• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Historic note
 Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Main














Group Title: Circular - University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences ; 1038
Title: Keep herd health simple and make it fit the beef cattle operation!
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00067074/00001
 Material Information
Title: Keep herd health simple and make it fit the beef cattle operation!
Series Title: Circular
Physical Description: 17 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Richey, E. J ( Eddie Joe )
Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Publisher: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1992
 Subjects
Subject: Beef cattle -- Health   ( lcsh )
Beef cattle -- Diseases -- Prevention   ( lcsh )
Cattle trade -- Management   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: E.J. Richey.
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: "June 1992."
Funding: Circular (Florida Cooperative Extension Service) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00067074
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 26679114

Table of Contents
    Historic note
        Historic note
    Front Cover
        Front cover
    Front Matter
        Front Matter
    Main
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida




/o/

/0 32
June 1992


Keep Herd Health Simple

and Make it Fit

the Beef Cattle Operation!


E. J. Richey


Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida
John T. Woeste, Dean


Circular 1038


t..
~...... ;.....,.... ..~J
---;-- -- ---------------














7)1

/ 6&3? '
5C1:s I


E. J. Richey, Extension Veterinarian, College of Veterinary Medicine, IFAS, University of Florida










What is a healthy herd?
To be able to use herd health programs effec-
tively, they must be SIMPLE & FIT the cattle
OPERATION. How do we keep herd (animal)
health simple? Know what a HEALTHY HERD is!
A healthy herd exists when the RESISTANCE
LEVEL of the animals remain above the
DISEASE CHALLENGE LEVEL.


RESISTANCE



DISEASE

CHALLENGE


! SHIPPING

* WINTER STORMS

* PROCESSING

* HEAT STRESS.

SYMPTOMS OF DISEASE OCCUR WHEN THE
DISEASE CHALLENGE IS RAISED.


RESISTANCE


TIME


If these levels intercept, for any reason, sickness
occurs; if the resistance level drops to below the dis-
ease challenge level, sickness occurs; if the disease
challenge level rises to above the resistance level,
sickness occurs. The worst scenario occurs when
the resistance level is dropping at the same time
the disease challenge is on the rise; cattle get
severely sick, very fast.

DISEASE SYMPTOMS OCCUR WHEN THE
RESISTANCE LEVEL OF THE HERD IS LOWERED.




RESISTANCE

DISEASE


j CHALLENGE




TIME

The resistance level of an animal or a herd can
be lowered by excessive stresses put upon the herd.
Such stresses include, but are not limited to these:

* POOR NUTRITION


TIME


If a diseased animal is added to a susceptible
herd or if susceptible cattle are added to a diseased
herd then the DISEASE CHALLENGE on the sus-
ceptible cattle is raised.

DISEASE SYMPTOMS OCCUR WHEN
RESISTANCE DROPS & DISEASE CHALLENGE
RAISES SIMULTANEOUSLY.





RESISTANCE

SYMPTOMS OF DISEASE

-j CHALLENGE





TIME

When susceptible cattle are highly stressed at
the same time they are exposed to a disease, they
can become rapidly and severely sick. An example
of this scenario occurs when susceptible calves are
shipped into the market system.









We have a job to do; we must CONSTANTLY
keep the RESISTANCE LEVEL above the
DISEASE CHALLENGE LEVEL, regardless of the
disease. We in the cattle industry quite often say
"if it ain't broke don't fix it." I am in complete
agreement; however, we may not be aware of a
"broken" health program UNTIL a DISASTER
occurs. We have healthy appearing herds, but will
they REMAIN HEALTHY and are they producing
optimally? Can they survive a disease challenge?
HERD HEALTH PROGRAMS are designed to
KEEP THE HERD HEALTHY. Rather than live
with the normal spread between the resistance
level and disease challenge levels in an "unexposed
herd," we should consider RAISING the RESIS-
TANCE LEVELS and REDUCING the DISEASE
CHALLENGE LEVELS. By widening the spread
between the resistance and disease challenge
levels, we have a herd that can withstand an
unexpected drop in resistance or an unexpected
exposure to disease.

HERD HEALTH PROGRAMS
PROVIDE A COMFORTABLE SPREAD BETWEEN
THE RESISTANCE AND THE DISEASE CHALLENGE LEVELS


RAISE THE RESISTANCE





REDUCE THE CHALEGE


r


To be able to do so, we must know the TOOLS
available to us. Basically, there are only two types
of tools:

1. VACCINES raise the resistance to certain dis-
eases.

2. REMOVAL OF DISEASED ANIMALS,
PARASITE CONTROL, and ANTIBIOTICS
reduce the challenges.

Raise the resistance level
To control some diseases, we raise the resistance
to a high level, in other diseases we simply reduce
the challenge level; however, with others we MUST
BOTH raise the resistance and reduce the disease
challenge. If we try to use only the tool for raising
the resistance (vaccine), a high disease challenge
can overwhelm the raised resistance level.

RISE IN RESISTANCE DUE TO VACCINATION

RESISTANCE





> DISEASE

CHALLENGE


TIME


REDUCTION IN THE DISEASE CHALLENGE DUE TO USE OF
0 ANTIBIOTICS, PARASITE CONTROL, & THE REMOVAL OF
DISEASED OR CARRIER ANIMALS.
Keeping cattle healthy simply
To keep cattle healthy and to KEEP HEALTH
SIMPLE ...... all you have to do is: RESISTANCE

1. Recognize DISEASE CHALLENGES DISEASE
2. Know when they OCCUR 9
u CHALLENGE
3. then... .
... RAISE THE RESISTANCE before the
challenge occurs

and/or
... REDUCE THE CHALLENGE TIMF










A HIGH RESISTANCE LEVEL CAN BE OVERWHELMED BY AN
EXTREMELY HIGH RISE IN THE DISEASE CHALLENGE LEVEL




SYMPTOMS OF DISEASE


RESISTANCE

_J
-J


TIME


So let's think about RAISING THE RESIS-
TANCE LEVEL with VACCINATIONS. If the oc-
currence of the disease challenge can be predicted,
we can raise the resistance level BEFORE the
challenge occurs. Once the herd has been initially
vaccinated against a disease, periodic booster
vaccinations administered before the disease
challenge occurs will generally be sufficient.

WHEN THE DISEASE CHALLENGE CAN BE PREDICTED,
BOOSTER VACCINATIONS ARE ADMINISTERED IN ADVANCE


RESISTANCE


DISEASE
-'CHALLENGE


*


THE CHALLENGE OUT-LASTS THE RESISTANCE


RESISTANCE
-I
> BOOSTER

DISEASE
CHALLENGE LONG BREEDING'
SEASON


TIME


Why do things like this happen? Because the
health DOES NOT FIT THE CATTLE OPERA-
TION. For example, take a look at the ADULT
COW CYCLE in a herd with a 60-day breeding
season (next page).


BOOSTERS GIVEN TOO EARLY WILL
NOT PROVIDE ADEQUATE RESISTANCE
TO LAST THROUGH THE CHALLENGE PERIOD


RESISTANCE"


* = BOOSTER VACCINATION


An example of such a prediction is VIBRIO;
normally we would re-booster just prior to the
breeding season to raise the cow's resistance level
to the vibriosis challenge. However, if the disease
challenge lasts longer than the increased resistance
level, a problem occurs; we run out of "protection."

In other cases, the booster vaccination may be
given too early and the elevated resistance may not
last through the upcoming disease challenge
period.


We can easily FIT HEALTH into this operation;
the management provides many opportunities to
gather cattle and fit health procedures into the
adult cow herd: at PRE-CALVING, PRE-BREED-
ING, PRE-WEANING, and POST-WEANING.

To booster vaccinate this herd against Vibriosis
.... the most opportune time would be between calv-
ing and breeding, the PRE-BREEDING window.


TIME


TIME


2


y










ADULT COW CYCLE WITH A
60 DAY BREEDING SEASON


A SINGLE BOOSTER GIVEN BEFORE BREEDING
WILL USUALLY PROVIDE ADEQUATE
RESISTANCE AGAINST VIBRIOSIS


TIME


BULLS OUT


ADULT COW CYCLE
WITH AN EXTENDED BREEDING SEASON


WORKING OPPORTUNITIES FOR AN ADULT COW HERD
WITH A 60 DAY BREEDING SEASON


PERIOD


BULLS IN


RE-BOOSTERING MAY BE REQUIRED TO
EXTEND THE RESISTANCE LEVEL PAST
THE DISEASE CHALLENGE PERIOD


BULLS OUT


If we EXTEND the breeding season we lose the
PRE-BREEDING window available to us; thus, we
lose an excellent opportunity to booster vaccinate
the herd for vibriosis immediately before the
breeding season.

When we are forced to vibrio booster the cow
herd at the PRE-CALVING window rather than
the pre-breeding window, the resistance level
stimulated by the vibrio booster probably will not
last as long as necessary. Because of this we may


TIME










be required to RE-BOOSTER the vibrio vaccination
during the breeding season to extend the resistance
level.

Ifvibriosis is a problem in the herd, this more-
or-less dictates when two of the "cow-workings"
will occur.


ADULT COW CYCLE
WITH AN EXTENDED BREEDING SEASON


ADULT COW CYCLE
WITH A YEAR-ROUND BREEDING SEASON


BULLS IN


>ERIOD


YEAR-ROUND DISEASE CHALLENGES MAY
REQUIRE MULTIPLE BOOSTERING TO PROVIDE
A SUSTAINED LEVEL OF ADEQUATE RESISTANCE


BULLS OUT


BULLS IN


To even complicate things more, how could you
provide resistance against vibriosis in a herd that
has YEAR-ROUND breeding?

It won't be easy, but if we are required to do it,
we can. All you have to do is re-booster several
times during the long disease challenge period. In
this case, during the breeding season.

Another alternative would be to select a vaccine
with an adjuvant that provides a longer "depot-
effect" thus prolonging the antigenic stimulus to
the body. This results in higher/prolonged blood
antibody levels in the animal which is thought to be
indicative of higher/prolonged resistance levels.

A good rule-of-thumb: the longer the "depot-
effect" the higher the resistance level or the longer
the resistance level and the higher-the-price.
Many management systems will allow you to
booster vaccinate at the needed time with a vaccine
that has a less expensive adjuvant, whereas other


BOOSTER
BOOSTER BOOSTER BOOSTER
RESISTANCE

BOOSTER
YEAR-ROUND
DISEASE CHALLENGE
CHALLENGE


TIME

SELECTING A MORE EFFECTIVE ADJUVANT MAY AVOID
HAVING TO USE ADDITIONAL BOOSTERS DURING
THE EXTENDED CHALLENGE PERIOD

RESISTANCE STIMULATED
USING "POTENT" ADJUVANTS



NNIAL
RESISTANCE STIMULATED



TER "ST ADJUVANTS
BOOSTER
I DISEASE .....
.......- CHALLENGE


TIME









management systems may require vaccines with
the more expensive adjuvant.

Reduce the disease challenge
DISEASE CHALLENGES include infectious dis-
eases, parasite diseases, nutritional diseases, toxic
diseases, and many more. When thinking of dis-
ease challenges, don't get caught thinking only of
diseases that will kill cattle; think in terms of dis-
eases that also reduce production and reproduction,
are a threat to a fetus, and are a danger to new-
born calves. Herd health is to prepare today for
what may or will occur tomorrow; herd health is
"preventative" medicine, not "fire-engine" medicine.

Designing a herd health program
Whether it be the adult cow herd, the bull bat-
tery, the calf crop, or the replacement heifers, a
health program for the entire herd can be designed
that will interact between each group. All you need
to do is:

1. keep it simple:
recognize the DISEASE CHALLENGES
know when they OCCUR
then RAISE the RESISTANCE and/or
REDUCE the CHALLENGE

2. understand your BEEF CATTLE CYCLES

3. make the health FIT the CATTLE
OPERATION.

Understand beef cattle cycles
The first step in designing a preventive herd-
health program for a particular beef herd is to
"understand the beef cattle cycles." How do the
cycles for the different classes within the herd
interact? A graphic representation of the beef herd
can be very advantageous, not only for the veteri-
nary practitioner but for the herd managers as
well. Beef cows and breeding bulls function in 12-
month cycles rather than linear calendars; replace-
ment heifers enter cycles of 24 to 36 months dura-
tion depending upon age of breeding. Graphically
represent the herd as overlapping circles, eclipses
and curves, showing where the different classes
overlap, are combined, or separated. Also label,
within each class, important periods such as the
"calving period," "breeding season," and "weaning";
adding dates to these occurrences and activities
greatly enhance the graphic representation. The
following diagram is an example of a "blank" over-
view that is normally used on a beef herd with a


breeding season of 100-110 days. When the dates
have been added for the beginning and end of the
calving periods and breeding seasons, the date of
calf weaning, and the age at which replacement
heifers are bred, the overview provides a quick
reference as to how the herd is managed.


\ BREEDING SEASON /
S. DAYS


Recognize disease challenges
The next step in designing a preventive herd-
health plan is to recognize the disease challenges to
which the herd is exposed or can be potentially
exposed to. In Florida, the following list of disease
challenges is routinely considered; however, not all
ranches are exposed or potentially exposed to all
the listed disease challenges and will be deleted as
required.

POTENTIAL DISEASE CHALLENGES ON THE BEEF HERD
INFECTIOUS BOVINE RHINOTRACHEITIS (IBR)
BOVINE VIRUS DIARRHEA (BVD)
PARAINFLUENZA VIRUS 3 (PI-3)
BOVINE RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUS
(BRSV)
HAEMOPHILUS SOMNUS
PASTEURELLA
CLOSTRIDIAL DISEASES (7-WAY BLACKLEG)
REDWATER
G/H/P/I/C LEPTOSPIROSIS
ANAPLASMOSIS
VIBRIOSIS
TRICHOMONIASIS









BRUCELLOSIS
E. COLI SCOURS
ROTAVIRUS
CORONAVIRUS
G.I. WORMS
LUNG WORMS
GRUBS
LICE
FLUKES
COCCIDIA

Rather than explain each disease in detail with a
beef producer, categorize the potential disease
challenges into four basic categories, each signified
with a number and a brief explanation as to how
the category affects the herd or what can be accom-
plished by controlling the category of disease
challenges. The disease challenges, for all classes
of cattle, are categorized as follows:
CATEGORIZATION OF POTENTIAL DISEASE CHALLENGES
1 SURVIVAL AND DEVELOPMENT:
INCLUDES THOSE CHALLENGES THAT
CAUSE DEATH OR RETARD
DEVELOPMENT AND GROWTH OR
SUBSTANTIALLY REDUCE PERFORMANCE.
2 REPRODUCTION AND FETUS PROTECTION:
INCLUDES CHALLENGES THAT WILL
INTERFERE WITH THE REPRODUCTIVE
PERFORMANCE OF THE ANIMAL OR
PLACE THE FETUS OF A PREGNANT
FEMALE AT RISK.
3 PROTECTION FOR THE NEW-BORN CALF
PROVIDED VIA "FORTIFIED" COLOSTRUM:
CHALLENGES THAT ATTACK THE NEW-
BORN CALF.
4 DISEASE BARRIER FOR THE HERD:
DISEASES CHALLENGES WHICH WE MUST
EITHER KEEP AT A "SUBCLINICAL" STAGE
OR PREVENT FROM BEING INTRODUCED
INTO THE HERD.

Next, identify the category of disease challenges
that affect each class of cattle and list each disease
that fits within the category. Remember the first 2
components of the rule "KEEP IT SIMPLE": a)
identify the disease challenges and b) know when
they occur. To illustrate how the rules apply, use a
table listing the categories of disease challenges
affecting a class of cattle and each challenge


associated with the category. By using a "blow-up"
of representative portions of the herd cycle,
graphically portray the occurrence of the disease
challenge categories.

For the adult cow, defined as any female that
has calved, include all four categories of disease
challenges, list the individual challenges associated
with each category, and then graphically illustrate
where the challenges occur on a "blow-up" of the
adult cow cycle. The following table (see page 8)
and figure illustrate the categorized disease chal-
lenges and when they occur in the adult cow herd.
The larger the physical size (height & width) of the
number on the diagram, the more important the
respective disease challenge category at that time
of the cycle.


CALF


BULLS
OUT


* THE LARGER THE NUMBER'S SIZE (HEIGHT & WIDTH) THE MORE
SIGNIFICANT IS THE RESPECTIVE DISEASE CHALLENGE CAT-
EGORY, IE. A LARGE #3 IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN A SMALL #1.

When planning a health program for the calves,
survival and development are the greatest con-
cerns. Therefore, consider categories #1 (Survival &
Development) and #3 (Protection for the new-born
calf via "fortified" colostrum) and list the individual
disease challenges that are associated with the two
categories. Next, graphically illustrate when the
challenge categories occur on a "blow-up" of the calf
portion of the herd cycle. The following table and
diagram illustrate the categorized disease
challenges and when they occur in the calves.









CATEGORIZATION OF POTENTIAL DISEASE CHALLENGES
ON THE ADULT COW THAT AFFECT:


SURVIVAL &
DEVELOPMENT


REDWATER

ANAPLASMOSIS






G.I. WORMS
LUNG WORMS
GRUBS
LICE
FLUKES


REPRODUCTION &
FETUS PROTECTION

IBR
BVD


H. SOMNUS


LEPTOSPIROSIS-5
ANAPLASMOSIS
VIBRIOSIS
TRICHOMONIASIS
BRUCELLOSIS



G.I. WORMS
LUNG WORMS
GRUBS
LICE
FLUKES


* PROTECTION FOR
THE NEW-BORN CALF

IBR
BVD
PI-3

H. SOMNUS
PASTEURELLA
7-WAY BLACKLEG
REDWATER
LEPTOSPIROSIS-5




E. COLI
ROTAVIRUS
CORONAVIRUS


DISEASE BARRIER
FOR THE HERD

IBR
BVD
PI-3
BRSV
H. SOMNUS
PASTEURELLA
7--WAY BLACKLEG
REDWATER
LEPTOSPIROSIS-5
ANAPLASMOSIS
VIBRIOSIS
TRICHOMONIASIS
BRUCELLOSIS



G.I. WORMS
LUNG WORMS
GRUBS
LICE
FLUKES
COCCIDIA


*PROVIDED VIA "FORTIFIED" COLOSTRUM.

CATEGORIZATION OF POTENTIAL DISEASE CHALLENGES
ON THE CALVES THAT AFFECT:


SURVIVAL &
DEVELOPMENT

IBR
BVD
PI-3
BRSV
H. SOMNUS
PASTEURELLA
7-WAY BLACKLEG
REDWATER
LEPTOSPIROSIS-5


REPRODUCTION &
FETUS PROTECTION


G.I. WORMS
LUNG WORMS
GRUBS
LICE
FLUKES
COCCIlIA

*PROVIDED VIA "FORTIFIED" COLOSTRUM.


* PROTECTION FOR
THE NEW-BORN CALF

IBR
BVD
PI-3

H. SOMNUS
PASTEURELLA
7-WAY BLACKLEG
REDWATER
LEPTOSPIROSIS-5
CORONAVIRUS


DISEASE BARRIER
FOR THE HERD


E. COLI
ROTAVIRUS
CORONAVIRUS









CALVING STARTS




3 VING PERIOD
*3 VING PERIOD
BULL
IN
AAI tOI ~


LALVES -


.S


/ BREEDING SEASON
FOR ADULT COW HERD
CALVING ENDS


* *BULLS
OUT
* THE LARGER THE NUMBER'S SIZE (HEIGHT & WIDTH) THE MORE
SIGNIFICANT IS THE RESPECTIVE DISEASE CHALLENGE CAT-
EGORY, IE. A LARGE #3 IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN A SMALL #1.


Health programs for the replacement heifers,
much like the adult cows, include consideration for
all four categories of disease challenges. However,
unlike the adult cows, category #1 (Survival & De-
velopment) is a major issue in the young heifer. As
the heifer develops and begins to be looked upon as
a breeding animal, categories #2 (Reproduction &
Fetus Protection) and #3 (Protection for the new-
born calf via "fortified" colostrum) become very im-
portant with category #1 decreasing in significance.
For the replacement heifer, the implementation of
coverage against categories 1, 2 and 3 in reality
have provided coverage for category #4 (Disease
Barrier for the Herd). As the replacement heifer
develops into an adult cow, the same disease chal-
lenges will continue to occur; however, the affect of
those challenges may change. Once a heifer
reaches adulthood, the chances of her dying from
certain infectious diseases is greatly reduced.
ONLY the REASONS to PROTECT her against
disease challenges changed; the NEED to protect
her remains. The following table and diagram
illustrate the categories of disease challenges, the


CATEGORIZATION OF POTENTIAL DISEASE CHALLENGES
ON THE REPLACEMENT HEIFERS THAT AFFECT:


SURVIVAL &
DEVELOPMENT

IBR
BVD
PI-3
BRSV
H. SOMNUS
PASTEURELLA
7-WAY BLACKLEG
REDWATER
LEPTOSPIROSIS-5







G.I. WORMS
LUNG WORMS
GRUBS
LICE
FLUKES
COCCIDIA


REPRODUCTION &
FETUS PROTECTION

IBR
BVD


H. SOMNUS



LEPTOSPIROSIS-5
ANAPLASMOSIS
VIBRIOSIS
TRICHOMONIASIS
BRUCELLOSIS



G.I. WORMS
LUNG WORMS
GRUBS
LICE
FLUKES


* PROTECTION FOR
THE NEW-BORN CALF

IBR
BVD
PI-3

H. SOMNUS
PASTEURELLA
7--WAY BLACKLEG
REDWATER
LEPTOSPIROSIS-5




E. COLI
ROTAVIRUS
CORONAVIRUS


DISEASE BARRIER
FOR THE HERD

IBR
BVD
PI-3
BRSV
H. SOMNUS
PASTEURELLA
7-WAY BLACKLEG
REDWATER
LEPTOSPIROSIS-5
ANAPLASMOSIS
VIBRIOSIS
TRICHOMONIASIS
BRUCELLOSIS



G.I. WORMS
LUNG WORMS
GRUBS
LICE
FLUKES
COCCIDIA


*PROVIDED VIA "FORTIFIED" COLOSTRUM.


CALF WEANING


r


#


















REVIEW CALVING
PROCEDURES
& SUPPLIES
PREGNANT
REPLACEMENT HEIFERS


REPLACEMENT HEIFERS
REPLACEMENT HEIFER
CYCLE

BULLS" S

BREEDING
,' s SEASON"
FOR REPLACEMENT /
HEIFERS w

STHE LARGER THE NUMBER'S SIZE (HEIGHT & WIDTH) THE MORE
SIGNIFICANT IS THE RESPECTIVE DISEASE CHALLENGE CAT-
EGORY, IE. A LARGE #3 IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN A SMALL #1.


CALVING
STARTS -


CATEGORIZATION OF POTENTIAL DISEASE CHALLENGES
ON THE BREEDING BULLS THAT AFFECT:


SURVIVAL &
DEVELOPMENT


REPRODUCTION


PROTECTION FOR
THE NEW-BORN CALF


REDWATER


ANAPLASMOSIS


G.I. WORMS
LUNG WORMS
GRUBS
LICE
FLUKES


VIBRIOSIS
TRICHOMONIASIS
BRUCELLOSIS

G.I. WORMS
LUNG WORMS
GRUBS
LICE
FLUKES


DISEASE BARRIER
FOR THE HERD

IBR
BVD
PI-3
BRSV
H. SOMNUS
PASTEURELLA
7-WAY BLACKLEG
REDWATER
LEPTOSPIROSIS-5
ANAPLASMOSIS
VIBRIOSIS
TRICHOMONIASIS
BRUCELLOSIS


G.I. WORMS
LUNG WORMS
GRUBS
LICE
FLUKES
COCCIDIA


diseases associated with each category, and the
occurrence of the challenges in the replacement
heifer cycle.

In most commercial beef herds, new bulls are
purchased each year to provide a continuing im-
provement of genetic traits and to prevent "inbreed-
ing." Because the bulls originate outside the herd,
category #1 challenges (Survival & Development)
are important issues immediately after purchase
and category #4 challenges (Disease Barrier for the
Herd) become major considerations when the new
bulls join the existing bull battery and breeding
females.

Finally, category #2 (Reproduction) occurs
when the bulls are added to the breeding females.
Category #1 challenges (Survival & Development)
become less important after the bulls have been
with the herd for several seasons. The following
table and diagram illustrate the categories of dis-
ease challenges, the diseases associated with each
category, and the occurrence of the challenges in
the breeding bull cycle.


LA I CALVING ENDS
ADULT COS/ &G
NURSING CALVES/ CALVING STJ
/


-


I DEVELOPING











1 BREEDING
SEASON
1 BREEDING STARTS
S [ SEASON
A COS PRE-BREEDING
/1 FOR ADULT COWS
BREEDING SEASON & HEIFERS *
ENDS \ H
POST-BREEDING



14
K-% BREEDING
BULLS

BEFORE ADDING TO
THE BULL HERD



@ PURCHASE AFTER
s 1 -AFTER
PURCHASE
* THE LARGER THE NUMBER'S SIZE (HEIGHT & WIDTH) THE MORE
SIGNIFICANT IS THE RESPECTIVE DISEASE CHALLENGE CAT-
EGORY, IE. A LARGE #3 IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN A SMALL #1.

Design to "fit the management" of the
herd
Be sure to design the health program to "fit the
management" of the herd; it is extremely difficult to
begin a health program by requiring numerous
management changes. Management changes can
come later; concentrate on trying to make the
health program fit the existing management. Basi-
cally, the information needed from the producer to
begia drafting a preventative health program is:

Dates that the breeding season begins and
ends in the cow herd?

Predominant breed of cattle in the herd.

When are cows gathered for routine process-
ing? Remember that cows are gathered when
their nursing calves are gathered.

What is the anniversary date for the herd's
Brucellosis Free Certification?

Are calves normally "creep" fed prior to
weaning?


When are calves routinely worked? Remember
that nursing calves are gathered when the
brood cows are gathered for processing.

Approximate date of calf weaning.

Is ownership retained on weaned feeder calves
or are the feeder calves marketed through a
"commingled" market system or "direct"
marketing system?

Age at which replacement heifers are bred.

Dates that the breeding season begins and
ends in the replacement heifers?

Are breeding bulls purchased or raised from
herd calves?

Are there any diseases that have been a
problem in the past?

The veterinarian that has been involved with
this operation should know what disease challenges
must be guarded against. Be sure to make a list of
the challenges and categorize them into types of
challenges. Construct your cycles, add the appropri-
ate dates, and mark the locations when the respec-
tive class of cattle are gathered or worked. The big
question is: are the times cattle are gathered con-
ducive to adding an adequate preventive medicine
program to the herd? To answer this, all you need
to remember are the rules to KEEP HEALTH
SIMPLE:

recognize the DISEASE CHALLENGES

know when they OCCUR

then RAISE the RESISTANCE and/or
REDUCE the CHALLENGE.

If the cattle working times, designated "working
Windows", allow you to follow these rules, then you
can effectively design a adequate preventive
medicine program for the herd.

A sample health program
For demonstration purposes, the following 5 dia-
grams represent a simple health program that has
been designed for a 2500 head commercial cow-calf
operation in south Florida. The following informa-
tion was gathered in an interview with the
manager of this operation:









Adult cows are bred from February 1 through
May 22 (calculates to 110 day breeding
season).

The predominant breed of cows is hereford
(average length of gestation = 285 days). Calv-
ing season for the adult cows begins on No-
vember 13 and lasts through March 3.

Cows are routinely processed in September
following calf weaning. Cows are also gath-
ered at calf processing in March and June.

October 5 is the anniversary date for the
herd's Brucellosis Free Certification.

The calves are not "creep" fed prior to wean-
ing.

Calves are routinely worked in March, June
and at weaning in September.

September 1 is the approximate date of calf
weaning.

The calves are usually contracted and are
shipped directly to an out-of-state buyer.

Replacement heifers are bred to calve as 3-
year-olds (bred at approximately 24-26
months of age).

Breeding of replacement heifers begins 31
days before the cow herd on January 1. The
heifers' breeding season lasts through April 11
which calculates to be 100 days in length.
Heifer calving begins October 13 and lasts
through January 21 for 285 days gestation.

Breeding bulls are purchased for this opera-
tion.

Redwater, vibriosis, and leptospirosis has
been a problem in the cow herd. Purchased
bulls have experienced severe challenges of
anaplasmosis. Nursing calves have died with
blackleg and weaned calves have exhibited
pneumonia problems after shipping; just re-
cently, BRSV was diagnosed in the shipped
calves.

Based upon the history of surrounding herds and
personal experience the producer and veterinarian
considered the following:


POTENTIAL DISEASE CHALLENGES ON THE BEEF HERD
INFECTIOUS BOVINE RHINOTRACHEITIS (IBR)
BOVINE VIRUS DIARRHEA (BVD)
PARAINFLUENZA VIRUS 3 (PI-3)
BOVINE RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUS
(BRSV)
HAEMOPHILUS SOMMUS
PASTEURELLA
CLOSTRIDIAL DISEASES (7-WAY BLACKLEG)
REDWATER
G/H/P/I/C LEPTOSPIROSIS
ANAPLASMOSIS
VIBRIOSIS
TRICHOMONIASIS3
BRUCELLOSIS
E. COLI SCOURS
ROTAVIRU3
CORONAVIRUS
G.I. WORMS
LUNG WORMS
GRUBS
LICE
FLUKES
0eeCOC IA


Individual animal examination and history of
diseases in the general area allowed deletion of cer-
tain disease challenges from the initial herd health
plan. To allow the herd health to be managed us-
ing this plan the herd first had to be properly vacci-
nated against specific diseases and treated for ex-
ternal and internal parasites. For the adult cows
and bulls, the initial vaccinations were adminis-
tered during "calf working times."

Preventive health programs presented in this
manner have been easily understood, easily fol-
lowed, and easily referenced. The alternatives,
which include lengthy manuscripts, confusing cal-
endars, and excessive detail are thought of as, at
least in our area, cluttered or too "busy." Most beef
cattle producers will not use the "busy" health
plans. Health programs designed and presented in
this manner allow the beef producers to concen-
trate on improving herd genetics, pasture manage-
ment, and marketing calves.


To design preventive health
programs:
1. keep it simple:

recognize the DISEASE CHALLENGES









- know when they OCCUR

- then RAISE the RESISTANCE &/or
REDUCE the CHALLENGE


2. understand your BEEF CATTLE CYCLES

3. make the health FIT the CATTLE
OPERATION.


JOHN DOE RANCH
"OVERVIEW" OF BEEF CATTLE CYCLES


11/1
SEPTEMBER


WEANING CALVES





COW/CALF


PERIOD


FIRST CALF HEIFERS


PERIOD


2/1 -


BREEDING DYS
110 DAYS


/
/
/


3/3



/


COW/CALF
CYCLE


CALVES
/ 5/22








REPLACEMENT HEIFERS


BULLS


PREGNANT
REPLACEMENT
HEIFERS


BULLS
W-P


RPL. HEIFERS BRED AT
24 MONTHS-OF-AGE


4/11
\/



/


BREEDING..
100 DAYS
%r -


BULL /
CALVES


N










STOCKERS
FEEDERS


r

1/1










JOHN DOE RANCH
ADULT COWS' CYCLE & WORKING WINDOWS


POST-WEANING WINDOW
PREGNANCY PALPATION, PHYSICAL EXAM
CHECK ID TAGS, CHECK ABSCESSES
CHECK CRIPPLES & CANCER EYES
MARK & BLOOD TEST COWS FOR SALE
FOR KEEPER COWS:


SEPTEMBER




WEANING
CALVES I


@ MARKING & BRANDING OF CAL
ID POOR PRODUCING COWS
DEGRUB/DELOUSE
DEWORM IF NEEDED
-CHECK FOR:
ABSCESSES
CRIPPLES
CANCER EYES


CALVING STARTS
NOV 13


CALVING PERIOD


- DEWORM, DEFLUKE
-DELOUSE IF NEEDED
- VITAMIN AD INJECTION
- BOOSTER VACCINATE:
*NON-RPL IBR, BVD, P13 & BRSV
8-WAY BLACKLEG
VIBRIO/LEPTO 5
- REVIEW CALVING PROCEDURES & SUPPLIES
- ANNUAL BANGS TEST


IN
FEB1


BULLS


110 DAYS'
BREEDING
ENDS MARCH 3




POST-CALVING WINDOW:
CHECK FOR:
ABSCESSES MARCH
CRIPPLES
s CANCER EYES
BOOSTER VACCINATE
JUNE VIBRIO/LEPTO-5
_ DEWORM
DEFLUKE
OUT -DELOUSE
MAY 22


BULLS
BULLS


NOTE: TESTING FOR BRUCELLOSIS RECERTIFICATIN MUST BE CONDUCTED WITHIN 60 DAYS OF THE ORIGINAL CERTIFICA-
TION ANNIVERSARY DATE. (OCTOBER 5, 1985)

* NON-REPLICATION VIRAL VACCINES: KILLED, CHEMICALLY ALTERED OR CERTAIN MLV VACCINES (IE:BRSV)










JOHN DOE RANCH CALF PROCEDURES


CALVING STARTS
NOV. 13


CALVING PERIOD


SEPTEMBER
11


@ WEANING:
VITAMIN
DEWOR1
VACCINE
NC


8-
H.
I PA
LE
WEANED
CALVES






PRE-WEANING PROCESSING:
IMPLANT STEERS
BANG'S VACCINATE HEIFERS
VACCINATE:
NON-RPL IBR, BVD, P13 & BRSV
8-WAY BLACKLEG
H. SOMNUS
PASTEURELLA
LEPTO 5
DEWORM JUt
DELICE
DEGRUB


AD & B 12INJECTION
M & DEFLUKE
ATE:
)N-RPL IBR, BVD, P13 & BRSV
WAY BLACKLEG
SOMNUS
STEURELLA
PTO 5






110 DAYS
BREEDING


IN
FEB1


ENDS MARCH 3
V


POST-CALVING:
I EAR NOTCH
-CASTRATE
i -BRAND
E -IMPLANT STEERS
I -DEWORM


OUT
MAY 22



BULLS
BULLS


* NON-REPLICATING VIRAL VACCINES: KILLED, CHEMICALLY ALTERED OR CERTAIN MLV VACCINES (IE:BRSV).


BULLS










JOHN DOE RANCH
REPLACEMENT HEIFERS CYCLE & WORKING WINDOWS

POST-CALVING WINDOW:
CULL LATE CALVERS
CULL HEIFERS WITH DYSTOCIA
IF NEEDED:
DEWORM & DELOUSE

JANUARY


E


,


J BREEDING
110 D


0


BULLS









I DEGRUB


NDS JAN 21

V1.


CALVING PERIOD


CALVING STARTS
OCTOBER 13

SEPTEMBER

PRE-CALVING WINDOW:
DEWORM, DELOUSE
DEFLUKE
VACCINATE:
NON-RPL IBR, BVD, PI3 & BRSV
8-WAY BLACKLEG
VIBRIO/LEPTO-5
VITAMIN AD INJECTION
BANGS TEST |


REPLACEMENT HEIFERS
BRED AT 24 MONTHS OF AGE


/
JUNE


." BULLS


S. PREG. EXAM WINDOW:
S1 CULL ALL OPEN HEIFERS
OCTOBERINOVEMBER APRIL11 CULL ALL OPEN HEIFERS
OCTOBERNOVEMBER SELECT HEIFERS THAT:
ARE EARLY BREEDERS
PRE-BREEDING WINDOW: JANUARY 1 NO HISTORY OF
SELECT HEIFERS THAT ILLNESS
REACH DESIRED WEIGHT \ DEGRUB, DELOUSE
DEWORM, DEFLUKE, DELOUSE DEWORM IF NEEDED
VACCINATE: 100 DAYS -VACCINATE:
NON-RPL IBR, BVD, PI3 & BRSV BREEDING LEPTO-5
8-WAY BLACKLEG
VIBRIO/LEPTO-5


SEPTEMBER


WEANING:
(SEE "CALF PROCEDUI










JOHN DOE RANCH
BREEDING BULLS' CYCLE & WORKING WINDOWS


- DEWORM
- DELOUSE
- DEFLUKE
- CHECK FOR CRIPPLES


1\ \MARCH
ENDS:
APRIL 11 FOR HEIFERS
MAY 22 FOR ADULT COWS







POST BREEDING WINDOW: JUNI
(2 WEEKS AFTER BREEDING)
GENERAL PHYSICAL EXAM
-DEWORM
DEGRUB & DELOUSE
VACCINATIONS:
VIBRIO/LEPTO-5
ANAPLASMOSIS










PURCHASING BULLS:
-1 BULL FOR 25-30 COWS
VIRGIN BULLS ONLY
BRUCELLOSIS FREE HERD
TRICHOMONIASIS FREE HERD
ADEQUATE TESTICLE SIZE
PHYSICAL EXAM
BREEDING SOUNDNESS EXAM
SEMEN EVALUATION
LIBIDO TRIAL


BREEDING
SEASON -



N


E









BULLS


BREEDING SEASON STARTS:
JAN 1 RPL. HEIFERS
FEB 1 ADULT COWS


OV/D


PRE-BREEDING WINDOW:
BREEDING SOUNDNESS EXAM
TRICHOMONIASIS TESTING
GENERAL PHYSICAL EXAM
DEWORM
DEFLUKE
DELOUSE IF NEEDED
VACCINATIONS:
NR IBR, BVD, P13 & BRSV
8-WAY BLACKLEG
VIBRIO/LEPTO-5
ANNUAL BANGS TEST







POST-ISOLATION:
VACCINATE (2ND DOSE):
NR IBR, BVD, P13 & BRSV
8-WAY BLACKLEG
VIBRIO/LEPTO-5
ANAPLASMOSIS
WAIT 14 DAYS...
/ ADD TO BULL HERD


POST-PURCHASING:
ISOLATE FOR 60 DAYS IF POSSIBLE
DEWORM, DEFLUKE & DELOUSE
DEGRUB IF BEFORE SEPTEMBER
VACCINATE (1ST DOSE):
*NON-RPL IBR, BVD, PI3 & BRSV
8-WAY BLACKLEG
VIBRIO/LEPTO-5
ANAPLASMOSIS


* NON-REPLICATING VIRAL VACCINES: KILLED, CHEMICALLY ALTERED OR CERTAIN MLV VACCINES (IE:BRSV).
















































































COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, JohnT. Woeste,
Director, in cooperation with the United States Department of Agriculture, publishes this information to further the purpose of the May 8 and June
30, 1914 Acts of Congress; and is authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that
function without regard to race, color, sex, age, handicap or national origin. Single copies of extension publications (excluding 4-H and youth
publications) are available free to Florida residents from county extension offices. Information on bulk rates or copies for out-of-state purchasers
is available from C.M. Hinton, Publications Distribution Center, IFAS Building 664, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida32611. Before publicizing
this publication, editors should contact this address to determine availability. Printed 6/92.




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs