• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 List of Tables
 List of Figures
 Abstract
 Introduction
 Economic characteristics and impacts...
 Economic characteristics and impacts...
 Economic characteristics and impacts...
 Bibliography
 Appendix A: Implan multipliers...






Title: Economic impacts of Florida's agricultural and natural resource industries
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00066940/00001
 Material Information
Title: Economic impacts of Florida's agricultural and natural resource industries
Physical Description: Book
Creator: Hodges, Alan W.
Publisher: Food and Resource Economics Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publication Date: 2005
 Notes
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00066940
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title
    Table of Contents
        Page ii
    List of Tables
        Page iii
    List of Figures
        Page iv
    Abstract
        Page v
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Economic characteristics and impacts of Florida agricultural and natural resource industries
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Economic characteristics and impacts of Florida agricultural and natural resource industries
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Economic characteristics and impacts of Florida agricultural and natural resource industries
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 18
        Page 20
        Page 22
        Page 24
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 17
        Page 19
        Page 21
        Page 23
        Page 25
        Page 28
    Bibliography
        Page 31
        Page 32
    Appendix A: Implan multipliers for Florida agricultural and natural resource industries, 1997
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
Full Text

















Economic Impacts of Florida's
Agricultural and Natural Resource Industries

by Alan W. Hodges, W. David Mulkey and Effie Philippakos

University of Florida
Institute of Food & Agricultural Sciences
Food & Resource Economics Department
Gainesville, Florida


Economic Information Report 00-4


November 13, 2000








Table of Contents


Table of Contents ............ ....................................... ......... ii

List of Tables ........ ...................................................... iii

List of Figures ........ ...................................................... iv

Abstract ....................................................... .......... v

Introduction ......................... ............................. .......... 1
Geography and Natural Resources of Florida . ............... ................... 1
Economic Structure of Agriculture and Natural Resource Industries ................ .... 4

Economic Characteristics and Impacts of Florida Agricultural and Natural Resource Industries .... 6
Direct Econom ic Im pacts .......... ........................................... 6
Total Econom ic Im pacts .......... ........................................... 8

Profiles of Florida Agricultural and Natural Resource Industries ........................ 11
Fruits and V vegetables ...................................................... 11
Citrus ............ ................................... ......... 12
Vegetables and M elons ............. .................................... 12
O their Fruits, N uts and Berries ......... .............................. 14
Sugarcane and Sugar .......... ........................................... 15
Field Crops ........... ..................................... .......... 16
Dairy Products .......... ................................. .......... 18
Livestock and M eat Products . ........ ..................................... 20
Poultry ............ .................................. .......... 20
Beef Cattle .......... ............................... .......... 20
Processed M eat Products . ........ .................................. 20
Horses and Ponies ...................................... ......... 20
Forest Products ........ .................................. .......... 22
Seafood Products ......................... ............................ 24
Other Food and Tobacco Products Manufacturing ........................... 26
Environmental Horticulture .......... ........................................ 27
Agricultural Inputs and Services . ........ ................................... 29
Mining ............ ........................................ ......... 30

Literature and Inform ation Sources Cited . ........ .................................. 31

Appendix A. Implan Multipliers for Florida Agriculture and Natural Resource Industries, 1997 ....... 33








List of Tables

Table 1. Economic characteristics and direct impacts of Florida agricultural and natural resource

industries, 1997................................................ .. ........... 6
Table 2. Value of international exports of agricultural and natural resource products from Florida ports,
by com m odity and region, 1998 . ........ .................................... 8
Table 3. Ratio of total output impacts to direct impacts for Florida's agricultural and natural resource
industries, 1997........... ................................. .......... 9
Table 4. Total economic impacts of Florida's agricultural and natural resource industries, 1997 .... 10
Table 5. Economic impacts of Florida's fruit and vegetable industry, 1997 ..................... 11
Table 6. Cash receipts for Florida citrus fruits, by variety, 1998-99 ..................... 12
Table 7. Cash receipts for Florida vegetables and melons, by crop, 1998 ..................... 13
Table 8. Cash receipts for Florida fruits, nuts and berries, by crop, 1997 .................. 14
Table 9. Economic impacts of Florida's sugar industry, 1997 .............................. 15
Table 10. Cash receipts for Florida field crops, 1998 ..................................... 16
Table 11. Economic impacts of Florida's field crops, 1997 .......... .................... .. 17
Table 12. Economic impacts of Florida's dairy products industry, 1997 .................... 19
Table 13. Economic impacts of Florida's livestock and meat products industry, 1997 .......... ... 21
Table 14. Volume of timber roundwood harvested in Florida, by species group, 1997 ............ 22
Table 15. Economic impacts of Florida's forest products industry, 1997 ..................... 23
Table 16. Value of Florida aquaculture products, 1997 .......... ...................... .. 24
Table 17. Economic impacts of Florida's seafood products industry, 1997 ................... 25
Table 19. Cash receipts for Florida greenhouse and nursery crops, 1997 ................... 27
Table 20. Economic impacts of Florida's ornamental plant and landscape services industry, 1997.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 8
Table 21. Economic impacts of Florida's agricultural inputs and services industry, 1997 .......... 29
Table 22. Economic impacts of Florida's mining industry, 1997 ........................ 30








List of Figures

Figure 1. Florida land use trends, 1959-97 . ....... ................................. 2
Figure 2. Location of population and agricultural production in Florida .................... .... 2
Figure 3. Economic structure of agricultural and natural resource industries ............... ... 4
Figure 4. Value of Florida agricultural crops and livestock sold, 1964-97 ................. .... 7
Figure 5. Value of international exports of agricultural and natural resource products through Florida
ports, 1994-98........... .................................. .......... 7
Figure 6. Cash receipts for Florida citrus fruit, 1994-99 .......... ...................... .. 12
Figure 7. Value of processed citrus products, Florida, 1990-98 ....................... 12
Figure 8. Cash receipts for Florida vegetables and melons, 1993-98 ....................... 13
Figure 9. Employment in Florida fruit and vegetable processing, 1987-96 ..................... 13
Figure 10. Cash receipts for Florida fruit, nut and berry crops, 1993-97 ................... 14
Figure 11. Cash receipts for Florida sugarcane, 1993-97 ............................ 15
Figure 12. Value of shipments of Florida processed sugar and confectionary products, 1990-96 ..... 15
Figure 13. Cash receipts for Florida field crops, 1993-97 ........ ......................... 16
Figure 14. Value of shipments of processed Florida crops, 1987-96 ...................... 16
Figure 15. Cash receipts from Florida raw milk production, 1989-98 ..................... 18
Figure 16. Value of shipments of Florida dairy products, 1987-95 ...................... 18
Figure 17. Employment in Florida's dairy manufacturing industry, 1989-95 ................. 18
Figure 18. Cash receipts for Florida poultry, 1984-98 ........ ........................... 20
Figure 19. Cash receipts for Florida beef cattle, 1989-98 ......... ........................ 20
Figure 20. Value of shipments of Florida meat products, 1987-96 ...................... . 20
Figure 21. Employment in the Florida meat products industry, 1987-96 ..................... 20
Figure 22. Value of shipments for Florida forest products manufacturing, 1987-96 ............ ... 22
Figure 23. Employment in Florida's timber products manufacturing, 1987-96 ................... 22
Figure 24. Value of Florida commercial fisheries landings, 1985-98 .................... 24
Figure 25. Value of Florida aquaculture products, 1989-97 .......................... 24
Figure 26. Value of sales of Florida greenhouse and nursery crops, 1989-97 ............... 27
Figure 27. Value of shipments of Florida agricultural chemicals, 1987-97 .................. 29
Figure 28. Employment in the Florida chemical manufacturing industry, 1987-97 ............. ... 29
Figure 29. Phosphate rock mined in Florida, 1988-97 .......... ....................... .. 30








Economic Impacts of Florida's Agricultural and Natural Resource Industries

by Alan W. Hodges, W. David Mulkey and Effie Philippakos


Abstract

The state of Florida has a large complex of agricultural and natural resource industries which
produce a wide array of food, fiber and mineral products, and associated services. Florida's
subtropical climate and abundant water resources provide a comparative advantage for production of
high-valued products such as citrus, sugar, vegetables, and ornamental plants. The state also is a
leading producer of forest products, seafood, livestock and animal products, and phosphatic
fertilizers. For many of these commodities, production is closely integrated with manufacturing and
service activities. This report reviews the historical economic trends in Florida's agricultural and
natural resource sectors and estimates their total economic impact using the IMPLAN input-output
modeling system. Direct impacts of the agricultural and natural resource industries in 1997 included
$31.4 billion (B) in industry output (sales), $18.2B in exports from the state, $12.3B in total value
added, and 314,000 jobs. The direct employment and value added represented 3.9 percent and 3.3
percent of the entire Florida economy, respectively. Total impacts, reflecting the multiplier effects of
exports, local final demand, intermediate demand of other industries, and personal consumption
expenditures of industry employees, were estimated at $49.2B in industry output, $23.8B in value-
added, and 544,000 jobs. Results are detailed for 102 individual industry sectors and 11 major
industry groups including fruits and vegetables, sugar and confectionary products, field crops, dairy
products, livestock and meat products, forest products, seafood products, other food and tobacco
products, ornamental plants and landscape services, agricultural inputs and services, and mining.


Keywords: Florida, agriculture, natural resources, economic impacts, multipliers, output, value
added, employment, exports, IMPLAN, input-output analysis.








Economic Impacts of Florida's Agricultural and Natural Resource Industries
by Alan W. Hodges, W. David Mulkey and Effie Philippakos1


Introduction

Geography and Natural Resources of Florida

The economy of the state of Florida is largely dependent upon its rich natural resource endowments,
characterized by a warm-humid climate, extensive freshwater and coastal resources, and a broad
array of ecosystems with unusual or unique flora and fauna. The state covers 58,620 square miles,
extending from 24 to 30 degrees north latitude. The landform of Florida is extremely flat, which
facilitates development, with elevations nowhere exceeding 350 feet above sea level. Florida soils
are generally coarse, well-drained and low in organic matter and nutrients; however small areas of
organic muck soils surrounding the Everglades region and heavy clay soils in the Panhandle are
valuable agriculturally (Brown et al., 1999). The Sunshine state receives more intense solar
radiation than most of the US, and receives abundant rainfall, averaging 50 inches annually across
the state, which is relatively evenly distributed throughout the year. The state is bounded by the
southern Atlantic ocean and the Gulf of Mexico, with 2.1 million acres of estuaries and 5.4 million
acres of territorial seas. The 1,350 miles of seacoast exceed that for all other states combined along
the US Atlantic seaboard. Because of the high rainfall and moisture provided by the adjacent coastal
waters, Florida is uniquely productive among areas at this latitude--most other regions are deserts.
Florida has abundant surface water resources, including 7800 freshwater lakes covering 2.3 million
acres, over 1 million acres of marshes and swamps, and 1,700 rivers and streams extending
10,500 miles. The Floridian aquifer, which underlies most of the state, is one of the most productive
aquifers in the country. The karst geology gives rise to more large springs than in any other region of
the world. These water resources supply water for domestic, industrial, agricultural, and natural
system uses, and they support both commercial and recreational fishing activities (Hornsby et al.,
1999, Cichra et al., 1999). Florida features a wide range of ecosystems, from tropical hammocks
and coral reefs in the Florida Keys, to native grasslands in the central region, to temperate forests in
the north central and panhandle portions of the state. The state's 25,000 square miles of public and
private commercial forest lands have a diverse array of softwood and hardwood forest types (Carter
et al., 1999). Florida is also rich in wildlife, including 822 wild vertebrates, and the state has more
plant and animal species than any other state except Hawaii (Labisky et al., 1999). Because of its
geographic position and long peninsular shape, Florida has a high degree of biological endemism,
with 235 plants and 115 vertebrates not found elsewhere, and 47 vertebrates which are federally
listed as endangered or threatened.

The rich natural resources and environmental amenities in Florida are attractive for both human
settlement and agricultural utilization. Rapid population growth in Florida is a critical issue affecting
the agricultural and natural resource industries, both positively and negatively. Urban populations


1 Alan Hodges is a Coordinator of Economic Analysis, David Mulkey is a Professor, and Effie
Philippakos is a Research Assistant, all in the Food & Resource Economics Department, University of
Florida, PO Box 110240, Gainesville, FL 32640. Contact first author at telephone 352-392-1881 x312, fax
352-392-3646, or email hodges@fred.ifas.ufl.edu.

Acknowledgments. Graduate student research assistant Richard Valentine helped compile the economic
data for this paper and computer support technician Giancarlo Espinosa provided computer programming
services. Funding for this project was provided by the University of Florida, office of the Vice-President for
Agriculture and Natural Resources.








inevitably compete for land and water resources, and impose more stringent environmental
regulations, but also provide workers for labor-intensive activities, and represent a large local
demand for goods and services. In 1999 the population of Florida was over 15 million persons,
making it the fourth largest state in the nation, and by 2025 the population is expected to surpass 20
million.

Florida has over 16,000 square miles in farmland, including cropland, pasture, orchards, and farm
woodlands (Census of Agriculture, 1997). Collectively, agricultural and forest lands represent 73
percent of Florida's total land area, while urban, industrial, and other land uses comprised 27
percent of Florida's total land area (Brown et al., 1999). Land allocated to urban and other
developed urban uses has increased dramatically, by more than four-fold since 1959,
commensurate with the state's
population growth (Brown, et al., __
1999), as shown in Figure 1. The 30 Cropland
proximity of agricultural production
to the human population in Florida 25 -
is shown in Figure 2, with the -0 Pasture
shaded areas representing 14 ,
counties with population 20 -~
exceeding 250,000 persons, and Forests
each dot representing $1.5 million 15
in net agricultural sales (1997).
The 14 largest counties contain Urban
67 percent of the state's Q 10 --
population and account for a a -
majority of agricultural production. C Special
Approximately 93 percent of 5- --- --
Florida's citizens reside in urban 7 _., r
areas having at least 50,000 other
residents or in non-urbanized 0997 _-
'99 1964 1H9 1974 197E 19E2 1987 1H92 1997
settlements with at least 2,500 sour-e 1997 CersL ofAgctLHure rd John Reyioes,LF,FRE Depi.
persons (Florida Statistical
Abstract, 1998). Clearly, Figure 1. Florida land use trends, 1959-97.
agricultural and natural resource
industries in Florida coexist with the human population, especially in the central and southern
portions of the state.

The rapid urbanization leads to an increasing disassociation from the agrarian and rural lifestyle.
Many consumers and political leaders in the state have a limited understanding of where food and
other natural products come from, and the issues surrounding the management of natural
resources. This report is intended to facilitate a better understanding of Florida's agricultural and
natural resource industries, by reviewing historical economic trends of these industries, and by
evaluating their economic impacts.

































:%


County Population > 250,000


S $1.5 million in net agricultural
sales, 1997








Figure 2. Location of population and agricultural production in Florida.









Economic Structure of Agriculture and Natural Resource Industries


The agricultural and natural resource industries comprise a complex and integrated network of
enterprises associated with production, processing and service activities, and is tied to other
economic sectors through extensive inter-industry linkages. Delineating these linkages is essential
to a full understanding of the impact of these industries. Figure 3 illustrates the economic structure
of these industries, with each small box symbolizing a functional economic role. The economy
receives renewable natural resource inputs in the form of sun, rain, soils, timber, etc. The local
economy also trades goods and services with the rest of the United States and world economy.
These inputs enable the production of raw agricultural commodities by the production sector. The
raw commodities are processed into a variety of manufactured products in Florida, including meats,
dairy products, preserved fruits and vegetables, sugar and confectionary products, lumber and
wood products, paper and allied products, and fertilizer. These products are then distributed through
wholesale and retail channels to consumers in Florida or for export to customers outside the region.
Agriculture input vendors and service firms provide critical goods and services to the agricultural
and natural resource sector, and Florida residents supply labor to each regional industry. As
commodities progress from one economic sector to another, value is added from labor, capital, and
management.



Hum an
Population



Renewable Production United
States and
uralector Farms, Manufacturing Wholesale StWoes and
Resource -P Forestry, H ill and Retail E o m
Inputs Sun, Fishing, Mining Distribution E
Rain, Soils


Agricultural Inputs
and Services




-- Goods and Services
------- Labor

Figure 3. Economic structure of agricultural and natural resource industries.

Industrial activities stimulate the local economy in three primary ways. First, as direct effects,
industries generate output and value-added, and provide employment and wages to employees.
Second, as indirect effects, purchases of goods and services as inputs from other industries
supports additional economic activity in these industries. Third, earnings by industry employees
boosts the local economy through their personal consumption expenditures, known as induced
effects. The total economic impact is the sum of the direct, indirect and induced effects. Exports of
goods to customers outside the region have a greater impact than sales to local consumers, by
introducing new money into the local economy, which is then recirculated. Also, inputs which are
obtained from local firms rather than imported from outside the region are associated with greater
economic impact because the money is retained within the region.








Export earnings augment the economic base of the region and generate additional economic activity
in the economic sectors which provide inputs to produce the exports (indirect effects), and
increased personal consumption expenditures by industry employees (induced effects). These
secondary economic impacts may be estimated with economic multipliers derived from input-output
models. Input-output analysis is a method that captures the regional economic interdependence
between different industries, households and government institutions. This approach assumes that
production of each commodity or service is associated with a certain basket of inputs, such that for
a given level or change in final demand for a particular industry there are predictable impacts in
other linked sectors of the economy. For further information on export base theory and application
of input-output models and economic impact analysis see Miller and Blair (1988), Schaeffer (1999,
http://www.rri.wvu.edu/regscweb.htm), or Mulkey and Hodges (2000).









Economic Characteristics and Impacts of Florida Agricultural and Natural
Resource Industries

Direct Economic Impacts

Florida's agricultural and natural resource industries produce a wide array of food, fiber and mineral
products and associated services, including fruits and vegetables, sugar, dairy, livestock and meats,
seafood, ornamental plants, tobacco, wood and paper products, fertilizers, chemicals and
machinery. Information on economic characteristics were compiled for a total of 102 distinct
industries and their associated commodities that were identified as dependent upon the agricultural
or natural resource base in Florida. The gross value of sales, or economic output, of these products
and services, was $31.4 billion (B) in 1997, including $18.2B exported to customers outside the
state of Florida (Table 1). Local final demand by households, governments and institutions for these
products totaled $5.4B, and intermediate sales by the agriculture and natural resource sector to
other Florida industries totaled $3.5B. The agriculture and natural resource industries provided
employment for about 314 thousand persons, and generated $12.3B in value added, including $7.1B
in labor income and $767 million in indirect business taxes paid to state and local governments. As a
share of the overall Florida economy, the agricultural and natural resource industries represented
5.1 percent of economic output, 10.9 percent of exports, 3.3 percent of value added and 3.9 percent
of employment.

Table 1. Economic characteristics and direct impacts of Florida agricultural and natural resource
industries, 1997.


Intermediate


Industry Group


Fruits and Vegetables

Forest Products
Agricultural Inputs and
Services

Other Food and Tobacco
Products

Ornamental Plants and
Landscape Services
Livestock and Meat
Products


Mining


Local
Industry Total F al
Output Exports Demand


5,528 4,410 855

5,359 2,702 252

5,121 3,595 175


5,038 2,835 1,776


2,843 874


2,068 442 1,062

1,916 1,118 102


Output to
Non-
Agriculture
Sectors


Employ- Value
ment (jobs) Added


Indirect
Labor Business
Income Taxes
Paid


90 46,388 2,257 1,345

1,355 28,261 1,859 1,026


79,005 1,602 1,122


18,319 1,640 773 327


78,062 2,127 1,372 49


23,858 512


9,258 1,033 313


Sugar and Confectionary
Products


1,505 1,215 99 24 7,601 471


Dairy Products

Seafood Products


1,080 158 530


4,541 300


24 59 10,632 344


184 10


All values in million US dollars (1997), except employment (jobs).
Source: Minnesota Implan Group, 1999.


Field Crops 267 235 2 7 7,718 149 73 11
Total 31.448 18,179 5,356 3.452 313.643 12.296 7.073 767










The value of all Florida crops and livestock has
grown from about $4.4B in the 1960's to about $6
billion in the 1990's, in inflation-adjusted terms
(Figure 4).

The leading industry groups in terms of economic
output were fruits and vegetable products ($5.5B),
forest products ($5.4B), agricultural inputs and
services ($5.1B), other food and tobacco products
($5.0B), ornamental plants and landscape services
($2.8B), and livestock and meat products ($2.1 B)
(Table 1). A detailed listing of the individual industry
sectors included within these groups is discussed
later in this report.

Value added represents sales revenues less
purchased inputs, and is a good indicator of the net


-.o ,
H



^ ~ p
S- .0?

/
U.

4.5 ----- W"


4.U --.l
:4 :- 74 7nf
-n. -r 1997 :. --, j. n .-A nrirfi lllJ r
", ..s UL'ju':._-. 'iL GDP pliL ._-'1luL.r


-.


U- --U


nm n-, \17


Figure 4. Value of Florida agricultural crops
and livestock sold, 1964-97.


contribution of an industry to the economy, since it reflects the increase in value from each stage of
processing and marketing, and avoids double counting the sales of products from production
sectors to the manufacturing and processing sectors which is inherent in the values for economic
output. Value-added consists of employee compensation, proprietor income, other property income
and indirect business taxes2. In terms of value added, the largest industry groups were fruit and
vegetable products ($2.3B), ornamental plants and landscape services ($2.1B), forest products
($1.9B), agricultural inputs and services ($1.6B), other food and tobacco products ($1.7B), and
mining ($1.0B) (Table 1). In terms of employment, the leading industry groups were agricultural
inputs and services (79,005 jobs), ornamental plants and landscape services (78,062), fruit and
vegetable products (46,388), forest products (28,261), livestock and meat products (23,858), other
food and tobacco products (18,319), and
seafood products (10,632) (Table 1).


As mentioned above, exports from a regional
economy have a special role because they
generate additional impacts through the
multiplier effect. In terms of total exports, the
leading industry groups were fruit and vegetable
products ($4.4B), agricultural inputs and
services ($3.6B), forest products ($2.7B), other
food and tobacco products ($2.8B), and mining
($1.1B) (Table 1).

Florida has a comparative advantage as an
international exporter of many agricultural and
natural resource products because of its
strategic location with respect to Latin America,
and its several large port facilities. The value of
agricultural and natural resource products


3.8

3.6 -

3.4

w 3.2

> 3

2.8
1994 1995 1996 1997 1998

1998 Dollars
Source Bureau of the Census, US Exports History
Figure 5. Value of international exports of
agricultural and natural resource products through
Florida ports, 1994-98.


2 Employee compensation includes wage payments, salary payments and non-cash benefits. Proprietor
income includes income derived from self-employment. Other property income includes payments from
interest, rents, royalties, dividends and profits. Indirect business taxes includes household excise and
sales taxes paid to businesses by households, excluding taxes on profit and income.









exported to international markets through Florida ports was $3.7 billion in 1998. Interstate shipments
by truck or rail are not included in these figures and some of these products may not have originated
in Florida. Waterborne exports increased by 28 percent between 1994-98 (Figure 5). The passage
of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and the North American Free Trade Agree-
ment (NAFTA) may in part be responsible for this increase in international trade through Florida.
Fertilizer products were the highest valued commodity, accounting for 48 percent of total exports,
followed by paper products (16%), meat products (8%) and processed agricultural crops (8%). The
largest trading partners with Florida for agricultural and natural resource products were Asia (37%),
South America (18%), the Caribbean (15%) and Europe (12%) as summarized in Table 2.


Table 2. Value of international exports of agricultural and natural resource products from
Florida ports, by commodity and region, 1998.

Commodity million $ Region million $

Fruits 116 Asia 1,262

Vegetables 55 South America 637

Sugar 41 Caribbean 640

Field Crops 37 Europe 508
Processed Agricultural Crops 280 Central America 314

Floriculture 44 Australia and New Zealand 237

Livestock 39 Africa 31
Livestock Products 64 North America 50

Meat 422

Lumber and Wood 177
Paper and Allied Products 581

Fish 38

Fertilizer 1754
Agricultural Machinery 30

Total 3,679 3,679
Source: Bureau of the Census, U.S. Exports History, Historical Summary, 1998.

Total Economic Impacts

Total economic impacts of the agriculture and natural resource industries in Florida were estimated
with economic multipliers developed using the IMPLAN PROTM software3 and associated
databases for Florida. IMPLAN was originally developed by the USDA Forest Service in 1979 and
subsequently privatized by the Minnesota IMPLAN Group (MIG), Inc. The IMPLAN system enables
construction of regional input-output models for any county, group of counties, or state in the United
States based on a combination of county level and national economic data. Industries are classified



3 IMPLAN Professional, Version 2.0, Social Accounting and Impact Analysis Software, User's
Guide, Analysis Guide and Data Guide, 1999, MIG, Inc., Stillwater, MN.








in 528 economic sectors, corresponding to the US Department of Commerce's four-digit Standard
Industrial Classification (SIC) system. Multipliers for each sector are available from IMPLAN for the
economic indicators of output, total value added, employment, employee compensation, labor
income, other proprietary income, and indirect business taxes. Furthermore, the multipliers are
provided for direct, indirect and induced effects. Appendix A lists the total effects economic
multipliers for output, value-added, and employment for each of the 102 industry sectors identified
with agricultural and natural resource activities. The multipliers for output, value added, and labor
income are stated in terms of dollars per dollar of sales to final demand, while the employment
multiplier represents jobs per million dollars of sales to final demand. The total economic impacts of
each sector of the agriculture and natural resource industries were computed by applying the
economic multipliers as follows:

T = E MT(Output, VA, Emp) + (LFD + ID) MD(utput, VA, Emp)

where T is total economic impacts,
E is export demand (sales),
LFD is local final demand (total final demand less exports),
ID is intermediate industry demand from non-agricultural sectors,
MT(output, VA, Emp) is the total effects multiplier (direct + indirect + induced effects) for output,
value added, employment, and
MD (Output, VA, Emp) is the direct effects multiplier for output, value added, employment.

The expression for total final demand less exports represents local (Florida) final demand. The base
information on output and exports for each industry, as well as the multipliers, were provided by the
IMPLAN system for 1997. The ratio of total impacts to direct impacts for each major industry group
given in Table 3 represent a weighted average of the constituent industry sectors. For example, in
the case of the agricultural inputs and services industry, the ratio of 1.61 means that for each dollar
output by the industry, an additional $0.61 in output is supported in the Florida economy. Total
impacts were calculated for each sector using the formula above, with multipliers given in the
Appendix.

Table 3. Ratio of total output impacts to direct impacts for
Florida's agricultural and natural resource industries, 1997.

Industry Group Ratio

Agricultural Inputs and Services 1.61

Field Crops 2.04

Fruits and Vegetables 2.01

Sugar and Confectionary Products 1.87

Livestock and Meat Products 1.02

Dairy Products 0.90

Seafood Products 1.70

Other Food and Tobacco Products 1.62

Forest Products 1.46

Ornamental plants and Landscape Services 1.17

Mining 1.47








The total economic impacts of the agricultural and natural resource industries collectively in Florida
in 1997 were estimated at $49.2 billion (B) in output, $23.8B in value added, $14.7B in labor income,
$1.7B in indirect business taxes, and 544 thousand jobs (Table 4). The leading industry groups for
output impacts were fruits and vegetables ($11.1B), agricultural inputs and services ($8.2B), forest
products ($7.8B), other food and tobacco products ($8.2B), ornamental plants and landscape
services ($3.3B), sugar and confectionary products ($2.8B), and livestock and meat products
($2.1B). In terms of value-added impacts, the leading groups were fruits and vegetables ($5.8B),
forest products ($3.6B), agricultural inputs and services ($3.6B), other food and tobacco products
($3.6B), ornamental plants and landscape services ($2.4B), sugar and confectionary products
($1.3B), and mining ($1.6B). In terms of employment impacts, the leading industry groups were
agricultural inputs and services (98,229 jobs), fruits and vegetables (130,206), ornamental plants
and landscape services (77,291), forest products (68,387), and other food and tobacco products
(60,490) (Table 4).

Table 4. Total economic impacts of Florida's agricultural and natural resource industries, 1997.
Indirect
Industry Group Output Value Added Labor Income Business Tax Employment
Impacts (m$) Impacts (m$) Impacts (m$) Impacts (m$) Impacts (jobs)

Fruits and Vegetables 11,138 5,754 3,654 386 130,206
Agricultural Inputs and Services 8,248 3,631 2,361 247 98,229
Other Food & Tobacco Products 8,151 3,601 2,116 480 60,490
Forest Products 7,822 3,579 2,203 242 68,387
Ornamental Plants and Landscape 3,318 2,363 1,539 97 77,291
Services
Sugar and Confectionary Products 2,821 1,288 782 93 25,715
Mining 2,811 1,627 768 120 23,915
Livestock and Meat Products 2,105 669 483 40 25,612
Seafood Products 1,230 663 396 37 17,882
Dairy Products 971 287 201 15 5,199
Field Crops 545 327 190 26 11,481
Total 49,161 23,790 14,692 1,782 544,407
Note: total impacts represent exports times total effects multiplier plus local final demand and local intermediate
demand from non-agriculture sectors times direct effects multiplier.
All values in millions US dollars (1997), except employment (jobs).
Source: Minnesota Implan Group, 1999.









Profiles of Florida Agricultural and Natural Resource Industries


The remainder of this report examines in greater detail the industry groups and individual sectors
comprising Florida's agricultural and natural resource industries, including fruits and vegetables,
sugar, field crops, dairy products, livestock and meat products, forest products, seafood products,
ornamental plants and landscape services, and agricultural inputs and services. Each section
describes trends in commodity production or manufacturing, employment, exports, and total
economic impacts. Note that the employment figures from MIG, Inc. may differ slightly from other
sources given in this report, due to differences in classification of industries., and in accounting
measures. For example, value of shipments by manufacturers represents product sales, while
economic output represents sales plus inventory change.

Fruits and Vegetables

Florida agriculture is perhaps best known for its fruit and vegetable products. This is the largest
sector of the state's agricultural and natural resource industries. Florida growers supply the majority
of winter vegetables in the eastern United States, and the state is the leading national producer of
citrus fruit and fruit juices. The direct and total economic impacts of the fruit and vegetable industries
are summarized in Table 5. The sector had direct employment of over 46 thousand persons,
industry output of $5.5 billion (B), and value added of $2.3B. Total economic impacts included
$11.1B in output, $5.8B in value added, and 130 thousand jobs, with $3.7B in labor income to
employees. Farm production of fresh fruits, vegetables, and tree nuts accounted for total impacts of
over 82 thousand jobs, $5.9B in industry output, and $3.3B in value added. The fruit and vegetable
processing industries, including frozen concentrate and fresh citrus juice products, had over 10,000
employees, with total impacts of $5.1 B output, $2.5B value added, and employment of 47 thousand
persons.

Table 5. Economic impacts of Florida's fruit and vegetable industry, 1997.

Direct Impacts Total Impacts*
Industry Value Labor Value Labor
(jobs) Employment Output
Industry Group/Sector (job) Output Added Income (b ($ Added Income
(m$) (m$) (m$) (m) (m$) (m$)
Fruits 21,096 1,658.5 666.4 392.3 44,442 3,069.7 1,562.5 986.8
Vegetables 14,240 1,456.3 848.7 490.2 38,269 2,890.3 1,743.7 1,084.1
Frozen Fruits, Juices and
6,070 1,273.5 336.2 237.1 25,686 2,755.4 1,250.2 835.9
Vegetables
Canned Fruits and
Vegetables 4,193 983.0 353.6 198.7 19,329 2,137.2 1,066.9 668.2
Frozen Specialties 362 66.2 22.6 13.3 1,071 120.5 55.3 34.9
Dehydrated Food Products 192 30.0 10.9 6.2 542 56.0 27.0 16.9
Pickles, Sauces, and Salad
160 43.3 14.4 5.1 591 76.0 34.3 18.4
Dressings
Canned Specialties 45 15.9 3.4 1.4 230 30.5 12.1 7.2
Tree Nuts 29 1.3 0.9 0.7 47 2.5 1.7 1.1
Total 46,388 5,528.1 2,257.1 1,345.1 130,206 11,138.2 5,753.6 3,653.5
*Total impacts represent exports times total effects multiplier plus local final demand and local intermediate demand from non-
agriculture sectors times direct effects multiplier. All values in millions US dollars (1997), except employment impacts (jobs).
Source: Minnesota Implan Group, 1999.









Citrus. Florida is the leading state for US citrus production. The value of raw citrus fruit production
in the1998-99 season was $1.1 billion. The most important Florida citrus crops are oranges and
grapefruits, which together account for about 93 percent of total value (Table 6). Other citrus fruits
produced commercially include K-early and temple oranges, tangerines, tangelos, limes and
lemons. Following the disastrous freezes in the mid-1980's, the citrus industry expanded in value
and bearing acreage, while decreasing in farm numbers. In inflation-adjusted terms, the value of
citrus production increased by 30 percent between 1994-99 (Figure 6). The bearing acreage of
Florida citrus groves rose in the mid-1990's then
declined to about 775 thousand acres in 1999. 2,
Similarly, the number of citrus farms increased in
1992, then dropped to 7,676 in 1997. 1 'C -


Table 6. Cash receipts for Florida citrus
fruits, by variety, 1998-99.


Variety


$ million


Oranges

Grapefruit

Tangerines

Tangelos


I -I

1 C -

-IIII -
M-ill


-I-: I II -
" -11- H .I, I HH ? I - I 1HH1II -1-1


1 -"f' r.. ..::
.N i r :- I -" M'. I-lin I-1 .'.J il J i.rhl :--M d -.n:- :-i-..Ia-
Figure 6. Cash receipts for Florida citrus
fruit, 1994-99.


Temples


Limes


Lemons

K-Early


Total


1 3 "
a

" (,3(


1,149


Source: USDA, Florida Agricultural Statistics Service.


UII


2 "3CI I I I
I. X-0C 'i9D"-rjS 1c)2-33 IC32-0 1 3.-.C. 9E- YX-r..- I07-X
A large share of Florida's citrus fruit is processed ... :..
into frozen concentrate and reconstituted juice :u-.cc F*di:. .t.n-c.:bu
products. During the 1990's, processed citrus Figure 7. Value of processed citrus products,
accounted for 86 percent of total value while fresh Florida, 1990-98.
citrus fruit shipped to retailers represented 14
percent. The value of processed citrus grew by 38 percent between 1990-98, to $3.3 billion (Figure
7). The value of fresh citrus shipments to US and international markets reached $364 million in
1997, a 63 percent increase from 1985. Grapefruit is the dominant fresh citrus product, accounting
for about 71 percent of total shipment value. Both grapefruit and processed citrus shipments
experienced modest increases during the mid-to-late 1980s, dramatic swings during the early
1990s, then again modest increases in the later 1990s. An all-time high of $455 million in value was
reached in 1990. These changes in values were largely due to fluctuations in commodity prices
rather than production volumes.

Vegetables and Melons. The state of Florida produces a wide variety of vegetable and melon
crops, and is an important supplier of winter vegetables to the eastern United States and Canada.
The total value of vegetables and melons was $1.54 billion in 1998. Tomatoes were the largest
vegetable crop, at $507 million, followed by green peppers ($246M), snap beans ($130M), potatoes


-EGO 1 -I 1- -
I 4H -1.1. 14 f Hl-









($123M), and sweet corn ($103M) as summarized in Table 7. The value of vegetables and melons
decreased by 10 percent between 1993 and 1998 (Figure 8). Values of tomatoes increased
moderately during this time, as did cabbages. Sales of green peppers increased markedly, and
other minor crops also increased in value, including snap beans, escarole and squash, however,
lettuce and radishes decreased. While production values declined during the 1990s, both the
number of farms and harvested acreage increased between 1987 and 1997. The number of Florida
vegetable and melon farms grew by one third, to 2,053, and harvested area grew by 25 percent to
311,000 acres. Employment in the fruit and vegetable processing sector varied from a high of
10,400 persons in1989, down to 9,300 in 1996 (Figure 9).

The value of vegetable exports shipped internationally from Florida ports has decreased dramatically
in recent years, from $93 million in 1995 to $33 million in 1998. The Caribbean region remained the
top export destination of vegetables shipped from Florida ports, accounting for about 54 percent of
total vegetable export values between 1994-98, followed by Africa (21%) and South America (8%).
Exports to the Caribbean increased by 59% between 1994-98, while exports to Africa and South
America decreased by 86 percent.


Table 7. Cash receipts for Florida
vegetables and melons, by crop, 1998.


Crop


million $


Tomatoes


Green Peppers


Other


Snap Beans


Potatoes


Sweet Corn

Cucumber

Watermelons


Squash

Cabbage

Radishes

Eggplant

Escarole


Carrots

Lettuce


30D

9 290- --m _

>
S2BaO .



-ra

250 -
1993-91- 1994-95 1995-96 1996-97 1997-98


11i1r'f .I F.,"A rif ..rlr.i- r.Afl f rl ifrr
Figure 8. Cash receipts for Florida vegetables
and melons, 1993-98.


10,600
10,400
10,200
10,000
E
o 9,800
E 9,600
Lu
9,400
9,200
9,000


'87 '88 '89 '90 '91 '92 '93 '94 '95 '96


Celery (1996)


Total
Source USDA, Florida Agricultural Statistics Service


1,536


Source Annual Survey of Manufactures
Figure 9. Employment in Florida fruit and
vegetable processing, 1987-96.









Other Fruits, Nuts and Berries. In addition to citrus, Florida produces an array of fruit, nut and
berry crops including avocados, mangos, pecans, blueberries and strawberries. These crops were
collectively valued at $209 million in 1997 (Table 8). Strawberries were by far the most valuable
commodity in this category, at $146 million. Avocados are also an important crop in Florida, valued
at $14 million, and blueberries are valued at $6 million. Avocados and mangos are tropical fruits
grown only in South Florida and California within the United States, limited by climatic constraints.

The value of Florida fruit, nut and berry commodities increased consistently from $126 million in
1993 to $209 million in 1997 (Figure 10). Both the number of farms and harvested acreage
decreased between 1987 and 1992, then subsequently increased in 1997. Approximately 9,500
fruit, nut and berry farms were present in Florida in 1997. Harvested acreage decreased between
1987 and 1992, then returned to about 762,000 acres in 1997. The Asian, European and South
American markets were the top international export destinations for fruit, nut and berry products
from Florida. The Asian market represented 49 percent of exports, followed by Europe (14%) and
South America (11%). Export values in all three regions declined between 1994-98. The value of
fruit, nut and berry crops, including citrus, leaving Florida ports steadily decreased from $179 million
in1994 to $116 million in 1998.

220
Table 8. Cash receipts for Florida
fruits, nuts and berries, by crop, 1997. 200
.2o
Crop million $ 180 -

Strawberries 146.1 0 160 -

Other 40.4 140 -

Avocados 14.0 120
120 -----
1993 1994 1995 1996 1997
Blueberries 6.0
1997 Dollars
Mangos 1.5 Source USDA, Florida Agricultural Statistics Service

Pecans 1.3 Figure 10. Cash receipts for Florida fruit, nut
and berry crops, 1993-97.
Total 209.3
Source: USDA, Florida Agricultural Statistics Service









Sugarcane and Sugar


Florida is a major producer of sugarcane and raw
sugar. Production is located in South Florida and
centered in Palm Beach County. The value of raw
sugarcane production increased during the 1993-97
period to $466 million in 1997 (Figure 11). The area of
harvested Florida sugarcane increased to a high of
446,000 acres in 1992 then decreased to 437,000
acres in 1997. The number of Florida sugarcane
farms increased slightly to 206 in 1997. Raw
sugarcane is processed into refined sugar and
confectionary products. Value of shipments of Florida
processed sugar and confectionary products
increased by 14 percent between 1990-96, reaching
over $1 billion in 1996 (Figure 12). Meanwhile,
employment in sugar and confectionary products
manufacturing declined by 44 percent between
1990-96, to 2,900 persons. International sugar
exports from Florida are to the Caribbean region,
South America and Europe. The value of sugar and
confectionary products exported through Florida
ports grew 7 percent annually between 1994 and
1998 to $34 million. The total economic impacts of
sugarcane crops, sugar processing and
confectionary products included 25,715 jobs, $2.8B
in output, $1.3B in value added, and $782M in labor
income, as summarized in Table 9.


470

,-. 460 -

450-

J 440-

= 430-

420


"


410 '
1993 1994 1995 1996 1997


.UL'L'- '. J-SD. FIL idu AJ.]IiL ulL .ll. % .i'-L L'. L L'I'ViL'-'
Figure 11. Cash receipts for Florida
sugarcane, 1993-97.


1,040
1 ,020
1 ,000
s90
960
940
920
900
880


I~--


'90 '91 '92 '93 'B4 '95 *95


000 DD 1;r--
r.:rurrF" .!nn injal E:I.riay/ nt KMarl.tprtl.rF-
Figure 12. Value of shipments of Florida
processed sugar and confectionary products,
1990-96.


Table 9. Economic impacts of Florida's sugar industry, 1997.


Industry Group/Sector


Employment
(jobs)


Direct Impacts
Industry Value
Output Added
(m$) (m$)


Labor
Income
(m$)


Total Impacts*


Employment Output
(jobs) (m$)


Value Labor
Added Income
(m$) (m$)


Sugar Crops 4,737 433.5 256.0 93.6 7,773 601.0 367.5 192.6

Sugar 2,416 969.7 182.7 137.2 17,455 2,115.5 886.5 574.8

Confectionery Products 448 101.7 32.5 13.1 488 104.3 34.3 14.3

Total 7,601 1,504.8 471.3 243.9 25,715 2,820.9 1,288.3 781.7

* Total impacts represent exports times total effects multiplier plus local final demand and local intermediate demand
from non-agriculture sectors times direct effects multiplier.
All values in millions US dollars (1997), except employment impacts (jobs).
Source: Minnesota Implan Group, 1999.









Field Crops

Field crops produced in Florida include, corn, cotton and cottonseed, hay, peanuts, potatoes,
soybeans, tobacco, and wheat. Together, these crops were valued at $291 million in 1998 (Table
10). Potatoes are the largest field crop valued at $129 million, followed by hay ($59 million) and
peanuts ($57 million).
-4U
Table 10. Cash receipts for Florida field crops,
1998.
LJU -
Crop million $ ,____ _..
Potatoes 129

Hay 59

Peanuts 57 'n
Tobacco 29 -14 I-195 qrF 1- "7 1 -r

Cotton 21 S o JDA ,i, ..r..

Corn 8 Figure 13. Cash receipts for Florida field
Soybeans 4 crops, 1993-97.

Cottonseed 3 3,800

Wheat 1 3,600 -
S 3,400 -
Total 291 00
3,200 -
Source: USDA, Florida Agricultural Statistics Service.
e 3,000 -
2,800 -
Between 1994 and 1998, the value of field crops > 2,600
fluctuated markedly, and decreased by 8 2,400
percent overall (Figure 13). Individual 2,200
commodities which declined in value include '87 '88 '89 '90 '91 '92 '93 '94 '95 '96
corn (-49%), soybeans (-43%), cotton (-37%), 1996 Dollars
wheat (-15%) and hay (-11%). Potatoes, Source Annual Suey of Manufactures
cottonseed, tobacco and peanuts all marginally Figure 14. Value of shipments of processed
increased in value. The number of field crop Florida crops, 1987-96.
farms declined to 3,533 farms in 1997.
Harvested area of Florida field crops declined from 408,000 acres in 1987 to 370,000 acres in 1997.

Value of shipments of processed Florida crops, including citrus, other fruits, nuts, berries,
vegetables, melons and field crops, but excluding sugarcane, grew from $2.4 billion in 1987 to about
$3.6 billion in 1996 (Figure 14). The value of field crops exported to international markets through
Florida ports more than doubled from $15.6 million in 1994 to $37.3 million in 1998. The Caribbean
was the top export destination for field crop products (55%), followed by South America (29%) and
Central America (7%). Export values to the Caribbean nearly doubled between 1994 and 1998,
while exports to South America and Central America increased by three and four times,
respectively. The value of processed agricultural crops exported through Florida ports, including
processed fruit, nut, berry, field crop and vegetable commodities, increased by 11 percent between
1994 and 1998, to $330 million. Europe was the top export destination, with 49 percent of total
export values, followed by Asia (19%) and the Caribbean region (18%). Exports increased by 108
percent to Europe, decreased by 62 percent to Asia and increased by 47 percent to the Caribbean.









Dairy Products


Florida's dairy farms are characterized by large herd
sizes, averaging greater than 500 cows. The industry
is centered in the Kissimmee river basin near Lake
Okeechobee and the Suwanee River valley of north
Florida, where a large number of producers have
relocated due to environmental problems associated
with wastewater runoff.

The value of raw milk production in Florida reached
$424 million in 1998, representing a 38 percent
increase since 1989 (Figure 15). Milk values have
been subject to considerable variation due to price
movements throughout the 1990s. Florida had
about 157 thousand milk cows in 1999, which
represents a significant decrease since 1994. The
number of Florida dairy farms steadily declined to
666 farms in 1997.

Value of shipments of Florida processed dairy
products of pasturized milk, cheese, ice cream,
cottage cheese, etc., increased to $844 million in
1995, but remained below the 1990 record high of
$946 million (Figure 16). Employment in the dairy
manufacturing industry decreased from 3,900
persons in 1987 to 2,000 persons in 1995 (Figure
17).

The total economic impacts of the Florida dairy
products industry, are summarized in Table 12. Total
impacts included 5,199 jobs, $971M in output, $287M
in value added, and $201 M in labor income.


440
420
400
380
360
340
320
300
'89 '90 '91 '92 '93 '94 '95 '96 '97 '98

1998 Dollars
Source USDA, Florida Agricultural Statistics Service
Figure 15. Cash receipts from Florida raw
milk production, 1989-98.


1 UUU


9'--CEoIaI5

Figure 16. Value of shipments of Florida dairy
products, 1987-95.


g" :,ooo
E



1 .., nl
1. IIII


*'* / K'! *!III H !1 I'. 4-{ *!I
XI I. ,III a I ?I 1 11 4 e1.MII.I. -
Figure 17. Employment in Florida's dairy
manufacturing industry, 1989-95.


/ .

/ / / 4


UI/ UL 'uL.I 'IU '= I '= *'' ":-Iu 'LId. LI,'


A
--




i i i


,I I









Livestock and Meat Products


Poultry. The commercial poultry industry in Florida
produces chicken meat and eggs. Broilers
accounted for the majority of poultry value (60%),
and eggs the remainder (40%). The value of poultry
production nearly doubled during 1984-98, reaching
$366 million in 1998 (Figure 18). The value of
broilers tripled during this time while egg values
remained steady and other chickens decreased by
half. Poultry numbers increased between 1987 and
1997, to 32.9 million birds in 1997. The number of
poultry farms decreased between 1987-97, to 2,757
farms in 1997.

Beef Cattle. Florida has extensive beef cow-calf
operations, particularly on rangeland in Central and
South Florida. The value of beef cattle sold by
ranches increased slightly between 1989 and 1998,
to $293 million in 1998 (Figure 19). Beef cattle
values fluctuated significantly, with a dramatic dip in
1996. The number of beef cows decreased slightly
between 1994-99, to 973,000 animals in 1999 The
number of farms with beef cattle decreased
between 1987 and 1997 to 13,600 farms.

Processed Meat Products. Meat products
produced in Florida include packaged meats,
sausages and prepared meats, and poultry
slaughtering and processing. Value of shipments of
Florida meat products settled at $805 million in 1996,
after declining from a high of $980 million in 1993
(Figure 20). Employment in the Florida meat
products industry has declined from a high of 6,500
employees in 1993 to 4,800 in 1996 (Figure 21). The
value of livestock product exports leaving Florida
ports nearly doubled during 1994-98, to $64.4 million
in 1998. The Caribbean region was the largest
international export destination (46%) for livestock
products, followed by South America (29%) and
Central America (18%). The value of meat products
exported from Florida ports grew by almost threefold,
to $422 million in 1998. Europe was the top meat
export destination (43%) followed by the Caribbean
(36%) and South America (11%). Livestock export
values grew between 1994 and 1998, to $38.7 million.
for livestock leaving Florida (52%), followed by Central


400
u0 350
0
" 300
250
200
> 150


'84 '85 '86 '87 '88 '89 '90 '91 '92 '93 '94 '95 '96 '97 '98

1998 Dollars
Source USDA, Florida Agricultural Statistics Service
Figure 18. Cash receipts for Florida poultry,
1984-98.


'89 '90 '91 '92 '93 '94 '95 '96 '97 '98


1998 Dollars
Source USDA, Florida Agricultural Statistics Service
Figure 19. Cash receipts for Florida beef
cattle, 1989-98.


1,000 -
o 950 -
900 -
S 850 -
i 800 -
> 750
700
'87 '88 '89 '90 '91 '92 '93 '94 '95 '96
1996 Dollars
Source Annual Survey of Manufactures
Figure 20. Value of shipments of Florida
meat products, 1987-96.

South America is the top destination region
America (23%) and Asia (14%).


Horses and Ponies. Florida is internationally recognized as a leading center for breeding of
thoroughbred horses, particularly in Marion County in central Florida. Sales of Florida horses and
ponies grew by one third between 1987 and 1997, to about $75 million in 1997. The number of
Florida horses and ponies declined from 61,000 in 1987 to 55,000 in 1997, and the number of









Forest Products


Florida's extensive forests are managed to produce wood and fiber products. North Florida has the
world's largest concentration of intensively managed plantations of southern pines. In 1997, an
estimated 543 million cubic feet of timber was harvested in Florida, of which 87 percent was
softwoods, including pine, cypress and cedar, and the remainder was hardwoods such as oak,
maple, gum and poplar (Table 14). Approximately 368 million cubic feet of longleaf-slash pine was
harvested. The volume of timber harvested in Florida grew slightly between 1991-95, to 510 million
cubic feet in 1995.

8,000
Table 14. Volume of timber roundwood
harvested in Florida, by species group, ) 7,000 -
1997.
6,000
Species Group Volume -
(million cubic feet)


Softwoods 471.5

Longleaf-slash pine 368.1

Loblolly-shortleaf pine 39.6

Other yellow pines 33.0

Cypress 30.5

Hardwoods 71.3

All Species 542.8
Source: United States Forest Service, Southern Research
Station.


S4,000 'i

3,000 _I I I
'87 '88 '89 '90 '91 '92 '93 '94 '95 '96
1996 Dollars
Source Annual Survey of Manufactures
Figure 22. Value of shipments for Florida forest
products manufacturing, 1987-96.


34
(D 33
C
32-
31 3


The timber products manufacturing sector -a 3o
produces lumber and other solid milled wood LU 29
products, pulp, paper, and paperboard. The paper 28 i i i
and allied products sector shipped goods valued '87 '88 '89 '90 '91 '92 '93 '94 '95 '96
at nearly $4 billion and employed nearly 10,000 source Annual Survey of Manufactures
persons. Overall value of shipments for Figure 23. Employment in Florida's timber
manufactured forest products grew by 83 products manufacturing, 1987-96.
percent, from $3.8 billion in 1987 to $7.0 billion in
1996 (Figure 22), and employment in the forest products manufacturing sector increased to 33,200
employees in 1996 (Figure 23). The value of lumber and wood products exported from Florida ports
increased to $177 million in 1998. The Caribbean region represented the top export destination
(73%), followed by South America and Central America (19%). Paper products exported from
Florida ports were valued at $581 million in 1998, with South America the top export destination
(37%), followed by Central America (30%) and the Caribbean (24%). The total economic impacts of
the Florida forest products industry included 68,386 jobs, $7.8B in output, $3.6B in value added, and
$2.2B in labor income, as summarized in Table 15.









Seafood Products


The warm waters of the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of
Mexico are productive fisheries for a wide variety of
shellfish and finfish. The value of Florida
commercial fisheries landings was about $209
million in 1998. The fishery value grew rapidly
during the mid 1980's and early 1990's, then leveled
off in recent years (Figure 24). The volume of
fishery catch in Florida declined by one-third during
this time, to 173 million pounds in 1998. This
decline in commercial fisheries landings is largely
attributed to more stringent regulatory action
targeting over fishing activities in Florida. As an
indication of the commercial fishing fleet capacity,
Florida had about 32,500 vessels registered in
1999. The number of commercial vessels peaked
during the mid-1990's, and has since declined.


200 -


150


100 -


5 0 L1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I
'85 '86 '87 '88 '89 '90 '91 '92 '93'94 '95 '96 '97 '98
1998 Dollars
Source Marine Research Institute
Figure 24. Value of Florida commercial
fisheries landings, 1985-98.


Aquaculture is a rapidly developing industry in Florida. As natural fisheries become depleted or
more regulated, it is expected that cultured seafood products will become more important. Florida
aquaculture products include tropical fish, alligators, oysters and clams, catfish, and aquatic plants.
The value of Florida aquaculture products reached $102 million in 1997 (Table 16, Figure 25).
Tropical fish were the highest value aquaculture commodity, accounting for about half of total sales.
Aquatic plants were the second highest aquaculture product (12%), followed by catfish and other
products. The latter products more than doubled in value during 1989-97. Oysters and clams also
demonstrated impressive value gains, growing at an average bi-annual rate of 70%.
Employment in the Florida aquaculture industry more than doubled between 1987 and 1997, to 722
employees.


Table 16. Value of Florida aquaculture products,
1997.


Product


million $


Tropical Fish 57.2

Catfish and Others 14.2

Aquatic Plants 13.2

Oysters and Clams 13.1

Alligators 3.2

Sport and Game Fish 1.0

Total 102.0
Source: USDA, Florida Agricultural Statistics Service.


40 o
30
1989 1991 1993 1995 1997
1997 Dollars
Source USDA, Florida Agricultural Statistics Service
Figure 25. Value of Florida aquaculture
products, 1989-97.


The seafood processing industry employed 2,368 persons and shipped $462 million worth of
processed seafood products in 1997 (Census of Manufacturing, 1997). Exports of fish from Florida
ports generally increased in value during 1994-98, to $40.5 million. Europe is the top export
destination of fish products from Florida (32%), followed by the Caribbean (21%) and Asia (15%).
The total economic impacts of the Florida seafood products industry included 17,882 jobs, $1.2B in









Other Food and Tobacco Products Manufacturing


Florida has numerous manufacturing industries that process a variety of other food and tobacco
products. Many of the raw commodities processed by these industries are not necessarily
produced in Florida. These businesses are located in Florida to serve the large markets in the state,
and to take advantage of the labor supply. The total economic impacts of the these industry sectors
included 60,490 jobs, $8.2B in output, $3.6B in value added, and $2.1 B in labor income, as
summarized in Table 18.

Table 18. Economic impacts of Florida's other food and tobacco manufacturing industry, 1997.


Industry Group/Sector


Bread, Cake, and Related
Products
Bottled and Canned Soft Drinks
& Water
Cigars
Food Preparations, N.E.C
Malt Beverages
Cookies and Crackers
Potato Chips & Similar Snacks
Roasted Coffee
Distilled Liquor, Except Brandy
Prepared Feeds, N.E.C
Flavoring Extracts and Syrups,
N.E.C.
Animal and Marine Fats and
Oils
Macaroni and Spaghetti
Dog, Cat, and Other Pet Food
Flour and Other Grain Mill
Products
Chocolate and Cocoa Products
Cigarettes
Wines, Brandy, and Brandy
Spirits
Blended and Prepared Flour
Rice Milling
Chewing and Smoking Tobacco
Shortening and Cooking Oils
Total


Direct Impacts
Employment Industry Value Labor
t (jobs) Output Added Income
(m$) (m$) (m$)


4,946 696.3 270.1 182.7


4,800 1,646.8 352.1 211.6


1,851
1,306
1,107
873
692
632
512
497

292


211

151
134

118

78
25


278.6
237.6
624.6
152.8
203.0
401.4
247.1
222.4


129.9
56.5
300.1
54.0
68.2
95.8
183.2
27.1


72.5 40.0 15.0


55.0 12.4 7.8


25.8 6.4
49.5 8.6


45.6 9.6 6.5


24.9 9.7
11.8 5.1


24 9.5 4.8 0.6


18,319 5,038.1 1,640.3 773.2


Total Impacts*
Value
Employmen Output Added
t (jobs) (m$) (mAdd
(m$)


Labor
Income
(m$)


5,193 713.5 281.5 190.2


22,851 3,072.7 1,213.1 787.6


5,124
1,685
9,661
884
776
2,784
5,711
2,318

868


566

167
586

692

166
54

153

48
143
49
11


508.9
262.9
1,242.2
153.1
209.1
563.9
579.9
356.2


279.2
73.6
689.0
54.4
72.0
196.1
415.2
115.4


178.5
44.7
357.8
27.9
31.6
101.1
197.4
76.4


107.8 62.6 31.6


71.6 28.0 18.0

27.0 7.2 4.3
85.5 30.0 21.3

87.7 37.9 24.9

30.7 13.5 7.4
13.8 6.4 2.0

18.6 10.7 4.8


60,490 8,151.4 3,601.4 2,116.4


* Total impacts represent exports times total effects multiplier plus local final demand and local intermediate demand
from non-agriculture sectors times direct effects multiplier.
All values in millions US dollars (1997), except employment impacts (jobs).
Source: Minnesota Implan Group, 1999.








Environmental Horticulture


Ornamental plants grown in nurseries and greenhouses are a large specialty agricultural enterprise
in Florida, Ornamental plants include tropical foliage, potted flowering plants, bedding plants, cut
flowers and foliage, woody ornamentals, and sod. The value of these crops reached $1.45 billion in
1997 (Table 19). Woody ornamentals ($385M) and tropical foliage plants ($387M) were the two
largest product categories, followed by potted flowers and bedding plants ($281 M), cut flowers and
greens ($175M), and turfgrass sod ($128M).


Table 19. Cash receipts for Florida greenhouse
and nursery crops, 1997. 1.5

Commodity million $ 1,4

Tropical foliage 386.7 1.3

Woody ornamentals (nursery crops) 385.4 1.2 .-- __

Potted flowers, bedding and garden plants 281.2
1.0 '
Cut flowers and cut cultivated greens 175.3 8D W0 91 92 93 84 95 W :7

Sod 127.8 -: U-. t. -: _c I-9-)
'*.',-1 ', A.'T 1-.'- -; 1-D .-- d-f .-r
Other (Christmas trees, bulbs, unfinished 93.6 Figure 26. Value of sales of Florida
plants, greenhouse vegetables,
mushrooms, etc.) greenhouse and nursery crops, 1989-97

Total 1,450.0

Source: USDA (FLO-1999)

Ornamental plants are among the fastest growing parts of agriculture in the United States. During
the periodl989-97, sales by Florida growers increased by 21 percent in inflation-adjusted terms
(Figure 26). Growth within the ornamentals industry has been particularly strong for outdoor
landscape plants (woody ornamentals), driven by the residential and commercial building boom in
Florida and other sunbelt states. Florida's greenhouse and nursery industry has over 5000 farms,
which operate a total production area of 126 thousand acres, including 5 thousand acres under
cover of greenhouses or shadehouses.

The total economic impacts of the Florida ornamental plant and landscape service industry included
77,291 jobs, $3.3B in output, $2.4B in value added, and $1.5B in labor income, as summarized in
Table 20. An independent survey of the landscape services industry in Florida estimated an even
higher value for this sector (Hodges et al., 1999). According to this study, landscape service firms in
Florida during 1997 had sales of $2.7 billion, employed an estimated 88 thousand persons, and
generated $1.5 billion in economic value added. Also, sales of horticultural products by retailers in
Florida were estimated at $1.75 billion.

The golf industry is also related to landscape services and is important to the state's tourism
industry. Florida is home to more than 1400 golf courses which were estimated to have over $3
billion in sales, nearly $3 billion in economic value-added and employ more than 13 thousand
persons 1991-92 (Hodges et al., 1994). Commercial and non-profit institutions, such as
restaurants, hotels, airports, cemeteries, and local governments, employed over 50 thousand
persons associated with turfgrass and landscape management in 1991-92, and this activity
accounted for more than $500 million in value added.









Agricultural Inputs and Services


Businesses that perform agricultural, landscape and
horticultural services are an important part of the
agricultural and natural resource economy of Florida.
Agricultural services include crop planting, cultivation,
protection and harvesting, veterinary services, and
farm labor and management services. Agricultural
inputs such as fertilizer and farm machinery are
important to the highly capitalized agricultural and
natural resource sector of Florida. Industry sectors
include manufacturing of agricultural chemicals, farm
and garden machinery.

The Florida agricultural chemical manufacturing sector
produces fertilizers and pesticides. The value of
shipments of these products nearly doubled between
1987 and 1997, to almost $4 billion (Figure 27), while
employment in agricultural chemical manufacturing
declined to 5,500 persons in 1997 (Figure 28). The
Florida farm, lawn and garden equipment
manufacturing sector shipped products valued at $89
million, and employed 800 persons in 1997. The value
of fertilizer exports leaving Florida ports increased to
$1.8 billion in 1998, with Asia being the top export
destination (65%), followed by South America (14%),
and Australia/New Zealand (12%). The value of farm
machinery exports leaving Florida ports was $30.1
million in 1998, with South America as the leading
market (46%) followed by Central America (32%).


4,500
4,000
3,500
3,000
2,500
2,000
1 500


'87 '88 '89 '90 '91 '92 '93 '94 '95 '96 '97


1997 Dollars
Source Annual Survey of Manufactures
Figure 27. Value of shipments of Florida
agricultural chemicals, 1987-97.


8,000

-" 7,000
E
o 6,000
E
LU 5,000


4,000 --
'87 '88 '89 '90 '91 '92 '93 '94 '95 '96 '97
Source Annual Survey of Manufactures
Figure 28. Employment in the Florida
chemical manufacturing industry, 1987-97.


The total economic impacts of the Florida agricultural inputs and services industry included 98
thousand jobs, $8.2B in output, $3.6B in value added, and $2.4B in labor income (Table 21).

Table 21. Economic impacts of Florida's agricultural inputs and services industry, 1997.

Direct Impacts Total Impacts*
Employment Industry Value Labor Employment Output Value Labor
Industry Group/Sector (jobs) Output Added Income employment Output Added Income
ob (m$) (m$) (m$) obs) (m$) (m$) (m$)
Agricultural, Forestry Fshery 71,158 1,668.9 885.2 711.7 55,181 2,091.6 1,209.2 863.7
Services
Nitrogenous and Phosphatic 5,280 2,836.6 537.5 305.2 35,291 5,168.9 1,998.2 1,230.5
Fertilizers
Fertilizers, Mixing Only 1,060 261.0 55.8 44.6 4,032 508.8 203.6 139.8
Farm Machinery and 1,060 182.9 57.4 36.0 1,785 212.8 90.2 58.2
Equipment
Agricultural Chemicals,
AgriN.E.cultural Chemicals, 375 151.5 59.3 22.6 1,824 245.4 121.6 66.2

Lawn and Garden 71 19.9 6.7 1.5 116 21.0 8.2 3.1
Equipment
Total 79,005 5,120.8 1,601.9 1,121.7 98,229 8,248.4 3,631.0 2,361.5
* Total impacts represent exports times total effects multiplier plus local final demand and local intermediate demand from non-
agriculture sectors times direct effects multiplier.
All values in millions US dollars (1997), except employment impacts (jobs).
Source: Minnesota Implan Group, 1999.









Mining


Florida has a variety of rich mineral deposits and
offshore petroleum reserves. Florida is one of the
world's largest producers of phosphate rock,
accounting for approximately 75 percent of the
United States supply and 25 percent of the world
supply. About 90 percent of Florida phosphate rock
is converted into phosphatic fertilizers. The value of
shipments of phosphate mines in Florida was $764
million in 1997, and the volume of phosphate rock
mined was 32.8 million metric tons. However, mine
output has fluctuated dramatically, dropping as low
as 25 million metric tons in 1993 (Figure 29).
Employment in phosphate mining decreased to
about 3,000 employees in 1997.


'88 '89 '90 '91 '92 '93 '94 '95 '96 '97

Source USDA, Florida Agricultural Statistics Service
Figure 29. Phosphate rock mined in Florida,
1988-97.


The total economic impacts of the Florida mining industry included 77,291 jobs, $3.3B in output,
$2.4B in value added, and $1.5B in labor income (Table 22).


Table 22. Economic impacts of Florida's mining industry, 1997.


Industry Group/Sector


Direct Impacts


Employment Industry
(jobs) Output
(m$s


Value
Added
(m$s


Labor
Income
(m$s


Total Impacts*


Employment Output
(jobs) (m$)


- -


Phosphate Rock

Natural Gas & Crude
Petroleum

Dimension Stone

Natural Gas Liquids

Sand and Gravel


Misc. Nonmetallic Minerals,
N.E.C.

Metal Ores, Not Elsewhere
Classified

Clay, Ceramic, Refractory
Minerals, N.E.C.

Nonmetallic Minerals (Except
Fuels) Service

Coal Mining

Gold Ores

Chemical, Fertilizer Mineral
Mining, N.E.C.

Total


2,911 990.8 560.2 151.1

2,175 146.6 91.8 12.3

1,576 217.5 136.2 65.8

1,018 332.5 108.6 4.7


68.3 48.8 27.0


42.4 25.1


36.5 11.9 11.4


196 33.5 18.6 9.9


36 5.8 3.3 1.3

26 40.5 28.0 15.7


1.6 0.6 0.4


5 0.4 0.4 0.3

9,258 1,916.4 1,033.3 313.0


Value
Added
(m$s


Labor
Income
(m$s


9,598 1,351.3 801.9 347.2

2,580 182.7 111.5 37.5


4,488

2,805

1,676

712


688


674


428.7 271.5 155.4

414.6 172.5 60.6

137.4 93.4 56.3

65.2 39.9 23.3


72.6 35.3 26.1


68.6 41.0 24.6


82 8.8 5.3 2.7


79.1 53.4 33.1

1.7 0.6 0.5

0.6 0.5 0.4


23,915 2,811.4 1,626.8 767.6


* Total impacts represent exports times total effects multiplier plus local final demand and local intermediate demand from non-
agriculture sectors times direct effects multiplier. All values in millions US dollars (1997), except employment impacts (jobs).
Source: Minnesota Implan Group, 1999.









The total economic impacts of field crops, are summarized in Table 11. Total impacts included
11,481 jobs, $545M in output, $327M in value added, and $190M in labor income.

Table 11. Economic impacts of Florida's field crops, 1997.

Direct Impacts Total Impacts*
Em t Industry Value Labor O t Value Labor
Employment Employnent Output
Industry Group/Sector (jobs) Output Added Income (job) Added Income
(jobs) (jobs) (m$)
(m$) (m$) (m$) (m$) (m$)

Hay and Pasture 2,910 55.9 35.7 16.1 3,494 110.9 70.3 39.4

Oil Bearing Crops 1,526 71.6 43.8 20.4 2,738 157.7 98.9 55.7

Grass Seeds 922 11.5 7.6 3.0 1,036 20.8 13.3 6.8

Miscellaneous Crops 825 30.7 13.0 7.2 958 42.6 22.5 14.2

Tobacco 720 32.3 12.7 5.7 1,237 68.7 35.6 20.3

Cotton 403 44.0 24.8 15.7 1,315 102.3 61.7 39.6

Feed Grains 367 18.9 10.5 4.4 631 37.7 22.4 12.3

Food Grains 45 2.1 1.1 0.4 71 4.1 2.4 1.3

Total 7,718 267.0 149.3 73.0 11,481 544.8 327.1 189.6

* Total impacts represent exports times total effects multiplier plus local final demand and local intermediate demand
from non-agriculture sectors times direct effects multiplier.
All values in millions US dollars (1997), except employment impacts (jobs).
Source: Minnesota Implan Group, 1999.











Table 12. Economic impacts of Florida's dairy products industry, 1997.


Industry Group/Sector


Dairy Farm Products

Fluid Milk

Ice Cream and Frozen
Desserts

Cheese, Natural and
Processed

Condensed and
Evaporated Milk

Total


Direct Impacts


Value
Added
(m$)


Labor
Income
(m$)


Employment Industry
(jobs) (mS)
(m$)


2,677 407.7 182.5 154.7

1,439 545.3 92.7 63.5


96.4 18.4 11.8


44 20.5 2.0 1.4


16 9.7 3.8 0.4


4,541 1,080.3 299.6 231.9


Total Impacts*


Employment Output
(jobs) (m$)


Value
Added
(m$)


Labor
Income
(m$)


2,894 277.6 149.1 109.3

1,834 563.2 111.4 76.5


55 21.1


2.6 1.8


21 9.7 3.9 0.6


5,199 970.9 286.9 201.0


* Total impacts represent exports times total effects multiplier plus local final demand and local intermediate demand
from non-agriculture sectors times direct effects multiplier.
All values in millions US dollars (1997), except employment impacts (jobs).
Source: Minnesota Implan Group, 1999.


I









Florida farms producing horses and ponies
declined from 7,800 in 1987 to 6,800 farms in
1997.

The total economic impacts of the Florida livestock
and meat products industry, are summarized in
Table 13. Total impacts included 25,612 jobs,
$2.1B in output, $669M in value added, and $483M
in labor income.


7,000

6,500

E 6,000
0o
-E 5,500
Lu
5,000

4,500
'87 '88 '89 '90 '91 '92 '93 '94 '95 '96


Source Annual Survey of Manufactures
Figure 21. Employment in the Florida meat
products industry, 1987-96.


Table 13. Economic impacts of Florida's livestock and meat products industry, 1997.


Industry Group/Sector


Miscellaneous Livestock
(incl. horses)

Ranch Fed Cattle

Poultry Processing

Poultry and Eggs

Range Fed Cattle

Sausages and Other
Prepared Meats

Meat Packing Plants

Hogs, Pigs and Swine

Cattle Feedlots

Sheep, Lambs and Goats
Total


Direct Impacts


Value
Added
(m$s


Labor
Income
(m$s


Industry
Employment Output
(jobs) (mO$


9,948 296.3 126.7 90.9

3,846 212.3 68.4 50.5

3,546 428.1 90.5 76.8

2,207 353.8 87.4 62.2

1,571 93.0 30.8 23.6

1,427 302.6 53.0 41.4

1,038 364.4 51.1 41.3


12.3 3.0 1.9


39 4.3 1.3 1.0

34 0.3 0.1 0.1
23858 2067.6 512.4 389.7


Total Impacts*


Employment Output
(jobs) (m$)


Value
Added
(m$s


Labor
Income
(m$s


11,152 427.3 215.6 147.5


5,158

3,424

932


317.3 148.6 100.4


411.5 88.1

139.9 36.5


2,022 128.7 59.6

1,535 307.9 58.1

1,282 365.8 59.6


99 6.4 2.7 1.7

2 0.2 0.1 0.0

6 0.1 0.0 0.0
25612 2105.1 668.8 482.5


* Total impacts represent exports times total effects multiplier plus local final demand and local intermediate demand
from non-agriculture sectors times direct effects multiplier.
All values in millions US dollars (1997), except employment impacts (jobs).
Source: Minnesota Implan Group, 1999.









Table 15. Economic impacts of Florida's forest products industry, 1997.

Direct Impacts


Emp t Industry Value Labor
Industry Group/Sector (jobs) Output Added Income
(jobs)


Structural Wood Members,
N.E.C

Paperboard Containers and
Boxes

Logging Camps and
Logging Contractors

Sawmills and Planing Mills,
General

Paperboard Mills

Paper Mills, Except Building
Paper

Forestry Products (industrial
timber)

Wood Products, N.E.C

Forest Products (farm
timber)

Bags, Paper

Pulp Mills

Wood Pallets and Skids

Wood Preserving

Veneer and Plywood

Wood Containers

Gum and Wood Chemicals

Paper Coated & Laminated
Packaging

Reconstituted Wood
Products

Hardwood Dimension and
Flooring Mills

Special Product Sawmills,
N.E.C

Paper Coated & Laminated
N.E.C.


Total


4,731 501.6 168.4


4,724 840.4 243.7


2,869 489.1 193.6


2,682 425.1 123.5

2,026 740.8 171.5

1,924 462.2 174.7


1,495 499.5 236.4

1,278 99.5 47.7

1,146 65.2 45.6


159.2 45.8

473.9 190.1

50.8 24.5

175.9 35.5

83.7 32.9

36.2 15.3

123.2 51.3


257 54.1 18.4


158 30.6 9.5


12.8 7.2


86 10.7 7.1


45 24.3 16.8


SImP) ml P


28,261 5,359.0 1,859.4 1,025.6


Total Impacts*


Value Labor


(jobs) .... Added Income
(jobs) (m$)
(m) (m$)791.1 343.0 245.6

8,397 791.1 343.0 245.6


3,791 612.3 193.0


152.0


6,162 575.0 298.5 162.7


k m$)

133.2


197.4


87.0


88.0

119.2

125.1


2.9

34.6

12.3

34.5

55.5

20.1

20.6

22.6

12.4

24.3

12.3


4.6


4.4


7.0


7.6


13,590 1,670.8 732.2 477.4

9,344 1,042.2 529.5 353.1


5,542 517.0 279.5 106.4


1,362 105.9 52.0


976

2,933

8,457

687

680

712

225

1,547

889


164


151


60.1

313.9

1,085.3

48.5

176.7

88.8

16.2

206.8


40.3

138.6

552.2

23.6

37.2

37.7

7.7

103.6


102.2 48.2


28.7


12.6


122 13.2


37.3

16.7

95.5

288.8

19.2

21.7

25.2

5.8

58.4

31.9


9.5 4.8


7.1 4.4


8.5 7.7


68,387 7,821.8 3,579.5 2,203.2


* Total impacts represent exports times total effects multiplier plus local final demand and local intermediate demand from non-
agriculture sectors times direct effects multiplier. All values in millions US dollars (1997), except employment impacts (jobs).
Source: Minnesota Implan Group, 1999.


Employment Output


-"


2,276 305.8 105.2









output, $663M in value added, and $396M in labor income, as summarized in Table 17.
Table 17. Economic impacts of Florida's seafood products industry, 1997.


Industry Group/Sector


Employment
(jobs)


Direct Impacts
Industry Value
Output Added
(m$s (m$s


Labor
Income
(m$s


Total Impacts*


Employment Output
(jobs) (m$)


Value
Added
(m$s


Commercial Fishing 7,506 264.7 240.7 97.8 9,011 417.6 324.6 164.4

Prepared Fresh Or Frozen
Fish Or Seafood 2,972 440.0 95.9 79.9 8,465 776.6 319.9 218.4
Fish Or Seafood

Canned and Cured Sea
Foods 154 18.8 7.7 6.2 406 35.5 18.9 13.3

Total 10,632 723.4 344.2 183.9 17,882 1,229.8 663.4 396.0
* Total impacts represent exports times total effects multiplier plus local final demand and local intermediate demand
from non-agriculture sectors times direct effects multiplier.
All values in millions US dollars (1997), except employment impacts (jobs).
Source: Minnesota Implan Group, 1999.


Labor
Income
(m$s










Table 20. Economic impacts of Florida's ornamental plant and landscape services industry, 1997.


Industry Group/Sector


Employment
(jobs)


Direct Impacts
Industry Value
Output Added
(m$) (m$)


Labor
Income
(m$)


Total Impacts*


Employment Output
(jobs) (m$)


Value
Added
(m$)


Greenhouse and Nursery
Greenhouse and Nursery 20,714 1,356.7 1,010.0 504.1 23,933 1,601.3 1,123.2 622.1
Products

Landscape and Horticultural
Services 57,348 1,486.0 1,116.8 868.1 53,358 1,717.0 1,239.7 917.0
Services

Total 78,062 2,842.7 2,126.8 1,372.2 77,291 3,318.3 2,362.9 1,539.1

* Total impacts represent exports times total effects multiplier plus local final demand and local intermediate demand
from non-agriculture sectors times direct effects multiplier.
All values in millions US dollars (1997), except employment impacts (jobs).
Source: Minnesota Implan Group, 1999.


Labor
Income
(m$)








Literature and Information Sources Cited


Adams, C., 1996. An overview of the commercial and recreational fisheries industries within the
Gulf of Mexico. The Southern Business & Economic Journal, July 1996, pp. 246-260.

Brown, R.B., Reynolds, J.E., Halsey, L.A., Obreza, T.A., Reddy, K.R., and Snyder, G.H. Land
Resources. UF/IFAS Florida First Base Papers, Gainesville, FL, 1999.

Carter, D. R., Jokela, E.J., Arvanitis, L., Comerford, N., Duryea, M., Kiker, C., Tilton, A. and White, T.
Florida's Renewable Forest Resources. Florida Base Papers, Gainesville, FL, 1999.

Cichra, C., Milon, W., Adams, C., Gregory, D., Lindberg, B., Murie, D., Philips, E. and Smith, S.
Fisheries and Coastal Resources. Florida First Base Papers, Gainesville, FL: Florida First, 1999.

Economic Research Service. US Dept. of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

Florida Agricultural Statistics Service (FASS), 1998. Florida Aquaculture. Orlando, FL, June 1998.

Florida Department of Citrus, Lakeland, FL. Florida Department of Environmental Protection, 1998.
Annual Landings Summary, Marine Fisheries Information System, May 3, 1999. Tallahassee, FL.

Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Marine Research Institute, St. Petersburg, FL.

Florida Statistical Abstract, 1998, ed. S. Floyd, 32nd ed., Bureau of Economic and Business
Research, University of Florida, Gainesville, 816 p.

Hodges, AW and JJ Haydu, 1999. Economic impact of Florida's environmental horticulture
industries. Economic Information Report 99-1, University of Florida, Food & Resource Economics
Department, March, 1999, 48 p.

Hodges, AW, JJ Haydu, PJ van Blokland and AB Bell, 1994. Contribution of the turfgrass industry to
Florida's economy, 1991/92: a value added approach. Economics Report 94-1, University of Florida,
Food & Resource Economics Department, December, 1994, 83 p. plus appendices.

Hornsby, A., Arnold, C., Aalborg, R., Brenner, M., Capece, J., Carriker, R., Christenberry, L.,
Graham, W.D., Haller, W.T., Mazzotti, F.J., Parsons, L.R. and Seaman, W. Water Resources.
Florida First Base Papers, Gainesville, FL, 1999.

IMPLAN Professional, Version 2.0, Social Accounting and Impact Analysis Software, User's Guide,
Analysis Guide and Data Guide, 1999 MIG, Inc., Stillwater, MN, 418 p.

Labisky, R.F., Tanner, G.W., Culen, J., Forrester, D., Holt, J. and Kern, B. Wildlife Resources.
Florida First Base Papers, Gainesville, FL: Florida First, 1999.

Miller, R.E. and P.D. Blair, 1985. Input-Output Analysis: Foundations and Extensions. Prentice-
Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 464 p.

Minnesota Implan Group (MIG), 1999. Implan data for Florida. Stillwater, MN.

Mulkey, W.D. and A.W. Hodges. 2000. Using IMPLAN to assess local economic impacts. Univ.
Florida Extension FE168. http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu.

Ott, E.A. and Lieb, S. Horses. Florida First Base Papers, Gainesville, FL, 1999.








US Census Bureau. Annual Survey of Manufactures, 1996. US Department of Commerce,
Washington, DC.

US Census Bureau. Census of Manufacturing, 1992. US Dept. of Commerce, Washington, DC.

US Dept. of Agriculture. 1997 Census of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

US Dept. of Agriculture. 1999. Floriculture and Environmental Horticulture Situation and Outlook
Report, FLO-1999. Economic Research Service, Washington, DC.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1998. 1996 National survey of fishing, hunting and wildlife-associated
recreation, Florida, FHW/96-FL. US Department of Interior, Washington, DC.

US Forest Service. Forest Inventory and Production Data for Florida.
http://www.citation.com/hpage2/usfs2.html Washington, DC.









Appendix A. Implan Multipliers for Florida Agriculture and Natural Resource Industries,
1997


Sector Description


Employment Total Value Added Output Multipliers
Multipliers Multipliers utput
(Jobs/MM$) ($/$ output) ($/$ output)
Direct Total Direct Total Indirect Induced Total
Effects Effects Effects Effects Effects Effects Effects


Agricultural Inputs and Services
Agricultural, Forestry, Fishery Services
Nitrogenous and Phosphatic Fertilizers
Fertilizers, Mixing Only
Agricultural Chemicals, N.E.C
Farm Machinery and Equipment
Lawn and Garden Equipment
Dairy Products
Dairy Farm Products
Creamery Butter
Cheese, Natural and Processed
Condensed and Evaporated Milk
Ice Cream and Frozen Desserts
Fluid Milk
Field Crops
Cotton
Food Grains
Feed Grains
Hay and Pasture
Grass Seeds


42.6
1.9
4.1
2.5
5.8
3.6


6.6
1.6
2.1
1.7
3.8
2.6


9.2
21.8
19.4
52.1
79.9


Tobacco 22.3
Miscellaneous Crops 26.9
Oil Bearing Crops 21.3
Forest Products
Forest Products 17.6
Forestry Products 3.0
Logging Camps and Logging Contractors 5.9
Sawmills and Planing Mills, General 6.3
Hardwood Dimension and Flooring Mills 11.9
Special Product Sawmills, N.E.C 8.0
Veneer and Plywood 7.1
Structural Wood Members, N.E.C 9.4
Wood Containers 14.3
Wood Pallets and Skids 14.2
Wood Preserving 3.6
Reconstituted Wood Products 5.2
Wood Products, N.E.C 12.8
Pulp Mills 1.8
Paper Mills, Except Building Paper 4.2


0.530
0.189
0.214
0.391
0.314
0.334


0.448
0.079
0.098
0.394
0.191
0.170


0.563
0.527
0.557
0.640
0.662
0.393
0.423
0.612


0.699
0.473
0.396
0.291
0.564
0.659
0.393
0.336
0.421
0.483
0.202
0.309
0.479
0.401
0.378


1.366
0.846
0.921
1.101
0.945
0.887


1.091
0.770
0.864
1.107
0.908
1.082


1.424
1.313
1.350
1.435
1.346
1.118
1.300
1.426


1.453
1.459
1.393
1.339
1.374
1.638
1.294
1.110
1.212
1.327
1.029
1.017
1.270
1.169
1.149


0.403 0.955 2.358
0.572 0.580 2.152
0.641 0.642 2.282
0.434 0.742 2.176
0.373 0.651 2.024
0.312 0.591 1.904


0.242 0.770 2.012
0.776 0.539 2.316
0.720 0.605 2.325
0.476 0.735 2.211
0.606 0.629 2.236
0.835 0.757 2.591


0.374 0.986 2.359
0.352 0.892 2.244
0.348 0.922 2.269
0.283 0.982 2.264
0.209 0.902 2.111
0.393 0.762 2.155
0.532 0.902 2.434
0.300 0.973 2.273


0.237 0.961 2.198
0.608 0.992 2.600
0.718 0.962 2.680
0.883 0.930 2.813
0.381 0.941 2.322
0.446 1.155 2.601
0.618 0.896 2.514
0.524 0.773 2.297
0.452 0.845 2.297
0.463 0.925 2.388
0.731 0.710 2.442
0.489 0.692 2.181
0.415 0.879 2.294
0.511 0.786 2.298
0.456 0.804 2.261









Appendix A. Implan Multipliers for Florida Agriculture and Natural Resource Industries,
1997


Sector Description


Paperboard Mills
Paperboard Containers and Boxes
Paper Coated & Laminated Packaging
Paper Coated & Laminated N.E.C.
Bags, Paper
Gum and Wood Chemicals
Fruits & Vegetables
Fruits
Tree Nuts
Vegetables
Canned Specialties
Canned Fruits and Vegetables
Dehydrated Food Products
Pickles, Sauces, and Salad Dressings
Frozen Fruits, Juices and Vegetables
Frozen Specialties
Livestock and Meat Products
Poultry and Eggs
Ranch Fed Cattle
Range Fed Cattle
Cattle Feedlots
Sheep, Lambs and Goats
Hogs, Pigs and Swine
Miscellaneous Livestock
Meat Packing Plants
Sausages and Other Prepared Meats
Poultry Processing
Mining
Gold Ores
Metal Ores, Not Elsewhere Classified
Coal Mining
Natural Gas & Crude Petroleum
Natural Gas Liquids
Dimension Stone
Sand and Gravel
Clay, Ceramic, Refractory Minerals, N.E.C.
Phosphate Rock
Chemical, Fertilizer Mineral Mining, N.E.C.
Nonmetallic Minerals (Except Fuels)
Service


Employment
Multipliers
(Jobs/MM$)
Direct Total
Effects Effects


12.7
22.0
9.8
2.8
4.3
6.4
3.7
4.8
5.5


22.2
32.7
32.2
21.2
111.2
28.0
47.8
13.0
15.2
23.9


Total Value Added
Multipliers
($/$ output)
Direct Total
Effects Effects


0.232
0.290
0.340
0.692
0.287
0.416


0.402
0.720
0.583
0.213
0.360
0.365
0.332
0.264
0.341


0.247
0.322
0.331
0.299
0.321
0.242
0.428
0.140
0.175
0.211


0.364
0.324
0.691
0.626
0.327
0.626
0.714
0.554
0.565
0.840
0.574


0.992
0.829
0.918
1.359
0.875
1.213


1.237
1.539
1.468
0.923
1.151
1.015
0.991
1.020
0.977


0.809
0.948
0.953
0.851
0.871
0.759
1.039
0.521
0.650
0.840


0.970
1.008
1.443
1.285
0.940
1.321
1.438
1.242
1.241
1.632
1.236


Output Multipliers
($/$ output)

Indirect Induced Total
Effects Effects Effects


0.564 0.698
0.272 0.579
0.303 0.633
0.141 0.914
0.373 0.607
0.506 0.825


0.486 0.856
0.234 1.065
0.413 1.010
0.563 0.630
0.492 0.790
0.366 0.694
0.417 0.668
0.522 0.707
0.385 0.670


0.368 0.564
0.350 0.666
0.379 0.672
0.268 0.599
0.252 0.616
0.295 0.530
0.257 0.723
0.320 0.366
0.379 0.453
0.679 0.587


0.273 0.705
0.343 0.715
0.120 1.022
0.279 0.844
0.503 0.621
0.189 0.895
0.142 0.979
0.232 0.845
0.242 0.822
0.089 1.132
0.209 0.831


2.262
1.851
1.936
2.056
1.980
2.331


2.342
2.299
2.423
2.194
2.282
2.060
2.086
2.230
2.055


1.932
2.016
2.051
1.867
1.867
1.825
1.980
1.686
1.832
2.267


1.979
2.057
2.141
2.123
2.124
2.084
2.121
2.078
2.065
2.221
2.040









Appendix A. Implan Multipliers for Florida Agriculture and Natural Resource Industries,
1997


Sector Description


Misc. Nonmetallic Minerals, N.E.C.


Employment
Multipliers
(Jobs/MM$)
Direct Total
Effects Effects
8.8 23.5


Total Value Added
Multipliers
($/$ output)
Direct Total
Effects Effects
0.592 1.274


Output Multipliers
($/$ output)


Indirect Induced
Effects Effects


0.200 0.866 2.066


Ornamental plants and Landscape services
Greenhouse and Nursery Products
Landscape and Horticultural Services
Other Food & Tobacco Products
Flour and Other Grain Mill Products
Rice Milling
Blended and Prepared Flour
Dog, Cat, and Other Pet Food
Prepared Feeds, N.E.C
Bread, Cake, and Related Products
Cookies and Crackers
Chocolate and Cocoa Products
Animal and Marine Fats and Oils
Shortening and Cooking Oils
Malt Beverages
Wines, Brandy, and Brandy Spirits
Distilled Liquor, Except Brandy
Bottled and Canned Soft Drinks & Water
Flavoring Extracts and Syrups, N.E.C.
Roasted Coffee
Potato Chips & Similar Snacks
Macaroni and Spaghetti
Food Preparations, N.E.C
Cigarettes
Cigars
Chewing and Smoking Tobacco
Seafood Products
Commercial Fishing
Canned and Cured Sea Foods
Prepared Fresh Or Frozen Fish Or
Seafood
Sugar & Confectionary Products
Sugar Crops
Sugar
Confectionery Products


15.3 34.3
38.6 59.0


2.6
2.0
2.7
2.7
2.2
7.1
5.7
3.1
3.8
1.9
1.8
2.5
2.1
2.9
4.0
1.6
3.4
5.9
5.5
2.1
6.6
1.9


28.4
8.2
6.8



10.9
2.5
4.4


0.744
0.752


0.211
0.129
0.139
0.174
0.122
0.388
0.353
0.389
0.225
0.170
0.480
0.505
0.742
0.214
0.551
0.239
0.336
0.248
0.238
0.433
0.466
0.337


0.909
0.409
0.218



0.591
0.188
0.320


1.586
1.689


0.972
0.902
0.762
0.846
0.567
1.067
0.992
1.128
0.811
0.567
1.254
1.401
1.812
0.837
1.222
1.203
0.968
0.986
0.886
1.245
1.255
1.032


1.656
1.017
0.764



1.375
0.933
1.003


0.244
0.255


0.515
0.642
0.472
0.540
0.337
0.342
0.360
0.431
0.460
0.262
0.352
0.381
0.210
0.455
0.266
0.751
0.365
0.521
0.447
0.424
0.345
0.438


0.080
0.202
0.292



0.321
0.569
0.433


1.071 2.315
1.174 2.429


0.676
0.626
0.532
0.590
0.394
0.736
0.676
0.770
0.557
0.386
0.876
0.991
1.325
0.578
0.815
0.825
0.656
0.680
0.610
0.863
0.892
0.691


1.107
0.706
0.530



0.927
0.645
0.681


2.192
2.269
2.005
2.130
1.732
2.078
2.035
2.201
2.018
1.647
2.229
2.372
2.535
2.033
2.081
2.576
2.021
2.202
2.058
2.286
2.237
2.129


2.187
1.908
1.822



2.248
2.215
2.114


Total
Effects


. .




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs