REPORT OF THE
BULLETIN 70E -17
,.o 7 -/2
STATE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
S,; Tallahossee, Florida
_ I LI ~I
THE FIRST ANNUAL
VOCATIONAL, TECHNICAL AND ADULT EDUCATORS' CONFERENCE
State Department of Education
Florida Vocational Association
Florida Adult Education Association
Robert Meyer Hotel
August 4-9, 1968
Y~o. 7~ /
STATE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
Floyd T. Christian
DIVISION OF VOCATIONAL, TECHNICAL AND ADULT EDUCATION
Carl W. Proehl
E, A. Emmelhainz
J. H. Fling, Director
Adult and Veteran Education
C. M. Lawrence, Director
J. R. Barkley, Director
Business and Distributive Education
Frances Champion, Director
T. J. Bailey, Director
C. R. Crumpton, Director
Manpower Development & Training
T. W. Strickland, Director
Technical & Health Occupations
G. W. Neubauer, Director
VOCATIONAL, TECHNICAL AND ADULT EDUCATORS' CONFERENCE
State Department of Education
Kenneth Eaddy, General Conference Chairman
Carl W. Proehl
G. C. Norman
of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education
. Rex Wright Manpower Development
S. G. C. Norman and Training . D
Technical and Health
Don McBride Occupations . D:
. Allie Ferguson Program Services. T
Florida Adult Education Association
L. H. Meeth
Florida Vocational Association
Russell M. Brown
Conference Recorder Rod R. Dugger
The First Annual Vocational, Technical and Adult Educators' Conference was
held in Jacksonville, Florida, August 4-9, 1968.
The Conference Headquarters was in the Robert Meyer Hotel; Sectional Headquarters
were located as follows:
Adult General Education
Business and Distributive Education
Home Economics Education
Manpower Development and Training
Technical and Health Occupations Education
Heart of Jacksonville
Conference theme: "PEOPLE, EDUCATION, BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY -
PARTNERS FOR EXCELLENCE."
Appreciation is expressed for the services and contributions of those who
planned and participated in the Conference, to the recorders of the various
meetings, and to staff personnel and secretaries who assisted in making this
Rod R. Dugger
TABLE OF CONTENTS
GENERAL CONFERENCE PROGRAM
First General Session 1
Second General Session 5
Third General Session 17
Conference Banquet 21
Adult Education 23
Business, Distributive, and Cooperative Education 44
Home Economics Education 64
Industrial Education 73
Manpower Development Training 83
Program Services 88
Technical and Health Occupations Education 93
FLORIDA ADULT EDUCATION ASSOCIATION
Florida Adult Education Association 103
FLORIDA VOCATIONAL ASSOCIATION BUSINESS MEETING
Florida Vocational Association 104
Educational Exhibitors Association 106
General Conference Program
FIRST GENERAL SESSION
Monday, August 5 Presiding Dr. Carl W. Proehl
10:00 A. M. Assistant Commissioner
and Adult Education
The First Annual Vocational, Technical and Adult Educator's Con-
ference was opened with an invocation by James H. Taylor, Jr.,
Venerable Cannon, Episcopal Diocese of Florida. Ish Brant, Super-
intendent of Schools for Duval County, extended a welcome to the
The Honorable Floyd T. Christain, State Commissioner of Education,
greeted the assembly with the following salutory remarks:
"I welcome you and I salute you and I thank you--each and
every one of you--for your devotion, your accomplishments
and your contributions to education in Florida. More and
more, as Florida moves forward in the space age, voca-
tional, technical and adult education plays an ever ex-
panding role in our lives.
Vocational courses are now available for many thousands
of Floridians--youngsters and adults alike--for those
students who will attend college and for those who will
not, for potential drop-outs, and for disadvantaged per-
You have set a most admirable goal of offering training
to at least 55 percent of Florida's youths sometime dur-
ing their school years.
Enrollments in vocational education have risen more than
50 percent in the past five years, with more than 300,000
persons now enrolled in these courses. There has been a
substantial increase in enrollments in adult general edu-
cation--nearly a 20 percent rise in five years and there
are more than 200,000 such students now.
The state has authorized 34 area vocational centers, of
which 24 will be operating in new facilities this fall.
Of the remaining ten, several will be completed prior to
June 30, 1969, and the remainder in the following fiscal
I feel we have made great progress in this field--
especially when you look back and recall that five years
ago there were no vocational centers--as such--in Florida.
The number of programs offered to meet the varied and
changing needs of Florida's economy has been increased.
This economy will have a labor force of 2,750,000 by
1970--about double the national rate of increase during
the past ten years.
However, because of this growth, we must not let our-
selves get trapped--we must expand the facilities.
We must increase the number of course offerings and we
must keep abreast of the needs of industry. Remember,
in our rapidly growing state and in an era of rapidly
expanding technology, tomorrow gets here yesterday.
I mentioned that we have made progress in vocational ed-
ucation. While this progress is evident in many fields,
I think the greatest progress has been made in the way
the public accepts vocational education today, as compared
with yesterday. Once the public looked down upon anyone
who was receiving vocational education. There was a kind
of stigma attached to it.
Today, however, our attitudes have changed and we realize
that not everyone is destined to attend college after com-
pleting high school. Today, the feeling is that it is
just as honorable to earn a living as an automobile me-
chanic or as a TV repairman as it is to be a lawyer or sur-
In the moving world, in a changing society, in a vibrant de-
mocracy, in a forward-looking state, education--more.than
ever before--is the key to victory in life.
I wish you success in all of your sessions and I pledge
to you my continuing support to strengthen, to expand
and to improve vocational, technical and adult education
SELLING THE AMERICAN SYSTEM TO AMERICANS
Dr. Kenneth McFarland "The frame that is the
Guest Lecturer American system must be
General Motors Corporation protected as we deter-
mine how to improve the
The following is an abstract of Dr. McFarland's speech.
Year after year Americans gather in countless conventions of trade
and professional associations. Their chief interest in these
meetings is to get a clear picture of how things stand in their
area of special interest, and to determine how the picture can be
improved. In recent years, however, it is becoming increasingly
clear that Americans must cease their exclusive devotion to their
particular pictures and start paying more attention to the frame
around all the pictures. That frame is the American system itself.
It is becoming startingly clear that if the frame is destroyed,
badly damaged, or simply permitted to deteriorate, then the pictures
are going with it. Personally, I feel it is almost criminal for
important leadership groups to assemble, deliberate and celebrate
for several days, and then adjourn without devoting at lease one
meeting session to the frame. We must face the fact that if the frame
collapses, then all the other things that were studied and discussed
are to no avail.
When I speak of the American system, I always mean two things:
(1) the American economic system of free competitive enterprise, and
(2) the American political system of individual freedom guaranteed by
law. The fact that millions of our citizens neither understand nor
support the system has come about largely through appalling neglect.
We have merely assumed that Americans somehow automatically understand
Americanism because they are born in America. It was assuming too much
that caused the scientist to blow up his laboratory. Similarly in the
realm of social science we are on the verge of catastrophe from too
many apathetic arrogations. The present adult generation in America is
the greatest generation of salesmen the world has ever seen since the
beginning of time; yet we have not bothered to sell either ourselves or
our system to our own youth. We have blithely assumed each generation
would somehow inherit in its bloodstream all the understanding of
America, and affection for it, that our nation's institutions have
honestly earned and deeply deserve. No one needs to make a case for
America, but Americans must be deliberately taught the facts. We have
taken an almost fatal comfort in the old adages which assure us that
the truth is self-evident and can "win out" without our help. In
this case the truth needs help, lots of help; organized and effective
help. Saving the frame itself is now the most urgent challenge facing
all Americans no matter which of the pictures commands their special
The number one threat to the American system in our day is the break-
down of law and order. As rapidly as our population is growing, the
crime rate is increasing seven times faster. We are going to reverse
this disastrous trend or we shall lose our freedom -- first to anarchy
and then to dictatorship. We can no more co-exist with the present
trend of lawlessness than we can co-exist with cancer.
The fact that a person is unskilled or under-priviledged does not give
him a license to break the law. This fact needs to be stressed over
and over again. Nevertheless, people who are succeeding under the
system are less inclined to throw rocks at it. The American system is
designed to provide an adequate income for all who are willing to apply
themselves in the matter of preparing for jobs and the handling of the
jobs well after they get them. One of our big challenges in education
is to insure that this part of the system is made to work. The key word
in the American system is not "security" -- but opportunity. No system
can guarantee that all people will go up the ladder an equal distance,
but our system must give every individual an opportunity to ascend
the ladder to the maximum of his ability and willingness to work.
It is highly appropriate that this conference should have as its
theme, "People, Education and Jobs."
While the mounting wave of crime and disorder constitutes our
number one national'problem, the solution lies largely at the local
level. If we leave everyday law enforcement to our federal government,
the result will be a national police force, and that is just one step
from a gestapo.
It is at the local level that every good American must stand up and
fight. Police must be increased in numbers and in pay, and they must
be fully supported. A life-time career as a law enforcement officer
must be made attractive to citizens of such'high caliber that they will
bring all the needed respect to themselves personally, and to the law
which they represent. "Good citizens" often criticize the way police
handle riots, and completely overlook the basic fact in all riots--
that is, the police are enforcing the law and the rioters are violating
it. We must be done with the idea that the police are "prejudiced,"
when they enforce the law in slum areas or with members of a minority
group. Dean Joseph O'Meara, of the Notre Dame Law School, said it well:
"No man is above the law andno man is beneath it. No man
should be persecuted because of his color and no man should
be protected by it."
Legislation must be passed at all levels of government that will reverse
the calamitous course of pampering the violators and hampering the
police. From our highest court to our lowest we must cast out the
bleeding-heart judges who blame "society" for the infractions of the
Schools must continuously teach respect for law and for law enforcement
officers. We must not be afraid to indoctrinate children in the truths
that must endure if freedom is to prevail. Educators must remember
that Dean O'Meara's statement applies to them as well as all others.
They must under no circumstances become so militant that they exceed
the law as they seek to accomplish their professional goals.
Every parent in America should stand up and say, "As for me and my
house, we shall stand on the side of the law." A successful crusade
of this kind would in itself bring unbelievable improvement within
an incredibly short time. It is not enough for the citizen to be
born in America -- America must be born in him. It is only through
our people grasping the great truth about this magnificent nation
that the frame can be saved and the pictures preserved.
SECOND GENERAL SESSION
Monday, August 5 Presiding Dr. Kenneth Eaddy
2:00 P.M. Director
At the beginning of the second general session, Dr. Carl W. Proehl
was awarded a Certificate of Life Membership in Florida Vocational
Association for his dynamic leadership in making the Annual Vocational,
Technical and Adult Educators' Conference in Florida a reality.
Florida Vocational Association President Russell M. Brown made the pre-
sentation'on behalf of all members of the association.
PROJECTION FOR THE 70'S
Dr. Carl W. Proehl "Human values must be re-
Assistant Commissioner tained in all of our pro.-
Vocational, Technical grams. Indeed, human values
and Adult Education must dominate everything we
Florida State Department of Education do in vocational and adult
"Today is August 5, 1968. In fewer than 17 months, vocational and adult
general education will be launched into the decade of the 70's with
many challenges and countless unanswered questions. It is my purpose
today to look at some of the conditions which give rise to these
challenges, and to explore a few guidelines within which we might frame
possible answers to the most pressing questions.
Much remains to be done before the 70's arrive -- and on time, I
might add. The calendar does not oblige us by slowing down while we
grapple with our educational responsibilities. Instead, the months
move inexorably on. Therefore, we must be ready -- as completely
prepared as we know how -- to meet the challenges of the next decade
in vocational and adult education which already loom on the horizon.
Before we look at the projection for the 70's let us look quickly at
an inventory of the resources at hand with which to prepare for the
uncertainties ahead. We have two principal assets; these are material
things and people. Growing out of these, we have a set of values,
a system of ideals, if you will, which have stood the test of time
and helped us to weather past stresses successfully. Uppermost
among these values and ideals are the dignity, the humaneness, the
compassion of man -- even though our daily lives are heavily pre-
occupied with material things.
Western man has based his life essentially on the acquisition of material
things. Ours has been a materialistic culture, not one of contemplation
and self-denial. We have too often placed our emphasis on things rather
In our efforts to train people to produce things, vocational education
has come to be thought of, primarily, as a skills development program.
It has not really been this alone, however, Vocational educators have
been just as concerned with teaching the values which our society holds
as have teachers of English, history, science, or mathematics. In-
stead of teaching the basic skills of communicating, however, voca-
tional teachers have taught the basic skills involved in securing and
holding a job. They have been teaching applications of the basic commu-
nication skills and adding to these the tools for making people self-
reliant and self-supporting.
Unfortunately, all of us in education have too often tended to think of
a person as a 'thing' to be molded or programmed to produce robot-like
responses. It is almost as if we thought of people as a printing job in
which we put together numerous type characters in a specific combination
to produce an identical response repeated endlessly. Under this concept,
the identity of the student often never materializes and he or she enters
the world of work prepared only to perform.
If you retain just one thought from this conference, I trust that it
will be this: Human values must be retained in all of our programs.
Indeed, human values must dominate everything that we do in vocational
and adult education. We cannot dismiss the importance of the person as
a person. Respect for personal dignity should be uppermost in our minds
as we teach and counsel with students, whether they be of high school
age or adults.
We in America have a life that, on the average, is far superior to that
in any other country in the world. About 75 to 80 percent of this
nation's population eats well, dresses nicely, and lives comfortably.
However the remaining 20 to 25 percent is not so fortunate. This
group--for the most part-- is taking more from society than it is
contributing. Within this segment, we find the illiterate and the
poverty-stricken. Americans gho have not suffered the hardships and
degradation which this disadvantaged group has endured, find it
difficult to understand the unrest, the frustration, and the dissatis-
faction which they demonstrate through aimless violence in the streets
and other rebellious manifestations.
Vocational education can play an important role -- yes, even the vital
role -- in helping culturally and economically handicapped persons
to become responsible citizens, to assume a stable role in the community,
and to realize their desire for personal dignity and stature.
It is not man's nature to destroy that which he himself loves or has
built or acquired. To do so, is to commit economic suicide. But
continued resentment -- distrust -- bitterness -- fatalism -- will
harden and cause man to react in a destructive, defiant manner against
the great society which has all the material things he wants, but
which:he has not been able to secure for himself and his family.
Is it necessarily true that "man is a productof his environment"?
Once that may have been the case, but I do not believe it is
necessarily true today. Vocational and adult education provide oppor-
tunities for young and old alike to improve their economic and social
positions. However, they must be willing to accept personal respon-
sibility for doing what they can to help themselves. They must be
willing to avail themselves of the opportunities provided instead of
securing release for their resentments through vicious acts of defiance.
The root of much of America's trouble, it seems to me, lies in the
failure of its citizens to have as much respect for developing men and
ideas as they have for making and acquiring things. For instance,.when
the first Russian Sputnik reached up into the skies in 1957, our schools
were made the scapegoat for Russia's then terrific achievement. In re-
buking the schools, science, rather than the social sciences, were
taken to task.
Our own value system had determined this nation's production require-
ments: washing machines, home freezers and home work-shop tools had
become more important to the American people than missiles and satel-
lites. Thus, you see, we chose to place the blame upon our schools
rather than upon our judgment and perspective
There can be little doubt that some of the misunderstandings between
segments of our society are caused by lack of communication. We as
vocational and adult educators need to establish effective communica-
tions with those who need our assistance.. If we fail to do this, we
have no way of knowing what their needs are or how the resources at our
command may be used most advantageously. Our examples, our teachings,
our concern, our help will be deciding factors in determining the road
our students take. Granted, this is a tremendous task, an awesome
responsibility, even so, our concentrated efforts and concern for these
people can very well result in this becoming -- as Sir Winston Churchill
put it -- "Our Finest Hour!"
We have the people in America -- over 200 million of them -- who, when
properly prepared, can supply the necessary labor for agriculture,
industry, business and science. We have the human talents in Florida
as well, to meet our future needs adequately.
Florida abounds in natural resources. For example, the Atlantic Ocean,
the Caribbean Sea, and the Gulf of Mexico afford the opportunity to
develop oceanography well beyond the level achieved by any other state.
Florida's mineral resources, rich agricultural land, and unsurpassed
climatic conditions provide unlimited development potential.
Oceanography is a relatively new field of study. Until quite
recently, Florida had done little in the way of research on how to
utilize the ocean floor effectively. This appears to be an exciting
challenge for Florida's schools and colleges, and for state agencies
and private industry as well.
You will recall that over a year ago an announcement was made con-
cerning the Blake Plateau in the Atlantic Ocean off the state's north-
eastern coast. The idea being explored is that the Blake Plateu
might be mined for its abundant supply of minerals. The major problem
appears to be the development of some means for taking those treasures
from their protective cover of water.
Such a venture will provide a rare opportunity for vocational educa-
tion to assist in preparing people to work in this new mining endeavor.
In addition, the processing of minerals from the sea will require many
well-trained technicians and skilled workers. Here, again, vocational
education will be called upon to assist; this time, in solving produc-
But Florida also has outstanding agricultural resources. It may sur-
prise some of you, but six of the fifty richest agricultural counties
in the United States are found in Florida and the average value of
farms in this state is higher than it is in any other state east of
the Rocky Mountains.
Perhaps some of you can recall when one American farm worker produced
enough food for only four persons. In 1950, he produced sufficient
supplies for 15 persons while today he produces enough to feed 40 per-
sons, thanks to vast production improvements.
We can expect agriculture to become an even more productive industry
in the 70's. The number of farms and workers in Florida will continue
to decline as they have for the past several decades. It is reassur-
ing, however, to note that automation and other improved practices will
become a by-word for the farmer, and that total food and fiber produc-
tion will continue to increase each year -- at least during the next de-
Urban and suburban areas of this state are mushrooming with the result
that land utilization problems are growing. There must be adequate
housing for new residents and growing families. New industries, too,
must have areas in which to locate. With six million people, Florida
today is the fastest growing state in the South and the third fastest
growing state in the nation. Only California and Arizona are ahead
of us at the present time. By 1970, Florida will have gained another
one-half million permanent residents, and by 1980 the population is
expected to reach about eight and one-half million. At this rate of
growth, availability of land will continue to be a problem which must
be taken into account.
The resources and challenges I have just mentioned -- oceanography,
agriculture, population growth, and new industries are playing major
roles in an unprecedented explosion in information, communication,
and transportation which we have yet to appreciate, let alone fully
understand. These three things alone will bring people together in
far greater numbers than we can visualize now.
Let's look at the matter of communications for'a moment. Since the
end of World War II, billions of research dollars have been spent
to improve electronic communications. Mobile telephone have been in-
stalled in commercial and private vehicles. We soon will have phon-
avision which will permit calling someone and viewing him on a screen
as he speaks.
Television no longer is limited to cable transmission. Sound and pic-
ture waves are sent from a transmitter to a tower and relayed from
one tower to another. What is even more spectacular is the satellite
system which makes it possible to transmit television programs from
one part of the world to another by utilizing a satellite stationed hun-
dreds of miles above the earth.
However, having achieved the potential for a world-wide communications
system, the very logical question arises, 'Do we have anything to say?'
I trust that with added time and experience more significant use will
be made of communications satellites than was made of Telstar when it
was first launched.
In a column in the New York Herald Tribune celebrating this memorable
event, John Crosby, the noted TV critic, wrote:
The fundamental flaw in this communications miracle is the
same one that has bugged every communications miracle since
they started carving hieroglyphics on stone tablets, what
do you say on it?
All networks were ordered to say something, anything, on
the miracle instrument. CBS combed Europe and came up with
a sausage-eating contest, which was duly sent back via
the miracle ball, although that particular news could have
gone by camelback without `:*ing any of its essence.
As for radios, there reportedly is an average of two radios in each house-
hold in this country. There is a radio in nearly every automobile, and
of course, there is every conceivable type of portable radio receiver
with AM, FM, or short wave bands. Two-way radio communication is not
limited to police and fire departments. We find such equipment in air-
craft, trains, pleasure boats, commercial vessels, and vehicles of
business firms and private individuals.
Newspapers, too, have taken advantage of technological advances. More
and more publishers are replacing flat-bed presses with off-set presses.
When the word is given to 'roll the presses,' the complete newspaper
can be printed, collated, trimmed, and bundled at speeds up to 75,000
copies per hour.
But the jet age is upon us, and we no longer can rely on reading
skills to keep ourselves informed. We are told that throughout the
world about 100,000 journals are published in more than 60 languages,
and that the number doubles every 15 years. While reading may be
preferred, it admittedly is a very slow method of keeping abreast
in this fast-moving world. We must of necessity place greater reliance
on faster media to acquire the information we need.
We in vocational education have a responsibility to train workers to
be a part of this continued growth in communication systems. During
the 70's, we will set a dramatic change in the dissemination of in-
formation, but the question arises as to whether educators will be able
to utilize effectively the wealth of information which will be avail-
able to them. Changes will come so rapidly that man will often be re-
quired to make immediate decisions. How well will he be prepared to
undertake such responsibilities? Only time will tell.
Transportation will also come in for its share of attention during
the 70's. The question is how can we effectively and safely handle the
speeds by which we will transport people and things? We have 120 mile-
per-hour automobiles, but often travel in 25 mile-an-hour speed zones.
We jet to major cities, then spend.time circling airports awaiting
clearance for landing.
Our cities have suddenly discovered that their downtown areas are asphalt
jungles of parking lots, and that skylines are blighted by increasing
numbers of expressway interchanges.
By the end of the 70's, we will be able to drive non-stop -- except for
fuel, food and rest -- from the Atlantic to the Pacific, and from Miami
to the Canadian border by any number of interstate highways. There is
even the probability of monorails expressing passengers from suburban
areas to metropolitan centers as Japan is already doing.
The transportation industry is also looking to vocational education to
assist in training workers for these new and more sophisticated kinds
All these technological advances will have a profound impact on the
labor.force. According to projections of the department of labor,
there will be three million persons employed in Florida in 1970, a
figure more than double the 1960 total.
The majority of those three million people will either be the products
or the dropouts of Florida's public schools. Among them will be highly
educated and highly skilled and the less well educated and the unskilled.
It is noteworthly, I believe, that vocational and adult education have
thus far played a significant role in reducing the size of the latter
groups and helping them to adjust to changing conditions.
A major portion of credit for this accomplishment should be assigned
to adult general educators who have helped educationally-retarded
adults to overcome their deficiencies and other adults to realize their
desire for personal improvement. Nor should we overlook the contribution
which adult general education has made to the lives of our senior
citizens. The Florida State Chamber of Commerce recently released
figures which reveal that one out of every six Floridians is a reci-
pient of social security. However, not all of those senior citizens
have retired completely nor have they resigned themselves to waiting
for the inevitable. Thousands have enrolled in adult general education
courses for personal enrichment and have discovered many new interests
in their declining years.
Up to this point, we have quickly reviewed what vocational and adult
education have done and some of the challenges confronting them. But
we must not permit ourselves to stop thinking, to stop planning, to
stop changing. As we continue to think and to plan for the 70's, the
word change will become increasingly important.
Change has been taking place since the beginning of time. Sometimes,
change has been slow a gradual, orderly process. However, during
the past 68 years, there have been more changes than in all other cen-
turies put together.. In fact, change is now occurring at such an in-
credible rate that it is dangerously outstripping our habits of thinking.
It is said.that 25 percent of all people who have ever lived .are
living now. That the amount of technical information doubles every ten
years, and that 90 percent of all scientists the world has ever known
are alive and at work today. And what changes they have brought about!
We now live in a world which we often do not understand -- a world of
constantly changing patterns.
General Carlos Romulo, President of the University of the Phillipines
and President of the Fourth General Assembly of the United Nations said:
"The role of this generation is to understand the elusive
meaning of the revolutionary changes of our times. .to pass
on our understanding to those who follow us. .It is a mis-
take to ignore the change that is taking place, a greater
error to seek to arrest it, but a fatal blunder to fail to
What we are experiencing today has been called 'accelerating accelera-
tion.' As the accumulation of knowledge accelerates, changes come
faster. As changes come faster, the need for ability to adjust becomes
more urgent. The ability to choose under such conditions requires
sound judgement and unlimited imagination.
The need to adjust is not new whether or not we understand all the
circumstances compelling adjustments. This always has been a part of
the job of living and surviving. Flexibility, I believe, is our
The key words in today's living are change, challenge, and choice.
Change brings challenge and challenge demands choice.
New occasions bring new obligations. New experiences make new demands
and change calls for new attitudes. We must, therefore, become aware
of what those changes mean to us.
There is one change to which we shall have to adjust with a great
deal of flexibility; that change is leisure time. Although leisure
time will become increasingly significant in the years ahead, I fear
we have not given enough serious thought to the significance of ex-
tensive amounts of leisure for many people. It may appear somewhat
strange to be talking about leisure time at a conference which is
greatly concerned with the training of people for work and employment.
Nevertheless, the changes which I have been describing are going
to make for increasing amounts of leisure time in the coming decades
and will influence our emphasis in vocational education. We shall have
to concentrate more upon developing the human qualities in people and
less upon their skills in the production of goods and services.
Even now, with the full impact of technological advance still ahead
of us, less than 40 percent of our population is employed. During
a working life extending from 16 to 65, people will spend less than
one fourth of their total time engaged in work, even though they are
fully employed during the entire period.
And now, let me apply to vocational and adult education some of these
things I have been talking about -- human values, responsible citizen-
ship, change and flexibility.
I believe that Florida's vocational, technical and adult general educa-
tion program is based on sound philosophy.
Current patterns of vocational and adult education are grounded in the
belief that the task of education is to provide programs and instruction
adapted to the abilities and capabilities of students, to build on the
environment in which they live, and to extend and enrich that environ-
ment. These patterns, in turn, are based on the belief that the curri-
culum for the education of any individual incorporated those elements
that promote his growth as a person, as a citizen, and as an employable
unit in our economy. An effective program must be rooted in these be-
liefs and must be based, as well, upon the present and evolving needs
of our rapidly-growing state.
Current patterns of vocational and adult education also assume that
the people of Florida are subject to unique and identifiable environ-
mental influences. The people of this state have unique social and
economic problems in addition to specific resources with which to work.
Consequently, vocational and adult education in Florida must be
characterized by judicious selection of subject matter, an approach to
teaching, and a program of activities based upon experiences, needs
and community institutions at the local level, and upon the customs
of people living in an environment increasingly urban and, to an ever-
increasing extent, closely related to industry.
Current patterns of vocational and adult education are further pre-
dicated on the belief that they are a necessary and integral part of
the total educational process. It follows, therefore, that they must
be articulated and coordinated with other aspects of our educational
endeavors. Implicit in these patterns is the requirement that the
vocational and technical components of the educational spectrum be
identified in 'quality education,' a condition which can no'.longer
apply exclusively to purely academic pursuits.
But one important element in 'quality education' is flexibility which
permits continual adaptation to the changes and requirements of the
work world. It is my belief that we have not sufficiently kept pace
with the needs of our time. We must 'get off dead center.' We must
go beyond the courses we now offer. It is imperative that we seek
and introduce new programs to meet new changes and challenges.
We need to train new technicians and specialists, and to up-date the
skills and technical knowledge of those whose jobs will disappear be-
cause of increased efficiency, automation, and changed economic condi-
tions. We need to provide a kind of continuing education which will lay
the base for a more profitable use of leisure time. We need to provide
a program of education which eliminates both the geographic and financial
barriers to self-sufficiency. In short, we need to provide the kind of
education which will help us deal with the impact of automation on our
The full impact of this new technology of automation has been slow to
register on the American consciousness. To date, instances of techno-
logical unemployment are like the cap of an iceberg. The difficult
of appreciating what is below the cap of the iceberg leads us to believe
that we can sail blithely ahead without changing course. Indeed, the
nation has been assured for years that for every job destroyed by auto-
mation, two new ones are created. This notion has been slow to die.
Because automation and computers have been introduced selectively,
their impact has often been limited to an individual or a single community.
Thus, many educators and public leaders have not been sufficiently
aware that the forces of technology -- automation, computers, laser beams,
and space travel -- are immediate and national in scope and they carry
serious consequences for the economic and social life of the entire
But the computer generation is with us whether or not we realize it.
There were fewer than 1,000 computers in the United States in 1956.
Today, there are well over 30,000, and by 1976 the machine population
is expected to reach 100,000. We are also told that within the last 10
years the typical computer has become 10 times smaller, 100 times
faster, and 1,000 times cheaper to operate. Undoubtedly, these trends
will continue, with the result that the growing impact of the computer
staggers the imagination.
You and I, as leaders in education, must look upon the responsibilities
which these trends portend from a new perspective. We must do this,
first, because society demands it, and, secondly because the changing
world of work itself requires it. Futhermore, if you and I, as
educators and leaders, do not meet this challenge head-on, someone
else will do it for us.
Grant Venn has stated it quite clearly in his book Man, Education,
and Work. He says, 'The need can be met only within the educational
system, and society will insist that the job be done there. Decisions
are going to be made, but whether these decisions will be made by
educators, acting within a consensus that this is a legitimate and
necessary form of education for our time, or by legislators reacting
to societal pressures to get a job done is still an open question. The
history of vocational education should suggest to all educators. .the
importance of a vigorous, imaginative approach to the educational needs
of the technical occupations.'
The ideas and concepts we have discussed have implications for all of
us in education. In the main, the problems facing us are those which
only education can resolve. The late Adlai Stevenson said, 'It is the
educator, not the engineer, not the businessman, not the union official,
not the bureaucrat, who must tell us how to keep our youngsters in
school to prepare them for a productive life.'
The contrast between our scientific and social progress has been
aptly expressed by Dr. Irvin Stewart, a former president of West
Virginia University:' 'My generation has made great success in physical
matters but much less in the far more significant field of humanrelations.
We can',go places faster, but we have no better idea what to do when we
arrive. We can transmit thought more rapidly but we have not improved
the quality of the thought to be transmitted.' This is precisely what
the psychoanalyst Erich Fromm means when he said, 'We have the 'know-how'
but we do not have the 'know-why' nor the 'know what for."
In the resolution of some of the major problems which face this nation
as they relate to automation and technology, it would appear that
education must do three major things:
1. The first approach for educators is to acquaint themselves
fully with the nature and dimensions of the problems created
by automation. Much more study-is required before we know
what the full impact of automation will be. This will require
the best efforts of our economists, our social scientists,
and our business researchers.
In the meantime, we must acquaint people with what we already
know. There can be little hope for smooth social adjustment
to great economic change unless the general public is well
informed of the nature of the situation which exists.
2. The second thing which education can do is to readjust its
approach to vocational and technical education. There is
little purpose in preparing people for jobs which will no
longer exist because of technological change. Jobs which
require little skill, or which are physically or mentally re-
petitive in .nature, will all but disappear. While many people
are without employment, a considerable number of jobs re-
quiring a high level of skill or highly specialized training
remain unfilled. We must speed up the change in our occupa-
tionally-oriented programs in order to correct this imbalance,
and we must up-grade vocational and technical skills across
the entire face of the occupational world.
3. Our educational system must prepare people to live in a
world in which work will not hold the central position it
has held in the past. It will be off to one side contributing
to society, but not dominating it. Concern ,ill have to shift
more to the development of people as human beings and less to
preparing them to become cogs in an economic machine. This,
of course, is a projection for the future -- we have had little
experience with freedom from toil in an economy of abundance,
but the time is almost upon us when we must prepare people for
a wise use of a great deal of leisure time, not work time.
Sir Julian Huxley stated it rather simply when he said, 'Machines
are going to do the jobs now. Man has got to learn to live.'
America's task is to make certain that the human promise of this nation
is not lost in the economic promise of technology; that man does not
become merely a by-product of a technical society. The threat of
technology -- of automation -- does not lie in the apparatus itself --
technology is neutral. The threat lies in ourselves and the way in
which we look at technology, for this determines what we do with it.
We must view technology, not as an end in itself, but as a means to an
end, that end must be determined by man himself. Short of this, we
must concedeto Erich Fromm that while we have the technological 'know-
how,' we do not have the 'know-why' nor the 'know-what-for.' Such a
concession could only lead to the brink of disaster.
Unless we as people, on a local and national level, accept our respon-
sibility for educating in terms of social as well as technical competence,
our lack of vision and perspective could lead only to a state of human
automation. Such automation is suggested by Leonard Wibberly, author
of 'Take Me To Your President,' who writes admirably about the threat
of our qualities as human beings.
I do not doubt for a moment that, within the decade, mankind will
invade the moon. But what concerns me is the kind of man who first
disturbs with his ponderous feet the dust of lunar landscape. Will he
be merely a highly trained calculating machine, putting his trust in
his knowledge of science and mathematics, or will he be, in addition to
this, a rounded human being, skilled in technicalities as he must be, but
conscious of and humble before the great questions of creation, of life's
miracle and death's mystery? Will he take with him a few volumes of
scientific works with which to ward off the black cold of spacial
solitude? Or will he carry with him that love of beauty, which is love
of truth, which is love of God, which is the foundation stone of civil-
Following Dr. Proehl's presentation, the U. S. Naval Air Basic
Training Command, Pensacola, Florida presented the Naval Air Training
Command Flag Pageant consisting of 27 Naval and Marine Aviation
Students. The Pageant was presented to show the history of our Flag
and to instill in us a spirit of National Pride. Ten of the parti-
cipants were dressed in authentic period uniforms depicting impor-
tant eras in our National Growth. Seventeen flags vividly portrayed
significant influences in our country's history.
The 50 piece Naval Air Basic.Training Command Band, under the direction
of Arthur L. Symington, accompanied the Pageant with appropriate
Since its debut in June 1962, the Pageant has gained national acclaim
by performances throughout the United States before an estimated
total audience of nearly two million persons.
THIRD GENERAL SESSION
Tuesday, August 6 Presiding Dr. Carl W. Proehl
PEOPLE, EDUCATION AND BUSINESS & INDUSTRY
The third general session featured three speakers: Mrs, Alice
Widener, Dr. Melvin L. Barlow, and Warren G. Rhodes.
HOW TO HELP YOUTH
Mrs. Alice Widener "Our wrong-way public
Magazine Publisher and school system is ruining
Newspaper Columnist big city life and greatly
injuring family life in
The following are quotations from Mrs. Widener's speech.
"A terrible disservice is being done to our young people today by
intellectual leaders, insurance and banking executives, by govern-
ment and industrial leaders who keep on telling young people they are
destined for poverty and inferiority unless they get a college degree.
Less than a fourth of American youth are graduated from a four-year
college course and earn a degree. Why not train the three fourths so
they can answer the basic employment question, 'What can you do'"?
"The slogan 'every boy and girl should have a college education' is
the main cause of youthful unemployment, juvenile crime and teenage
narcotics addiction. What is the Job Corps? A multi-billion dollar
vocational and technical education program offered to young people
years too late in their young lives. Had they received such education
earlier, they wouldn't be in the Job Corps."
"A major part of the roadblock to the success of Vocational, Technical
and Adult Education is the U. S. press. The necessity for every child
to obtain a college degree is much over stressed and.results in the
international problem of youth, being driven out by a school system
which is not suited to their needs."
"In enacting our child labor laws we have pushed them to the opposite
extreme making it difficult for these youth that need jobs to obtain
them. The great difference in the realistic situation of the world
around the youth of today and what they are being taught in school.
This leaves them totally unprepared for what they encounter when they
"A sound vocational program will solve many of the ills of our
society. Vocational educators must be more aggressive and use every'
means of mass communications to advertise their product, and to build
an acceptable image for vocational education. This job will not be
easy because most editors of the big publications are 'intellectual
snobs' and have very little sympathy for occupational education."
VOCATIONAL EDUCATION: ITS RESPONSIBILITIES TO PEOPLE
AND ITS INTERRELATIONSHIP WITH BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY
Dr. Melvin L. Barlow "The addition of vocational
Professor of Education programs to the curriculum
University of California, Los Angeles is a great democratizer
and Director, Vocational Education for secondary education."
University of California
The following is an abstract from Dr. Barlow's speech.
Vocational education was invented by the American people for their own
good. The words "of the people, by the people, and for the people,"
fit the situation perfectly, because people in this case means self-
sufficient citizens as members of a dynamic labor force.
Vocational education originated as a social institution in response
to a definite social and economic need. Although the idea of elementary
schooling has been pretty well sold and high school education was
catching on rapidly, less than 20 percent of the persons of high school
age were in high school. The dropout problem at that time was the
The addition of vocational programs to the "sterile" and "impractical"
high school curriculum was hailed as a "great democratizer for
secondary education because the subject matter would meet the needs,
interests and objectives of a larger number of students.
During the development of the foundations of vocational education --
from 1906 to 1917 -- a number of principles evolved which show clearly
an intent of developing a vocational program for people, in accord
with the needs of business and industry, compatible with American goals
Among the principles evolved were:
1. The first task of vocational education is that of making good
2. No vocational school (or program) can turn out a finished
journeyman, but it can develop the material out of which a
finished journeyman can be made.
3. Vocational programs should be open to all students.
4. In order to establish vocational education on a firm and lasting
basis, interests of employee and employer must be equally con-
5. Both general and technical education are important as a means
of prevention of the waste of human resources.
Society cannot continue to expend vast sums of money for high schools
and universities and neglect the ninety percent of the students who
go into vocational life improperly prepared, without repudiating the
reasons usually given for having schools of any sort as a public charge.
Education from the cradle to the grave cannot ignore the imperative
necessity of education for work.
THE NEW LABOR FORCE: A CHALLENGE TO INDUSTRY AND EDUCATION
Warren G. Rhodes, Specialist "Groups of individuals at
Educational Relations Operation both ends of the socio-
General Electric Company economic spectrum are test-
ing and probing the values
of institutions and patterns
of life long held sacred."
The following is an abstract of Mr. Rhodes' speech.
One of the big challenges facing business, industry and education today
is the preparation of people for meaningful lives in which the basic
wants are satisfied, not by charity or a dole or governments-guaranteed
income, but rather through productive, challenging and rewarding work.
This year there are more jobs than qualified people and a labor force
that doesn't even remember the 30's or 40's--it is a totally new labor
force spawned in the "baby boom" following World War II, and operating
in a totally new socio-economic environment.
This new generation of working people is much younger, better educated,
and more sophisticated with a whole new approach to the world of work.
Over the next ten years, population experts predict that the percentage
increase in the number of working Americans under 25 will be nearly
twice that in any other age groups.
There will be an increasing number of eligible working people from
minority groups. One out of five of all new entrants into the work
force will be Negro. Another group will include many disadvantaged,
under-educated candidates, principally Negroes and other minorities
from the great urban centers and rural communities. More women,
mostly in the over 45 category, will also be a part of the new genera-
tion working people.
The new generation of working people--the "big middle group"--
represent a major source of largely undeveloped and untapped brain-
power, talents, skills and aptitudes.
Economists generally are predicting continuing economic growth and
higher levels of employment. There will be thousands of job openings
for these people in business, manufacturing, the fast growing services,
trade and finance industries, as well as in government, education, and
non-profit organizations, if they are properly trained.
There is a desperate need to improve, enhance and embrace the work of
guidance counselors. These individuals could do more for students if
the administration would allow them to perform their counseling function,
rather than homeroom, attendance and other routine assignments. There
also is a need for team-counseling (industry-education) in many phases
of vocational-technical education.
Where do the facilities of vocational-technical schools come from? How
do educators update their education? If the college and university
teacher-education programs are not revamped, future instructors must
be recruited from industry.
We in industry recognize that we have some mighty talented individuals
working for us but we also believe that, placed in the educational environ-
ment, these individuals could contribute to the over-all objective of
education and industry. The multiplier factor would be extremely
important to all concerned.
Administrators of vocational and technical institutions would prefer
to recruit from experienced industrial personnel. However, the pro-
fessionalacademic-minded educators sitting on teacher certification
agencies seem to be wedded to out-dated and outmoded certification
standards with no divorce or separation pending. In industry, an
individual is evaluated on his individual contribution to an organiza-
tion, not his certification or pedigree alone.
Only if we conceive our education and development responsibilities in
time with the world of work can we hope to have any chance of develop-
ing trained manpower of the right quality, in the right quantity, and
at the right time. And, only if we fulfill these responsibilities,
will the education and business community play its full and proper
roll in advancing individual opportunity and social progress.
Wednesday, August 7 Master of Ceremonies Dr. Joseph Crenshaw
7:00 P.M. Assistant Commissioner
Curriculum & Instruction
The banquet commenced with an invocation by the Reverend Richard
Roland, Pastor of the Riverside Avenue Christian Church.
Dr. Crenshaw read a telegram received from the Honorable Hubert H.
Humphrey, Vice President of the United States, addressed to Vocational,
Technical and Adult Education of Florida.
"I want to commend you on the fine job you are doing in
the field of education. Only through education can we
eliminate the blight of poverty and dispair in America,
and build the kind of society we want. No task is of
greater priority or will provide us with as great a reward."
The nationally famous Naval Air Training Command Choir from the "Cradle
of Naval Aviation," U. S. Naval Air Station, Pensacola, Florida, pre-
sented a program of light classical choral music. The 40 singing
officers, under the direction of Lt. (JG) David S. Carlson, USNR, are
a volunteer group of Naval Aviation and Marine Aviation flight students
who have been heard and enjoyed by the general public in local concerts
and on radio and television programs throughout the world, just as they
were enjoyed by the banquet participants.
TEN COMMANDMENTS OF HUMAN RELATIONS
James E. Gorman "The history of man goes
Executive Vice President from bondage, to freedom,
Florida Retail Federation to affluency, and back to
The following is an abstract of Mr. Gorman's speech.
The gap between business and education is the most tragic gulf in
American society. We in business can't survive without you, and
we don't believe you can survive without us. We will fail miserably
if we don't begin to live together.
The founders of America never expected that the United States would
be a world power, economically, militarily, or morally--or that the
U. S. would have the most complete educational system the world has
ever seen. However, the ills of American society--the gap between
groups and individuals, and its excessive affluence--will lead to
its decline unless ways are found to improve human relations.
The history of most civilizations has been characterized by a cycle
from bondage to freedom to affluence, and then back to bondage. The
U. S. has reached the stage of affluence and I shudder at the next
step if we follow the process that has been unrelenting in the history
A possible solution to this problem is for all Americans to follow
the."Ten Commandments of Human Relations:"
1. THOU SHALT LOVE PEOPLE--
All other commandments stand or fall on the first one.
2. THOU SHALT DEVELOP THY UNDERSTANDING--
This does not say tolerance, which means to put up with,
but understanding of individuals for what and who they
3. THOU SHALT COMPLIMENT MORE THAN CRITIZE--
To critize is human and often painful--to compliment is devine
and always helpful.
4. THOU SHALT NOT ARGUE--
It is possible to live a useful and successful life without
ever winning an argument but--it is not possible to live such
a life without winning friends, and no one can win both.
5. THOU SHALT NOT GET ANGRY--
The display of uncontrolled anger is a display of a weakness
in character. It can result only in hurt.
6. THOU SHALT BE KIND--
Kindness causes men to give of their substance for the needy.
It causes men to give of themselves that others can find
7. THOU SHALT HAVE A SENSE OF HUMOR--
The tensest moments of history have been eased by a good laugh.
The strength of America is her ability to laugh at herself.
8. THOU SHALT SMILE--
It's easy enough to be pleasant when life goes like a song,
but the man worthwhile is the man with the smile when everything
goes dead wrong.
9. THOU SHALT PRACTICE WHAT THOU PREACHEST--
Hypocrisy is one of man's most despicable failings. Man's greatest
achievement is living up to his own ideals.
10. THOU SHALT GO TO SCHOOL--
America's Judeo-Christian tradition teaches that the Creator
is the source of all wisdom on Man's Relationship with Man.
The devout practice of these teachings is the only source of
Wednesday, August 7
James R. Dorland "The Future of Adult
Associate Executive Secretary Education in America"
National Association Public School
The following is a summary of Mr. Dorland's speech.
The essential question for us to consider today is this: Are the
futures of adult education and America identical, separate or inter-
twined? My remarks are designed not to provide you with ready answers
but to focus on some of the principal problems/challenges facing our
society as a whole and some of-the problems/challenges facing the
field of adult education. It will be up to you to decide what the
interrelation between the two are and what they should be. Let us
first look at four of what I consider to be American society's great
challenges--and in most instances these are also major problem areas.
1. The violence syndrome--how to cope with it. Civil disorders,
racial problems, declining respect for what we have traditionally
called "law and order, and violent challenges to all forms of
authority; all of these things vex us during this 'long, hot
2. Internationalism--living peacefully with other countries. A series
of wars has drained our national resources and sapped our spirit
to the point where many of us are questioning many of the basic
assumptions on which our foreign policy has been built. In a
period of high production and unparalleled technological advancements,
we still haven't learned the fundamental lesson of how one country
can exist peacefully with another while each pursues its own
3. Conservation of physical resources with which America has become
singularly blessed. Pollution of our air, water and soil has
become a national disgrace. Conservation no longer means only
"save the forests,"but it also means save and conserve the very
air we breathe and the water we drink so that future generations--
as well as our own--can enjoy our natural heritage which we describe
(almost euphemisitcally, it seems at times) as "America the beautiful."
4. Maximum utilization of human resources. .Since our greatest resource
is our people, how can we prepare more of them for full-scale
citizenship and how can they continue to lead useful, contributing
lives even after they reach the age from which they are forced to
retire from their regular careers.
The field of education has its own special set of challenges.
Four of them are:
1. Acceptance within education and by society that adult education
is something more than a "junior partner." Because of the
American philosophy that education is essentially for young people,
adult education has long languished in the periphery of the
American education scene. Lack of clarity as to task definition
and role clarification of adult educators, and indistinct iden-
tification as to whether or not adult education is a separate
discipline--these have held back the full-scale acceptance of adult
2. Provincialism or smallness of spirit of many adult educators.
Within the ranks of a struggling field, we have also had these
"in-house" confrontations: adult basic education; general adult ed-
ucation; adult education; vocational-technical education; public
school adult education Community Action Programs; college of
education-extension division; USOE-OEO-Labor-HUD. This doesn't imply
that there is not cooperation between the groups mentioned above,
but there is enough evidence of tensions resulting from these con-
frontations for us to recognize it as an important problem which adult
educators must face.
3. Institutionalism program polarization resistant to change. Because
a particular program was first offered in the public schools or
the churches or on television or in any one institution doesn't
necessarily mean that this is the best place for it to be or that
it should remain there. A lasting answer is seldom found in adult
education or elsewhere, adult educators must be especially sensitive
to changing needs and changing times. There are occasions when a
new institution can accomplish objectives which an older institution
finds outside its reach.
4. Federalism--how to live with uncertainties of programs funded outside
the local community or the state. A decade ago federally-funded
educational programs were a rarity; now they are an accepted way of
life with funds coming from such federal agencies as the Office of
Education, Office of Economic Opportunity, Departments of Labor,
Housing and Urban Development and others. Forward-funding is still
the exception and not the rule, and adult educators have learned to
live with an uncertain level of funding. How to maintain consistency
of program from year to year has become a vexing and a major problem.
Obviously, I have touched upon just a few of the big problems facing our
society and the field of adult education. It seems to me that what
we as adult educators must do above all is ask ourselves this searching
question: Is adult education relevant to our society and the problems
we face? If society and adult education have completely different con-
cerns, then I am afraid we in adult education have missed the boat.
Each of us must assess his own way, but I do have a suggestion or two
for us as a group of adult educators.
Let's think big, act big, and talk big. Let's seek and use power--
legislative power being at the top of the list. I think there is an
analogy between the civil rights movement and the adult education move-
ment; I think both movements are starting to reach a.peak at the same
time. As adult educators, we have a magic moment in a troubledsociety
which we must seize: if every adult educator perceives himself as
a change agent whose primary target is the problems of society as reached
through adult education, we can make a difference. Why can't the
future of America be strongly influenced by adult educators?
Moderator: Dr. William L, Maloy, Assistant Dean
College of Education
Florida State University
Panel: Dr. Merrill Symonds, Dean
Okaloosa-Walton Junior College
John E. Miklos, Conference Coordinator
Florida State University
C. A. Bellum, Local Director
Vocational, Technical and Adult Education
Special guest panelist.were:
Mrs. Connie Newman, Program Analyst
Office of Economic Opportunity
Morris:L. Brown,. Acting Director
U. S. Office of Education
Dr. Maloy addressed himself to the proposition that often those needing
help were the most difficult to approach.
Mrs. Newman recommended that the programs discussed by James Dorland
could be effective in combating the poverty-violence syndrome which
is tormenting the United States at present.
Morris Brown was concerned with the promotion of human relationships
and broadening of friendship throughout the world as well as in the
vocational, technical and adult local community area.
Dr. Symonds spoke on the development of a model society.
John Miklos was concerned with the outlay of federal guidelines,
leadership and evaluation. If county znd state level agencies fail
to play their role in this respect then we can expect programs and
projects to receive more direct federal attention.
.C. A. Bellum urged that more should be done with the funds we already
have. Decisions must be made immediately and all should "get on
with the business of doing both."
John W. Seay, Deputy C omil tjitir, I "Future of Adult Education
Florida State Department of Education in Florida"
The following is a summary of Mr. Seay's. speech.
John Seay spoke on programs and projects as they are now and as they
could be a decade from now if all adult educators in Florida would
combine their efforts to make progress possible. .The following are
quotes from his speech.
"Ten years hence, the concept of 'cradle to grave' or continuous edu-
cation will be almost universally accepted. With constantly increasing
awareness, people are realizing even at this time, that education is
a process which extends throughout life. In 1965, the Federal government
became sufficiently concerned with adult education to pass.legislation
greatly aiding in its improvement. It is not too great an expectation,
in the succeeding few years, for Washington to envision and support the
concept of continuous education. With the acceptance and belief in
this philosophy and the funding in line with the philosophy, many new
vistas will be afforded."
"In its new respectability, the discipline of adult education will join
the cooperative efforts of behavioral scientists and will work in con-
junction with social and biological scientists. Adult education will be
of primary rather than secondary importancerto the federal government
and it will also have become abundantly clear that certain skills and
information become dated and obsolete. The expression 'knowledge gets
old' may have been of crackerbarrel origin, but it recognizes the need
for new teachers and new approaches consequently, we will have more
pressure for adult education for all people."
"As adult education progresses to a more comprehensive role, more
effective organization will be required and more leadership will be
forthcoming. This will be true not only through the hierarchy of
publicly funded systems but because of the assistance of local advisory
councils and perhaps a greater emphasis from organizations such as
NAPSAE and AEA."
"For a moment let me comment upon two ongoing programs in Florida.
The first is the General Education Testing-Program. -Since 1952 we have
witnessed a growth of over 10% annually. There have been 47,411
diplomas awarded with 4,090 issued in 1967 alone. The second program
in this category is the High School Completion Program at the local
level. This program is considered by many adult educators as the back-
bone of publicly funded adult education. .Since its beginning, there
have been 43,074 high school diplomas awarded with 4,338 issued in
"We have small local schools, inadequate pr rams, insufficient materials
and a paucity of visionary administrators. In Florida, we have many
small counties which could benefit by an educational alliance if we could
convince local authorities that there.is small loss in prestige and
great educational advantage throughout school systems by consolidation.
To further the cause of adult education, an additional administrative unit
could be given in cases where certain grouping is accomplished, It has
taken roughly a decade for us to agree to consolidation of schools within
a county and not without trials and tears. Perhaps in 10 years we can
postulate county consolidation in education."
"Ten years from now we will have undergraduate courses of instruction
for adult education teachers. The creation of many new adult schools
and expanding programs will necessitate the employment of full-time adult
education teachers, When the universities are assured of this they.will
offer the required courses. With undergraduate degrees in adult edu-
cation and a full-time adult education job, we can expect-more 'dedicated
teachers than ever before."
"A few years ago our adult education teachers were utilizing pre-adult,
elementary and secondary educational materials, The innately good
adult teachers constructed their own teaching materials for adults since
there was practically nothing produced commercially. At this time,
we have such a great volume available that we have produced a State i.
Department of Education annotated bibliography of printed materials
of adult basic education alone. We are now in the.process of producing
a similar volume of 'hardware' materials such as films, filmstrips,
slides, tapes, and transparencies."
Moderator: Floyd Peters, Director
General Adult Education
Panel: Don Cammaratta, Director
General Adult Education
Richard J. O'Mara, State Supervisor
Florida State Employment Service
Chalmers Murray, Coordinator
Adult and Veteran Education
Emmett Roberts, Director
State Department of Public Welfare
James H. Fling, Director
Adult and Veteran Education
Florida State Department of Education
James Fling reviewed the splendid cooperation which was received from
the State Department of Public Welfare, Florida Employment Service,
Manpower Developmeht Training, State Board of Health, Vocational Re-
habilitation Section, the Governor's Office of Economic Opportunity and
Commission on Aging. He noted with special emphasis the complete cooper-
ation of various programs such as State N.Y.C. (Neighborhood Youth Corp)
programs, Adult Migrant and Seasonal Farm Workers programs, model cities
and Pilot Demonstration Centers.
Chalmers Murray made statements to the effect that adult education in
the future will focus on inter-agency cooperation, a.melding of restric-
tive measures and will involve development in the direction of the older
citizens in Florida.
Don Cammaratta said, 'We in adult education are developing guidelines
whereby there will'be meaningful experiences for the students. In order
to do this we must have the kind of learning processes that society needs
now and know what the needs will bo in the future. In adult education
we must learn to measure adult progress more effectively. It is necessary
to develop effective pre-service and in-service programs for instructors
who are well grounded.in the philosophy and basic premises of adult
Emmett Roberts talked on human resources said welfare nationally
was looking for a new way of meeting the needs of people. The Work
Incentive Program was one such national change. He described the role
that adult education would play in the Work Incentive Program (WIN)
for those who need further education and training before entering
the labor market. He also described how agencies had to pool resources
to serve people and gave the example of Project WORK and what was
then happening in Gainesville in Project CONCERN. Also, he gave state-
wide statistics of the number of recipients in each category of
assistance emphasizing the Aid For Dependent Children (AFDC) Program
which had the greatest need and potentiality for using adult education
services. The majority of AFDC recipients did work; however, many
of their jobs were either seasonal or they were unemployed. Again he
emphasized the need for adult education services to up-grade students
and put them into salable market.
Richard O'Mara said, "If the counselor is truly interested in helping
his counselee and does not play at being a counselor and if he has
respect for and understanding of his counselee then regardless of
the kind of counselee he serves (young or old, black or white), he
will be a good counselor. I do not feel that it is necessary for
counselors to specialize. The counselor must know a great deal about
the world of work and the changes continually taking place. The
counselor is responsible for getting this information to the counselee."
Thursday, August 8
Dr. Lou Meeth, Director "Future of Adult:Education
Adult.Education in the County"
The following is a summary of Dr. Meeth's speech.
Dr. Meeth reported progress and problems.in the counties. He warmly
requested.that the state staff develop special capabilities and compe-
tencies which would be of great benefit.when brought to the counties.
Pinellas Countyhas an effective buying income of 4 million dollars
per square mile. This county also has approximately 1 million annual
visitors. The population of this county spends more than 37 million
dollars a year on traveling and vacations. The vacation months are
June, July, August and September. The older population, 65 years and
over, is very mobile. Of those who spend a month or more on vacation,
80% are 65 and over. This group travels all over the world. They are
interested in languages and culture of the counties to which they will go.
If we are to fill adult teacher slots with well-qualified persons, on
a local level, five things must be accomplished:
1. Provide more adult teacher education courses locally.
2. -Provide time for part-time teachers to attend in-service training
programs, the same as provided for full-time day teachers. The
best teachers are necessary for remedial programs, such as, basic
education and high school completion programs, especially because
these teachers must be exceptionally good teachers to help counter-
act some of the reasons why persons are attending these programs.
3. Treat the part-time adult teachers with the same respect and
consideration as other teachers by making it possible for them to
participate in teacher benefits such as retirement, or Social
Security, leave time for illness, etc.
4. Provide a curriculum coordinator to work with teachers in developing
functional curriculum guides suitable for adults for individual
progression. The courses of study must encompass a good foundation
with essentials of the field or subject studied, with additional
enrichment expansions or extensions. The coordinator must be ex-
perienced in the use of all methods and.techniques in adult edu-
cation and in the use of audio-visual aids, and all other types of
teaching devices in order to help teachers use them.
5. Teachers in adult classes should be provided with every
appropriate teaching aid and device that will assist them in
helping adults learn and change old habits of thought and conduct
in an informal setting and manner.
Adult guidance counselors must be provided in increasing numbers to
work with persons needing basic education and high school completion
Adult counselors should be provided for the elderly, 55 years of age
and over. They should also be provided for the general enrichment and
self-improvement courses and.for community action programs.
Moderator: Ralph Upton, Director
Vocational, Technical and Adult Education
St. Johns County
Panel: Al Grasso, Instructor
Dr. C. R. Crumpton, Director
Manpower Development and Training Program
Florida State Department of Education
Lee Roberts, Director
Florida State Department of Education
W. C. Burdeshaw, Director
Al Grasso compared previous operation of Adult Basic Education (ABE) with
the present ABE programs now receiving federal financial assistance. With
the funds given Duval County, it really did not produce enough. Badly
needed are workshops for pre-service and in-service training.for teachers
which are organized and taught by experienced adult education teachers.
Dr. Crumpton stressed the pleasant relations between Manpower Development
Training (MDTA) and the Adult Education Section. The excellent cooperation
was.responsible for the success of his programs. Dr. Crumpton reviewed
the programs in each Adult Migrant and Seasonal Workers program center
and looked forward to doing it again next year. In working closely
with James H. Fling, Dr. Crumpton spoke of a possible integration
of programs of Adult Basic Education and MDTA for mutual benefits.
W. C. Burdeshaw said adult education must be carried to the people
by providing as many centers as possible.. Individualized instruction
should be provided to allow an adult student to make as rapid an ad-
vancement as he can. Adult teachers and supervisors must love their
work and seek better ways to reach their students in their county.
Lee Roberts discussed possible new accreditation standards. There
was considerable interest in this topic and another meeting was planned.
Lee Roberts reacted favorably to the speech by Dr. Meeth.
Thursday, August 8
Group I Supervision
Group II -Administration
Group III Organization
Group IV Curriculum
Group V Guidance
Group VI Teacher Recruitment & Training
Upon returning to the conference hall, each group reported its findings
for the benefit of the whole section.
Ralph Rosenberg, Corsultant,. Adult Education, Florida State Department
of Education, made the final resume of the group findings'and the
conference in general.
James H. Fling expressed appreciation of all participants and thanked
those who labored to make the conference a success. The participants
stated that they had learned much, made many friends, enjoyed the
conference, and were looking forward to the next one.
Wednesday, August 7
Dr. Eugene A. Todd, Chairman ."Trends in Secondary
Department of Secondary Education Education Which Have
University of Florida Implications For Agricultural
I. School System of the Future: The school system of 1990 will have
these distinguishing characteristics:
A. Education will begin before birth and continue until death.
B.. The home will be the independent study carrel. The community
will be the classroom. The world will be our school district.
C. Learning activities will be decentralized.
D. The focus of learning and teaching.activities will be on
the inquiry process.
E. The administrative process will be decentralized.
F. Professional personnel will work with all kinds of people
in different educational teams.
G. All persons directly affected by educational activities
will participate in the decision-making process.
H. Special programs, as we know them today, will not be in
II. A System of Educational Ideas: A system of educational ideas that
provides for the individualization of instruction permits the
development of a total program for vocational agriculture students.
This system will help achieve acceptance by the professional per-
sonnel and student bodies.
A. .Children.are different.
B. Teachers are different.
C. Continuous progress is the base for upward student movement.
D. Organizing for the individual consists of fluid and flexible
patterns of organization.
E. Teaching and learning activities can take place anywhere
at any time.
F. All participants in the educative process are important and
G. The focus of the instructional program is on ways of knowing
III. Successful Curriculum.Development:
A. A unifying system of educational ideas facilitates successful
curriculum development in a school district. This system
of ideas will help attain the following objectives:
1. Provides the impetus for purposeful change.
2. Permits the measurement and evaluation of decisions as they
relate to the system of ideas.
3. Encourages the decentralization of the decision-making
4. Ensures the proportionate allotment of human and physical
resources to different instructional programs.
5. Eliminates divergent strands in a curriculum.
6. Reduces the opportunity for professional personnel to
be at odds with each other.
7. Mandates the continuity of a total sequential program.
B. A system of ideas will specifically help vocational agriculture
departments for these reasons:
1. Overcomes the isolation of vocational agriculture personnel
2. Easier to justify Vocational Agriculture to a Board of
3. Enhances the Vocational Agriculture program in the community.
VI. Vocational Agriculture Personnel As Agents of Change: Vocational
agriculture personnel can help ensure the development and con-
tinuation of a system of educational ideas by performing as "agents
A. The Change Process:
1. 'The change process is global in nature.
2. The change process is built on commitments.
3. The change process means involvement of people.
4. The change process is relating things to each other.
5. The change process is the continuous acquisition,
evaluation and application of information.
6. The change process requires the mutual sharing of
responsibility and pressure.
B. Conditions Affecting The Organizing of School Districts For
1.- Administrators at all levels consider administration
as the initiation, activation, management, and imple-
mentation of purposeful change.
2. There must be a unifying system of educational ideas
applicable for all schools within a school district.
3. Measurement and evaluation of decisions must be in terms
of the system of ideas.
4. Administrative activities must be dispersed and decen-
tralized down to the level of innovative whenever possible.
5. Educational terms must be used as often as possible to
ensure the utilization of human talent with a school district.
6. Creative conflict must be an inherent characteristic
of a school district organized for purposeful change.
7. School districts must establish an environment in which
the search for truth can flourish from the classroom to
the meeting room of the Board of Education.
8. Professional personnel at all levels must be knowledgeable
about the politics of education and at appropriate times
function as political activists.
9. School districts must permit citizens, parents, and taxpayers
to participate in the decision making process.
10. School districts must be deeply committed to providing
educational opportunities for all students thus maximizing
C. Need Professional Comnittments: Vocational teachers must make
the following professional commitments if they are to function
as "agents of change."
1. Committed to providing opportunities for all students
2. Committed to being all seeing
3. Committed to maintaining professional competencies
4. Committed to establish an environment in which the search
for truth can flourish
5. Committed to perform as administrators
6. Committed to abandoning long-held notion that "we are
vocational agriculture teachers and our students are the only
students with unique needs and we are the only teachers with
7. Committed to being supporters of changes they recommend
8. Committed to helping students develop values that reflect
our democratic heritage
Moderator: C. M. Lawrence, Director
Florida State Department of Education
Panel: Gert Schmidt, President
Florida Tractor Corporation
John D. Stiles, Director
Division of Marketing
Florida State Department of Agriculture
Jim Griffin, Executive Secretary
Florida Nurserymen and Growers Association, Inc.
Cecil Butler, Farmer
Question: What training skills, knowledge and work habits do you want
prospective young men to have when they apply for jobs?
Gert Schmidt: There is a need of salesman, parts people, office
managers; the greatest need in parts operation. The teacher's job is
to determine in what direction a student should go (aptitude). More
emphasis should be placed on manual labor in the future, and training
should continue after employment.
Jim Griffin: 1. Get the students to accept responsibility
2. Follow details
3. Learn to establish and to keep records
4. Learn tq communicate
Question: What kind of job experiences can you offer to in-school
students? What should the school do to supplement the job experiences?
Harold Kastner: -Practical job experience let the students partici-
pate in demonstrations.
Gert Schmidt: Urge agriculture-related industries to employ more
students in supplementary jobs.
Question: Should the school prepare the student for a particular job,
or should unions assume responsibility for training workers, especially
Cecil Butler: Students should not be prepared for a particular job,
but they should be prepared mentally for a job of any kind.
Jim Griffin: Students should secure a basic foundation in order to
be prepared to move in any related job, such as agricultural'economics.
Labor trained by management is lost.
Gert Schmidt: Specific skills enable a person certain jobs. Some
previous experience in a certain job will help to get a similar job
easier than just having a little knowledge in different jobs.
Question: What jobs are open now? What will demand in 5 years be?
John Stiles: According to the United States Department of Agriculture,
the marketing field is wide open. A higher education is needed for
work in the foreign marketing service to sell the products throughout
Gert Schmidt: Farm equipment sales jobs are available. Travel rep-
resentatives are needed now and will be needed later.
Question: What are Agriculture programs doing in occupational training,
and how should they be improved?
Harold Kastner: In marketing, more emphasis should be put on the art
of communication; this is most important.
Gert Schmidt: Not able to offer theory and practical application while
going through learning process.
Jim Griffin: Need the ability to communicate in supervisory jobs.
Personality is going to make or break the opportunity. Bring out in
students the ability to sell themselves.
John Stiles: Agricultural economy should be made alive through demon-
strations and visits to plants. Transportation move the products.
Keep abreast by actual activities.
Cecil Butler: Teach the students that every movement is pushing them
towards adulthood. They are being watched as future employes, supervisors,
community leaders, etc.
Question: To what extent is the agricultural industry willing to
participate in improving the training of future employees?
Gert Schmidt: Dealers would be interested in helping with training process.
Jim Griffin: They will place students while still learning to get
John Stiles: Are willing to establish workshops, also grading score cards.
Cecil Butler: They already work 15,000 children from 12 to 18 years of
Question: Do you feel that the post-high school programs are putting
out a product that the industry can accept and pay adequately?
Gert Schmidt: Too early to say post-high school programs are too new.
Agriculture is number one income 6% directly involved in agriculture.
Build a modern image.
Jim Griffin: Pleased with what he has encountered; adequately paid.
Agriculture in general has a poor image through adverse publicity. Be
on alert, solicit any opportunity where people gather to improve the
image. Create an image that there is dignity in agriculture work!
Cecil Butler: Urged the teachers to give our young men motivation
and vision to the future, and progress will be assured.
John Stiles: In order to produce more, be more economical, give
consideration to marketing just as to producing. Education needed -
first, someone able to think and impress the importance of agricultural
industry. There is a need for a basic course in economics and concepts -
will produce a new vision of agriculture.
Jim Griffin: Agriculture is the backbone of keeping a nation strong.
An understanding student makes a good employee, good citizen. Teach
and motivate students to do good work.
Gert Schmidt: We need more employebsin farm mechanization. It is
a relative need less people operating, more machinery. On-the-job
training in a farm operation is a sore need.
Harold Kastner: Concluded the statements by wishing good luck in
Wednesday, August 7
Group I Curricula for Students with Special Needs
Group II Curricula for Secondary Programs--Basic Course.
Major points emphasized:
A. The classroom instruction should be coordinated with practical
experiences, plants and animals.
B. The first two years should provide for exploratory experiences
to assist students in deciding upon a life vocation.
C. A report was given on a pilot program which involves groups of
8th grade students enrolled in 12-week sessions. They are given
information on the broad field of agriculture and opportunities
offered in this field. They are also briefed on what to expect
if they enroll in vocational agriculture in high school and,
perhaps continue their agriculture education in post high school
Group III Curricula for Secondary Programs--Advanced
A. Master Plans should be implicated and carried out as:
1. Introduction of Course Program
2. -Plan: for the first day of school
3. Plan: for each activity that implicates a skill, are
particular section of the program
4. Make resource material available
B. Programs of advanced curricula for secondary vocational agriculture
carried out by vocational agriculture instructors:
1. Jack Millican, Umatilla High School Program:
a. Basic AG I 2 classes, 1 hour block each
b. Basic AG II 1 class, 1 hour block each
c. Advanced AG III 1 class, 2 hour block each
(a) Student and teacher select cluster.
(b) Student can select more than one cluster.
(c) Student learns to organize, analyze, and
evaluate, and apply information in selected cluster.
S(d) Resources: Reference books, news articles,
bulletins, films and slides, field trips and resource
(e) Experience activities allow for interest; meanwhile
cultivating a desire to develop skillfully.
2. Richard Pape Program:
a. Basic AG I Two hours
b. Basic AG II One hour
c. Advanced AG III One hour:
(1) There are five clusters in Advanced Agriculture:
(c) Sugar cane
(2) Students select clusters of their interest and thus
become responsible for carrying out the practices
relative to that cluster.
(3) A group leader is selected each sixth week period
and presents his program for carrying that particular
cluster, he is also responsible for the group
learning activities and practices as daily records,
cluster experiences, equipment maintenance.
(4) A student may remain in a cluster for a period of two
(5) Evaluations and analysis are made at the end of
each sixth week period by the instructor.
3. Tom Stoutamire Program:
a. Advanced Agriculture Program one block hour.
b. Clusters are changed each year.
c. A student may select one or a combination of clusters
(no more than two).
d. Students who select these clusters may or may not work
with experiences relative to the cluster.
Group IV Curricula for Post High School and Adult Programs
Major points emphasized:
A. Industry needs help.
B. Technically oriented people are needed (in one 9-hole golf course
it took 80,000 feet of electrical wire to operate the automatic
C. We all need: curriculum, students, and then jobs.
D. Schools and industry must work together through Advisory Committees
to work out curriculum problems and job placement.
E. Schools should decide if they want to offer college parallel
or terminal courses.
The group wondered if there should be duplication of courses in different
schools. It was generally conceded that post high school programs should
be narrow and specialized. Supply and demand will determine salary paid.
We all need to publicize our programs. The question'"will industry
pay for qualified employees" was discussed with no concrete answer arrived
The agriculture program at Central Florida Junior College has progressed
in three years. A quarter-million people are needed in mid-management
in agriculture fields in the United States.
It was moved by the group that the State Department of Education set up
some kind of workshop or conference for teachers and administrators who
are primarily interested in post high school education.
Thursday, August 8
Dr. Charles A. Cate "Use of Educational Media
Assistant Professor in Instruction"
University of Florida
I. Areas Covered:
A. Communications (general)
II. Media Used:
A. Overhead Projector
B. Movie Projector:
1. Time lapse photography
3. Actual photography and animation
C. Film very dramatic means of presentation
D. Slides with tape recorder
Mrs. Lucy DuCharme, Coordinator "Use of Instructional Material
EVT, Audio-Visual Materials Centers"
Major points emphasized:
A. Methods of mounting materials
B. Tape recorder
D. 8mm single concept film (use Super 8)
E. Free film service
G. Use of Spirit Master for producing copies of ditto
H. County facilities
Thursday, August 8
Dr. Leon Sims, Director of Planning "Resource and Time Management"
Division of Vocational, Technical
and Adult Education
Florida State Department of Education
The following is a summary of Dr. Sims' speech.
.The most important thing vocational education teachers can do is
to clearly identify their course objectives and to state them in be-
havioral terms so that the students will know what they are expected to
learn, and how well they are expected to learn, and in what specified
time. The teacher should devote more time to the identification of
the behavioral objectives for students so as to insure that the material
to be covered will include the areas of student needs and interests. To
do otherwise, the teacher lessens the effectiveness of the course of
study while at the same time increasing the disinterest of the student.
As an example, "a course objective," which simply states that the course
is to teach a student to weld, is insufficient, because there is no
identification of what type of welding is to be studied or what kinds
of welds will be taught.
Every local vocational education advisory committee should play a role
in determining the course content because the committee members
represent the industries in which the students are being trained to
work. Responsibility for organizing local advisory committee rests
with the local education leadership, In addition to the local advisory
committee, there is also a state-wide advisory committee which represents
the various areas of interests of vocational education.
A Symposium on, "How I Get It Done," followed.
I, Future Farmers of America John Stephens, Teacher, Bushnell
A. Explain what the Future Farmers of America (FFA) is to
students and the opportunities it affords.
B. Use examples of former FFA members.
C. Work very closely with guidance counselor.
D. Be sure that capable officers are elected for the
FFA Chapter Program.
E, Share responsibilities among all members of the chapter,
F. Give constructive and destructive critism or the strong
and weak points of students,
G. Stress dependability and attendance.
H. Construct FFA type mail boxes for members to use at home,
I. Be sure that the chapter has adequate finances.
J. Inform members how the money in the chapter's treasury
K. Motivate members by awarding worthy boys for their
L. Exhibit banners won and record the activity and year awarded.
M. Seek support from school officials and community leaders.
N. After the first two years, give honorary degrees to
O. Use resource people in community.
P, Use the FFA as a showcase for a good Vocational-Agriculture
II, Farm Mechanics Richard Pope, Teacher, Clewiston
A. Each student is teacher's assistant.
B. Each 9th grade student records his shop work and skills
in his notebook.
C. Organize shop class.
D. Shop foreman inventories tools twice per year.
III. Laboratory Practices Darwin Bennett, Teacher, Deland
A, One teacher is responsible for teaching basic agriculture
and other teaching advanced agriculture.
B, Introduce elementary students to farming experiences.
C. Form a good advisory committee and change individuals at
D. 'Make school farm a show place.
IV. Department Filing Jack Russell, Teacher, Auburndale
A. Secure and maintain a good supply of books, reference books,
bulletins, filmstrips, slides, and encyclopedias.
B. Maintain a good working relationship with the librarian.
C. Provide adequate space for storing material and audio visual
D. Mark text books and check periodically.
E. Orient students before they arrive into the program.
F. Number boxes and bulletins and provide students, with a list
showing the name of each bulletin and the number of the box
where it is stored.
V. Office Details T. A. Chocrane, Teacher, Fort Meade
A. Get reports completed and send in on time.
B. Maintain a good relationship with the principal and board
C. Try to provide or secure equipment needed to adequately
get your work done.
D. Try to read current mail daily.
Thursday, August 8
Top honors in the annual Future Farmers of America (FFA) School
Forestry Chapter Award contest were captured this year by the Brooksville
FFA Chapter of Hernando High School.
The St. Regis Paper Company presented the winning chapter a check
for $250.00. The Leon High School FFA Chapter in Tallahassee (Area I)
and Palatka High School FFA Chapter in Putnam County (Area II) each
were awarded $75.00 for placing first in their respective areas.
Announcement of the winners were made at the annual banquet for
agricultural education teachers sponsored by the St. Regis Paper Company,
Florida Power Corporation, Gulf Power Company, Tampa Electric Company
and Florida Power and Light Company.
Judges for this year's contest were Carl Dennis of St. Regis Paper
Company, Ron Jefferies of the Florida State Department of Education, and
A. D. Stanchfield of the Florida Forest Service.
A "Teacher of Teachers Award" was established this year by the Florida
Vocational Agricultural Teachers Association to reward those vocational
agricultural teachers for encouraging their students to enter the
teaching field. Bronz awards will be given to those teachers who have
one or two former students who have taught vocational agriculture
for at least one year; silver awards will be given those who have
three or four former students who have taught vocational agriculture
for one or more years; and golden awards will be given to the teachers
who have five or more former students who have taught vocational
agriculture one or more years.
Recipients of the bronz awards were Ray Arrington,.Plant City;
L. 0. Baldwin, Branford; T. L. Barrineau, Tallahassee; Darwin Bennett,
Deland; Rex Bishop, Miami; J. W. Brown, Sneads; R. A. Campbell, Groveland;
Dwight Ellis, Kathleen; Reed Franz, Largo; Dean Griffin, Lake Placid;
L. W. Harrell, Winter Haven; Paul Hutchins, Starke; W. L. Lawrence, Ocala;
Don Hurst, Bell; L. A. Marshall, Tallahassee; W. R. Miller, Ocala;
Isaac Mitchell, Delray; 0. H. Neal, Leesburg; Noma R. Norman, Pahokee;
G. C. Norman, Tallahassee; F. L. Northrop, Gainesville;.R. B. O'Berry,
Bartow; W. E. Priest, Hawthorne; J. K. Privett, Bartow; 0. Z. Revell,
Tallahassee; E. R. Scott, Madison; 0. T. Stoutamire, Sebring; T. P.
Recipients of the silver awards were Otis Bell, Gainesville; B. G. Cromer,
Miami;,C. A. Platt, Wauchula.
Recipients of the golden awards were Rex F. Toole, Marianna;
C. M. Lawrence, Tallahassee, John A. Lawson, Jr.,.Sanford; W. T. Loften,
Gainesville; John C. Russell, Eustis; Orton E. Yearty, Havana; and
J. B. Green, Tampa.
The Owls Service Club, an organization sponsored' by the Florida Vocational
Agricultural Teachers and comprised of teachers who have taught
agriculture education for ten or more years, honored a number of its
members too. Ten were awarded ten-year service pins and eleven were
awarded twenty-year service pins.
BUSINESS, DISTRIBUTIVE AND COOPERATIVE EDUCATION
Wednesday, August 7
Mrs. Alice Widener "People, Education, and
Magazine and Newspaper Publisher Jobs"
The following is a summary of Mrs. Widener's speech.
If we lose our communication, we are going to lose our civilization.
Communication with one's fellowmen depends on speech and writing.
We are losing both speech and writing in our country.
When students see the need for reading and writing skills, they
love the study of our language. Their whole minds expand; they build
up new cells because it has been proven that when a person learns a
new language that the brain builds space for it. "Are you going to
rescue the English language and give them a basic tool of communicating
with people? Can't American boys and girls be taught the English
William E. Pasewark, Head "Make Your Course Organized
Department of Business Education Not Agonized"
and Secretarial Administration
Texas Technological College
The following is a summary of Dr. Pasewark's speech.
More students enter office occupations after high school than any
other occupational area. Therefore, more emphasis should be placed on
the importance of business-economic education for youth.
The importance of a business-economic education was pointed up in
a survey made by a government task force in 1958. A cross-section study
was made of the United States to determine the major problems facing
the nation. The results revealed that the lack of business-education
graduates was one of the major problems.
Another survey disclosed that other countries in the world were faced
with the same Orbler.
"Enthusiasm" and "hard work" are the two main character traits of a
teacher that will make him successful.
Enthusiasm is a "compulsion to walk the bridge from school to business
with the students." Enthusiasm is like most other character traits
that have to be developed.
"A teacher improves through his ideals, and improves others through
his actions. You can succeed in teaching good manners and good grooming
by action rather than by talking."
Business teachers should become models for students because "character
traits are caught--not taught."
The idea of "hard work" can very well be based on the Boy Scout motto,
"Be Prepared." The business teacher has the hardest, most complete
job of any teacher in a school. "Competent business teachers must be
adequately prepared in English, mathematics, machinery, and equally
as important, the constant changes in the business world."
Business education is the one educational area that is both vocational
and non-vocational. It prepares a portion of the students for careers
in business, and it also teacher non-business minded students about
budgets, typing, and shorthand.
Teachers must teach their business education students about profits.
"For after all, profits are a businessman's favorite subject.
One way to increase profits in an office is to decrease the time,
effort and material to complete a task.
Teaching is "a noble occupation" because it deals with the minds
of youth and the futures of youth. "Therefore, let us be equal to our
Wednesday, August 7
Group I Typing and Shorthand
A student should be able to walk out of a class and feel that he has
participated in at least one successful activity.
Instruction also becomes personalized by proving to yourself (the
teacher) what you are doing with your time in the typing class. Every
minute that students are not typing is time not spent to best use.
Instruction time must be kept to a minimum.
A. Presenting Alphabetic Keyboard:
1. Developmental stages of typing:
a. Proper stroking dictate the alphabet and students
strike keys in concert.
b. Presenting numbers learn by practicing daily drills.
Drill by using dictation. Dictate by using numbers
1-10 and then have students quickly type 1-20.
c. Using relationship between alphabetic keys and numerical
B. Analysis of Errors:
1. Ways of doing so:
a. By using a Diatype Analyser attachment an evaluation device
which pulls paper slowly through the typewriter and shows
incorrect stroking, problems in certain key combinations,
etc., also space bar problems.
C. Standards Standards should be realistic so that majority of
class can attain them. .not 3 minutes without error.
D. Scoring Time Writings Error "count-up" method. For diversion
and to help student who is nervous at beginning of speed test
begin counting from end of writing to beginning for words per
minute. If first two lines or three have most errors, don't count
them in words per minute.
The overhead projector is a good method for testing in shorthand and
Ten things that may be presented, studied, and tested by using overhead
1. Theory presentation
2. Brief form recall
3. Vocabulary builder
8. Dictation Preview
9. Letter Review
In transcription of shorthand:
1. When beginning transcription, review letter styles.
2. Explain to the students just what a mailable letter really is.
3. Transcription record should be kept on each student.
When giving theory test, write longhand word on transparencies--then,
student has only to write shorthand.
Group II Bookkeeping Data Processing
Group III Transcription
Group IV Modular Scheduling
Thursday, August 8
This session was a continuation of group meetings
Thursday, August 8
This session was a continuation of group meetings.
Wednesday, August 7
Guy T. Atkerson "Trends, Innovations, and
State Marketing Manager New Concepts in Marketing
Educational Institutions and Management"
The National Cash Register Company
The following is a summary of Mr. Atkerson's speech.
You represent the biggest and most important business in the world -
Education. Wetoo,are a part of this business. .we spend about
10 million dollars each year training and updating our Marketing per-
sonnel (Sales and Support); another 10 million on Technical Service
Division (Maintenance and Repair).
I. Affluent Society: Gross National Product over 800 billion -
"just figures." This is a dynamic nation in which we live!
It is a land of beauty and wealth! There are amazing changes at
jet speed! Right or wrong we are working toward benefits of a
material way of life! This nation is a land that boasts a cornucopia
of goods and services a standard of living beyond our imagination
three or four decades ago.
A. Who can honestly forecast a customers "wants" for tomorrow?
B. Reasons for buying:
1. Silly millimeter longer
2. Come alive
3. For those who think young
4. Be a sport
5. Our neighbor has one
C. Retail outlook:
1. Population 200 million friendly people 30 million more
people by 1975. .that's friendly
2. Shorter work week more leisure, more recreation and
more time to spend money
3. More and more income after "needs" are satisfied
II. Technological Explosion: More medical research in the last 25 years
than all previous history of mankind! Knowledge doubles every 10
years! Over 50% of all scientists and engineers that ever lived -
are alive today!
Technologies playing an important part today and even more important
part tomorrow in management, marketing and distribution.
Men who eagerly accept our extension of muscles and senses
facing with fear the prospect of being compelled to utilize this
extension of the mind. Don't wring your hands and say it will
replace us all. Don't be concerned about adjustments to an
automated society. Don't ignore and hope it will go away. A
computer is necessary in this growing nation. Tomorrow's
generation automation will be the way of life they will readily
accept the changes which an automated society demands.
III. Retailing: Retailing has undergone changes that no one could
foresee. These changes have affected the profit of every retailer,
regardless of his size and type of business.
1. Let's briefly look back 10 to 15 years ago. Volumes were
lower but net profit was higher. Why? Higher margins,
less expense, smaller investments and less complex merchan-
2. Managers tend to develop net profit by concentrating almost
exclusively on the operating statement that is by the
reduction of expenses and the creation of volume. "How
can I get more sales, how can I reduce and control expenses?"
3. And as I reflect upon it the Business Equipment Companies
marketed their products to retailers with a basic approach.
"Our equipment will help you reduce and control expenses."
4. The retailer was supplied with simple management reports
which usually were created by hand. He used skill, ex-
perience, intuition, instinct, hunches, and ideas, and
with a margin for error.
1. Business conditions have changes:
a. Volumes are greater
b. Merchandising is far more complex
c. Gross margins are tighter
d. Expenses are higher
*e. Investments are greater
f. Competition is keener
g. Profit percentages are much lower
2. The margin of error no longer prevails. .It has become
increasingly more difficult to control the interactions
of the three "M's" (men, merchandise, and money).
Skill, intuition and minimal information are no longer
adequate. Today's management require more information
in order to optimize their profits information that
is detailed, timely, and accurate. Computers answer this
need for information. Large retail businesses are installing
computers; small retail businesses utilize computer centers#
.,.like auto rental pay for mileage.
3. Generally speaking, where we stand today:
a. Computers are used for accounts receivable, accounts
payable and payroll, not as management information -
systems which are aids (not substitutes) for management.
b. In-depth information required for space productivity
and inventory efficiency.
c. The Tomorrow:
(1) On-line cash register devices will be here
soon. However, a staggering amount of groundwork/
education must precede their widespread usage with
the benefits being:
(a) More accurate data input
(b) Automatic computing of taxes
(c) Automatic computing of discounts
(d) Strict enforcement of store policies
(e) Less clerk training
(2) Masses of information merchandise availability
and location, credit information, status of
customer accounts, etc.
(3) Our extension experience with On-line Systems
in banks has proven that gains in customer service
can be dramatic.
IV. Business Equipment Industry:
A. Dynamic growth of the Business Equipment Industry:
1. 1954 1.7 Billion
2. 1963 4.5 Billion
3. 1965 6.1 Billion
4. 1968 11.9 Billion (estimated)
B. NCR Sales Volume:
1. 1945 70 Million
2. 1967 955 Million
3. 1968 Over a Billion
Dr. Donald King, Associate Professor "Trends, Innovations, and
Marketing New Concepts in Marketing
Florida State University and Management"
The following is a summary of Dr. King's speech.
I have been intrigued in recent weeks by a new food and gas store
that opened near my home in Tallahassee. It is operated by the Sing
Oil Company whose headquarters are in Thomasville, Georgia. Recently,
while stopping there for gasoline, the attendant told me that the chain
was owned and operated by a man of humble origin from South Georgia,
and that he had recently turned down an offer of $20 million for half
Now there is nothing new about grocery stores with gasoline pumps
attached. These have been common to the American scene for more than
a half a century, but for the most part they have been found only in
rural areas, or in small towns, or on the extreme periphery of urban
There is nothing new, also, in what is essentially a gasoline station
stocking a few assorted convenience goods.
What is new, or at least new to me, is finding a new modern merchandising
outlet for both groceries and gasoline in an urban location.
I suppose that I really should not find this intriguing, since changing
merchandising patterns to accommodate the automobile shopper is so
common as not to warrant comment. To say that the automobile has changed
shopping habits and merchandising patterns in the U. S. is "Old Hat."
The increased ownership of automobiles, the growth of urban centers,
the burgeoning of the suburbs, the demise of the downtown shopping centers
were early Post World War II phenomena. These effects on merchandising
patterns reached their peak of growth twenty years ago.
Even though it is only a month old, Sing Oil's food and gas store does
not seem to be the last word in 7-11 stores. The December issue of
National Petroleum News describes an outlet in Atlanta that is far more
revolutionary than anything to be found in Tallahassee. It is named
the "Bread Basket" and not only combines the sale of food and gasoline
but does so with the help of electronic gear and automatic machinery.
It may be the world's first drive-in grocery.
How does it work? When driving up to the gasoline pump, one is in
easy reach of an electronic console that lists fifty items of groceries
or other convenience items together with their prices. Opposite each
listing is a button. As the shopper indicates the items she wishes
to purchase by pushing buttons, the sub-total of her purchases appears
on the screen of the console. When finished with her selection, the
shopper pushed the "end of order" button and within seconds the item
is bagged by the attendant and placed in the delivery window of the
small building nearby. The gasoline station attendant need take only a
few steps to obtain the bag and bring it to the shopper's car. He adds
the total of grocery purchases taken from the receipt tape to the
gasoline purchase, charges it to the shopper's gasoline credit card
account, and she drives away with the minimum expenditure of time and
effort. Of course, with motel accommodations, restaurant credit, travel
insurance, etc., being charged to gasoline credit card accounts, adding
groceries is not a revolutionary step.
While this new facility in Atlanta would seem to represent the ultimate
in customer convenience, there are other cost advantages that may make
this outlet a prototype of stores of the future. Not only is this
method of merchandising more convenient to customers, but also, the
cost savings inherent in its operation should be reflected in lower
prices to consumers.
What are these cost savings? The first, and perhaps the most obvious,
are the savings associated with building, fixture, and decoration costs.
Since the building serves mainly a storage function, its cubic capacity
can be more completely utilized. Wide aisles are neither necessary
or desired. Overhead space can be utilized making for more compactness
and thus reducing capital expenditures. Since only the attendant
enters the building, the fixtures are the interior of the small building
can be more functional and less decorative, further reducing the cost.
The building can be described as a small compact warehouse.
Since the merchandise is not displayed in the warehouse, it does not
have to be taken out of its original shipping cartons, which further
reduced handling and costs. No check-out counters or cashiers are necessary.
The customer, by pushing buttons to select purchases, literally acts
as her own check-out cashier. When she pushes the "end of order" button,
the receipt tape with both the name of the item (peanut butter, for
example), and its price and the total price of purchases is printed in-
stantly. This eliminates the need for a cashier. Because prices are
standarized, because there are no merchandising problems such as display,
and since there is no personal contact with customers, there is no need
for a store manager. For these reasons, relatively unskilled and lower
salaried employees can be used.
In concept and in operation this merchandise outlet is not unlike
a vending machine. The exception in this case is that there is a little
man inside the machine (or building) to bag your groceries and another
on the outside at the gasoline island to charge the purchases to your
gasoline credit card account. The convenience and cost savings inherent
in this new merchandising experiment are undeniable. However, at the
moment it seems unlikely that the number of items offered will extend
beyond a few convenience items. The once-a-week shopper still enjoys
the leisurely trek down wide, well-lighted aisles stocked with a large
assortment that allows her to examine, to consider, to compare, and
to change her mind.
For us as observers and students of marketing, there is, I think, a
lesson in this. The lesson is that, under capitalism, the marketer enjoys
a degree of flexibility not found under socialistic forms of government.
Under socialism, the marketer, even though he is faced with the same
basic problems as his counterpart under free enterprise forms of
government, is held back by the ball and chain of bureaucracy. He is
stymied, also, by a doctrine that results in regimentation which, in
turn, stifles initiative and innovation.
By contrast, the marketer in America is free to experiment with new
forms of distribution that more nearly satisfy the needs of his cus-
tomers in,the light of changing technical, social, and cultural
patterns. He is not only free to do so but is spurred on by the profit
motive or the economic doctrine of "survival of the fittest" whichever
most nearly applies.
Thursday, August 8
Dr. Carroll Coakley, Teacher-Educator "Trends, Innovations, and
Distributive Education New Concepts in Distributive
University of Tennessee Teacher Education Program
The following is a outline of Dr. Coakley's speech.
I. Trends and Innovations Which Are Prevelant in Distributive Teacher
A. Micro-Teaching Micro teaching is being utilized by a number
of teacher education institutions. Micro-teaching is video
taping the teaching of a simple concept and then playing it
back for analysis and evaluation, the prospective practice
teacher then re-teaches the concept. Video tape is also
utilized in taping individual presentations in professional
Distributive Education courses.
A city system in Wisconsin in cooperation with the teacher
education program is conducting a pilot study of taping
sales supporting activities and customer-sales person demon-
strations. The tapes are utilized by the teacher coordinator
and preparatory classes to give students a more realistic pic-
ture of what goes on in distribution.
B. Project Training There is a general acceptance of project
training for students in preparatory programs and for programs
where it is impossible to co-op students. This was not true
several years ago. Today we know more about how to structure,
plan and implement projects. Project training is built into
the teacher education curriculum. Students in graduate programs
and workshops over the past several summers have developed
quality projects in all competence areas in levels of learning.
A number of articles on project training have appeared in national
publications. This does not mean, however, that all is well
with project training. It has been reported in one state
where a teacher education program has been operating a pilot
program in project training there was less success this past
school year than year before last. This may be due partially
to a change in project directors.
C. Intensified Laboratory A number of teacher education institu-
tions have developed or are in the process of developing inten-
sified laboratories. These laboratories contain the latest
merchandising and display equipment and instructional materials.
Undergraduates and graduates have the opportunity of using
these facilities to enhance their development and become more
competent in the field. Also, these facilities can be used as
a demonstration center for secondary and post-secondary admin-
istrators who are interested in planning an intensified
laboratory for their school. Local DECA Chapters may be invited
in on occasions to use these facilities.
D. Part of the responsibility of teacher education is not only to
teach on and off campus courses, but to plan and implement in-
service training programs for teacher coordinators such as your-
selves who are on the "firing line in the field. Beginning
in September at the University of Tennessee, we have a half-time
teacher educator who will conduct a series of short programs to
cluster teacher coordinator groups. These will be about presen-
tations of possible two hours with time allowed for coordinators
to discuss some of their problems. The subject areas under con-
sideration are guidance functions; projecting training, DECA
Programs, DE Curriculum and Techniques of coordination. This may
not be an innovation in some states, but it is an innovation in
E. Changes at the National Level- With the changestaking place at the
U. S. Office of Education, distributive education is effected. For
example, as I understand it only a half-time person for distributive
education is available for consultation with all states. Teacher
education institutions will have to accept some of this burden to
make up for this decrease in service. States and local school
systems are not going to receive guidance from the U. S. Office,
they will have to look toward another source for guidance. A
portion of this guidance will come from the leadership of teacher
F. Changing Status of Marketing Curriculum It is a trend for marketing
programs across the nation to place less emphasis on courses which
have a practical value, for example, salesmanship, advertising, and
retailing. This means that in order for undergraduates and teacher
coordinators, who are not certified in the technical area, to obtain
proper courses, technical courses will have to be added to the
teacher education program. This places more responsibility on
the teacher education program. Additional staff will be needed while
there is already a shortage of teacher educators.
G. Departments of Distributive Education Distributive Education in
colleges and universities are more and more becoming separate
departments or have their own identity. One teacher educator cannot
do the total job as administrator, teacher of professional and
technical courses, supervisor of student teachers, and conducting
in-service programs plus the many other jobs of a teacher educator.
Additional staff members are being added to facilitate the total
job of teacher education.
H. Changes in the Traditional Teacher Education Undergraduate Curriculum
In the traditional undergraduate distributive education curriculum
it has been the trend for students coming through the program
to have their basic subjects during their freshman and sophomore
years and then specializing in the marketing and distributive area
their junior and senior year. The professional distributive
education courses would be taken during the last half of the
junior and during the senior year. There is a trend in some teacher
education programs to make provisions for the students to receive
some of their more specialized courses during their freshman and
sophomore years. This is particularly true of students who go through
a post-secondary marketing program and then enter a teacher
education program during their junior year.
II. The Future of Distributive Teacher Education:
A. Recruiting for Teacher Education Programs It is going
to become more and more important in the recruiting
for teacher education that we merchandise distributive
education. Just like a good merchandising manager merchandise
his many products, teacher educators must merchandise distributive
education to high school juniors and seniors, to students who
are already at the university and who should be interested in
seeking a career as distributive teacher coordinators, and
business people that have a degree and who may become interested
in teaching distributive education.
B. Occupational Education in Total Teacher Education In vocational
education, we are going to see more and more occupational education
in total teacher education. This was the trend of the National
Deans' Conference on Vocational Education at the University of
Nebraska just this past June. More and more we are going to
find that the various vocational services at the colleges and
universities will have the responsibility of possible team
teaching and working together in various courses. There appears
to be a duplication in some of the endeavors of which we are
engaged. This does not mean, however, that the services will lose
their identity, but the total teacher education program needs
to be strengthened.
C. Research There needs to be additional research conducted in
distributive education. This research should be research of a
practical nature, it should be research that can be and will be
utilized by distributive education. Teacher education programs
need to be continuously evaluated in order that they can maintain
a high degree of effectiveness.
D. New Courses Distributive Education Teacher Education Programs
should evaluate their present curriculums. Too many of these
curriculums are offered the same course and courses that they
were offering 15 or 20 years ago. This means that we should
take a look at these courses. The undergraduate coming through
the program today may need a course in data processing, this
would be helpful in dealing with business men in the marketing
and distributive area. Another course might be the evaluation
of research. There may be other courses which need to be added,
but this area certainly needs to be evaluated.
E. Guidelines for Distributive Teacher Education It is important
that teacher education institutions develop a long range plan
for distributive teacher education, for example, a five-year
plan. Guidelines for a five-year plan havebeen developed at
the University of Tennessee. These guidelines include 13 points
in the five-year plan. -These guidelines by no means are in-
clusive, they are actually quite skimpy, however, a more detailed
plan will be developed and implemented from these very brief
F. Student Teaching One state is experimenting with an internship
program where the practice teacher will serve as an intern.
In some states this is done on a semester basis and in another
state, apparently it is done on a year's basis, however, during
the year's internship program, the intern possibly might
be interning in a community college or he could be partially
working for a state department of education. This may mean
that actually he would be training for an administrative position
in the future. This program might have advantages particularly
for a teacher coordinator who is interested in moving into a
higher administrative position in distributive education, however,
it may have some problems if we are trying to train as many
teacher coordinators as possible in the most effective way.
John P. Hudson, Director "Trends, Innovations and New
Post-Secondary Development Concepts in Distributive Ed-
American Vocational Association ucation in Post-Secondary and
The following is a summary of Mr. Hudson's speech.
Education must play a greater role in the destiny of our nation. We
talk about vocational education, we talk about its virtues, we talk
about its faults. The sins of vocational education have been sins of
omission rather than sins of commission. What's it all about this
thing that we call vocational education? What makes it unique and why
is it imperative that it must be a vital part of the American educational
It would be presumptious to try to identify all of our distinguishing
characteristics, but let me try to delineate a few in terms of how
the process of vocational education has had an impact on American Ed-
ucation. And let me say in the same breath, that our nation today and
indeed, the entire world, cries out for a massive infusion of the type
of education that you, as vocational educators, have developed.
A. First of all, we believe that education can and should be practical
as well as theoretical. We believe that schools should prepare
students for life, and this includes preparation for work at some
type of job.
B. We believe that education is continuing--it is frequently said that
vocational educators "invented" and institutionalized this idea
50 years ago.
C. We believe that vocational education should be a part of the
community in which it takes place. We pioneered by taking our
students into industrial firms and business enterprises for the
purposes of learning a trade or a skill. We have used the in-
stitutions of our communities, both public and private, to provide
realistic occupational training.
D. Through vocational education we have demonstrated an experimental
process in which learning follows no set mold or pattern. We
have invited new ways of learning. We have made evaluation intrinsic
to the process and the product of vocational education. Without
being told, the student can determine for himself whether or not
he has succeeded or failed.
E. Vocational education has dramatically demonstrated the power of
motivation in action in the teaching-learning process. How many
of you have seen students learn to read, or work with math problems
'because he could, for the first time, see the relationship of
these subject to his occupational proficiency?
F. Through vocational education, we have demonstrated the feasibility
of the American ideal to "educate all-the children of all the people"
at whatever their levels of potential.
G. Vocational education has focused attention on the need for new
concepts and patterns for organizing and administering education.
For example, the area 'school concept has provided a vehicle for
various communities to work together toward common objectives. These
concepts developed by vocational educators through the process of
vocational education, just must not be lost. As professionals, it
is our task to perpetuate these concepts of education--to strengthen,
refine, and expand them in order to reach and affect many more persons.
DIVERSIFIED COOPERATIVE TRAINING
David'E. Graf "The Cooperative Method
Look Magazine's Teacher of the Year of Instruction"
This is an abstract of Mr. Graf's speech.
The minds of men are the targets of communism. The best way to win
people of the world to "your favorite cause" is to first mold the
public opinion of the target nation because public opinion is the position
of the majority of people have about certain issues or a certain issue
at a given time.
The theory of world conquest follows conquest by communication; envelop-
ment by politics, encirclement by economics, and symbolism. The result
of these four points is the eventual overthrow of established governments
and the seizure of political power.
The democracy of this nation cannot survive without a properly educated
citizenry and the school, therefore, has a two-fold responsibility.
It first should provide the student with a basic understanding on the
democratic principles upon.which our nation is based, and of the percepts
of critical thinking. Not only should students be encouraged to avoid
"educational rubbish" and to search for truth, facts and reasons, they
should also leave time to become informed on pertinent issues that be-
set the world about them.
Secondly the school should attempt to provide the student with the basic
academic tools and skills so he may become a self-supporting and con-
tributing member of our society.
"In our community of Sandwich, Illinois, the home, the Church, the school
and industry are the four agencies most directly involved in the ed-
ucation of our youth," "The home, Church, and school have the primary
function of training in moral and ethical values in relationships in the
home and others in the community."
The home, the school and industry have the primary responsibility of
providing specific, related skill training in relevant subject matter.
These four institutions should reinforce each other, but none should
attempt to perform the primary function of the other.
For the most part, the work in vocational and industrial education gets
done because people do cooperate and do communicate with one another.
Educators should not become provincial in thinking, rather, "Examine
how the content and caliber of your teaching may have an effect on
the minds of men, throughout the world." Education should prepare
for a life that has more than just continuity, because "work is the
catalyst that projects people into society."
Wednesday, August 7
Dr. Virginia Burt, Vocational Studies Assistant, Florida State Department
of Education, explained Behavioral Objectives as developed in the
summer workshop. this was followed by a short Cooperative Education Clubs
meeting in which Jack McClellan, Supervisor, Diversified Programs,
Florida State Department of Education, introduced the new State Club
Advisor. The remainder of the time was given over to the Coordinator
Association for their meeting in which they raised the dues to $3.00,
Thursday, August 8
Sam Lamar, Supervisor, Child Labor, Florida Industrial Commission,
gave a report on recent changes in the child labor laws and answered
questions which the group had.
Rod R. Dugger, Occupational Information Specialist, Florida State
Department of Education, talked to the group about materials and sources
of information available to the coordinators. He also related to the
group the necessity for contacting various publishing concerns and others
for filling bits of information that will be helpful in the classroom
During the later part of the morning Bob Hancock, Consultant, Research
Coordinating Unit, Florida State Department of Education, gave an
informal talk on publicity and how to go about getting it. Format
in news items and timing was stressed in his talk. An informative ques-
tion and answer period followed.
Thursday, August 8
A panel composed of three summer workshop participants gave their
views on Behavioral Objects. Following this discussion new coordinators
were oriented on state reports, and a copy of the new curriculum guide
was passed out. An informal discussion on the club program was held.
The group was advised of the district advisors decision to raise club
dues to three dollars.
JUNIOR HIGH WORK EXPERIENCE
Wednesday, August 7
The objective of the first general session was to present an overview
of future meetings for Junior High Work Experience coordinators. The
intent of this session was to show the relationship between previous
overall sessions and future sessions.
Wednesday, August 7
At the second general session Dr. Kenneth Eaddy prepared a presentation
explaining, "Behavioral Objectives and their relationship to Program
Evaluation." This was done in an effort to update Junior High Work
Experience coordinators on progress being made in the evaluation of
Junior High Work Experience programs.
Thursday, August 8
Representatives from the Florida State Employment Service, Jerry Conn,
Bill Sutherland, Richard O'Mara, Jerry Riedel, and Mrs. Elizabeth
Pamplin, discussed "The Testing Program in the Employment Services."
After the discussion this group worked with the coordinators in the
areas of administering and interpreting the General Aptitude Test Battery.
Thursday, August 8
The fourth general session continued the conference theme by having
round table discussions on the topics of people, education and work.
A. Methods in Identification of Students (People)
B. Meeting Subject Requirements (Education):
1. Provide programmed learning (LaFollett, etc.).
2. Provide basic education in relation to interests
3. Waive subject requirements with permission of principal,
i.e., physical education, etc.
4. Place students in regular classes when they are able
to function in them.
5. Place students in special classes which provide instructions
to meet needs (i.e, remedial reading, mathematical concepts).
6. Coordinator should assume counseling role and not depend
totally on school counselors.
7. Help students apply basic education subjects to their shop
or work-experience tasks.
8. Drop "paper work" and give priority to students with problems.
9. Help principals to understand the purpose and operational
plans of the program.
10. Mathematics and English should be required.
11. Recommend each student spend at least four class periods
12. Be sure your program is structured so that he will receive
regular credits necessary for high school.
13. Keep students in regular academic subjects until they are
placed on the job.
14. Utilize all research facilities (library, audio-visual aids,
suggestions or facilities of other departments).
15. Meet state subject requirements (math, English, physical education).
16. Program should vary with achievement of individuals.
17. Two credits may be earned for "work experience" program.
C. Areas of Employment (Work):
1. Chair stores
2. Grocery stores
3. Service stations
4. Convalescent homes
8. Hardware stores
12. Funeral homes
13. Upholstery shops
14. Lawnmower shops
15. Tire shops
16. Used car lots
17. Veterinarian clinics
18. Department stores
19. Carpentry shops
21. Drug stores
22. Poodle grooming
Swimming pool maintenance
Building and office maintenance
Western Union offices
HOME ECONOMICS EDUCATION
Wednesday, August 7
Dr. Elizabeth Simpson, Acting Chairman "Recent Trends in Program
Department of Vocational-Technical Education Development"
College of Education
University of Illinois
The following is a summary of Dr. Simpson's speech.
In home economics, we are facing our greatest challenge, that of
responding to the needs apparent in the social problems and ills of
our time. Courage and imagination are needed in developing programs
for the present and foreseeable future; for interpreting programs and
needs in demanding funds and facilities to carry them out; and for
curriculum development at all levels and for all aspects of the program.
The three major purposes of home economics at the secondary level are:
(1) education for homemaking and family life; (2) education for
employment in occupations involving home economics knowledge and skills;
(3) pre-professional education.
At the junior high level, the home economics program will receive in-
creased attention as the concept of pre-vocational education as a facet
of vocational education gains acceptance.
In adult education, our chief challenge is the plight of the poor and
their needs which are consumer education, nutrition, improvement of
home environment, child care and guidance, and management of resources.
Directions of program offerings should be viewed in terms of the
following six major bases for curriculum divisions: (1) conditions
of society and related needs; (2) needs of students; (3) needs related
to local situation; (4) content and organization of the subject fields;
(5) development in the educational field; (6) philosophical basis.
The following is a criteria for program development:
A. Emphasize human relations in both family and employment situations;
principles of management, including decision making, goals, values,
standards, and the nature and use of resources; budgeting and con-
sumer education; the physical well being through nutrition, adequate
housing, sanitation and safety; personal qualities related to
employment; and child care and guidance.
B. Give attention to the various roles in which individuals function
and help students to meet the sometimes conflicting demands of these
William E. George, Director "Personal Development and
Educational Personnel Development Performance Assessment"
Florida State Department of Education
The following is a summary of Mr. George's speech.
Transparencies were used to illustrate and explain the Education
Professions Development Act and its implementation. The legislative
intent of the act was identified as:
A. To fill positions with qualified teachers and raise salaries
B. The use of the Educational Improvement Funds for the development
of skills and updating of knowledge
The legal requirements of the act and the implementations are:
A. Staff Development as the Focal Point:
1. Staff development activities must focus on specific
2. Must be well organized
3. Must evaluate effectiveness
B. Types of Staff Development:
1. Skills and knowledge basic to effective teaching:
a. Classroom management
b. Questions requiring varied levels of cognitive response
c. Stating objectives in behavioral terms
d. Techniques of assessing student growth and development
2. Exploratory and Miscellaneous:
a. Structured visits to other classes and schools
b. Conferences and conventions
c. Sensitivity training
d. Individual research
e. Free reading and study
Wednesday, August 7
Group I Secondary Program Teachers
Dr. James Walters, Professor "Child Development"
Department of Home & Family Life
Florida State University
The following is a summary of Dr. Walter's speech.
There is a great gap between our scientific knowledge and management
of our lives. The major anxieties of youth are the need for social
acceptance and a positive self concept. Television does have deleterious
effect on children, especially forming of prejudices. There is a need
for teaching sensitivity and can be done by asking students why people
or a person behaves in a certain manner.
Several recommended resources for teaching family life are: A film -
Parent to Child About Sex, by The National Council of Churches; a book -
Why Wait Till Marriage, by Evelyn Duval; Curriculum Guides In Child
Development from Anahiem, California (New York and Ohio).
Group II Adult Program Teachers
Mrs. Gladys Hutchinson gave an illustrated talk on ways to determine
community needs as a means of program planning.
A copy of a community survey and articles from current magazines and
newspapers were displayed. These provided data and information which
have implication for curriculum planning in Home Economics.
Miss Allie Ferguson requested that teachers present their problems
and specific needs to assist in planning for the future.
Mrs. Kathleen Funderburk presented an illustrated explanation of Bloom's
Taxonomy of Educational Objectives.
Group III Occupational Home Economics Teachers
Mrs. Ava Gray, Assistant Professor "Program Planning"
University of Arkansas
The following is a summary of Mrs. Gray's speech.
Teachers involved in gainful employment planning and instruction offer
a challenge by their eagerness and enthusiasm.
An individual is a dynamic organism who finds means to meet biological
needs and then value them. The view of the environment determines amount
of adjustment to be made. A student uses this in the classroom. A
flexible student uses creativity in adapting to situations. Motivation
is caused by using the promise of a reward. Interest in learning is
brought about by motivation. Reinforcement techniques are important
in teaching a child development. A child learns what he is thinking,
feeling and doing. He must see a necessity for change and a weakness
in the previous learning experience before a change is made. Student
satisfaction is essentially
Practice and appropriate materials must be present to learn. Success
comes from the ability to do. Some students are stimulated by objectives
but most need reinforcement. They need sequential practice of a new
activity. Guidance is needed to set standards. Inspiration is needed
to raise sights. A student needs ways to judge her performance when she is
away from the teacher.
Factors that determine happiness and performance at work are:
A. Attitudes about work
B. Relationships at work
Factors that affect learning are:
A. School goals
B. Peer groups
C. Personality of people
E. Small group of friends or work group (family and small group of
friends being the most powerful forces in changing attitudes,
values and practices)
Many roles of a woman must be emphasized, explained and understood.
New roles develop every day. Human relations must be emphasized.
There must be constant evaluation in order to keep the program up to date.
Vocational guidance must go along with occupational courses.
Thursday, August 8
Group I Secondary Program Teachers
Dr. Harold E. Schendel, Professor "How To Teach Nutrition
School of Home Economics
Florida State University
The following is.a summary of Dr. Schendel's speech.
The environment for teaching nutrition effectively is one where a
Christian concern for people enables the individual to achieve his
full potential. To teach nutrition effectively we must be willing
to pay the price of:
A. Keeping up to date
B. Being willing to change where needed
C. Being willing to be genuinely interested in our students
To keep up to date one should audit fundamental courses in biology
and chemistry every five years, take nutrition courses, and read the
current research literature, and be familiar with new textbooks in the
field. The key to becoming an effective teacher is to be motivated, to
determine the proper direction of our action, and then discipline our-
selves to implement change.
Important facts about nutrition today:
A. The rise of food faddism is alarming
B. Malnutrition kills more people than all diseases combined
C. Two thirds of all preschool children have protein malnutrition
D. Heart disease is generally a product of malnutrition
E. Surveys show repeatedly that the short supply nutrients are calcium,
iron, Vitamin C and often protein
Dr. George Fersh, Associate Director "Energizing the Economics
Joint Council on Economic Education in Home Economics"
New York, New York
The following is a summary of Dr. Fersh's speech.
Economics is a basic part of our lives--the balancing of limited
resources with unlimited wants. Our resources are natural, human, or
man-made. We must decide on priorities to reconcile these resources
with our wants and needs.
The American economic system trusts people with decisions. Teachers
should educate to make wise choices in the market place. Economic
decisions are complex and have a decisive impact of family decisions
(i.e. size of family, length of life, employment, use of leisure
time). The emphasis on "bigness" makes the individual feel helpless.
Our American system is unbalanced between personal and social service--
spending on television sets is up while library budgets are down;
disposals are up while sewage systems have declined.
Our society hinges on decisions in the market place--debt will cause
the collapse of our economy.
I. Why Emphasize Economics in Home Economics
A. Capitalizing on the self interest of the students, motivation
for the study of economics should be relatively easy.
B. Many young people are victims of poverty and need our help
in managing new households to get the greatest return on
C. We reach many of the non-college youth who are not electing
social studies courses.
II. As We Include Economics In Our Home Economics Curriculum, We Should
Focus On Economic Activity
A. The earning, spending, saving of income and use of government
services for meeting needs.
B. We should encourage development of personal and social economic
goals (personal: security, fulfillment, social, social security,
pensions, minimum wages, workman's compensation, economic
C. We should teach the structure of our market centered economy;
supply and determine the choices to be made; there is a flow
of goods and services from productors through wages to products;
and that government regulates trade through anti-trust and
D. We should make our students aware of the basic principles of
1. The opportunity of using resources measured against cost
2. The factors of production (natural, human and capital
3. Comparative advantage (exchange what you do best for what
someone else does better).
4. Diminishing return (when output does not match satisfaction).
5. Our economic institutions (households, stores, retailers,
III. Techniques For Energizing The Curriculum
A. An exciting library
B. Resource people
C. Field trips
D. Role-playing and dramatization
E. In-depth study of a problem
F. Playing games with "money" to visualize the flow in our economy
G. Building model to illustrate a principle of flow of money
H. Community surveys
Our goal should be developing within the students a comprehension of the
cause and effect relationships in our economy--an awareness of the
"ripples" that come from personal decisions in economics.
Group II Adult Program Teachers
Mrs. Evelyn Lewis distributed job analysis sheets. She discussed and
clarified the necessity for determining personal qualifications and
specific skills necessary to perform satisfactorily on- the.job.
Mrs. Ann Aletti explained details of the Alteration Program. A chart
showing ccnronalities in the sewing occupations was shown.
Group III Occupational Program Teachers
Mrs. Ava Gray continued her talk in this group, concerning the use of
A. Thumb through guide when it first arrives
B. Study table of contents and appendix
C. Read and re-read suggestions
Conceptual framework used in developing guides. Reasons:
A. Concept idea used in 1964 national curriculum development
B. Easy for human mind to follow concepts
C. Consistent with other guides developed in other areas
Keep a list of questions students ask. Write on the board each day--
Objective for today' Allow time for summary at end of class period.
Help students to become good test-takers. Don't try to measure something
that hasn't been taught. Use a list of things covered in class as a
total source of test questions.
Strengths of home economics:
A. Future Homemakers of America
B. Home visits
C. Lab experiences
The home economics room may be the best "home" some of the students have
ever had. Remember this in keeping the department area attractive.
Thursday, August 8
Mrs. Carolyn Girtman, Executive Secretary "FHA A Challenge, A Tool,
Future Homemakers of America A Joy!"
Florida State Department of Education
The following is a summary of Mrs. Girtman's speech.
Future Homemakers of America is an organization for girls and boys
enrolled in home economics or who have been in home economics. It is
required that each vocational department have a chapter. The local
advisor is the key to Future Homemakers of America as an organization.
Other teachers in the department should be involved in the chapter. One
advisor is designated in each school for mailing purposes.
Serendipities for advisors:
A. Extending influence of our profession
B. Recruitment opportunity
C. Fellowship with other chapters and advisors
D. Opportunities for tours
E. Opportunity to become district advisor
F. Opportunity for national officer
To put new vigor into Future Homemakers of America:
A. Devise innovative projects
B. Provide more exposure to specialists (career people)
C. Get involved with the disadvantaged
Lee Roberts, Director "Accreditation Standards"
Florida State Department of Education
The following is a summary of Mr. Robert's speech.
Traditionally, Accreditation Standards have measured status items -
things. In 1963, we started to accredit program, not things.
We are trying to emphasize measurement at levels where we can evaluate
the product. One third of the items on previous document measured
quality. Today, we are aiming at having one-half measure quality.
A. Reasons for Accreditation:
1. School improvement
3. Determines compliance with minimum criteria
B. Three Levels of Standard:
1. Level 1 Bare essentials
2. Level 2 Desirables
3. Level 3 Best we can describe and measure
C. A school must meet at a percentage of each level. Five major
divisions of this document:
1. School district
4. Junior High
5. Senior High
D. Central theme of new standards:
1. To measure performances in terms of the objectives of both
student and teacher.
2. By a team comprised or principals, state department staff.
We are trying to stimulate thought and get people involved.
E. Instructional Objectives:
1. What will students be doing?
2. Under what conditions?
3. How do you recognize success?
F. Accreditation is an instrument success or failure depends on
use. It should help us communicate our needs, as well as show
our students where they are going.
G. Behavior we are trying to measure this. Behavior is the way in
which individuals think-feel-act.
H. Cognitive domain in grades 7-12, we have covered very few levels.
I. Affective domain difficult area to get into we have neglected
in school system.
J. Action domain:
1. In school observable
2. Outside school nonobservable
Miss Frances Champion, Director of Home Economics Section Florida State
Department of Education, followed by giving the plans for the ensuing
year and dates of state meetings scheduled were given for the 1968-69
school year which have significance for home economics teachers.
Tuesday, August 6
Joint Breakfast Business Meeting of Iota Lambda Sigma
The meeting was chaired by Vice President E. B. Heiny, Area Supervisor,
Industrial Education, Florida State Department of Education, in the
absence of President Joe Mills, Assistant Superintendent, Vocational,
Technical and Adult Education, Pinellas County.
The Program included a presentation on National activities by Stuart
Van Voorhees, President of the National Iota Lambda Sigma Fraternity;
and on formation and activities of the Field Chapter by Dan Snider,
President of recently formed Field Chapter of Alpha Delta (Tampa Bay Area).
The possibility of forming a Field Chapter for the Orlando, Brevard,
Daytona Beach Area was discussed.
The following officers were elected for 1968-69:
President C. A. Bellum, Director, Vocational, Technical and Adult
Education, Sarasota; Vice-President Sid Hoofman, County Supervisor,
Industrial and Technical Education, Orlando; Secretary-Treasurer James
Humberstone (Re-elected), Instructor, Dixie Hollins High School,
Tuesday, August 6
Business Meeting of the Industrial Education Association of Florida
The following officers were elected for 1968-69:
President Fred C. Murray, Miami; Vice-President Arthur G. Hilton,
Jacksonville; and Secretary-Treasurer Mrs. Maxine Siciliano,
Named to the Executive Board were:
Arthur Brekhus, Sarasota; Wilson Gatlin, Riveria Beach; Manual T.
Demetrelis, Tallahassee; and W. R. Hawthorne, Ormond Beach.
The Association established four $100.00 annual scholarships for the
purpose of aiding vocational students to attend area vocational-technical
Wednesday, August 7
Thurman J. Bailey, Director "Industrial Education:
Industrial Education Where Are We Going?"
Florida State Department of Education
The following is a summary of Mr. Bailey's speech.
The operation of quality vocational programs is a necessity.
Educators should develop a plan for education designed to realistically
meet the needs of all members of society.
Major points emphasized:
A. The historical development of vocational education
B. Changed called for by the increased speed of today's industrial
C-. Factors which hinder change
D. Need for effective change in the values attached to different types
of educational attainment
E. Need for educators and the general public to share responsibility
to affect change
F. Industrial need far outstrips worker supply
G. Value of operating "quality" vocational programs, to reinforce.
public appreciation for occupational education
H. Monies spend on vocational education still far short of need
John R. Sojat, Consultant "Cluster Approach"
Florida State Department of Education
Major points emphasized in Mr. Sojat's speech were:
A. Description of the research behind the cluster program
B. Course content of the three approved cluster programs
C. Cluster approach as one possible solution to industrial education
needs of less populated areas
D. Importance of finding a qualified instructor
E. Desirability of operating in conjunction with a "Joint School-
E. S. Douglas, Director
Vocational, Technical and Adult Education
The major points emphasized in Mr. Douglas' speech were:
Importance of Emergency Training in the
Methods used in setting up a program
Existing programs discussed
Results derived from the programs cited
E. B. Heiny, Supervisor
Florida State Department of Education
The major points emphasized in Mr. Heiny's speech were:
A. Advantages and disadvantages of traditional programing
B. Advantages and disadvantages of flexible scheduling
C. Description of currently approved schedules
D. Importance of fitting schedules to programs, not programs to
Ernest Upthegrove, Assistant Director
High School Vocational and Technical Education
The major points emphasized in Mr. Upthegrove's speech were:
A. Meeting the needs of more students through new programs
B. Explanation of the Dade County Diversified Mechanics Program
C. Characteristics of students taking Diversified Mechanics
D. Advantages of having Diversified Mechanics
E. Noted success of current programs
David A. Brown, Supervisor "Joint School-Industry
Industrial Education Programs"
The major points emphasized in Mr. Brown's speech were:
A. Description of the Duval County Joint School-Industry Program
B. How industry and students both respond very favorably to program
C. Ability of current programs to serve more students
D. Schools able to work more realistically with industry
E. Projection for future expansion
Wednesday, August 7
Group meetings were begun and were continued through the Thursday morning
session. A summary of the two sessions is reported under the Thursday
Thursday, August 8
Group I Special Programs for the Educationally Disadvantaged
Major points emphasized:
A. Comparison made of various special needs programs operating in the
state. Advantages as well as disadvantages.
B. Problems arising out of placing special needs students in traditional
industrial education classes.
C. Desirability of developing programs to meet the educational needs
of more of our youth.
D. Possibilities of placing students already in special needs programs
in special English and math classes.
E. Communication difficulties existing between the vocational and
F. Enrollment figures. A problem in curriculum diversification.
G. The progress made by Dade County in working with Cuban Refugees.
H. Transferring the disadvantaged student into a traditional program
after he proves he is capable.
I. Desirability of Vocational Education and Industrial Arts working
J. Clarification of the use of special education units and dis-
K. Problems faced by special needs student when goals are too distant.
L. Problems involved by student facing a change in values.
M. Working with the disadvantaged child as early as possible.
N. Vocational education teachers working closely with guidance counselors.
O. An overview of the Special Needs Program given by Tom Swift,
Consultant, Special Vocational Programs, Florida State Department of
Group II Accreditation
Major points emphasized were:
A. Purpose of state accreditation
B. Various types of accreditation standards which apply to the various
types of schools
C. Levels of standards and what they mean
D. Accreditation classifications
E. How standards are determined and who writes them
F. Steps in the process of accreditation and who initiates it
G. Involvement of industrial teachers in evaluation
H. How accreditation or non-accreditation will affect a school
I. The standards for industrial education as they are now written
Group III Program Supervision
A. The State should insist that an adequate number of well qualified
supervisors be employed by the local school boards to render
B. Programs should be evaluated yearly and the instructors invited
to sit down with the Supervisor and discuss this evaluation.
C. The Advisory Committees should participate in these evaluations.
A written report should be prepared.
D. The lines of communication between the teacher and his supervisor
should be improved.
E. The need for a good public relations program should be recognized
and implemented at each center.
F. An adequate orientation of new instructors is a must.
G. The Materials Development Section should be reinstated in the
State Department of Education.
H. There should be closer coordination between the State Department
of Education and the Teacher Training staffs.
I. Supervisors should be upgraded in such areas as: materials development,
new developments in the field, assisting new teaches in methods.
J. Grants in aid should be provided for the special training of
K. Certification practices and procedures should be examined and
Group IV Staff Development
A. Summer Technical Workshops (Credit and Non-Credit)
1. Cooperative programs with industry such as General Motors,
Philco-Ford, etc., possibly using their facilities, instructors
and equipment if appropriate.
2. Workshops within a subject area planned and operated jointly
by a University and State Department of Education.
B. In-Service Training
1. Starting with pre-school and continue through school year:
a. Program should be well organized and managed by a
director with possible of additional consultants.
b. It should be possible to provide release time and substitutes
for teacher to participate in workshop activities.
C. University Teacher Training Courses (Credit)
1. To meet certification requirements:
a. EIE funds may be used
2. Courses can be offered:
a. During summer
b. After school during year
d. By correspondence
e. Via television
D. Multi-County Workshops
1. Jointly planned and held at a central location by a number of
a. Cooperating counties to share costs of Directors and
materials and other workshop expenses.
1. Provisions should be made for instructors to visit other
programs, trade conferences, industry, and other events
that would improve his knowledge andproficiency as an
F. Professional Library
1. Such as resource would enable the instructor to apply self-help.
G. Extension Courses (Credit)
1. More definite information about extension courses is needed.
2. University should set up a rotating schedule of basic courses
needed by new teachers.
3. Transcripts on extension courses are not being brought up to date
in reasonable time. Six months behind is not uncommon.
H. Sabbatical Leave provisions should be adopted by counties
I. Improvement of Supervision
1. Supervision is in bad need of improvement:
a. Workshops for supervisors may possibly be needed.
J. Industry Advisory Committees
1, Essential for a quality program sensitive to the labor market:
a. A General Advisory Committee for the institution with
advisory craft committees for each trade are recommended.
Group V School-Industry Relations
A. Who has the responsibility for maintaining "School-Industry
B. The importance of working through advisory committees
C. Importance of protocol
D. Methods of discovering the needs of the students and the community
E. The Broward County Work-Study Program was described
F. The forming of an Advisory Committee
G. Problems attached to minimum working age
H. Legislative action concerning minimum working age
I. Should vocational courses lead or follow industry?
J. Development of course outlines by combined efforts of advisory
committee and the teacher
K. Importance of vocational educators keeping abreast of industry
L. Need for workshops put on by industry for keeping teachers up to date
Group VI Program Evaluation
A. Provide teaching methods and class management courses (short
courses without college credit would suffice for new teachers prior
to the time they start teaching).
B. Provide orientation program for new teachers.
C. Added attention should be given to vocational guidance and counseling.
D. Added attention should be given to helping instructors with
occupational and job analysis course construction and lesson planning.
E. Courses of study and lesson plans should be a local and state
F. Classes should be reduced to a size of 15-20 students -- less
for special students.
G. Request aid of supervisor and advisory craft committee in revising
course of study.
H. Provide knowledge and skills needed for initial employment.
I. Relieve supervisor of excessive administrative duties.
J. Fuller utilization of craft committees with a minimum of four
meetings yearly is desirable.
K. Provide short courses in lesson planning prior to the opening of school.
L. Provide relief time and workshops.
M. Provide for supervision and evaluation of the teacher's work.
N. Provide standard progress record forms and charts.
O. Provide uniform student placement and follow-up forms for use on
a state-wide basis.
Group VII Curriculum Development
A. Single craft standing committees should be formed for the purpose
of keeping alert to changes.
B. Annual state-wide or multi-county single craft workshops should
be held for the purpose of keeping teachers up to date.
C. Workshops should be held to familiarize administrators and guidance
counselors with the principles and objectives of vocational guidance.
D. Teacher training institutions should require courses on the principles
and objectives of vocational education of all graduates.
E. Craft advisory committees should be kept active.
F. Avenues should be explored which would help break down the communications
barrier between academic instructors and vocational teachers.
G. Methods should be explored for the improvement of vocational student
H. Evening Trade Extension scheduling should be designed to fit the
course, not the course designed to fit the schedule.
I. More consideration should be given to "Joint School-Industry
Programs," for the last half of the senior year.
Group VIII Research Needs in Industrial Education
A. Group Objectives:
1. To examine the research needs in Trade and Industrial
2. To express these needs in specific terms
3. To report scientific needs and recommendations to the Industrial
Education Section of the Division of Vocational, Technical and
1. Develop and plan whereby more Trade and Industrial Education
instructors can be encouraged and enabled to become qualified
as vocational guidance counselors.
2. Study ways and means for broadening the number of in-service
courses offered to upgrade the teacher in his own field and at
the same time be acceptable toward the extension of teaching
3. Research realistic criteria to determine the qualifications of
a "Vocational Guidance Counselor" and have these included in our
4. Study ways and means whereby trade competency tests may be
developed for all fields of trade and industrial education, and
have these tests earn credit that will be accepted to all state
institutions having a Trade and Industrial Education program.
5. Study and provide the means for competent Trade and Industrial
(T & I) instructors to obtain a four-year degree in the shortest
possible time with the ultimate objective of providing
leadership personnel for the growing number of vocational programs
throughout the state.
6. Provide a plan whereby the itinerate teacher trainer can be
made available to counsel T & I instructors in matters such
as the improvement of instruction, certification requirements
and plans for self improvement.
7. Develop a plan for the replacement of equipment based on the
premise that while equipment may still be operative, it may
8. Determine the best grade level at which to expose students
to T & I training.
9. Research and report on the effectiveness of various innovative
and experimental programs involving trade and industrial
education throughout the state.
10. Identify successful experimental trade and industrial programs
which can be used as pilot programs throughout the state.
11. Study the specific needs of disadvantaged students to determine
the effectiveness of present programs for these students.
12. Study the report on types of jobs that disadvantaged youth
may be trained for.
13'. Study the various occupations which can be clustered effectively,
which would include a study of present cluster programs.
14. Design more T & I programs to meet the needs of girls at the
15. Research the effectiveness of Industrial Arts courses as
vocational shop feeders.
16. Study the various ways of scheduling (3-3, 2-2-2, etc.) trade
and industrial courses at the secondary level to determine the
most effective schedule for the various trades.
Thursday, August 8
Ronald Wright, President "Vocational Industrial Clubs
Florida Association of the Vocational of America (VICA)"
Industrial Clubs and National District
Vice President of Vocational Industrial
Clubs of America
The following is a summary of Mr. Wright's speech.
Ronald Wright thanked the teachers for their untiring efforts to provide
industrial education students with the skills that are so vitally needed
to enter industry. He also thanked them for setting the example as a
guide for citizenship and character. He explained that time would not
allow for him to tell all that VICA had meant to him, however, he did
show through a slide talk how VICA had caused him to realize the benefits
he had received for the National Heritage, the reasons for patriotism,
and his beliefs in democracy. Through slides and recordings he traced
America's history from its founding through times of crisis, through
technological advancement, to the present time. He emphasized that
VICA youth can play an important role in the continued prosperity of
America and in the solving of some of the major problems of our society.
Stephen Denby, Consultant, Florida State Department of Education, and
State Advisor of the Florida Association of Vocational Industrial Clubs
of America, spoke briefly on the six points of the National Program
of Work of VICA.
MANPOWER DEVELOPMENT TRAINING
Tuesday, August 6
Dr. Charles R. Crumpton "Trends, Developments, and
State Director Prospects for the Future of
Manpower Development and Training Program Manpower Development and
Florida State Department of Education Training"
The following is a summary of Dr. Crumpton's speech.
(Dr. Crumpton spoke for Dr. D. A. Matthews, Director, Division of
Manpower Training, U. S. Office of Education, Washington, D.C., and for
W. A. Seeley, Manpower Development Training, Regional Program Officer,
U. S. Office of Education, Atlanta, who were unable to attend due to
circumstances beyond their control).
Concentrated Employment Programs should open in Jacksonville, Tampa,
and Miami in the near future. Jacksonville has also been scheduled
for a Neighborhood Service Center, although the scope of this program
is not yet known. Miami and Tampa have been designated Model Cities.
The Model Cities Program is designed to rehabilitate communities through
the coordinated efforts of various agencies. Florida has been chosen as
one of the states to participate in a new type cooperative training
program combining work and school. These programs are all in the planning
and development stages, but are evidence of more and better manpower
training for the future.
Congress is considering instituting a skill center approach to Manpower
Development and Training (MDT) operation. A skill center is a self-
contained facility which can offer a variety of occupations with counseling
services and basic education. This facility would have a minimum capacity
of 500 trainees per year and be devoted entirely to MDTA. Skill centers
would solve some of the funding problems and have the virtues of flexibility
and economy produced by a larger operation.
Project Transition is a part-time training for military personnel who
are nearing separation from the service and need training for civilian
life. Apalachee Correctional Institute has just started a MDTA Program.
Training in Manpower Services (TIMS) is designed to train manpower service
personnel for employment in Concentrated Employment Programs and other
In 1968-69 Cooperative Area Manpower Planning System (CAMPS) allocation
was slightly higher than 1967-68, and any new programs would be in
addition to this basic program.
Wednesday, August 7
A. C. Heil, State MDTA Coordinator "The Role of the Florida
Florida State Employment Service State Employment Service
in Manpower Development
The following is a summary of Mr. Heil's speech.
Emphasis was placed on the tasks of determining the types of training,
and selection of trainees within the criteria established on a national
basis. Not less than 25% of all adults should be older workers, not
less than 14% of applicants should be welfare recipients, 15% of the
adult total should be Neighborhood Youth Corp graduates, 75% or more
should be non-high school graduates, and referred individuals should be
long-term unemployed. Disadvantaged persons referred should meet
two or more of these criteria.
A panel composed of state staff members presented and explained an
evaluation instrument. The panel leader, M. T. Capo, stated that
evaluation was a necessary evil which would accomplish the following goals:
A. Provide a means of improving effectiveness
B. Allow us to take advantage of innovations
C. Provide information that will enable the writing of concise but
complete summaries of training
D. Help keep course outlines and teaching plans current
E. Aid supervisory efforts and teacher training
F. Justify the operation of future projects in the particular
Wednesday, August 7
This session divided into six groups that continued through the
Thursday morning session. A summary of the two sessions is reported under
the Thursday morning session.
Thursday, August 8
Group I Supervisors
Copeland.Pace, Regional Employment Service Office, summarized the
current Cooperative Area Manpower Planning System (CAMPS) plan. Emphasis
should be placed on economical employable. Cooperation and coordination
with the Employment Service is increasing.
Deobligation of excess funds is an essential function of Manpower
Development and Training administration. Supervisors should project
the amounts which will be used in each budget account. Any missing or
stolen equipment must be reported to the FBI, local law enforcement
agencies, and the State Department of Education.
Ben Copenhaven, Health, Education and Welfare Excess Property Office,
explained his role of supplying Manpower Development and Training with
information on available excess property. Inspection, transportation,
and storage of excess property were discussed.
Group II Counselors and Interviewers
Varying success was experienced with loan funds set up to assist trainees.
Vocational Rehabilitation has been extremely helpful. Probation forms
signed by the trainee used by Dade County were considered valuable'as
a disciplinary method. Anecdotal records are valuable in appeal cases.
Counseling does not end with graduation and follow-up procedures, such
as questionnaires to former trainees and their employers should be used.
A year long follow-up period was recommended. Home visits to community
service agencies yield better cooperation. It was recommended that the
increased benefit given single referrals after ten weeks training be dropped.
Group III Basic Education Teachers
The following recommendations resulted from the group discussion:
A. More funds should be allotted for the purchase of additional textbooks,
workbooks, and training aids.
B. Post planning and preplanning should be provided for each new project.
C. Job seeking methods should be emphasized.
D. Programmed instruction has proven highly effective, although some
machine types are too expensive to be feasible.
E. Guest speakers, including former trainees, are recommended.
F. Tables and chairs are preferred over tablet arm chairs.
G. Instructor personnel should be kept up to date through purchase of
pertinent journals and publications.
Group IV Business Occupation Teachers
Motivation in the classroom can be stimulated through contests and goals.
Motivation reduces absences and tardiness. The teacher should try to
learn the reason for absences and tardiness and work in conjunction with
the counselor. Lesson plans should be set up in a block plan but
flexibility must be preserved. Form MT-1 must be studied to know the
duties which the trainee will be expected to perform as an employee.
Courses should be designed with various employment levels to be reached
prior to completion. This will facilitate placement of trainees leaving
Group V Automotive and Related Teachers
Testing and trainee self-evaluation were major discussion topics. Oral
testing is necessary for trainees who are unable to read and write at
a level which will permit valid written tests. The ultimate goal in
trainee evaluation is production ability. There is merit in a trainee
keeping his own record of progress, however, this record should not be
displayed in the shop. Safety procedures must be taught and practiced.
As each new tool or equipment team is introduced, appropriate safety
precautions should be taught. Hazards and the proper use of fire prevention
apparatus should be included in lesson plans. Advisory committees can
make a valuable contribution in up-dating instruction in each trade.
Group VI Other Occupational Teachers
Probation procedures for treating absenteeism and tardiness were considered
desirable by the group. It was suggested that reduction in allowance benefits
would be an effective method of dealing with these problems. Each
instructor must teach trainees the highest standards of safety and health,
regardless of prevailing practices in industry. Through such efforts,
desirable changes may be achieved.
Thursday, August 8
Panel discussions were held on the following two topics:
I. Basic Education Instructors and Counselors: Suggestions for
coordinating basic education instruction and counseling included:
A. A team approach
B. Observation of learning disabilities with referral to Vocational
C. Close cooperation with occupational instructors
D. Use of group counseling for feedback which will improve instruction
E. Obtain confidence of trainees
Testing should be used since many employers now use tests, and the
experience in taking tests will be helpful in obtaining employment.
Trainees should be tested on entrance and at the conclusion of training.
II. Occupational Teachers: Three presentations on instructional improvement
highlighted this panel:
A. Ed Mahoney discussed:
1. Teacher qualifications
2. Programmed instruction
3. Cooperation with the Employment Service and
Manpower Development Training guidance personnel
4. The need to refund existing programs to maintain experienced
staff. In-service training in programmed instruction and
an Employment Service representative located at the training
facility are needed.
B. Herman Foster spoke on "Visual Aids Need Not Be Expensive."
Instructor-made visual aids were demonstrated.
C. Mrs. Catherine Gipson discussed progress charts as instructional
aids. Sample charts were distributed. Absences can be reduced
by incorporating attendance and punctuality with a lesson plan
Tuesday, August 6
Special Vocational Programs
Emphasis Luncheon Special Needs
Dr. Laurence Hopp, Director "Disadvantaged--Fact or
Rutgers Education Action Program Myth"
The following is a summary of Dr. Hopp's speech.
The school is a social and socializing institution with an obligation
to teach more than skills for employment. Attitudes are of first
importance; students want and need teachers who care and will listen.
In a specially developed project students were to be given typewriters
if they could gain skills in the use of typewriters. All students did
master the required skill level, and increased their reading level and
scholastic achievement. They were given the typewriters. In another
experience, "Project Action," planning and implementation of the project
was done in cooperation with industry. The training-was not primarily
concerned with gaining industrial skills, but rather with changing
Traditional education is not adequate. Education must be a process that
encourages imagination, builds positive self concepts, reflects critical
thinking, and shows the students that teachers care about them as in-
dividuals. Teacher attitudes and student attitudes are an essential
part of providing a needed curriculum with feeling. Methods are known
that will adequately meet the needs of members of the minority and majority
groups that are termed "disadvantaged," and these should be used.
Too many of our present day schools are operating under the same
philosophy as was used in the animal school--
"A Curriculum To Meet The Needs of
The Animal School"
Once upon a time, the animal decided they must do
something to meet the problem of a "new world." So they
organized a school. They adopted an activity program or
curriculum consisting of running, climbing, swimming, and
flying. To make it easier to administer the curriculum, all
animals took all subjects.
The duck was excellent in swimming, in fact better than
the teacher, but he only made passing grades in flying and
was very poor in running. Since he was slow in running,
he had to stay after school and also drop his swimming in
order to practice running. This was kept up until his webbed
feet were badly worn and he was only average in swimming.
But average was acceptable in school, so nobody worried about
it--except the duck.
The rabbit started at the top of the class in running,
but had a nervous breakdown because of so much make-up work in
The squirrel was excellent in climbing, until he develop-
ed frustration in the flying class, where his teacher made
him start from the ground up instead of from the tree top down.
He also developed Charleyy horses" from over exertion and then
got a "C" in climbing and a "D" in running.
The eagle was a problem child and was disciplined severely.
In the climbing class, he beat all the others to the top of the
tree, but insisted on using his own way to get there, which
provoked the teacher.
At the end of the year, an abnormal eel that could swim
exceedingly well, and also run, climb, and fly a little, had
the highest average and was Valedictorian.
The prairie dogs stayed out of school and fought the tax
levy because the administration would not add digging and burrowing
to the curriculum. They apprenticed their children to a badger
and later joined the ground hogs and gophers to start a private
Wednesday, August 7
Arnold J. Freitag, Consultant "TECHDAYS"
Florida State Department of Education
The following is a summary of Mr. Freitag's speech.
Several reasons may be given to support the need for an organized and
systematic program of job placement in Florida's Area Vocational-Technical
Centers and Technical Divisions of Junior Colleges: first, the school
has a responsibility; second, the students enrolled have unique
characteristics and needs; third, today's world of work by its very
nature presents a complexity which demands the expertise of the professional.
If a fundamental purpose of the area centers is to provide occupational
skills needed for an individual to enter the world of work, then a
program for bringing students and potential employers together is needed.
The placement of graduates in appropriate positions should be pursued
with the same vigor and degree of organization and quality that is used
by the centers to provide individual students with a particular occupational
competency. An effective job placement program ultimately becomes the
final link to successful occupational training.
The nature and complexity of today's society makes it mandatory that
area centers develop a functioning system of job placement for its
graduates. These graduates generally have had a minimum of work experience,
and although there may be a surplus of job openings for which area school
students are being trained, many graduates are unaware of the location
of these jobs. Also, many employers are unaware of the competencies of
the graduates of our area centers. Adequate communication is needed
between the training centers and employers.
The ultimate success of the area school program will be determined by
the consumer's evaluation of its product. There is no better way for
the consumer to appreciate the area school program and its graduates
than by visiting these schools and competing with other industries for
TECHDAYS is an organized procedure, coordinated at the state level, for
the purpose of bringing together recruiting personnel from business and
industry and the graduates of vocational institutions to fill this
need for an effective job placement program.