of the local newspaper
always likes to use material about the
schools. Ask the television studio nearest
you if they could use the children's art in
a program or photograph children at work
in their classroom. You will be amazed at
the response of the public and of the chil-
dren themselves to this kind of exhibition.

Correlation with Other Subjects
Since the subject matter for art comes
from every phase of life, at times children
will use what they have learned in other
areas of the curriculum as ideas for art.
In some cases children independently
choose these ideas; in others they are
broad topics chosen by the teacher. In
either case they are the starting point for
an expression that is motivated, pursued,
and developed as art and not as a graphic
summary or statement of facts from the
other subject area. The initial inspiration
for art comes from the other subject, but
there the similarity ends. Art is an ex-
pression of ideas and feelings; it is imag-
inative. The way objects and people are
shaped depends upon their importance,
the artist's reaction to them, the size of
the space and the nature of the art ma-
The art class is for art; it is not to be
usurped for further emphasis on science,
reading, or social studies. Art must not

become factual or representational just
because it has been correlated with an-
other school subject. Since art is an ex-
pression of the feelings projected through
the imagination, it can add the emotional
to the factual and thus personalize the
learning of facts. For example, if the chil-
dren are studying the landing of the Pil-
grims, they might think about how it would
feel to be a ten-year-old boy going ashore
into unknown dangers or beauty. With this
starting point, they could express the feel-
ing with their art. In their reaction to the
more imaginative aspects of their other
studies, such as poetry, the children will
find a wealth of material which suggests

*Blanche Jefferson, My World of Art, Allyn &
Bacon, Inc., 1963, p. 6, pp. 12-14.

who else is responsible

1. The School Administration:
Florida's Boards of Public Instruction
should include on their staffs well-
qualified art personnel for the follow-
ing reasons:
a. The school system should assume
responsibility for the creative, vis-
ual, and cultural development of
its citizens: children, and adults.
b. There is a need for the coordina-
tion of programs of instruction in
art in order that the energies of
educators be effectively directed
toward establishment of objec-
tives and purposes for all groups
through a philosophy of art edu-
cation which makes use of the
creative process and aesthetic
c. The County Board of Public In-
struction should assume responsi-
bility for equalizing opportunities
for art education. This will neces-
sitate financial, as well as profes-
sional, support comparable to that
given other phases of education.

2. The Principal:
The principal is the key to the success
or failure of the art program. If he
firmly believes in the importance of

art to the total curriculum, the pro-
gram will have no difficulty in being
His belief will be activated in:
a. Respect for children's art work
(partly shown through provision
for various display areas).
b. Recognition of creative and artis-
tic guidance of his teachers.
c. Provision for space, materials,
tools, and facilities.
d. Scheduling of appropriate time
periods for art activities.
e. Effective use of the special art
teacher (if available) as: a con-
sultant in curriculum planning,
selection of materials, visual re-
sources, prints, films, books; art
teacher of children; art teacher
for teachers; and, visual coordi-
f. The use of the State Accreditation
Standards as one instrument for
evaluating the art program.

3. The Art Supervisor:
The art supervisor establishes a good
working relationship with all school
personnel by demonstrating a sincere

respect for, concern about, and un-
derstanding of needs and problems.
He seeks to fulfill his responsibility
a. Holding meetings and in-service
workshops for the purpose of
sharing ideas, further understand-
ing and determining solutions to
b. Offering leadership in the continu-
ous study and development of art
c. Cio t;ri interest on the part of
the public by using every oppor-
tunity to inform parents and the
public about the purposes of
visual art education through all
available communications media:
visual, verbal or written.
d. Keeping abreast of findings in the
field of art research. Encourag-
ing, experimenting and planning
with art teachers to maintain a
sound art education curriculum
and making available these cri-
teria in the form of printed curric-
ulum guides.
e. Being concerned with the most
economical purchase and distri-
bution of quality art materials and
budgeting of county-wide visual


aid materials, (films, slides, prints,
f. Involving self with creative work.
Serving in local, state, regional,
and national professional art or-

4. The Art Teacher:
The Art Teacher's main concerns are
the fostering of the understanding
that visual art serves as a means of
communication and the providing of
experiences for the individual child
to develop his creative potentials.
With these purposes in mind the art
teacher seeks to inform parents, plans
and organizes with the children, the
classroom teacher, the principal and
others involved, such as the librarian.
The art teacher also plans to:
a. Further understandings of art's
b. Work directly with children.
c. Maintain a good rapport with all
persons involved.
d. Effectively display children's work
in the classroom, in the school or
in the community.
e. Advise and counsel when the need

f. Demonstrate that art is an inte-
gral part of life.
S g. Encourage the use of library, chil-
dren's books, professional books,
newspapers and periodicals in or-
: der to be informed on current
trends in the field of art edu-

h. Encourage the use of community
resources such as museums, ar-
chitecture, exhibits, etc.

i. Encourage the use of audio-visual

j. Participate in in-service work-
k. Introduce new ideas and new ma-

I. Inform by speaking or demon-
S strating at P.T.A. meetings or
community functions.

m. Continue his own creative work.

n. Participate in professional organ-

S Supporting the principal, classroom
teachers, art resource teachers, and
supervisor are other non-professional
and professional members of the
"team" who make generous contribu-

tions to the development of visual
aesthetic literacy in students.

5. Instructional T.V.:
The instructional television studio has
possibilities and limitations for aiding
students and teachers in becoming
visually aware.
The aim of instructional television is
to use all possibilities to enrich and
supplement the art program by:

a. Encouraging aesthetic awareness
through observing and appraising
many things, such as:
..Objects from natural environ-
ment, i.e.: leaves, rocks, sea
shells, etc.
.Man-made objects and struc-
tures, i.e.: buildings, etc.
Works of art by peer groups,
i.e.: in own school and other
schools in the county.
...Works of the mature artist,
both past and present.

b. Presenting artifacts that are not
obtainable by the classroom
teacher, such as:
..Sculpture, pottery, or leather
goods from other lands.

S.. Reproductions of art works in
film strips, slides, or picture
forms of cultures through the
c. Interviewing local artists as they
show and discuss their works of
art, such as:
.. Oil, watercolor and acrylic
... Lithographs, etchings, and
wood block prints.
.. .Wire, wood, ceramic and met-
al sculptures.
d. Introducing the viewer to the
many existing cultural advantages
of the community, such as:
S.. Local museums and galleries.
...The functional and aestheti-
cally pleasing architectural
structures around him.
.. Displays of children's work in
schools and shopping areas.
e. Providing motivation for viewers
by fostering attitudes, such as:
..."I can express my ideas with
many different art materials."
.. "I will not try to be a camera
when using something as a
model for my art works."
.."I will learn to look and look
to learn."
..."I can see lines, shapes, tex-
tures, colors, forms and space
all about me."

..."I can give unity, balance,
rhythm and variety to my
S.. "I can use what I wish to and
leave out what I don't want
to use in my art work."
.."I can make my own art."

6. Librarian:
School librarians are the right arm of
the school art programs. Librarians
are constantly on the lookout for qual-
ity resources in the forms of books,
reproductions, filmstrips, slides and
magazines. They feature these visual
aids in well designed library exhibits.
They use these materials in their
classes with the students. They en-
courage and display the creative work
of children. The library can truly be a
showcase for visual aesthetic learning.

7. The Parents:
The parents, who encourage their chil-
dren to think for themselves; who
sincerely and ostensibly value origi-
nality, ingenuity, inventiveness and
imagination; who respect the creative
expressions of individuals; who treat
constructive curiosity as a virtue;
who help their children to be sensi-
tive to the world around them through
all of their senses; TREMENDOUSLY
token, PARENTS are emphasizing
positive values when they challenge

the use of coloring books, molds, pat-
terns, and the like, which are detri-
mental to creative development.

8. P.T.A.:
The Parent Teachers Association can
render invaluable service to the art
education of all children by assisting
in the physical aspect of materials and
equipment and by actuating, through
programs and actions, a good philoso-
phy of art education (which, by its
very nature, is good education).

VISUAL AIDS appendix

There are many films, filmstrips, slides
and reproductions that will be helpful in
the teaching of art. These help to provide
stimulation, as well as illustrate proce-
dures and principles in art.
Some sources for visual aids are listed
below. Catalogs may be obtained from
the companies:
ACI Productions, 21 W. 46th Street, New
York, New York 10010.
American Institute of Architects, 1735
N. W. New York Avenue, Washington,
D. C. 20006.
American Trading Association, 732 7th
Avenue, New York, New York 10019.
Association Films, 347 Madison Avenue,
New York, New York 10017.
Bailey Films, Inc., 6509 DeLongpre Ave.,
Hollywood, Calif. 90028.
Bell and Howell Company, 7100 McCor-
mick Road, Chicago, Illinois 60645.
Brandon Films, 200 W. 27th Street, New
York, New York 10001.
Bray Picture Corporation, Educational De-
partment, 729 7th Street, New York,
New York 10019.
Thomas Bouchard Co., Story Brook Road,
West Brewst, Cape Cod, Mass.
California Design, Pasadena Art Museum,
46 W. Los Robles Avenue, Pasadena,
Calif. (Filmstrips on exhibition from
California Design) 91101.
Castle Films, R.C.A. Building, New York,
New York 10001.
Cinema 16, Inc., 175 Lexington Avenue,
New York, New York 10016.
Contemporary Films, Inc., 267 W. 25th
Street, New York, New York 10001.
Coronet Instructional Films, Coronet
Building, Chicago, Illinois 60601.

DeVry Corporation, 1111 Armitage Ave.,
Chicago, Illinois 60614.
Walt Disney 16mm Films, 350 S. Buena
Vista, Burbank, Calif. 91505.
Eastman Classroom Films, Rochester,
New York 14601.
Encyclopaedia Britannica Films, Inc., 1150
Wilmette Ave., Wilmette, Illinois 60091.
Film Associates of California, 11014 San-
ta Monica Blvd., Los Angeles, Calif.
Film Images, Inc., 1860 Broadway, New
-York, New York 10023.
Hammond Foundation, Inc., 140 Nassau
Street, New York, New York 10038.
Herman Miller, Zeeland, Michigan 49464.
Illustrated Film Bureau, 1500 North Michi-
gan Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60611.
International Films Bureau, 57 Jackson
Street, Chicago, Illinois 60604.
McGraw-Hill Textfilms, 330 W. 42nd St.,
New York, New York, 10036.
Museum of Modern Art Film Library, 11
W. 53rd Street, New York, N. Y. 10019.
New York University Film Library, 26
Washington PI., New York, N. Y. 10003.
Pictorial Film Library, Inc., 130 West 46th
Street, New York, New York 10036.
Syracuse University Educational Film Li-
brary, Bldg. D-7, Collenade, Campus,
Syracuse, New York 13210.
Teachers College, Columbia University,
New York, New York 10027.
Teaching Film Custodians, 25 West 43rd
Street, New York, New York 10036.
United World Films, 1445 Park Avenue,
New York, New York 10013.
University of Florida Dept. of Visual In-
struction, General Extension Division,
Gainesville, Florida 32601.
World Pictures Corporation, 729 7th
Avenue, New York, New York 10019.

Sources for Film Strips and Slides:
American Library Color Slide Company,
222 West 23rd Street, New York, New
York 10011.
American Council on Education, 744 Jack-
son Place, Washington, D. C. 20006.
Bailey Art Films, Hollywood, Calif. 90028.
Carnegie Institute, Department of Fine
Arts, Forbes St., Pittsburgh, Pa. 15217.
Keystone View Company, Meadville, Penn-
sylvania 16335.
Metropolitan Museum of Fine Arts, Mu-
seum Extension Division, 5th Avenue
and 83rd St., New York, N. Y. 10003.
Society for Visual Education, Inc., 100
East Ohio Street, Chicago, II1. 60611.
The Jam Handy Organization, 2900 East
Grand Boulevard, Detroit, Mich. 48202.
The Three Dimension Company, 500
Dearborn Avenue, Chicago, II. 60602.
Young American Films, 18 East 41st St.,
New York, New York 10017.
Sources for Prints:
Art Treasure of the World, 100 6th Ave.,
New York, New York 10003.
Artext Prints, Inc., Westport, Connecticut
New York Graphic Society, Greenwich,
Connecticut 06830.
Dr. Konrad Prothman, 7 Scope Avenue,
Baldwin, Long Island, New York 11101.
Twin Edition, 366 Madison Avenue, New
York, New York 10017.
UNESCO Catalog of Reproductions of
Paintings from 1860 to 1949, U.N.
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Or-
ganization, New York, New York 10001.
Columbia University Press, Columbia Uni-
versity, New York, New York 10027.



Tempera Powder Paint

Put equal amount of powder paint and
water in an empty container. Press a lid
down and shake until the paint is thor-
oughly mixed. To make the paint keep
better and go on more smoothly, add
enough liquid starch or detergent to make
it the consistency of cream. To prevent a
sour smell, add a little oil of cloves,
wintergreen, or peppermint.

Using Powder Paint

* Watercolor
For a transparent watercolor, add suffi-
cient water to the powder paint to obtain
a runny consistency. For an opaque water-
color, add enough water or liquid starch
to the powder paint to make a creamy

* Colored Ink
Mix enough water with the powder paint
to allow it to flow easily from a lettering

* Oil Paint
Mix 2 tablespoonfuls of powder paint
with turpentine or liquid starch to make
a thick paste. Add varnish until the mix-
ture is smooth. Or:
Add a few drops of glycerine and pow-
der paint to raw linseed oil to make a
thick cream consistency. Use zinc oxide
with linseed oil for a white oil paint. Or
add boiled linseed oil to powder paint and
stir well. Or add powder paint to liquid.
Use a stiff brush.

* Enamel
Add clear shellac, lacquer, or varnish
to the powder paint until a desired brush-
ing consistency is reached.

* Wood Stain
Mix powder paint with linseed oil or
turpentine until a brushing consistency is
reached. To make a waterproof lacquer,
mix powder paint with a gloss oil. Or rub
crayons with the grain of the wood. Then
rub the wood vigorously with a cloth satu-
rated in linseed oil.


* Cornstarch Finger Paint
1/2 cup cornstarch
1 quart boiling water
Dissolve the starch in a small amount
of cold water and gradually add the hot
water. Cook until clear. To keep all re-
cipes from drying, add 2 tablespoonfuls of
glycerine. Add oil of cloves or wintergreen
to keep from souring.
For color use poster paint, India ink, or
powdered tempera mixed with water to a
consistency of a smooth paste.

* Laundry Starch Finger Paint
2 quarts boiling water
1 cup soapflakes
1 cup laundry starch
1/2 cup talcum powder
Dilute starch in a cupful of cold water.
Add the remaining water slowly, stirring
starch constantly to avoid lumping. Stir
in soapflakes and talcum powder. This
will make about 5 pints. The adding of
soapflakes to the paint acts as a binder.
This recipe can be used to fingerpaint on
glass or over a heavy coat of crayons.


* Oil-Base Printing Ink
2 parts powder paint
1 part linseed oil
1 part varnish
Mix to the consistency of a smooth
paste. This spreads on evenly, but will
not dry quickly. Good for a paper with a
rough-textured surface.

* Varnish-Base Printing Ink
3 parts powder paint
1 part varnish
Mix with a palette knife on glass. Use
a brayer or printing roller, rolling it back
and forth until the mixture is tacky before
applying it to the block. This will dry
quicker than the oil-base ink and is suit-
able to use on nonabsorbent, smooth-
finish paper (can be thinned with dena-
tured alcohol).


* Tempera Silk Screen Paint
Tempera paint
Add a small quantity of soapflakes to
the tempera to give it viscosity and to
deter drying. Add water only if necessary.
If paint is too thick, it will clog the screen;
if too thin. it will run. Finger paint of a
creamy consistency can also be used.

* Liquid Starch Silk Screen Paint
Liquid starch
Powder paint
Add liquid starch to powder paint until
it is the consistency of light paste.


* Crepe Clay
1 fold of crepe paper-any color
1 tablespoon of salt mixed with
1 cup of flour
Cut the crepe paper into tiny pieces
(confetti size). Place in a large bowl; add
only enough water to cover the paper.
Allow it to soak for 15 minutes, and pour
off the excess water. Add enough of the
flour-salt mixture to make a stiff dough.
Knead well until it is blended with the
crepe paper.

Flour Clay
1 cup flour
1 cup salt
1 rounded teaspoon powdered alum
Add water slowly and knead until a
claylike consistency is reached.

Cornstarch Clay
1/2 cup cornstarch
1 cup salt
1 cup boiling water
Boil to a soft ball stage and knead on
wax paper until malleable.
Wrap either in a wet cloth to keep a few
days. These substitutes may be handled
exactly like clay. They may be pressed on
maps to make a relief, and, when dry,
either substitute can be painted. They re-
tain shape without crumbling. For a
colored mixture, add powder paint to the
water when mixing it.

* Sawdust-Wheat Paste-Clay Mixture
A mixture of ceramic clay, sawdust, and
wheat paste
8 parts sawdust
1 part wheat paste

2 parts dry clay
5 parts water
Mix together sawdust, wheat paste, and
dry clay. Add water. This mixture is es-
pecially good for modeling puppet heads.
When thoroughly dried, it is almost as
hard as wood.

Quickdrying Pulp Papier Mache
4 cups paper mache pulp
1 cup plaster of Paris
1/4 teaspoon commercial glue
Knead to the consistency of heavy
dough. It will dry in from 3 to 6 hours.

Modeling Pulp
Add I cup of plaster of Paris to 1 gal-
lon of any paper mache pulp. Mix thor-
oughly. Suitable for modeling fruits, vege-
tables, toys, animals, etc.

Crepe Papier Mache
To make crepe paper mache, prepare
a packed cupful of crepe paper cut in
small pieces. Add enough water to wet
the paper thoroughly and soak overnight.
Then mix and rub the wet paper into a
very fine pulp. Next add 4 or 5 table-
spoonfuls of flour and 2 tablespoonfuls of
salt. Work this mixture thoroughly until
it is the consistency of clay. Library paste
can be added if desired. Mix a batch for
each color to be used.

Papier Mache Pulp
Tear newspapers into small pieces.
Soak in water overnight. Next day boil for
2 hours. Drain the excess water, leaving
the pulp. Add 1 cupful of school paste or
wheat flour to 5 cupfuls of well-mixed
pulp. The mass is then ready to be used
as a modeling medium.

* Single Form Laminated Papier Mache
Paste six layers of newspaper together.
Add a seventh layer of paper toweling. Cut
the pasted layers into an interesting form
and gently shape the edges. Pinch them
securely. Let dry thoroughly. Decorate
with paint.

Clay Papier Mache
Soak newspaper in slip (liquid clay) in-
stead of the usual wheat paste and water.
This mixture is excellent for making a
firm, yet brittle object. The finished piece
will crack and break when dropped or hit
with a hard object. This is ideal for mak-
ing a pinata at Christmas time.


This clay hardens in drying, and re-
quires no baking. It can be bought com-
mercially in craft stores or supply houses.
It is practical to use when you have no
kiln, or when you do not wish to fire young
children's work. To make your own, add:
1 part dextrin to
19 parts of clay flour
Dextrin added to clay will harden the
pieces so they will be substantial enough
to last without firing. Be sure to use the
dextrin made from yellow corn. (White
dextrin is not satisfactory.)
Dextrin may also be worked into wet
clay. Use 1 teaspoonful of dextrin to 1
pound of wet clay. The pieces may be
painted when dry.


* Sawdust I
Wallpaper paste

Mix equal parts. If the mixture is sticky,
add more sawdust.'
* Sawdust II
2 cups sawdust
1 cup plaster of Paris
1/2 cup wheat paste or wallpaper paste
2 cups water
Mix ingredients. Add water gradually
until a modeling consistency is reached.
Excellent for puppet heads, fruits, vege-
tables, masks, figures, animals.
* Molding Plaster and Vermiculite
1 part sand
2 parts vermiculite
2 parts molding plaster
Mix dry ingredients. Fill gallon juice
can /2 full with water and sprinkle in the
dry ingredients until a mound is formed
up to the water level. Stir until mixture
looks creamy. Pour in cardboard con-
tainers. Allow to set and harden, carve
the next day.
Vermiculite and Cement
Pour a mixture of water and 2 parts
vermiculite aggregate to 1 part Portland
cement into a shellacked cardboard box.
Carve when dry.
Texture Sawdust
Powder paint
Mix powder paint with water to a thin
cream consistency. Spread on a news-
paper to dry. Use it to sprinkle on a glued
surface for a textured effect.
Modeling material
4 cups flour

2 cups water
11/2 cups salt
Coloring as desired
Food coloring recommended
Mix flour with table salt, add coloring
to water, and mix all ingredients together.
If too spongy, add more salt. Knead thor-
oughly. Mixture keeps in good condition
for a week and may be reused daily. Store
in covered crock.

* Asbestos
3 cups ground asbestos or asbestos
shorts (used for covering furnace pipes)
1 teaspoon glue
1 cup flour
Add enough water to make a dough of
the right consistency for modeling. Ground
asbestos is very inexpensive. When dry,
it is light in weight, durable, a light gray
color, and may be painted with powder

* Salt and Flour Beads
Heat 2/3 cup fine salt until it snaps.
Mix salt and 1/2 cup flour in a bowl and
add /2 cup water. More flour can be
added for correct texture. Roll beads in
the hands and poke hole with a toothpick.
Holes should be made slightly larger than
the string or wire to be used. Food color-
ing or a small amount of tempera can be
added to the mixture for color.

Melt paraffin in a pan placed in very
hot water, never directly over the fire.
Pour it into another container. When it
has solidified but is still soft, model it as
you would any other plastic material. The
warmth of the hands will keep it soft, es-
pecially if you dip your hands in warm

If color is wanted, shave a little wax
crayon into the paraffin while it is melting.
A marbleized effect is brought about by
adding the wax afer the paraffin is melted.
Crushed colored chalk may also be added.
When the object is molded, dip it in
cold water to harden. Polish the paraffin
by rubbing it with a cotton cloth.

* Plaster of Paris
Pour the approximate amount of water
needed for a mold into a container (1
quart of water for 4 cups of plaster of
Paris is a good proportion to use). Add
plaster of Paris until a small mound stays
on the surface of the water, and then stir
until it thickens. Pour into a mold, form,
box, or any container which will hold
plaster firm until it sets. The form or box
should be a little larger than the size of
the finished carving. After plaster has
set, it can be removed from the form.
Even though still wet, it is ready for carv-
ing. It will stay damp for several days or
can be resoaked in water and then carved
or shaped with tools.

* Zonalite Mixture I
4 parts course Zonalite (a building ma-
2 parts sand
2 parts cement
Mix the ingredients and pour into a wax
carton. Allow to dry for 3 days. Peel the
carton away and carve with a coping saw,
nail, file, or tongue depressor. Paint with
varnish or shellac.

Zonalite Mixture II
1 part dry Zonalite
3 parts vermiculite
Add water gradually until the mixture

looks like a cooked cereal. Pour into a
box or form and allow it to dry for 1 week,
then carve.

* Gesso
10 teaspoons whiting (precipitated
Water to make a thick cream
6 teaspoons glue
1 teaspoon varnish
4 teaspoons boiled linseed oil
The whiting can be purchased at most
hardware stores. Boil for 10 minutes in
a double boiler. Color by adding powder

Salt Clay
1 cup table salt
1/2 cup corn starch
3/4 cup cold water
Heating element
Double boiler
Mix table salt, corn starch, and water
in upper half of double boiler and place
in lower half in which water is boiling on
heating unit. As it boils, stir constantly
until mixture thickens to the consistency
of "bread dough." Remove from pot and
place in aluminum foil or wax paper until
cool, then knead. Either use immediately
or store for future use. Can be stored in
refrigerator for several days. Knead again
before using.

* Puppet Heads
Soak a newspaper in water overnight
(having torn it into small pieces). Rub wet
paper between palms until it is ground to
a pulp. Add 1/2 teaspoon LePages' glue.
Add 1 pint of plaster. Then add the news-
paper pulp. Knead until the consistency
of a heavy dough is reached. Setting time:
3 hours.


When Using The Following Materials:

* Enamel
Turpentine acts as both cleaner and

* Oil Paint
Turpentine serves as both cleaner and
thinner; linseed oil as a thinner; soap or
detergent as a cleaner.

* Printer's Ink
Carbon tetrachloride is the cleaner to
use with printer's varnish for thinning.

* Rubber Cement
An eraser or a ball of dry rubber cement
is used for cleaning, and benzine for thin-

* Shellac
Alcohol serves for cleaner and thinner.

* Varnish
Turpentine cleans and thins.

* Water-Base Paints,
such as watercolor, powder paint, India
ink, or finger paint. Water is best for both
cleaner and thinner.


To Remove the Following:

* Candlewax or Paraffin
Use carbon tetrachloride

* Glue
Sponge with lukewarm water.

Ink Spots on Fingers
Rub on a little ammonia and rinse in
clear water.

Grease and Oil Stains
Use spot remover, or place material to
be cleaned at least 1 inch deep in corn-
meal or salt to remove oil.

Use carbon tetrachloride

* Tar
Use carbon tetrachloride or commer-
cial automobile tar remover.


9 oz. Borax
4 oz. Boric Acid
1 gallon warm water
Mix the above and apply to fabrics, pa-
per streamers and all other flammable
items. Steeping in the warm solution is
best; however, the solution may be ap-
plied by either dipping, brushing, or


A teaspoon of boric acid to a pint of
water in which you soak your paper pre-
vents mildewing.


Adhesives: rubber cement,
glue, paste

Boards: illustration, tag


Chalk: soft white, assorted





Clay: prepared moist, plastic

Cloth and weaving materials:
burlap, cheesecloth, cotton,
felt, yarns

Finishes: shellac, varnish, fixa-

Glazes: assorted overglazes


Linoleum: for block printing

Linoleum cutters

Ink: Black India ink, colored,
water soluble printing

Lumber: soft balsa

Paint: finger, tempera, water-
color, textile

Paper: different sizes, weights,
surfaces and kinds paper
bags, charcoal, construction,
corrugated, crepe, drawing,
white, finger-paint, manila,
newsprint, paper plates, pos-
ter, stencil, tissue, aluminum
foil, white butcher

Pencils: drawing (HB-6B) Ebony

Pens: felt-tipped, drawing, let-

Plaster and vermiculite

Reed and Raffia




Screws and nails



Wax paper

Wheat paste


Hot plate

Wire cutters

Drawing boards

Paper cutter

Ceramic kiln

Florida has a rich abundance of natural materials with which artists
can work.

pine cones
pine needles
Spanish moss
seed pods
corn cobs
corn husks

fish scales
palm fronds
cat tails
sea oats
sea worn glass
sugar cane poles
sea weed

Found objects that can be used to enhance bought materials or
vice versa.
old carbon paper newspapers
beads orange sacks
blotters sponges
boxes string
bottlecaps innertubes
buttons orange crates
broom sticks pipe cleaners
burlap paper bags
cans pins
cloth old jewelry
rug scraps popsicle sticks
cartons ribbons
cardboard ro
coat hangers ropes
candles cylinder (toilet tissue)
clothespins straws
egg cartons silk stockings
hairpins tongue depressors
magazines styrofoam scraps


Arnheim, Rudolf. Art and Visual Perception. A Psychology of the
Creative Eye. Berkeley: Universityof California Press, 1954.
(A psychology book on visual perception and the creative
eye. Extensive research with the art work of children has
done much to interest educators in visual thinking of

Ashton-Warner, Sylvia. Teacher. New York: Simon and Schuster,
1963. $5.00.
(A spontaneously written book on creative teaching based
on the child's inherited drives. The organic method of
teaching, using suggestions for creative growth to replace
the child's natural urge for destruction.)

Barkan, Manuel. Through Art to Creativity. Boston: Allyn and
Bacon, 1960.
(A record of classroom practices and analysis of motiva-
tion, participation in activities with materials, and evalu-
ated accounts of the results. Photographs and dialogues
of 18 selected teachers and their classes from kinder-
garten through the upper elementary grades are used as

Bland, Jane C. Art of the Young Child. Museum of Modern Art.
New York: Doubleday Press, 1957. $2.95.
(Characteristics and work of the three, four, and five year
olds are stated very specifically in the book with sugges-
tions for working with this age group. Materials, organiza-
tion, and development are also discussed, making it a
valuable reference for the preschool teacher.)

Conrad, George. The Process of Art Education in the Elementary
School. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1964.
(A source devoted to the role of art education: using art
education to invigorate the learning process in the school,

showing how this process is made workable, and using it
as a basis for building the art education curriculum based
on children's needs.)

Hoover, F. Louis. Art Activities for the Very Young. Worchester,
Massachusetts: Davis Publications, 1961. $4.85.
(For planning art programs for children of nursery school
and kindergarten age, suggesting art activities that offer
creative and problem solving experiences.)

Home, Joicey. Young Artists. Toronto: Longmans, Green, 1961.
(A handbook on art education written especially for plan-
ning elementary school art programs and for those need-
ing the basic principles of guiding the creative expressions
that result from thinking and feeling.)

Linderman, Earl W. and Donald W. Herberholz. Developing Artistic
and Perceptual Awareness: Art Practice in the Classroom.
Dubuque, Iowa: William C. Brown, 1964.
(Excellent for suggestions in motivating children to think
about their experiences and to stimulate them to visual
expression. Emphasis on sensitivity and the need to nur-
ture creativity according to the uniqueness of the group,
is one of the aims of this book.)

Lowenfeld, Viktor. Creative and Mental Growth. New York: Mac-
millan, 1955.
(An art education book written especially for those art
teachers and classroom teachers who desire to under-
stand better the children's sources of creativity and how
mental and emotional growth coincides with creative

Mearns, Hugh. Creative Power, the Education of Youth in the
Creative Arts. New York: Dover Publications, 1958. $1.50,
a paperbound book.
(Recommended by the NEA as one of the 20 foremost
books in education of recent times. Considered by gen-
eral educators as a presentation of the most effective and
valuable approaches to teaching the creative arts. A tes-
timony in general education on the philosophy of most
art educators.)

Merritt, Helen. Guiding Free Expression in Children's Art. New
York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1964. $1.50.

(A professional book written especially for the elementary
classroom teacher for better understanding of children's
expressions, as a guide in planning and carrying out
experiences for child growth.)

McFee, June King. Preparation for Art. San Francisco, California:
Wadsworth Publishing, 1961. $6.50.
(A book of theory and research on the nature of the cre-
ative process and children's individual differences; written
to help teachers in guiding children's art experiences.)

Read, Herbert. Education Through Art. New York: Pantheon
Books, 1958. $7.50.
(Dr. Herbert Read holds with Plato's thesis that art should
be the basis of education. He uses modern psychology in
his research to analyze the artistic activity in children.)

Andrews, Michael F. Creative Print Making. Englewood Cliffs, New
Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1964. $5.95.
(A text with photographs to recognize print making as a
separate art and more than a process of making repro-
ductions. It is recommended to use this in planning

graphic experiences because it explores almost all print-
ing techniques, most of which can be experienced by ele-
mentary children.)

Canady, John. Keys to Art. New York: Tudor Publishing, 1962.
(A book leading to the understanding and comprehension
of the experience inherent in the work of art itself. Well
written and illustrated to help develop and stimulate ap-
preciation for printing, sculpture, and architecture.)

Collier, Graham. Form, Space, and Vision. Englewood Cliffs, New
Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1963.
(The contents are designed in a sequence of experiments
that present aesthetic ideas and relate them to specific
exercises. The approach is through drawing which the
author feels is a must and the first means of expression.
This book helps the reader sharpen his perception and
understanding of form and space.)

Gorbaty, Norman. Print Making with a Spoon. New York: Rein-
hold Publishing, 1960. $3.95.
(An aid to planning graphic experiences to introduce chil-
dren to simple techniques for print making that lead to an
appreciation for the finer qualities of the more professional
graphic techniques.)

Guild, Vera P. Creative Use of Stitches. Worchester, Massachu-
setts: Davis Publications, 1964.
(The writer introduces a variety of potentials in the use of
stitches and compares it to the art of painting. Teachers
will find suggestions in the text for basic stitches and
photographs of the artist's work, helpful in planning art
programs. The lesson planning ideas are directed indi-

vidually to teachers of primary, intermediate, and upper
level elementary children with suggested questions lead-
ing to exploration and inventive thinking.)

Johnson, Pauline. Creating with Paper. Seattle, Washington: Uni-
versity of Washington Press, 1958. $6.50.
(Although detailed directions are outlined, the fine photo-
graphs, the design, and the format of the book are in-
spirational and tend to motivate creative exploration with
paper folding and cutting. This is recommended for
teachers planning activities, such as paper sculpture.)

Karasz, Mariska. Adventures in Stitches and More Adventures-
Fewer Stitches. New York: Funk and Wagnalls, 1959.
(An inspirational manual for teachers for presenting cre-
ative stitching to children. The enthusiasm of the author,
and the excellent drawing and photographs of her work,
are motivating for teachers to guide children as they dis-
cover the art of the needle and thread.)

Lowry, Bates. The Visual Experience. An Introduction to Art.
Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1964.
(A handsome volume of art appreciation. This book is rec-
ommended to teachers for gaining a keener insight and
understanding of the arts in order to present great works
to children.)

Mattil, Edward L. Meaning in Crafts. Englewood Cliffs, New Jer-
sey: Prentice-Hall, 1965, rev. ed., $4.25.
(Valuable for its creative approach in teaching crafts to
small children.)

Moseley, Spencer, Pauline Johnson, and Hazel Koenig. Crafts
Design. Belmont, California: Wadsworth Publishing, 1962.
(Stimulates an appreciation for crafts, presenting them
with photographs of examples from varied cultures. Simple
and direct methods for basic techniques with emphasis on
the design quality as a fundamental part of good crafts-

Paschel, Herbert P. The First Book of Color. New York: Franklin
Watts, 1959. $1.95.
(A simple text with rather unimaginative illustrations writ-
ten on the facts dealing with light and color. This may be
used as an aid to planning a lesson for the upper elemen-
tary child on the science of color as an outgrowth of a
painting experience. This book should be recommended
only for the science of color.)

Peterson, Henry and Ray Gerring. Exploring with Paint. New
York: Reinhold Publishing, 1964. $5.50.
(A guide specifically designed to help the classroom
teacher desiring to give young children a rich painting
program of aesthetic experiences. A well-illustrated vol-
ume with clear visual presentations to each approach,
applying to the beginner as well as to the advanced paint-
ing student.)

Randall, Arne W. Murals for Schools-Sharing Creative Experi-
ences. Worchester, Massachusetts: Davis Publications,
1956. $6.00.
(A guide with suggestions for motivating creative experi-
ences for school mural productions. The needs of the
individual as well as the group are considered, along with
the mural activities that can be experienced by the class-

Randall, Arne W. and Ruth Elise Halvorsen. Painting in the Class-
room. Worchester, Massachusetts: Davis Publications,
1962. $6.00.
(A book devoted to stimulating child growth through paint-
ing and by experiences growing out of this medium. The
book also offers many helpful suggestions, such as physi-
cal arrangements of the art activity area and ways of dis-
playing art work.)

Rottger, Ernest. Creative Drawing from "Creative Play" Series.
New York: Reinhold Publishing, 1964. $4.95.
Other Creative Play Series:
Creative Clay Design, 1963 $4.95
Creative Paper Design, 1962 4.95

Creative Textile Design


Creative Wood Design, 1961 4.95
(A series written at the professional level to inspire ideas
of presenting and motivating crafts, using simple mate-
rials that maintain their identity without trying to initiate
other materials.)

Spencer, Cornelia. How Art and Music Speak to Us. New York:
John Day, 1963. $3.50.
(Helpful for correlating the arts in planning observation
and appreciation activities.)

Aldin pseudd.) Brustlein, Daniel. The Magic Stones. New York:
McGraw Hill, 1957. $3.00,
(An aesthetically illustrated story written in folk-tale style
to assist young children in understanding and appreciating
early problems of architecture.)

Baumann, Hans. The Caves of the Great Hunters. New York:
Pantheon Books, 1962. $4.89.
(The exciting story of the famous cave of Lascaux; well
illustrated with photographs and drawings.)

Barry, Sir Gerald. The Arts-Man's Creative Imagination. New
York: Doubleday, 1965.
(A book devoted to each of the creative arts. This book
shows how painting, sculpture, architecture, dance,
drama, and story-telling have provided symbolic and en-
during forms for man's thoughts and feelings as he be-
holds the world around him. The book also shows the
interrelationship of the artist, his world, and his contem-

Beaumont, Cyril. Puppets and Puppetry. London and New York:
Studio Publications, 1958.
(An appreciation book with well-written text that is gen-
erously illustrated with photographs of the history and
anatomy of puppets in different countries of the world.)

Bergere, Theo and Richard Bergere. From Stones to Skyscrapers.
New York: Dodd, 1960. $3.50.
(A book for planning, and for selected reading for older
elementary children. The book is well-illustrated with fine
line drawings; and the content is written with the emphasis
on styles of architecture influenced by climate, resources,
religion, and way of life.)

Borten, Helen. Do You See What I See. London and New York:
Abelard-Schuman, 1959. $2.75.
(A little book beautifully illustrated in a graphic-like quality
texture, using the basic elements of visual composition-

lines, shapes, and colors-and the emotional responses
they evoke. The use of childlike examples from the ob-
vious to the subtle also motivate the child's growing

Campbell, Elizabeth. Fins and Tails. Boston and Toronto: Little
Brown, (n.d.) $3.00.
(An attractively illustrated book to aid in sharpening the
child's power of observation.)

Cataldo, John W. Lettering. Worchester, Massachusetts: Davis
Publications, 1958. $6.00.
(Recommended for upper elementary grades in providing
a good foundation for basic forms in lettering. Oppor-
tunity for personal interpretation is suggested through
facility in lettering, stemming from a direct use of the
tool which leads to further experiments in individual inter-
pretation and design.)

Chase, Alice Elizabeth. Famous Paintings. New York: Platt and
Munk, 1964. $5.95.
(An introduction to art for the young, with excellent full
color reproductions directed to a better understanding
and appreciation of paintings of many cultures.)

Emberly, Ed. The Wing on a Flea. Boston and Toronto: Little
Brown, 1961. $2.95.
(Written and delightfully illustrated by the author to help
children become more aware of shapes as they view their
everyday world.)

Glubok, Shirley. The Art of the Eskimo. New York: Harper and
Row, 1964. $3.99.
Other books by Shirley Glubok include:
The Art of Ancient Egypt

The Art of Ancient Greece
The Art of Ancient Rome
The Art of the Lands in the Bible

1965 $3.99
1963 3.79

The Art of the North American Indian 1964 3.79
(Excellent photography of artifacts with direct statements
showing that art plays an important part.in the everyday
lives of the people of these cultures.)

Janson, H. W. and Dora Jane Janson. The Story of Painting for
Young People. New York: Harry N. Abrams, (n.d.) $5.00.
(A textbook on the history of painting as an expression
from cave man art to contemporary art. Written to appeal
to young readers and beautifully illustrated in black and
white and in color.)

Kirn, Ann. Full of Wonder. New York: World Publishing, 1959.
(A charming book written to awaken the child's awareness
of form and texture around him. Colorful textural rub-
bings and appealing text result in an interesting book for
children of all ages.)

Koch, Dorothy. I Play at the Beach. New York: Holiday House,
1955. $2.95.
(Delightfully illustrated to encourage children to retain
their curiosity of the minute detail in nature and their
keen sense of observation.)

MacAgy, Douglas and Elizabeth MacAgy. Going for a Walk with
a Line. New York: Doubleday, 1959. $3.00.
(A unique book of application of contemporary art, written
especially for the young.)

O'Neill, Mary. Hailstones and Halibut Bones, Adventures in Color.
New York: Doubleday, 1961. $2.95.
(The colors of the spectrum are described in verse in a
very imaginative manner. An aesthetic approach to the
sensitivity of colors. Valuable for motivation in painting.)

Randall, Reino

and Edward C. Haines. Design in Three Dimen-
Worchester, Massachusetts: Davis Publications,

(A manual, beautifully illustrated with photographs from
nature and artifacts, as well as drawings that point to
sources and materials for design in three-dimensions.
The approach is extremely aesthetic and treats materials
in the light of their true worth and function.)

Scheim, Meriam. Shapes. Eau Claire, Wisconsin: Hale, 1952.
(A book designed to motivate children to be more aware of
shapes in design.)

Spencer, Cornelia. Made in Japan. New York: Alfred A. Knopf,
1963. $3.95.
Other "Made in" titles include:
Made in Canada by Mary Crahm Bonner
Made in China by Cornelia Spencer
Made in Iceland by Grace Golden
Made in India by Cornelia Spencer
Made in Italy by Frances Toor

Made in Mexico by Patricia Fent Ross
Made in the Middle Ages by Christine Price
Made in the Renaissance by Christine Price
Made in Thailand by Margaret Ayer
(A delightful statement of a way of life based on aesthetics,
where the everyday struggle to live is made beautiful and
joyous by an appreciation of simple materials and a feeling
of design. This book, as well as others of the series, is
especially recommended for planning observation and
appreciation lessons and for selected reading for upper
elementary children.)

Weiss, Harvey. The Beginning Artist's Library Series. New York:
Young Scott Books.
Books in this series include:
Ceramics: From Clay to Kiln
Crafts: Sticks, Spoons, and Feathers
Drawing: Pencil, Pen, and Brush
Print Making: Paper, Ink, and Roller
Sculpture: Clay, Wood, and Wire
(Presents basic steps in working with materials, at the
same time stimulating desire to explore the material. The
fine illustrations of masterpieces add to the reader's ap-
preciation for good design in expression and craftsman-

Arts and Activities
Craft Horizons
Junior Artist
School Arts


Abstract: A type of art derived from
realism but stripped of most or all de-
tails, leaving only basic essentials by the
use of lines, shapes, colors, and textures.
It also may include art executed without
reference to actual objects.

Aesthetics: (Esthetics) Sensitivity and
emotional involvement in regard to ob-

Analogous colors: Those colors situated
next to each other on the color wheel.

Appliqu6: The application, sewing, or
fastening of one material upon another
for ornamentation.

Architect: A person who designs, plans,
and oversees the construction of buildings.

Architecture: The art or science of build-
ing. A building or structure made by man.

Area: Any flat surface.

Artist: One who works with sensitivity in
the arts such as painting, sculpture,
graphics, ceramics, etc.

Armature: A framework of wire or wood
used inside a piece of sculpture to support
it until the substance of which it is made
hardens or becomes firm.

Arrangement: An orderly design or array
of shapes, lines, or objects.

Assemblage: Creation of art form, collage
*and sculpture, from found objects.

Asymetrical: Having a visual balance not
derived from symmetry. Containing dis-
similar sizes, shapes, colors, etc., on the
opposite sides of an axis or middle line.

Awareness: Sensitive to surroundings.

Background: Those portions or areas of
a composition which are in back of the
primary or dominant subject matter or
design areas.

Balance: Equilibrium established by har-
monious arrangements. The counterpoise
of visual weights of values and shapes in
a design.

Balsa wood: A lightweight wood used for
carving and making models.

Batik: A process of covering certain
areas of cloth with wax in a design before
dipping the fabric into dye. When the wax
is removed by a warm iron, the area cov-
ered by it is exposed, revealing the orig-
inal color of the fabric.

Bisque: Clay hardened by exposure to
high temperature and nonglazed.

Block print: A design cut into any ma-
terial, such as linoleum or wood, for re-
production purposes. Also a product of
this process.

Brayer: A small roller, usually of rubber,
for inking blocks, types, or plates by hand.

Burlap: A coarsely woven textured cloth.

Calligraphy: Beautiful handwriting or

Caricature: A descriptive picture marked
by ridiculous exaggeration or distortion.

Carving: The art or craft of making de-
signs or sculpture by cutting or chiseling.

Center of interest: The part of a compo-
sition first to attract attention.

Ceramics: The term used for the art of
molding, modeling, and baking objects in

Charcoal: A type of pencil or stick, used
for drawing, obtained by imperfect com-
bustion of organic matter, usually wood.

Clay: A natural earthy material, plastic
when wet, that is used for pottery or

Cognitive Symbol: Images of which a
child is already conscious when he starts.

Coil method: A process of making pot-
tery by rolling long, thin, pieces of clay
which are used to build up the sides of
bowls or containers.

Collage: An arrangement of various ma-
terials pasted or fastened to a flat sur-

Complementary colors: Those colors op-
posite each other on the color wheel,
which, when mixed together in equal
amounts, produce a neutral tone.

Composition: The art of combining the
parts of a work to produce a harmonious
whole. The way in which areas of a draw-
ing or painting relate to each other.

Cone: A mixture of clay and glaze with a
predetermined melting point used to time
firings or ceramics in a kiln.

Construction: The three-dimensional ar-
rangement of two or more forms into a
built-up design using wire, wood, or a va-
riety of materials.

Contour: An outline or border creating
the illusion of mass in space.

Contrast: The opposition or unlikeness of
things compared.

Cool colors: Those colors suggesting a
sense of coolness such as green, blue, and

Crafts: The practical applied area of art
involving skill in structuring or handicraft.

Creative: Using imagination to produce
something new out of existing materials.
Having the desire to create.

Crayon-resist: The use of crayon drawing
over which watercolor is applied. The wax
binder in the crayon rejects the watercolor.

Cubism: A post-impressionistic move-
ment in art, originating in France, circa
1904, in which objects in nature are re-
duced to geometric planes, facets, or

passages, often overlapping or transpar-
ent. The subject matter is frequently dif-
ficult or impossible to identify. Picasso
and Braque are credited with originating
the movement.

Design: The arrangement of component
parts which make up a composition or
other work of art. Also, the preliminary
plan for same.

Diorama: A small, scenic representation
with diminutive three-dimensional figures
and landscape objects in front of a painted
backdrap. Often enclosed in a small box,
illuminated, and viewed from a small

Distortion: Deliberate or intuitive altera-
tion by the artist of a natural shape, form,
surface, or space.

Drawing: The act of creating a picture by
means of an arrangement of lines made
with a marking instrument such as a pen-
cil, crayon, charcoal, pen, or brush. Also,
the picture so-created.

Drybrush: A method of painting in which
as little paint as possible is used so the
brush stroke leaves paint on the right
spots of the paper.

Elements of design: Line, form, space,
color, texture. The essentials of all we see.

Embroidery: The art of decorating a fab-
ric, paper, or other pliant material with
raised needlework designs, using colored
or metallic threads and other fibers.

Emphasis: That portion or aspect of a
design or picture in which the most in-
tense expression is found.

Enamel: Prefired glass which is ground
to a powder, applied to metal surfaces,
and retired and fused to the surface by
exposure to extreme heat in a kiln.

Encaustics: The art of painting with col-
ored wax which is fused to the painting
surface by exposure to heat.

Engobe: Variously colored clays which
are thinned to a creamy consistency and
used as a surface decorating slip on ce-
ramic objects.

Evaluation: A review of an action or prod-
uct to find its strengths and to determine
if constructive changes are possible or

Expressionism: A broadly varied term
used to describe those art movements in
which the artists are more concerned with
the expression of emotion than with con-
trolled design or representation.

Finger painting: A painting process in
which a picture is formed by spreading a
special water-soluble paint on a non-
porous paper by means of the fingers,
hands, and forearms.

Firing: The process of submitting clay
work or enamels to extreme heat in a kiln.

Fixative: An alcohol-thinned shellac or
plastic spray which is applied to charcoal,
chalk, or pastel drawing to prevent rub-
bing off.

Flat color: Color which dries with a dull,
nonglossy surface.

Found objects: Literally objects which
have been found, as driftwood, shells,
broken glass, etc.

Foregound: Those portions, areas, or de-
sign elements which occupy the forward
areas in a composition and which com-
prise the primary pictorial or design in-
terest in the composition.

Form: One of the "elements of design"
(apart from color, line, space, and texture)
which is involved with solid masses and
shapes, or their representations.

Free form: Form and shape which do not
conform to specifically defined contours,
amoeboid in nature, nongeometric, and
generally non-representational.

Futurism: An art movement originating in
Italy. It is allied with cubism, but is more
representational in nature. It is explosively
emotional in its effort to express the dy-
namic changes in human living, both in
the present and the projected future.

Genre: Painting in which scenes and ob-
jects of every day life are represented

Geometric: Pertaining to the basic regu-
lar shapes of mathematics, such as tri-
angles, squares, circles, cubes, rectangles,

Gesso: A chalky, white plaster which is
often spread on wooden or masonite pan-
els as a surface for painting.

Gesture drawing: A freely and quickly
sketched drawing expressing deliberate

Glaze: The thin glasslike surface generally
found on pottery. Also, a thin transparent
layer of paint applied over another color
to modify it.

Gothic: Pertaining to the arts and archi-
tecture of medieval Europe, especially the
church architecture of France and Ger-

Graphic art: Painting, drawing, engraving,
and other arts involving the use of lines
or strokes upon a flat surface.

Greenware: Clay objects which have been
air dried, but which have not yet been
fired in a kiln.

Grog: Ceramic material which has been
fired and ground into fine fragments.
Grog may be mixed with moist clay to give
added stability and to lessen shrinkage
during firing.

Grout: A fine plasterlike cement used to
fill in the spaces between the tessera in

Harmony: A state of "visual rightness"
and compatibility between colors or parts
of a design or composition giving an ef-
fect of an aesthetically pleasing whole.

Hatching: A system for building up tones
or shadows by using a series of lines at
various angles (cross-hatching).

Highlight: A spot or area in a drawing or
painting which is of the very lightest value.

Horizon line: A generally horizontal line
in a picture where earth and sky meet.

Hue: That property by means of which we
identify a color by name and distinguish
it from other colors. For example, red,
yellow, and blue are three different hues.

Illustration: A picture designed to eluci-
date and decorate a story, poem, or other

Impressionism: An art movement, essen-
tially realistic, in which the painter at-
tempts to depict the effects of a light as
it is reflected from objects.

Incising: Cutting a design or picture into
a smooth surface such as clay, linoleum,
wood, or soap, etc., using a sharp-pointed

India ink: A black, permanent (non-wash-
able), drawing ink.

Intensity: The brilliance, brightness, or
dullness of a color.

Kiln: An oven (electric, gas, or woodfired)
capable of reaching extremely high heats.
In art, generally used to fire ceramic or
enameled objects.

Kinesthetic: Pertaining to the sense,
which is felt in the large movement of the
joints, muscles, and tendons. Hence, the
free and somewhat unconscious drawing
which is done by broad, rhythmic sweeps
of the arm and hand.

Landscape: A drawing or painting of out-
door scenes.

Layout: The preliminary plan for the ar-
rangement of the parts of a design or

Line: A continuous mark made by a pen-
cil, brush, crayon, etc., forming an ele-
ment of a design as opposed to shading
or color.

Linear design: A design, representational
or abstract, composed of lines without
solid areas of tone or color.

Linoleum: A floor covering composed of
ground cork and resinous binders laid over
a burlap backing. Used in art as a print-
ing medium similar to the wood block.

Local Color: That color which is intrinsic
to the surface of an object.

Loom: A framework or machine for inter-
weaving yarns or threads into a fabric.

Marionette: A doll or puppet having free-
moving joints and suspended from a net-
work of strings by means of which the
operator controls its movement.

Mass: In pictorial work, large areas of
color, texture, or tone. In sculpture, gen-
erally large areas of solid medium as
opposed to the open spaces between or
around them.

Materials: Anything tangible that may be
used in the creation of a two or three-
dimensional work.

Matte: Having a dull or nonglossy but
generally uniformly colored surface.

Medium (media): The paint, clay, pencils,
chalks, or other materials by means of
which the artist expresses his creative
ideas in visual form.

Mobile: A sculptural design with many
parts which move in free but delicately
balanced orbits, in relation to one an-

Modeling: Sculpturing with a soft plastic
material such as clay.

Monochromatic: Having only one color.

Monoprint: A design in inks or other moist
or oily pigments which is intended to be
reproduced only once by being pressed
together with a single sheet of paper.

Montage: A picture composed of many
heterogeneous pieces of other pictures,

printed matter, or textures. The pieces
are glued to a background in overlapping
fashion to create a newly unified design.

Mosaic: A picture composed of many
small separate bits of clay, glass, marble,
paper, etc., which are cemented to a back-

Movement: Art or process of moving; a
quality in a work of art suggesting motion.

Mural: A picture, generally a large one,
designed to decorate a wall.

Naturalistic: Adhering closely to or copy-
ing forms as they appear in nature.

Negative space: The unoccupied but defi-
nitely circumscribed space existing be-
tween and among masses and shapes in a

Neutral colors: Colors which have been
grayed by the addition of their comple-

Nonobjective: Pertaining to a picture or
sculpture which neither derives from nor
proposes to represent an object found in

Opaque: Impervious to light, not trans-

Op Art: Modern art form concerned with
optical effects that stimulate emotional
and physical overreaction on the part of
the viewer.

Overglaze: (1) Coloring which is applied
over ceramic glaze. (2) Thin layers of
transparent paint applied over previously
applied paint to modify it.

Overlap: To extend over and beyond, as
one object extending over another.

Papier mach6: A sculptural medium com-
posed of wet, mashed paper with a paste
binder, the consistency of oatmeal when
wet, but hard and rigid when dry.

Paraffin: An inflammable, easily melted,
wax derived from petroleum. Use as both
a carving and modeling medium.

Pastels: Highly refined and ground pig-
ments pressed into chalklike sticks for

Pattern: The effect produced by the repe-
tition of many small and similar design
motifs on a surface.

Perception: Awareness of surroundings.

Perspective: The art and science of rep-
resenting three-dimensional objects on a
two-dimensional surface by means of a
complex network of straight lines and van-
ishing points.

Pigment: Substance which imparts color
to paints, inks, chalks, crayons, etc.

Plane: A flat surface.


A material capable of being
molded or modeled, such as clay,
or wax.

Pop Art: A visual representation of some-
thing in the commercial world, which in
the rendering has become vulgar in dis-
tortion and scale.

Portrait: A representation of a person,
generally of the face.

Positive space: The occupied space within
an area made by shapes.

Potter's wheel: A mechanism used for
spinning clay pots. A horizontal disk re-
volves on a vertical spindle, turning the
clay as the potter's hands shape the pot.

Pottery: Ware made of clay and fired in
a ceramic kiln.

Precognitive Symbol: Developed through
manipulation of material without pre-
planned subject matter.

Primary colors: Those colors in terms of
which all other colors may be described or
from which all other colors may be evoked
by mixture. In painting, red, yellow, blue
are the primary colors.

Print: A design resulting from the process
of inking the surface of a plate upon which
a design has been incised or built up and
then transferred to paper, cloth, or any
other material.

Printing: The process by means of which
a design, letter, or picture is stamped
upon a paper, cloth, or other surface.

Proportion: The relationship of one part
to another or to the whole.

Puppet: A doll-like figure, created of vari-
ous kinds of materials with jointed limbs,
moved by hand or stick or string.

Realism: The painting tradition (in any
society or time) in which the artist strives
to achieve a naturalistic representation of
the external appearance of his subject

Relief: In sculpture, figures which project
from a background to which they are at-
tached. Cut deeply, they are high relief;
cut in a shallow fashion, they are low relief
or bas-relief; sunken below the surface of
the background, they are intaglio.

Resist: The application of a water-based
paint (tempera or water color) over a
waxed area on a paper surface.

Rhythm: An element of design that es-
tablishes a dynamic relationship and in-
terdependence of parts of the artistic
whole through regular recurrence of ele-
ments of motion.

Rubbings: Are produced by placing paper
over textured surface and rubbed with the
side of a crayon on paper to produce tex-

Sand casting: The process of forming
plaster, molten metal, concrete, etc., in a
mold or depression made in sand.

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