• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Historic note
 Front Cover
 Main
 Back Cover














Group Title: Circular - University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences ; 460
Title: Azalea production in Florida
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00067084/00001
 Material Information
Title: Azalea production in Florida
Series Title: Circular
Physical Description: 15, 1 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Ingram, Dewayne L ( Dewayne Lebron ), 1952-
Midcap, James T
Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Publisher: Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 197-?
 Subjects
Subject: Azalea -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Azalea -- Varieties -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: Dewayne L. Ingram and James T. Midcap.
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: "9-10M-79"--P. 16.
Funding: Circular (Florida Cooperative Extension Service) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00067084
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 20516624

Table of Contents
    Historic note
        Unnumbered ( 1 )
    Front Cover
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Main
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
    Back Cover
        Page 16
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida





~I I; (
FI:


o al use only I Circular 460


Azalea Production

in Florida
Dewayne L. Ingram and James T. Midcap


II Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences


University of Florida, Gainesville
John T. Woeste, Dean for Extension


L
c-


U






































U
I


r


L.











AZALEA PRODUCTION IN FLORIDA


Dewayne L. Ingram and James T. Midcap*

Introduction
Azaleas are a dominant feature in the southern spring landscape. Azaleas
bloom in Florida from late February to early April, depending upon cultivar
and season. Azaleas are used by landscapers and gardeners for their spectac-
ular flowers, form and evergreen foliage. Most North and Central Florida nurs-
eries grow azaleas because of the high market demand. Generally azaleas do
not perform well year after year in South Florida; however, certain micro-
climates may prove acceptable.

Adapted Species and Hybrids
Azaleas belong to the genus Rhododendron, although for years they were
classified as a separate genus, Azalea. Most azaleas are native to North Amer-
ica (deciduous species) or Eastern Asia (evergreen species). Over 800 azalea
selections exist today, and hundreds of them are grown in Florida. Azalea
names and classification are confused in the industry because of the many
selections produced.
Southern Indian Hybrids:
Southern Indian azaleas were first introduced into the United States from
Belgium in 1940. These hybrids were derived from several species including
R. indicum, R. simsii, R. mucronatum, and R. phoeniceum. Their flowers are
large (2 to 31/2 inches) and open in early spring with a multitude of colors rang-
ing from white to salmon to orange-red. Southern Indian Hybrids grow rapidly
with an open form, and may reach a height and spread of 10 feet.
Krume Hybrids:
Krume Hybrids originated in Japan and were first introduced into California
in 1915. Krume azaleas were derived from R. obtusum, R. kaempferi, R. kui-
sianum and R. sataense.They are often referred to as dwarf, although they will
reach 4 to 6 feet in height and spread. Krume Hybrids are hardier than Southern
Indian Hybrids, but both are well adapted to Florida. Flowers of Krume Hybrids
are small (1 /2 to2 inches) butoffera large array of flower colors in late January to
mid February.
Satsuki Hybrids:
Satsuki Hybrids also originated from Japan but the exact parentage is
uncertain. They are thought to be forms of R. indicum and R. eriocarpum, or
hybrids between these species and other cu Itivars. Satsuki Hybrids are the most
*Extension Rural Development Ornamental Horticulture Specialist and
Extension Woody Ornamentals Specialist, respectively.








dwarf group of the hybrid azaleas, although cultivarsvarygreatly in size. Flower
color is highly variable since they sport freely. Satsuki means "fifth month" and
these hybrids are late bloomers (May). They are best adapted to North Florida
rather than South and Central Florida.
Rutherford Hybrids:
Rutherford Hybrids were developed in a New Jersey nursery around 1920as
American additions to Belgian Hybrids. Many cultivars are used as forcing or
greenhouse azaleas, and are adapted to southern regions of Central Florida.
Pericat Hybrids:
This group contains greenhouse forcing azaleas, but a few perform well in
Florida landscapes. Most are thought to be hybrid selections of Belgium and
Krume Hybrids.
Native Azaleas:
A few deciduous azaleas are native to North Florida, and are often called
bush honeysuckle or wild honeysuckle. The individual florets are trumpet-
shaped and usually borne in large terminal clusters. Identification of native
azaleas is difficult due to the similarities between species. Natural hybridi-
zation has complicated the matter by producing many intermediate forms
with unusual flower colors.

Azalea flower forms are classified as standard or hose-in-hose; and single,
semi-double or double. Flower differences exist between many cultivars and
flowers can differ within a cultivar. The basic flower forms are illustrated in
Figure 1 and the flower form of each cultivar or species is given in Table 1.
Selected cultivars from each hybrid group described are presented inTable
1. The azalea cultivars presented here are by no means the only hybrids, but
are representative of azaleas found in Florida nurseries and landscapes. Many
North Florida nurseries grow azaleas which are marketed in northern states
and not planted in Florida. Gable, Glenn Dale, and Kaempferi Hybrids are
examples.



General Culture
Azaleas perform best in partial shade in well-drained organic soil main-
tained at a pH range of 4.5-5.5. Azalea have shallow fibrous root systems and
do not tolerate poorly aerated conditions.
Flower bud initiation follows the spring growth flush and bud development
continues in the late summer and fall. Flower bud dormancy is usually broken
by exposure to temperatures below 500F (100C) for four to eight weeks fol-
lowed by warm temperatures. Temperatures and exposure periods required to
break flower bud dormancy differs between cultivars.














































Semidouble, standard


Semidouble, hose in hose


L-t 3 .Double standard

Double, hose in hose

Figure 1.


5












Table 1. Azaleas for Florida


Flower Color


Flower Size
and Form


Plant Height
and Form


Zone* Comments


Southern Indian Hybrids
Coccinea Major
Delaware Valley White

Duc de Rohan

Easter Greetings
(Lentegroet)
Elegans

Elegans Superba
(Pride of Mobile)
Fielder's White

Formosa


Formosa Pink
Formosa Red
George Franc
George Lindley Taber

Glory of Sunninghill
Gulf Pride

Indica Alba


Orange-red
White

Orange-red

Light lavender-pink

Light pink

Light pink

White

Violet red


Pink
Red-purple
Pink with dark blotches
White with red blotches

White with red blotches
Light purple

White


21/2", single
3", single

2", single

3", single

21/4", single

2", single

2%", single

3/2", single


3/2", single
3", single
3", single
31/2", single

31/2", single
3", single

3", single


Low, spreading
Medium spreading

Medium, spreading

Medium, compact

Open, upright

Large, upright

Medium, spreading

Large, spreading


Large, spreading
Large, spreading
Medium, spreading
Large, spreading

Medium, spreading
Medium, compact

Medium, spreading


Dense foliage
Slight fragrance, compact
growth, early flowering
Medium growth rate, mid-
season flowering
Mid to late season flowering

Vigorous growth, early
flowering
Strong growing, mid-season
flowering
Medium vigor, early to mid-
season flowering
Vigorous growth, most popular
in Florida, early to mid-season
flowering
Sport of Formosa
Sport of Formosa
Slow growing, early flowering
Vigorous dense growth, mid-
season flowering
Densely foliated, late flowering
Sport of R. mucronatum, early
flowering
Fragrant, mid-season flowering


Name





lu 'ge oloman

L. A. Walker

Mrs. G. G. Gerbing

President Claeys

Pride of Dorking
Prince of Orange

Rose Queen

Southern Charm



William Bull

Krume Hybrids
Appleblossom

Bridesmaid

Christmas Cheer

Coral Bells


Exquisite


Pink

Pink

White

Red-orange

Carmine red
Orange

Lilac pink

Pink



Orange-red


Pink with white throat

Salmon

Red

Pink


Red-violet


27/2", single

21/2", single

3", single

21/4", single

2/2", single
212", single

11/4", single

31/2", single



13/4, double


1%", semi-double

1 /2", single

11/2", single
hose-in-hose
11/2", single
hose-in-hose

1/2", single


Large, spreading

Medium, upright

Large, spreading

Large, upright

Medium, spreading
Medium, spreading

Low, spreading

Large, spreading



Medium, spreading


Large, upright

Large, spreading

Medium, spreading

Medium, spreading


Low, spreading


N,C Sport of Formosa, early to mid-
season flowering
N Open growth, early mid-season
flowering
N,C Sport of Taber, vigorous growth,
mid-season flowering
N,C Vigorous growth, mid-season
flowering
N,C Medium vigor, late flowering
Medium vigor, compact, mid-
season flowering
N,C Good grower, mid-season
flowering
N,C Sport of Formosa, vigorous
growth, early to mid-season
flowering

N Buds give rosebud effect, mid-
season flowering

N,C Leaves glossy green, late
flowering
N Flowers in large trusses, early
flowering
N Compact, heavy mid-season
flowering
N,C Small glossy foliage, bell
shaped flowers, heavy mid-
season flowering
N Early mid-season flowering


*C Central Florida Leesburg south to Punta Gorda and Fort Pierce
*N North Florida Pensacola to Jacksonville and south to Ocala















Name


Flower Color


Flame
Glory

Hershey's Red
Hershey's Salmon
Hexe

0 H. H. Hume

Hino-crimson

Hino-degiri

Mother's Day

Salmon Beauty


Red
Peach pink

Red
Salmon
Crimson red

White with yellow
throat
Crimson red

Brick red

Red

Salmon pink


Table 1 (continued) Azaleas for Florida
Flower Size Plant Height
and Form and Form


1 /2", single Large, spreading
1%", single Medium to tall

2", double Medium, compact
2", double Medium, compact
14", single Medium, compact
hose-in-hose
sh 2", single Medium, upright
hose-in-hose
112", single Medium compact

11/2", single Medium, compact

1%", double Medium, spreading

14 ", single Large, upright
hose-in-hose


Zone*


N
N,C

N,C
N,C
N

N

N

N

N

N


Comments


Mid-season flowering
Common forcing variety, late
flowering
Fast growing, late flowering
Fast growing, late flowering
Dark glossy leaves, mid-season
flowering
Flower clusters, erect habit,
mid-season flowering
Compact, heavy mid-season
flowering
Small round glossy leaves,
heavy mid-season flowering
Glossy green foliage, mid-
season flowering
Large for Krume, light green
foliage, mid-season flowering









Snow

Sweet Briar
Vesuvius

Satsuki Hybrids
Bunkwa

Gumpo White

Gumpo Pink

Gumpo Red
\o
Gunrei
Gunbi
Macrantha
Rutherford Hybrids
Alaska


Dorothy Gish

Pink Ruffles


White

Pink
Salmon red with
dark center

Pink with
salmon pink margin
White

Pink

Red

White with pink flakes
White with red flakes
Pink

White


Orange-red

Rose Pink


1%" 3, single
hose-in-hose
2", single
11/2", single


21/2", single

3", single

3", single

3", single

2", single
21/2", single
21/2", single

2", semi-double
hose-in-hose

2V1/2", single
hose-in-hose
2/2", semi-double
hose-in-hose


Medium, upright

Medium, spreading
Medium


Compact, spreading

Compact, spreading

Compact, spreading

Compact, spreading

Medium, spreading
Low, spreading
Medium, spreading

Medium, compact


Medium, spreading

Medium, spreading


*C Central Florida Leesburg south to Punta Gorda and Fort Pierce
*N North Florida Pensacola to Jacksonville and south to Ocala


N,C Old flowers persist, mid-season
flowering
N Early to mid-season flowering
N Foliage glossy green, mid-
season free flowering

N Dense growth, dwarf, late
flowering
N Dwarf, dense growth, late
flowering
N Dwarf, dense growth, late
flowering
N Dwarf, dense growth, late
flowering
N Compact growth, late flowering
N Compact growth, late flowering
N Late flowering

N,C Vigorous, many flower
variations, dark foliage, early to
mid-season flowering
N,C Mid-season flowering

N Ruffled petals, mid-season
flowering











Table 1 (continued) Azaleas for Florida


Flower Color


Flower Size
and Form


Plant Height
and Form


Zone* Comments


Red Ruffles

Redwings

Pericat Hybrids
Pink Pericat

Sweetheart Supreme

Native Azaleas
R. austrinum (Florida
Azalea)

R. calendulaceum
(Flame Azalea)
R. canescens


R. chapmanii


Red

Orange-red


Pink

Rose pink with dark
blotches

Golden yellow
to orange

Orange red to yellowish
with orange blotch
White to deep pink


Pink


21/2", semi double
hose-in-hose
3" single
hose-in-hose

2", single
hose-in-hose
1%4", semi-double
hose-in-hose

2", single
funnel form

2", single
funnel form
1 Y2", single
funnel form

1/4", single
funnel form


Medium, spreading

Medium, spreading


Medium, spreading

Medium, spreading


Large, upright


Large, upright

Large, upright


Medium, spreading


N Ruffled petals, mid-season
flowering
N,C Original Belgian Hybrid, mid-
season flowering

N,C Older forcing cultivar, late
season flowering
N,C Forcing cultivar, mid-season
flowering

N Native to North Florida,
deciduous, fragrant, early
flowering
N Deciduous, North Florida, late
flowering
N Native to North Florida,
deciduous, fragrant, early
flowering
N Rare species, native Port St. Joe,
Fl. area, mid-season


*C Central Florida Leesburg south to Punta Gorda and Fort Pierce
*N North Florida Pensacola to Jacksonville and south to Ocala


Name








Florida conditions may not provide optimum chilling for some cultivars
causing sporadic flowering. Sporadic flowering is influenced by natural winter
variations and occurs with greater frequency in Central and South Florida.

Production Systems
Production systems should be designed to supply the demands of a chosen
market. Florida azaleas are marketed as rooted cuttings, liners and finished
plants. This publication deals with the production of landscape azaleas, how-
ever some landscape cultivars are also used as forcing azaleas in the florist
industry.
A typical production system could include outlets for all the marketable
forms-rooted cuttings, liners and finished plants. Production of rooted cut-
tings requires sticking a maximum number of cuttings in beds or flats. Rapid
turnover and a continuous source of quality cuttings are necessary.
Liners are cuttings rooted in small pots. Propagation in pots requires greater
space and greater capital investment but azaleas produced in this manner are
generally marketed as larger plants. Cuttings are treated the same as for pro-
duction of bare rooted cuttings. Greater cutting material is required since two
or three cuttings are generally stuck per pot. Liners must be marketed or
stepped-up into larger containers before becoming pot bound.
Containerized landscape azaleas are a major part of the market. Rooted cut-
tings or liners are potted in one-gallon or two-gallon containers and grown
under 33 to 55 percent shade. They are grown under intensive water and fer-
tilization programs to insure maximum growth. A rigid pest control program
with proper sanitation practices is necessary to prevent weed competition, in-
sect attack or disease losses. Proper scheduling of the production system will
permit marketing of azaleas during the proper time. Sales in the retail outlet
are most successful when azaleas are in full bloom. Scheduling of azaleas for
the landscape contractor market is not as critical.


Propagation
Azaleas are propagated by cuttings to maintain hybrid characteristics and
for rapid multiplication. Important factors affecting azalea propagation are
proper timing, stock plant condition (source of cuttings), propagation environ-
ment and container size.
Azalea cuttings may be rooted successfully when taken at different stages
of maturity however, the best time to take cuttings is after the spring growth
has "hardened" or semi-matured. Cuttings taken from later growth flushes
which have properly matured also root rapidly. Cuttings should not be allowed
to bud and flower in the propagation bed. Therefore, the terminal flower bud
may be removed during sticking or after root initiation.
Cuttings 3 to 4 inches (8-10 cm) long have proven satisfactory. Remove only
the foliage from the lower 1'/2 inches of the cutting and insert this portion into








the propagation medium. Placing the cuttings under intermittent mist reduces
transpiration water loss. Rooting has been increased with rooting hormone
talc dips of IBA (Hormodin #3) or NAA (Rootone #10).
Health and vigor of stock plants influence root development of cuttings.
Stock plants should be fertilized with moderate levels of nitrogen (800 lbs/A/
yr, 907 kg/ha/yr). Mature cuttings root better than more tender cuttings if the
stock plant has received high nitrogen fertilization. Many producers take cut-
tings from production plants just prior to or in combination with routine prun-
ing. Phosphorous and potassium levels greater than minimum requirements
for normal plant growth do not affect rooting.
A well-drained medium is necessary for the propagation of azaleas. Media
proven satisfactory include peat and sand; peat and perlite; or pine bark, peat
and sand. The appropriate proportion of each component in a medium de-
pends upon the depth of propagation container. A more porous medium
should be used if the propagation container is small, especially if the container
is shallow.
Deciduous azaleas are usually propagated from seed because cuttings are
difficu t to root. Seed capsules should be collected in late fall before they open.
The pods are dried and allowed to open. The seeds will germinate in 2 to 4
weeks under 65-700F, indirect light and adequate moisture. Flower color var-
iation among the seedlings can be great due to natural hybridization.


Fertilization
Fertilization should begin during propagation. Favorable results have been
obtained by applying Osmocote 18-6-12 (5.2 oz/10 square feet, 160 gm/
square meter) to the surface of the propagation medium. This controlled re-
lease material begins to release after root initiation and maintains adequate
nutrients in the medium for developing roots. Caution: Excessive fertilization
levels and faster release of fertilizers can burn new roots.
Soil pH of 4.5 to 5.5 is optimum for azalea growth. Iron and manganese
deficiencies are common on azaleas grown at a higher pH. A foliar spray can
temporarily solve the problem, however long-term results are obtained by
lowering soil pH. A good acidifying agent consists of three parts dusting or
wettable sulfur and one part iron sulfate. This mixture should be applied at
one pound per 100 square feet with no more than two or three applications
per year. )
Proper fertilization programs depend on production factors including con-
tainer medium, container size, water quality and quantity, light intensity,
length of growing season and daily temperature fluctuations. Generally, su-
perphosphate (2 to 4 Ibs./cu. yd.) should be added to the medium at the time
of mixing to supply required phosphorous and a limited amount of calcium.
Additional calcium can be supplied by adding dolomite or ground lime-
stone although both increase the medium's pH. An initial medium pH of 4.0








to 4.5 will not be raised substantially with the addition of 2 Ibs. of dolomite
per cubic yard. Gypsum can also supply calcium with limited effect on soil
pH.
Nitrogen can be supplied by ammonium nitrate, potassium nitrate or am-
monium sulfate. Equal parts of ammonium and nitrate nitrogen have given
excellent growth.
Micronutrients (including iron, copper, manganese, boron, zinc and molyb-
denum) should be incorporated during medium preparation. If this is not pos-,
sible, micronutrients can be added as a dry top-dress, soil drench, foliar spray
or some combination.
Many factors influence the selection of a fertilization regime for your pro-
duction system. The following fertilization program has proven successful for
this medium:
Medium: pine bark, peat, sand (v/v/v)
Incorporated materials: Perk (micronutrient mix) 3 Ibs./cu. yd.
Superphosphate, 3 Ibs./cu. yd.
Dolomite, 2 Ibs./cu. yd.
Top Dress: 16-4-8, 1/2 teaspoon/1 gal. container (monthly)
or
Liquid Application: Ammonium nitrate, 1.7-3.4 lbs./100 gal.
Potassium nitrate, .7-1.4 lbs/100 gal.
(monthly)
-and-
Diammonium Phosphate, 1.7-3.4 lbs./100 gal.
(semi-annually)



PRUNING
Pruning or pinching is necessary to obtain a full, well-branched azalea. Sev-
eral light prunings during the active growing season will result in a compact,
well-branched azalea. Pruning is usually done mechanically but a chemical
pinching agent may be used. Terminal vegetative growth stops after flower ini-
tiation and subsequent bud development. Pruning after flower bud initiation
will decrease the number of spring flowers.

Diseases and Insects
The most common diseases reported on azaleas include leaf gall, petal
blight and various azalea declines. Leaf gall occurs during wet spring months
and is most severe on densely shaded plantings with poor air circulation. Galls
may occur on leaves, stems or flowers. Small numbers of galls can be hand-
picked and destroyed at first appearance. Large plantings should be protected








by fungicide sprays starting at budbreak and continuing on a 10-day schedule
as needed. Apply either basic copper sulfate, copper oxychloride or zineb
with a spreader sticker for effective control.
Petal blight is most severe during cool moist weather. Infection first appears
as small white spots on colored petals or rust-colored spots on white flowered
varieties. Spots enlarge rapidly into irregular blotches under moist conditions
causing the blossoms to "melt" into a slimy mass. Affected blossoms dry and
may remain or drop from the plant. The fungus overseasons in dried blossoms
on or in the soil. Removing and burning surface debris and dead flowers 3 to
4 weeks before bloom will reduce disease incidence. Directed ground sprays
of pentachloronitrobenzene (Terraclor) one month before bloom will also pro-
vide some control. Applications of either benomyl, captain, mancozeb, maneb
or thiram (as label directs) to the flowers will also be effective.
Azaleas decline for various root-related reasons such as root rot diseases or
nematode injury. Plants which exhibit stunting, chlorosis and dieback symp-
toms should first be examined for problems with planting depth, soil pH or
drainage. Plants in poorly drained media often develop Pythium or Phyto-
phthora caused root rot diseases. Feeder roots become mushy and discolored,
and the outer root layer (cortex) characteristically sloughs off when handled
leaving the string-like root center (stele).
Slow decline in plant vigor with general stunting may be due to nematode
injury of the root system. Root examination will reveal galls or swellings, ne-
crosis of fine roots, and/or general stubbiness of small roots depending on the
nematode involved. Controls for both nematode and root rot diseases are pri-
marily preventive. Container grown stock should be started in well-drained,
pasteurized or fumigated soil. Remove or destroy all infected plants and con-
tainer media as soon as detected.
Lacebug, white fly, leafminers, spider mites, scales and stem borers are the
most common insects that attack azaleas. Lacebugs are sucking insects found
on the underside of the leaf. The top surface of the injured leaf appears speck-
led or mottled. Two applications of malathion or sevin at 10-day intervals
sprayed on the lower surface of the leaves effectively control lacebugs.
Leafminers or leafrollers feed on azalea leaves during their larval stage. Two
applications of diazinon at 7 to 10 day intervals will control leafminers. Leaf-
rollers can be controlled by two applications of sevin at 14-day intervals.
Spider mite injury appears as a bronzing or rusty coloration of green leaves.
A mite infection can be verified by placing a white piece of paper beneath the
foliage and slapping the leaves with your hand. Mites can be detected on the
white paper as moving, small red or brown specks. Kelthane will provide ac-
ceptable control. Apply a second application in 5 to 7 days.
Several species of scale can be found on azaleas. Some have a white cot-
tony appearance while others are covered with a hard shell. Scale insects suck
the sap from azaleas and the leaves may appear yellow or unthrifty. Two ap-
plications of metasystox-R or dimethoate (Cygon) at 2-week intervals during
early stages of scale development provide adequate control.








Stem borers in the larvae stage tunnel into stem and branch tips during late
spring and early summer. The young stem will wilt and die back to where the
tunnel ends. The best means of control includes the removal of infested
branches followed by an application of a properly labeled insecticide such as
Lindane.



Trade names are mentioned with the understanding that
no discrimination is intended and no endorsement by the
Florida Cooperative Extension Service is implied.
































This publication was printed at a cost. of $415
or 4.1 cents per copy to inform commercial
producers about growing azaleas. 9-10M-79




COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLOR-
IDA, INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES,
K. R. Tefertiller, director, in cooperation with the United States
Department of Agriculture, publishes this Information to further the
purpose of the May 8 and June 30, 1914 Acts of Congress; and Is
authorized to provide research, educational information and other
services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color,
sex or national origin. Single copies of Extension publications (excluding 4-H and Youth
publications) are available free to Florida residents from County Extension Offices.
Information on bulk rates or copies for out-of-state purchasers is available from C. M.
Hinton, Publications Distribution Center, IFAS Building 664, University of Florida,
Galnesville, Florida 32611. Before publicizing this publication, editors should contact
this address to determine availability.




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs