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 Introduction
 Economic impact analysis metho...
 Results
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Group Title: Regional economic impacts of Florida's agricultural and natural resource industries
Title: Regional economic impacts of florida's agricultural and natural resource industries
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00066923/00001
 Material Information
Title: Regional economic impacts of florida's agricultural and natural resource industries
Alternate Title: EDIS FE380
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Hodges, Alan W ( Alan Wade ), 1959-
Mulkey, W. David
Publisher: University of Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, EDIS
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla.
Publication Date: [2003]-
 Subjects
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Summary: State of Florida has large industries that provide supporting inputs and services, and conduct processing and manufacturing. Economic characteristics and impacts were evaluated for the state of Florida and for eight regions in Florida.
System Details: Internet access required.
Statement of Responsibility: Alan W. Hodges and W. David Mulkey.
General Note: Title from Web page viewed on May 19, 2003.
General Note: At head of title: University of Florida, Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, EDIS.
General Note: "This is EDIS document FE380, a publication of the Department of Food and Resource Economics, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL. Published April 2003."--Footnote.
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00066923
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002896562
oclc - 52306158
notis - APC8138

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page i
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Economic impact analysis methods
        Page 3
    Results
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
    Conclusion
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
Full Text




Regional Economic Impacts of Florida's Agricultural and Natural

Resource Industries
by Alan W. Hodges, Assistant-In, and W. David Mulkc\, Professor
University of Florida, Food & Resource Economics Department
PO Box 110240, Gainesville, Florida 32611
Telephone 352-392-1881 x312; fax 352-392-3646; email AWHodges@ufl.edu
Revised April 1, 2003


Abstract
The state of Florida has large industries producing fruits and vegetables, sugar, livestock, dairy and
meat products, seafood, ornamental plants, forest products, phosphate rock, and an array of associated
industries that provide supporting inputs and services, and conduct processing and manufacturing. There are
distinct differences in the regional distribution of Florida's agricultural and natural resource industries.
Economic characteristics and impacts were evaluated for the state of Florida and for eight separate regions of
Florida. Each region is comprised of a core metropolitan area and a number of surrounding counties, as defined
by the US Commerce Department, Bureau of Economic Analysis, based on employee commuting patterns and
other factors. The Implan input-output analysis and social accounting software and associated databases for
Florida counties were used to create economic models for each region and to estimate the total economic
impacts of over 100 industry sectors in agriculture, natural resource and associated value-added manufacturing.
Statewide economic impacts in the year 2000, expressed in year 2002 dollars, included industry output (sales)
of $35.2 billion (Bn), with sales to markets outside the state (export shipments) of $19.4Bn, personal and
business net income (value added) of $14.8Bn, and employment of 338,253 persons. The value added
represented 3.1 percent of Florida's gross regional product. When the multiplier effects of export final demand
on interindustry purchases and employee household spending are considered, the total economic impacts were
estimated at $62.0Bn in output, $31.0Bn in value added, and 648,550 jobs. Regionally, total value added
impacts of the agriculture and natural resource industries were greatest in the Orlando area ($4.3 1Bn), followed
by Miami-Ft. Lauderdale ($3.61Bn), Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater ($2.20Bn), Jacksonville ($1.47Bn),
Sarasota-Bradenton ($1.10Bn), Tallahassee ($782 million), Ft. Myers-Cape Coral ($701 million), and Pensacola
($597 million). The largest industry groups in terms of total value added impacts were fruits and vegetables
($2.9Bn), environmental horticulture ($2.8Bn), forest products ($2.0Bn), agricultural inputs and services
($1.4Bn), and other food and fiber manufacturing ($1.7Bn), with lesser impacts for dairy products, field crops,
livestock and meat products, mining, seafood products, sugar and confectionary products, and tobacco products.
The total value added impact was $1,929 per capital, and the total employment impact was 40 jobs per 1000
residents. Economic impacts per capital and share of gross regional product indicated that the agriculture and
natural resource industries were relatively more important in the Sarasota-Bradenton, Orlando, Jacksonville,
and Tallahassee regions than for the state as a whole.


Keywords: Florida, agriculture and natural resource industries, economic impact, functional economic region,
output, value added, employment, input-output models, multiplier, Implan.








Introduction


The agricultural and natural resource industries are important to the economy of Florida. These
industries are comprised of a set of interlinked enterprises associated with production, processing and service
activities for food, fiber, and mineral products. The state has over 16,000 square miles in agricultural or forestry
land use, which represents approximately 70 percent of the land area. Florida's subtropical climate and
abundant water resources provide a comparative advantage for production of high-valued products such as
citrus, sugar, vegetables, and ornamental plants, and the state also is a leading producer of forest products,
seafood, livestock and animal products, and phosphatic fertilizers. The distribution of agricultural production
across the state and its proximity to the
human population is indicated in Figure Figure 1. Distribution of agricultural sales and the most
human population is indicated in Figure p c o Fr.
populous counties of Florida.
1, where each dot represents $1.5 million
in net agricultural sales in 1997 and the -- 4 *- -- .
shaded areas represent counties with '-< ;'5,
population exceeding 250,000 persons.. ,..
These 14 largest counties contain 67
percent of the state's population and
account for a majority of agricultural
production (Florida Statistical Abstract,
1998). The composition and extent of the ",'
agricultural and natural resource .,
industries differs quite dramatically
across the state. The fruit, vegetable, and
ornamental plant industries are
concentrated in the southern half of
peninsular Florida, where mostly frost- /
free winters provide a comparative
advantage for production of cold-sensitive crops. The northern part of the state is dominated by industrial
forestry plantations and traditional agronomic crops that can provide a reasonable return for lands that have
very low native fertility. The interior portion of the peninsula has extensive beef and dairy cattle herds, and
large phosphate mining operations. The coastal areas have important natural fisheries and aquaculture
businesses.
In any regional economic analysis, a crucial question is what constitutes a meaningful area? Functional
economic regions are a preferred regional definition for economic analysis because they represent an cohesive
socio-economic entity. In contrast, counties are artificially designated political regions that may not necessarily
represent a unified economic entity. This paper examines the economic impacts of the agricultural and natural
resource industries with respect to regions that are functionally integrated through social associations,
transportation, and communication patterns. The US Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis
(BEA) has defined 172 economic areas for the United States (Johnson, 1995). Each region is comprised of a
core metropolitan area and a number of surrounding counties. The procedure used to define these economic








regions is based on commuting-to-work patterns established from the 1990 US Census, readership of
newspapers, and other indicators. Florida's functional economic regions, as defined by the BEA, are shown in
Figure 2, and table 1 lists the counties comprising each of the eight regions. Note that the Pensacola region was
modified by excluding several Alabama counties and by incorporating the adjacent Florida counties of Holmes
and Washington from the Dothan, Alabama BEA region, in order to restrict the analysis to the state of Florida.


. Counties comprising the economic regions of Florida.
Region Name, Central
Place


Miami, Ft. Lauderdale


Ft. Meyers, Cape Coral
Tampa, St. Petersburg,
Clearwater


counties Included


Indian River, St. Lucie, Okeechobee, Glades, Hendry, Palm Beach,
Broward, Dade, Monroe, Martin
Lee, Collier
Hernando, Pasco, Pinellas, Hillsborough,


33 Sarasota, Bradenton Sarasota, Manatee, Charlotte, Desoto
30 Orlando Flagler, Marion, Citrus, Sumter, Lake, Polk, Hardee, Highlands, Osceola,
Orange, Seminole, Brevard, Volusia
29 Jacksonville Hamilton, Suwannee, Lafayette, Dixie, Levy, Gilchrist, Columbia,
Alachua, Baker, Union, Bradford, Nassau, Duval, Clay, Putnam, St. Johns
35 Tallahassee Bay, Jackson, Calhoun, Gulf, Liberty, Franklin, Gadsden, Leon, Wakulla,
Jefferson, Madison, Taylor
81 Pensacola Escambia, Santa Rosa, Okaloosa, Walton, Holmes*, Washington*
* Counties from adjacent Dothan, Alabama economic region
Source: US Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis


Figure 2. Economic regions of Florida.


Tallahassee


Jacksonville


Pensacola


Orlando


Tampa,
St. Petersburg,
Clearwater


P Ft. Lauderdale,
asota, L Palm Beach
denton

Ft. Vers,
Cape Coral


Table 1
BEA
Region
31


Sar
Brao








Economic Impact Analysis Methods


Industrial activity stimulates a regional economy both directly and through purchases of inputs supplied
from other industries (indirect effects), and personal consumption expenditures made by industry employees
(induced effects). Exports of goods and services outside the region have a secondary impact by introducing new
money into the local economy, which is then recirculated and is subject to the multiplier effect of the indirect
and induced activities. Also, inputs which are obtained from local firms rather than imported from outside the
region are associated with greater economic impact because the money is retained within the region for
additional rounds of spending.
An input-output (1-0) framework was utilized to estimate the direct, indirect and induced economic
impacts of the agricultural and natural resource industries in the functional economic regions of Florida. Input-
output analysis is a technique that captures the regional economic interdependence between different industries,
households and government institutions (Miller and Blair, 1985). The premise of input-output analysis is that
the structure of the economy is technologically fixed, such that for a given level or change in final demand,
output or employment for a particular industry or region there will be predictable changes in other linked
sectors of the economy. These changes are measured by estimating the regional economic multipliers
associated with the particular industry using a matrix inversion procedure applied to the matrix of inter-industry
transactions.
In this study the input-output analysis was conducted with the Implan ProTM software package, which
was originally developed by the USDA Forest Service in 1979 and was subsequently privatized in 1993 by the
Minnesota Implan Group (MIG, Inc.). The Implan system consists of database and software components. The
database portion offers economic and sociodemographic profiles for all United States counties across 528
economic sectors. The categorization of sectors relies on the US Standard Industrial Classification (SIC)
system at the four digit level of detail. The software component of the Implan modeling system performs
calculations for a pre-defined study area to assess economic impacts to the region. U.S. national level data is
used in Implan together with region-specific data to develop the complete inter-industry structural tables and
coefficients. Regional models were constructed for each of the eight functional economic regions, as well as
the state of Florida. Multipliers are available from Implan for the economic measures of output, total value
added, employment, employee compensation, personal income, other proprietary income, and indirect business
taxes. The multipliers are provided for direct, indirect and induced impact effects. Data from the Implan
database for years 1995 and 2000 were used in this study, to enable consistent comparison of results for
industry groups across regions and across time. Monetary values were converted to year 2002 dollars using the
U.S. Gross Domestic Product (GDP) Implicit Price Deflator (U.S. Department of Commerce).
The total economic impacts of Florida's agricultural and natural resource industries were derived by
multiplying the value of output against the direct effects multiplier and multiplying export values against the
indirect and induced effects multipliers, as follows:
T, Y, D, + E, INDI, + E, *INDU,
where Ti is total impact of the ith sector, Y, is output of the ith sector, E, is sales outside the region (exports), D,
is the direct effects multiplier of the ith sector, INDI, is the indirect effects multiplier, and INDU, is the induced
effects multiplier.








Results


Results are reported for the socioeconomic and economic indicators of Florida's functional economic
regions, including population, output, employment, value added, exports, and total output, employment, and
value added economic impacts. Also, economic impacts are given on a per capital basis, and gross regional
product of the agricultural and natural resource sector are compared to all economic sectors in the state of
Florida. These results are given for eleven major industry groups of the agricultural and natural resource sector:
fruits and vegetables, field crops, ornamental horticulture and landscape services, forest products, seafood
products, agricultural inputs and services, dairy products, livestock and meat products, sugar and confectionary
products, mining, and other food and tobacco products. A listing of the individual sectors included within these
groups is given in the Appendix.


Population, Households, Area and Per Capita-Income


In 2000, the population of Florida was 16.0 million persons. The population of each economic region
of Florida is given in Table 2. Regions with population over one million were Miami-Ft. Lauderdale with 5.6
million, Orlando, 3.6 million, Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater, 2.4 million, and Jacksonville, 1.6 million.
There were a total of 6.3 million households in Florida. The area of Florida is nearly 54 thousand square miles.
The Orlando region was the largest in terms of area at 12,349 square miles. Average per-capita income in the
state of Florida was $27,889 in 2000. The southern portions of the state had above-average per capital incomes
(Sarasota-Bradenton, Ft. Myers-Cape Coral, Miami-Ft. Lauderdale, and Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater),
while regions in the central, northern and Panhandle of Florida had below-average incomes (Orlando,
Tallahassee, Jacksonville, and Pensacola). The highest and lowest per capital incomes were in Sarasota-
Bradenton ($32,195) and Pensacola ($23,288), respectively.


Table 2. Regional population, households, area and per-capita income in Florida, 2000
Area Per-Capita
Region Population Households C ($)
(sq.mi.) Income ($)
Jacksonville 1,625,078 624,985 10,064 25,988
Orlando 3,624,540 1,442,688 12,349 24,736
Miami, Ft. Lauderdale 5,602,222 2,150,388 10,456 30,292
Ft. Myers, Cape Coral 692,265 291,881 2,830 31,824
Sarasota, Bradenton 763,795 337,324 2,644 32,195
Tampa, St. Petersburg, Clearwater 2,395,997 1,009,792 2,554 28,307
Tallahassee 597,692 231,378 8,304 23,125
Pensacola 662,789 252,685 4,736 23,288
Total or Average 15,982,378 6,341,121 53,937 27,889
Source: Census Bureau, Regional Economic Information System, MIG, Inc.








Industry Output, Employment and Value Added


Output, employment and value added are three principal measures of economic activity. These
indicators are summarized in Table 3 for the regional agricultural and natural resource industry groups in
Florida in year 2000, with monetary values expressed in year 2002 dollars.
Industry output represents total income or sales plus inventory change. Output of the agricultural and
natural resource industries in Florida totaled $35.0 billion. The largest industry groups were Fruits and
Vegetables ($6.5Bn), Forest Products ($5.2Bn), Other Manufactured Food and Fiber Products ($4.9Bn), and
Environmental Horticulture ($4.2Bn). Among other industry groups output was $3.6Bn for Agricultural Inputs
and Services, $2.5Bn for Mining, $2.4Bn for Livestock and Meat Products, $1.9Bn for Sugar & Confectionary
Products, $1.7Bn for Tobacco Products, $1.2Bn for Dairy Products, $645 million (Mn) for Seafood Products,
and $330Mn for Field Crops. Across economic regions, the Orlando area had the largest output ($9.6Bn),
followed closely by Miami-Fort Lauderdale ($9.2Bn). A second tier of regional industries were in Tampa-St.
Petersburg-Clearwater and Jacksonville areas, with output of $5.3Bn and $4.4Bn, respectively. The third tier of
regions were Sarasota-Bradenton ($2.2Bn), Tallahassee ($1.6Bn), Pensacola ($1.4Bn), and Ft. Myers-Cape
Coral ($1.3Bn). Within regions, certain industry groups stand out prominently. In the Orlando area, five of the
industry groups had output between one and two billion dollars, including agricultural inputs and services,
environmental horticulture, fruits and vegetables, mining, and other food and fiber manufacturing. In the Miami
area, there was a similar set of large industries: environmental horticulture, fruits and vegetables, sugar and
confectionary products, and other food and fiber manufacturing. In the Jacksonville region, only forest products
exceeded one billion dollars in value, and this was also the largest group in the Tallahassee and Pensacola
regions. In the Sarasota-Bradenton area, fruits and vegetables were the largest industry group ($1.4Bn). In the
Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater area, tobacco products were the largest group ($1.1Bn), but several other
sectors were also important.
Employment in the agricultural and natural resource industries of Florida in 2000 represented a total of
336,296 jobs, including both fulltime and part-time or seasonal positions (Table 3). The largest industry groups
in terms of employment were Environmental Horticulture (98,312 jobs), Agricultural Inputs and Services
(70,773 jobs), and Fruits and Vegetables (49,829). There were also at least 20,000 jobs in forest products and
livestock and meat products. The majority of jobs were concentrated in the southern and central portions of the
state, in the Miami-Ft. Lauderdale region (97,587 jobs), Orlando (86,352 jobs), and Tampa-St. Petersburg-
Clearwater (41,340). In the Miami-Ft. Lauderdale region, there were 33,682 jobs in environmental horticulture,
25,326 in agricultural inputs and services, and 11,884 in fruits and vegetables. In the Orlando region, there were
about 23,000 jobs in both environmental horticulture and agricultural inputs and services. Also, the Tampa-
St.Petersburg-Clearwater area had 12,688 jobs in environmental horticulture.
Value added represents the value of output less the value of purchased inputs used in the production of
goods or services for final consumption. It is a measure of personal and business net income, and includes the
value of employee labor, management and owner's compensation (proprieter's income), and indirect business
taxes paid. Value added avoids the double counting of expenditures on intermediate and final demand inherent
in output, and as such represents the net contribution to the regional economy. Value added in Florida's
agricultural and natural resource industries in 2000 totaled $14.7 billion (Table 3). Among industry groups,








value added was highest for Fruits and Vegetables ($2.9Bn), closely followed by Environmental Horticulture
($2.8Bn), then Forest Products ($2.0Bn), Other Food and Fiber Manufacturing ($1.6Bn), Agricultural Inputs
and Services ($1.4Bn), and Mining ($1.2Bn). Value added was highest in the Orlando and Miami-Ft.
Lauderdale regions, at $4.3Bn and $3.6Bn, respectively. In the second tier of regions, value added was $2.2Bn
in Tampa-St.Petersburg-Clearwater, $1.5Bn in Jacksonville, and $1.lBn in Sarasota-Bradenton. The
Tallahassee and Ft. Meyers-Cape Coral regions each had approximately $700 Mn in value added. Within the
Miami-Ft. Lauderdale region, environmental horticulture, fruits and vegetables, sugar and confectionary
products, and other food and fiber manufacturing all contributed in excess of $500Mn in value added. In the
Orlando region, these same industries, with the exception of sugar, and the addition of mining, had over
$500Mn in value added.










Table 3. Industry output of Florida agricultural and natural resource industry groups, by economic region 2000
Ag. & Natural Resource Industry Miami, Ft. Ft. Meyers, Sarasota- Tampa. St. Orlando Jacksonville Tallahassee Pensacola State of
Group Lauderdale Cape Coral Bradenton Petersburg, Florida
Clearwater


Agricultural Inputs and Services
Dairy Products
Environmental Horticulture
Field Crops
Forest Products
Fruits & Vegetables
Livestock and Meat Products
Mining
Other Food & Fiber Manufacturing
Seafood Products
Sugar & Confectionary Products
Tobacco Products
Total All Groups


Agricultural Inputs and Services
Dairy Products
Environmental Horticulture
Field Crops
Forest Products
Fruits & Vegetables
Livestock and Meat Products
Mining
Other Food & Fiber Manufacturing
Seafood Products
Sugar & Confectionary Products
Tobacco Products
Total All Groups


Agricultural Inputs and Services
Dairy Products
Environmental Horticulture
Field Crops
Forest Products
Fruits & Vegetables
Livestock and Meat Products
Mining
Other Food & Fiber Manufacturing
Seafood Products


579.6 90.1
460.6 8.1
1,472.7 289.0
54.2 1.4
620.7 62.1
1,691.2 248.7
353.5 11.4
334.9 384.5
1,479.5 212.0
139.7 23.1
1,666.5 0.0
330.1 0.0
9,183.1 1,330.4


25,326 3,929
1,540 43
33,682 7,712
575 39
4,385 459
11,884 4,400
2,643 385
2,338 2,312
4,438 963
3,165 625
7,121 0
490 0
97,587 20,866


314.7 45.8
114.7 2.6
897.5 203.1
17.5 0.8
206.8 22.9
625.9 194.6
71.6 7.5
99.7 142.9
504.4 67.1
75.8 12.8


Sugar & Confectionary Products 507.2 0.0
Tobacco Products 117.2 0.0
Total All Groups 3,553.0 700.1

Source: Implan data for Florida, MIG, Inc., Stillwater MN


Output (Million $)*
161.3 710.1 1,944.1
21.0 125.1 267.9
215.0 481.9 1,134.9
3.0 24.2 35.2
143.3 538.8 788.5
1,405.6 727.2 1,985.5
56.0 470.3 458.6
91.3 158.0 1,030.3
54.6 733.4 1,624.5
9.1 229.9 141.4
1.6 20.5 147.5
0.6 1,081.4 0.1
2,162.5 5,300.9 9,558.4
Employment (jobs)
7,646 6,306 23,497
168 633 838
6,566 12,688 23,252
102 676 1,219
1,170 2,658 4,989
8,983 6,063 14,329
924 5,851 6,456
614 1,390 3,802
364 1,885 4,462
423 1,841 2,983
8 79 522
1 1,271 2
26,970 41,340 86,352
Value Added (Million $)*
85.5 191.3 701.3
16.0 58.0 94.1
147.4 353.6 773.5
2.1 15.2 25.0
108.5 179.1 346.1
641.7 385.0 774.6
24.3 140.9 177.1
46.2 32.6 644.5
14.3 293.1 655.5
8.6 79.2 70.5
0.2 5.3 44.5
0.2 467.7 0.0
1,095.0 2,201.0 4,306.7


67.7 38.1 11.0 3,602.0
328.2 21.3 13.2 1,245.4
335.4 132.4 91.8 4,153.2
88.4 54.1 69.2 329.7
1,699.4 919.1 398.4 5,170.3
238.7 127.3 35.5 6,459.5
664.9 74.3 268.8 2,357.8
229.9 111.6 135.2 2,475.6
672.5 69.8 102.3 4,948.8
48.9 44.6 8.4 645.1
5.0 16.3 9.2 1,866.7
26.3 3.7 282.8 1,725.0
4,405.3 1,612.5 1,425.8 34,979.0


2,092 1,604 375 70,773
1,457 138 119 4,936
8,531 3,211 2,670 98,312
2,062 1,360 1,380 7,414
7,630 5,032 1,750 28,073
2,413 1,336 419 49,829
5,879 1,089 1,783 25,009
1,083 762 947 13,249
3,579 284 543 16,518
780 1,316 396 11,529
15 55 168 7,968
481 107 332 2,685
36,002 16,294 10,884 336,296


30.1 16.6 6.0 1,391.4
102.4 13.5 11.9 413.2
227.8 104.8 61.1 2,768.8
44.2 45.2 46.1 196.2
582.6 386.9 155.5 1,988.3
143.4 86.2 27.3 2,878.7
154.7 28.3 70.3 674.6
122.0 49.7 33.9 1,171.6
38.3 23.4 45.4 1,641.5
10.2 23.5 7.9 288.4
0.7 2.3 9.1 569.3
10.8 2.0 122.3 720.2
1,467.1 782.4 596.8 14,702.2


* Expressed in year 2002 values using US GDP Implicit Price Deflator








Industry Growth and Change


It is important to understand not only the overall value of industries to a regional economy, but also
how the economy is changing over time. Table 4 summarizes the change in output of the agricultural and
natural resource industries in Florida between 1995 and 2000, expressed in common year 2002 dollars, and as a
percentage change. Total output of these industries grew by $1.61billion (Bn), which represented a 5 percent
increase. The greatest growth occurred in the Tobacco products sector, which increased output by $1.46Bn
(544%), There was also significant growth in environmental horticulture ($1.44Bn or 53%), which was
distributed across all regions, and in the mining industry ($689Mn, 39%). Industry output declined in real
economic terms for agricultural inputs and services (-25%), field crops (-21%), forest products (-18%), seafood
products (-12%), and other food and fiber manufacturing (-5%). The remaining industry groups, including dairy
products, fruits and vegetables, livestock and meat products, and sugar and confectionary products, had
moderate growth (6-9%). Regionally, growth was highest in the Ft. Myers-Cape Coral area (58%), due to a
large increase in mining, environmental horticulture, and other food and fiber manufacturing. Growth was also
strong in the Sarasota-Bradenton area (33%) due to an increase in fruits and vegetables, and in the Tampa-
St.Petersburg-Clearwater area, due to increased output of tobacco products, environmental horticulture, and
forest products. Total output declined by 26 to 30 percent in the Jacksonville and Tallahassee regions,
respectively. In the Miami, Orlando, and Pensacola regions, overall growth was moderate, 8 to 13 percent, with
large increases in environmental horticulture and certain other sectors such as tobacco and other food and fiber
manufacturing, but was offset by decreases in mining or agricultural inputs and services.









Table 4. Change in Output of Florida's Agricultural and Natural Resource Industries, 1995 to 2000, by

Region and Industry Group
Industry Group Miami, Ft. Ft. Meyers, Sarasota, Tampa, St. Orlando Jackson- Talla- Pensacola State of
Lauderdale Cape Coral Bradenton Petersburg, ville hassee Florida
Clearwater


Agricultural Inputs and Services -163.3
Dairy Products 55.0
Environmental Horticulture 458.7
Field Crops -36.4
Forest Products 70.3
Fruits & Vegetables -30.8
Livestock and Meat Products -3.6
Mining 60.1
Other Food & Fiber Manufacturing -83.2
Seafood Products 36.9
Sugar & Confectionary Products 44.3
Tobacco Products 288.0
Total All Groups 696.2


Agricultural Inputs and Services
Dairy Products
Environmental Horticulture
Field Crops
Forest Products
Fruits & Vegetables
Livestock and Meat Products
Mining
Other Food & Fiber Manufacturing
Seafood Products
Sugar & Confectionary Products
Tobacco Products
Total All Groups


-57.8
4.0
123.5
-13.2
8.5
-11.4
-4.4
322.5
138.2
-23.9
0.0
0.0
485.9


-39
99
75
-90
16
-4
-28
520
187
-51
na
na
58


4.7
4.9
68.2
0.2
65.7
294.4
19.4
51.2
21.8
3.1
1.6
0.6
535.9


3
30
46
7
85
26
53
127
67
52
na
na
33


Change (Million $)
-169.6 -63.4 -794.6
-64.0 39.2 43.2
196.5 369.4 93.3
-14.4 3.8 0.8
139.5 -56.2 -155.5
88.2 12.7 5.2
-36.6 153.7 21.4
61.7 -155.4 172.9
-53.6 441.2 -853.8
-74.1 36.7 -19.1
-13.4 97.5 5.0
979.2 0.1 -92.7
1039.4 879.3 -1573.9
Percent Change
-19 -3 -92
-34 17 15
69 48 39
-37 12 1
35 -7 -8
14 1 2
-7 50 3
64 -13 303
-7 37 -56
-24 35 -28
-39 195 na
958 na -78
24 10 -26


16.4 0.7 -1227.0
0.7 -2.5 82.1
42.1 37.2 1437.9
-22.3 -14.9 -89.3
-710.4 -482.5 -1121.1
18.3 12.5 418.2
-133.8 113.2 128.8
57.3 119.1 689.3
61.5 90.8 -237.1
-45.5 -4.5 -90.4
14.3 9.2 158.6
-1.1 282.8 1457.0
-702.6 161.2 1607.1


75 7
3 -16
47 68
-29 -18
-44 -55
17 54
-64 73
105 741
734 788
-51 -35
695 na
-23 na
-30 13


-25
7
53
-21
-18
7
6
39
-5
-12
9
544
5


Source: Implan data for Florida counties, MIG, Inc., Stillwater, MN.
Note: All values adjusted to year 2002 using US GDP Implicit Price Deflator (U.S. Commerce Dept).









Industry Exports or Sales Outside the Region


Exports, or shipments of goods and services to customers outside the state or region, are a primary
driver of local economic development because these revenues and earnings stimulate an increase in overall
economic activity in associated businesses and employee household spending. Exports by the agricultural and
natural resource industries of Florida are summarized in Table 5. Total exports from Florida were $20.7 billion
(Bn). The largest exporting industry sectors were fruits and vegetables ($4.9Bn), other manufactured food and
fiber products ($2.9Bn), forest products ($2.8Bn), and agricultural inputs and services ($2.7Bn). Industries with
export values exceeding one billion dollars included environmental horticulture, mining, sugar and
confectionary products, and tobacco products. Exports were highest for the Orlando and Miami-Fort Lauderdale
economic regions, at $6.7 and $5.5Bn, respectively, followed by Tampa-St.Petersburg-Clearwater ($3.3Bn) and
Jacksonville ($2.8Bn). Exports also exceeded one billion dollars for the Sarasota-Bradenton ($2.8Bn) and
Tallahassee areas. Note that the value of exports for the state of Florida may differ from the sum of exports for
all regions because the balance of trade is computed independently for each region, and there is extensive trade
among the regions of Florida that does not appear in the trade for the state as a whole.


Table 5. Exports by agricultural and natural resource industries in Florida, by industry group and region, 2000*
Ag. & Natural Resource Industry Miami, Ft. Ft. Meyers, Sarasota- Tampa. St. Orlando Jacksonville Tallahassee Pensacola State of
Group Lauderdale Cape Coral Bradenton Petersburg, Florida
Clearwater
Million Dollars
Agricultural Inputs and Services 320.1 74.0 100.3 638.8 1,557.3 38.0 32.3 11.4 2,679.9
Dairy Products 89.5 1.4 18.7 58.5 64.0 176.4 14.9 12.8 266.9
Environmental Horticulture 678.0 141.8 82.9 219.4 634.1 148.0 47.2 31.3 1,959.5
Field Crops 78.7 1.7 2.8 36.4 80.0 75.9 53.0 69.4 366.9
Forest Products 244.6 17.1 125.0 135.9 366.1 1,141.5 737.9 319.4 2,830.7
Fruits & Vegetables 1,321.4 194.9 1,252.4 584.3 1,613.4 179.4 83.2 22.4 4,926.7
Livestock and Meat Products 72.6 7.4 34.5 76.9 245.9 206.1 28.4 30.3 457.1
Mining 277.6 303.1 76.5 72.8 607.7 193.8 63.1 88.0 1,549.2
Other Food & Fiber Manufacturing 899.3 129.2 35.3 527.8 1,230.8 550.0 35.5 28.5 2,889.7
Seafood Products 130.3 21.5 8.3 224.8 131.8 46.0 41.1 7.4 592.4
Sugar & Confectionary Products 1,269.3 0.3 3.3 20.7 132.7 5.8 16.5 9.5 1,153.7
Tobacco Products 121.8 0.0 0.0 736.7 0.1 21.6 3.7 193.1 1,025.9
Total All Groups 5,503.1 892.3 1,740.1 3,332.9 6,663.9 2,782.5 1,156.8 823.4 20,698.7
Source: Implan data for Florida, MIG, Inc., Stillwater MN
* Expressed in 2002 year dollars based on US GDP Implicit Price Deflator







Total Economic Impacts


The total economic impacts of the agricultural and natural resource industries in Florida were estimated
by using the previously presented data on output, value added, employment and exports, together with input-
output multipliers from regional models constructed with Implan. These results are summarized in Table 6. The
total impacts reflect the indirect effect of increased purchases from other industries to meet export demand, and
the induced effects of employee household spending. Total output impacts for the state of Florida in 2000 were
$61.57 billion (Bn), expressed in year 2002 dollars. The largest industry group, by far, was fruits and
vegetables, with a total output impact of $13.01Bn. A second tier of industry groups in terms of total output
impacts were forest products at $8.61Bn, other manufactured food and fiber products at $8.25Bn, agricultural
inputs and services at $7.00Bn, and environmental horticulture at $6.90Bn. The third tier of industries included
mining ($4.25Bn), sugar and confectionary products ($3.68Bn), tobacco products ($3.44Bn), and livestock and
meat products ($2.86Bn). The fourth tier of industries were seafood products ($1.20Bn), dairy products
($1.56Bn), and field crops ($814Mn).
Total output impacts were largest in the Orlando region at $16.92Bn and Miami-Fort Lauderdale at
$15.82Bn, followed by Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater area ($9.46Bn), and Jacksonville ($7.60Bn). The
remaining regions had total output impacts of $3.69Bn in the Sarasota-Bradenton area, $2.64Bn in Tallahassee,
and $2.38Bn in the Pensacola area. Again, note that these results for the state of Florida and for each region
were derived independently, so the sum of total economic impact estimates across regions may not equal the
value for the state.
Employment impacts of Florida's agricultural and natural resource industries, including both direct
employment in these industries, plus jobs in other related businesses that provide inputs and serve industry
employees, totaled 644,673 jobs (Table 6). The largest industry groups in terms of employment impacts were
fruits and vegetables (133,189), environmental horticulture (131,748), and agricultural inputs and services
(107,595). Other sectors with total employment impacts exceeding 20,000 jobs were forest products (67,153),
other food and fiber manufacturing (52,730), mining (32,739), livestock and meat products (31,383), and sugar
and confectionary products (27,581). Regionally, the largest employment impacts were in Miami-Ft. Lauderdale
(173,914), Orlando (170,686), followed by Tampa-St.Petersburg-Clearwater (88,709), Jacksonville (78,111),
and Sarasota-Bradenton (48,470).
As noted previously, value added is a preferred measure of the net contribution to a local economy,
because it represents in increase in value generated at each stage of complex market supply chains. Total value
added impacts for the agriculture and natural resource industries of Florida in 2000 were $30.83 Bn (Table 6).
Again, the fruits and vegetables sector was the largest, accounting for $6.90Bn in value added impacts,
followed by environmental horticulture ($4.50Bn), forest products ($4.07Bn), other food and fiber
manufactured products (3.64Bn), agricultural inputs and services ($3.37Bn), and mining ($2.25Bn). The
Orlando, and Miami-Ft. Lauderdale regions had total value added impacts of $8.75Bn and $7.61Bn,
respectively, while Tampa-St.Petersburg-Clearwater and Jacksonville had value added impacts of $4.64Bn and
$3.32Bn. The remaining regions had value added impacts ranging from $2.03Bn in Sarasota-Bradenton, to
$1.22Bn in Pensacola.
Labor income is the portion of value added that represents employee wages and salaries and business
owners or "proprietors" net income. Estimates of labor income impacts are also provided in Table 6 for the
agricultural and natural resource industries of Florida. Total labor income impacts in Florida in year 2000 were
$19.28Bn, including $4.50Bn in fruits and vegetables, $2.88Bn in environmental horticulture, $2.58Bn in forest
products, $2.27Bn in agricultural inputs and services, and $2.09Bn in other food and fiber manufacturing.
Regionally, labor income impacts included $5.37Bn in Orlando, $4.84Bn in Miami-Ft.Lauderdale, $2.79Bn in








Tampa-St.Petersburg-Clearwater, and $2.18Bn in Jacksonville.
Another important measure of economic impacts is the taxes paid by businesses and households, which
support local, state, and federal governments. Implan provides estimates of indirect business taxes paid, such as
property, sales, income, excise, and motor fuels taxes, based on state and county fiscal account data, and also
indirect business tax multipliers. Total indirect business tax impacts of agricultural and natural resource
industries of Florida in year 2000 were an estimated $2.76Bn, including $725 million (Mn) by tobacco
products, $458Mn by fruits and vegetables, $409Mn by other food and fiber products manufacturing, $276Mn
by forest products, $217Mn by agricultural inputs and services, and $214Mn by environmental horticulture
(Table 6). Regionally, total indirect business tax impacts were $680Mn in the Orlando area, $615Mn in Miami-
Ft.Lauderdale,










Table 6. Total economic impacts of Florida agricultural and natural resource industry groups, by region 2000
Ag. & Natural Resource Industry Miami, Ft. Ft. Meyers, Sarasota- Tampa. St. Orlando Jacksonville Tallahas see Pensacola State of


Lauderdale Cape Coral Bradenton Petersburg,
Clearwater


Agricultural Inputs and Services
Dairy Products
Environmental Horticulture
Field Crops
Forest Products
Fruits & Vegetables
Livestock and Meat Products
Mining
Other Food & Fiber Manufacturing
Seafood Products
Sugar & Confectionary Products
Tobacco Products
Total All Groups


Agricultural Inputs and Services
Dairy Products
Environmental Horticulture
Field Crops
Forest Products
Fruits & Vegetables
Livestock and Meat Products
Mining
Other Food & Fiber Manufacturing
Seafood Products
Sugar & Confectionary Products
Tobacco Products
Total All Groups


Agricultural Inputs and Services
Dairy Products
Environmental Horticulture
Field Crops
Forest Products
Fruits & Vegetables
Livestock and Meat Products
Mining
Other Food & Fiber Manufacturing
Seafood Products
Sugar & Confectionary Products
Tobacco Products
Total All Groups


Agricultural Inputs and Services
Dairy Products
Environmental Horticulture
Field Crops


939.6
555.9
2,355.4
147.8
875.8
3,292.5
418.8
628.7
2,370.2
256.9
3,458.1
523.6
15,823.3


29,398
2,599
43,972
1,663
7,138
34,271
3,414
5,255
13,730
4,548
25,797
2,130
173,914


538.0
173.1
1,451.2
75.7
363.1
1,618.5
111.2
276.5
1,052.2
149.9
1,572.0
220.2
7,601.7


388.5
128.8
929.0
50.2


145.8
9.3
442.5
2.6
76.3
444.3
18.4
661.5
308.5
38.9
0.0
0.0
2,148.1


4,647
59
9,614
61
636
7,129
479
5,201
2,059
840
0
0
30,723


80.6
3.4
300.4
1.6
31.5
315.2
11.9
297.9
124.7
22.6
0.0
0.0
1,189.8


57.4
2.5
191.0
1.1


Output Impacts (Million $)*
251.4 1,445.1 3,688.8 108.2
38.5 197.5 337.9 502.5
302.3 770.2 1,945.5 527.6
5.4 67.3 131.9 175.9
268.2 673.4 1,179.6 3,054.4
2,507.3 1,461.9 3,933.2 459.5
86.5 538.5 704.2 958.3
155.3 232.9 1,565.8 397.6
57.9 1,328.0 2,892.6 1,280.0
17.3 417.0 258.8 80.1
3.3 41.2 277.0 9.4
0.6 2,283.4 0.1 49.5
3,694.0 9,456.3 16,915.4 7,603.0


Employment Impacts (jobs)
8,889 14,489 41,517 2,626
411 1,507 1,681 3,829
7,752 16,245 33,099 11,238
141 1,207 2,415 3,227
3,022 4,277 9,553 25,128
24,498 14,674 38,527 5,643
1,367 6,786 9,529 9,418
1,422 2,226 9,552 3,406
408 8,656 18,453 11,445
531 4,702 4,469 1,277
28 315 1,888 74
1 13,625 3 800
48,470 88,709 170,686 78,111

Value Added Impacts (Million $)*
140.0 595.7 1,708.0 53.5
26.9 101.6 138.0 208.5
202.2 529.8 1,275.9 348.2
3.6 40.6 84.9 96.3
184.4 259.2 584.9 1,370.8
1,309.4 823.1 1,960.8 277.2
42.9 183.0 328.2 300.6
84.7 75.7 967.5 227.4
16.3 638.0 1,435.1 379.0
13.5 196.3 143.5 28.8
1.2 17.3 122.6 3.2
0.2 1,182.9 0.1 25.0
2,025.4 4,643.2 8,749.4 3,318.4

Labor Income Impacts (Million $)*
101.2 392.1 1,129.1 38.5
21.4 75.7 104.9 160.2
128.2 338.9 816.4 223.7
2.4 27.2 56.3 63.6


66.4
35.2
176.9
106.3
1,584.9
201.0
97.8
158.6
98.4
75.6
27.2
6.7
2,635.0


1,971
324
3,818
2,092
12,976
2,355
1,449
1,340
662
1,820
186
150
29,144


34.7
23.0
135.6
81.2
801.1
136.3
44.0
80.3
42.8
44.9
9.1
4.1
1,437.0


22.9 6,990.7
28.5 1,558.3
127.2 6,902.1
148.5 814.1
726.8 8,612.7
58.0 13,013.1
297.5 2,859.2
240.2 4,254.8
128.2 8,251.3
17.5 1,203.1
20.3 3,675.9
569.2 3,436.9
2,384.8 61,572.1


513 107,595
302 8,791
3,083 131,748
2,307 13,297
5,302 67,153
683 133,189
2,120 31,383
1,957 32,739
836 52,730
503 18,868
299 27,581
3,285 19,599
21,191 644,673


14.0 3,365.0
22.4 610.8
85.6 4,495.8
100.7 497.4
368.7 4,074.3
42.7 6,897.5
87.7 982.4
97.7 2,252.0
62.6 3,641.9
14.1 639.1
16.8 1,624.9
311.0 1,751.2
1,224.1 30,832.3


9.8 2,274.6
17.6 472.1
54.6 2,881.9
67.7 332.0


Group


Florida










Table 6. Total economic impacts of Florida agricultural and natural resource industry groups, by region 2000
Ag. & Natural Resource Industry Miami, Ft. Ft. Meyers, Sarasota- Tampa. St. Orlando Jacksonville Tallahas see Pensacola State of
Group Lauderdale Cape Coral Bradenton Petersburg, Florida
Clearwater
Forest Products 246.0 21.1 94.6 181.4 390.0 843.7 505.4 228.8 2,583.3
Fruits & Vegetables 1,072.9 215.9 810.5 536.9 1,266.2 191.7 89.5 28.7 4,498.5
Livestock and Meat Products 85.1 9.2 32.8 143.8 246.9 228.3 33.9 69.3 762.8
Mining 160.1 161.0 51.0 40.8 400.0 153.6 41.0 51.4 1,161.0
Other Food & Fiber Manufacturing 606.9 78.3 9.8 376.4 794.3 242.0 21.7 39.6 2,089.7
Seafood Products 101.1 15.0 8.6 139.0 96.6 19.3 29.5 9.1 435.2
Sugar & Confectionary Products 984.7 0.0 0.7 10.2 71.4 2.2 6.0 9.5 1,009.5
Tobacco Products 84.8 0.0 0.0 530.8 0.0 14.3 2.4 139.9 775.6
Total All Groups 4,838.1 752.6 1,261.3 2,793.2 5,372.2 2,181.2 913.1 726.0 19,276.4
Indirect Business Tax Impacts (Million $)*
Agricultural Inputs and Services 32.4 4.9 8.3 41.6 110.9 3.0 2.1 0.8 216.5
Dairy Products 8.3 0.1 1.1 4.7 6.0 9.1 0.8 0.8 24.5
Environmental Horticulture 72.9 14.0 8.8 24.0 59.9 15.2 4.5 3.6 214.4
Field Crops 6.1 0.1 0.3 3.0 6.6 6.6 6.1 7.1 38.1
Forest Products 23.0 2.0 20.4 14.5 39.7 89.5 46.0 19.0 276.8
Fruits & Vegetables 115.6 19.3 79.7 53.9 138.2 14.8 6.4 1.9 458.0
Livestock and Meat Products 6.8 0.8 2.9 9.6 19.9 14.3 2.4 3.7 52.0
Mining 24.0 25.5 6.8 6.5 71.6 26.0 5.5 8.0 184.8
Other Food & Fiber Manufacturing 94.6 6.6 0.8 54.0 210.9 42.5 8.7 1.9 409.1
Seafood Products 8.9 1.3 0.7 12.9 8.7 1.8 2.3 0.6 39.2
Sugar & Confectionary Products 119.6 0.0 0.1 1.2 7.9 0.2 0.7 1.1 118.7
Tobacco Products 102.6 0.0 0.2 492.2 0.0 3.5 0.4 126.1 724.9
Total All Groups 614.9 74.6 130.0 718.0 680.3 226.5 85.9 174.5 2,757.1
Source: Implan data for Florida, MIG, Inc., Stillwater MN

* Values expressed in year 2002 dollars (millions) based on US GDP Implicit Price Deflator.

Total impacts represent direct impacts plus indirect and induced multiplier effects of export sales (shipments outside region)








Per-Capita Impacts


Due to differences in overall area and varying populations across regions, it is meaningful to analyze
economic impacts of the agricultural and natural resource industries in Florida on a per-capita basis. Average
per-capita total output impacts for the state of Florida in 2000 were $3,853, expressed in year 2002 dollars
(Table 7). Regionally, per-capita output impacts were above average for the Jacksonville area ($4,679),
Tallahassee ($4,409), Sarasota-Bradenton ($4,836), Orlando ($4,667) and Tampa-St.Petersburg-Clearwater
($3,947), while per capital output impacts were below average for Miami-Ft.Lauderdale ($2,824), Fort Meyers-
Cape Coral ($3,103), and Pensacola ($3,598).
Total employment impacts of the agricultural and natural resource industries were expressed on the
basis of jobs per 1000 population (Table 7). The overall statewide average was 40 jobs per 1000 population.
Again, employment impacts were above-average for the regions of Jacksonville (48), Sarasota-Bradenton (63),
Tallahassee (49), Orlando (47), and Ft. Myers-Cape Coral (44), while they were below-average for Miami-Ft.
Lauderdale (31), Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater (33), and Pensacola (32).
Value added impacts per-capita averaged $1,929 statewide in 2000 (Table 7). Sarasota-Bradenton had
the highest per capital value added impact at $2,652. Other regions with above-average value added impacts
were Jacksonville ($2,042), Tallahassee ($2,404), and Orlando ($2,414). The Miami-Ft. Lauderdale region
exhibited the lowest per-capita value added impacts with at $1,357, and other regions with below-state-average
impacts were Ft. Myers-Cape Coral ($1,719), and Pensacola ($1,847), while the Tampa-St. Petersburg-
Clearwater region had per capital value added impacts close to the statewide average ($1,938). It is interesting
to note that more than a two-fold difference in per-capita value added impacts exists between the regions with
the highest (Sarasota-Bradenton) and lowest (Miami-Ft. Lauderdale) values. In general, the agricultural and
natural resource industries are much larger in the urbanized areas of central and south Florida, however, their
relative importance is greater in the regions of north Florida.

Table 7. Per-capita impacts of agricultural and natural resource industry groups in
Florida, by region, 2000
Region Output Impacts Employment Value Added
Per Capita ($*) Impacts Per Impacts Per
1000 Population Capita ($*)
(jobs)
Miami, Ft. Lauderdale 2,824 31 1,357
Ft. Myers, Cape Coral 3,103 44 1,719
Sarasota, Bradenton 4,836 63 2,652
Tampa, St. Petersburg, Clearwater 3,947 37 1,938
Orlando 4,667 47 2,414
Jacksonville 4,679 48 2,042
Tallahassee 4,409 49 2,404
Pensacola 3,598 32 1,847
Florida 3,853 40 1,929
Values expressed in year 2002 dollars based on US GDP Implicit Price Deflator.








Share of Gross Regional Product


Another useful indicator of the importance of the agricultural and natural resource industries in Florida
is their share of the Gross Regional Product (GRP), or sum of direct value added for all industries in the region.
For the state of Florida in 2000, gross regional product was $484 billion (year 2002 dollars), and the $14.7 in
value added by agriculture and natural resources represents 3.0 percent of this (Table 8). The GRP was $181Bn
in the Miami-Ft. Lauderdale region, $107Bn in Orlando, $72Bn in Tampa-St.Petersburg-Clearwater, $44Bn in
Jacksonville, and $19Bn to $20Bn in the remaining regions. The regions with the highest share of GRP in
agriculture and nature resources were Sarasota-Bradenton (5.4%), Tallahassee (4.2%), Orlando (4.0%), and Ft.
Meyers-Cape Coral (3.5%), while the major urbanized region of Miami-Ft.Lauderdale had a significantly lower
share of GRP (2.0%), and the remaining regions were close to the overall state average (Tampa-St.Petersburg-
Clearwater, Jacksonville, Pensacola).

Table 8. Gross Regional Product of Florida Agricultural & Natural Resource Industries
and All Industries, by Economic Region, 2000


Region


Gross Regional
Product (Bill. $*)


I


Miami, Ft. Lauderdale 180.6
Ft. Myers, Cape Coral 20.0
Sarasota, Bradenton 20.1
Tampa, St. Petersburg, Clearwater 72.4
Orlando 107.2
Jacksonville 44.2
Tallahassee 18.6
Pensacola 21.2
Florida 484.2
Source: Implan data for Florida, MIG, Inc., Stillwater MN
* Year 2002 dollars, US GDP Implicit Price Deflator.


Agricultural &
Natural Resource
Industry Value
Added (Mill. $*)
3,553.C
700.1
1,095.C
2,201.C
4,306.7
1,467.1
782.4
596.8
14,702.2


Share of Gross
Regional
Product

2.0%
3.5%
5.4%
3.0%
4.0%
3.3%
4.2%
2.8%
3.0%


Gross regional product represents sum of value added for all industries.








Conclusions


This study examined the regional impacts of Florida's agricultural and natural resource industries
across eight functional economic regions as defined by the Bureau of Economic Analysis. Florida's agricultural
and natural resource industries had total output of $35.0 billion (Bn), employment of over 336,000 persons,
value added of $14.7 billion in value added, and exports of $20.7 Bn in 2000. Output grew by 5 percent
between 1995 and 2000, in inflation-adjusted terms. Economic activity generated due to the indirect and
induced multiplier effects of export earnings brought about total impacts of $61.6Bn in output, 645,000 jobs,
$30.8Bn in total value added, $19.3Bn in labor income, and $2.8Bn in indirect business taxes paid to
governments. Statewide, the agricultural and natural resource industries accounted for 3.0 percent of state
Gross Regional Product in 2000. The state's largest region for agriculture and natural resources was Orlando,
with $8.7Bn in value added impacts, followed by Miami-Fort Lauderdale ($7.6Bn), Tampa-St. Petersburg-
Clearwater ($4.6Bn) Jacksonville ($3.3Bn), Sarasota-Bradenton ($2.0Bn), Tallahassee ($1.4Bn), Ft. Myers-
Cape Coral ($1.2Bn), and Pensacola ($1.2Bn). The Jacksonville, Tallahassee, Sarasota-Bradenton, and Orlando
regions had greater economic impacts per-capita than the state as a whole, with a two-fold difference existing
between the regions with highest and lowest per-capita value added impacts.



Literature and Information Sources Cited

Bureau of Economic Analysis. Gross Domestic Product Implicit Price Deflator. United States Department of
Commerce, Washington, DC.
Hodges, Alan W., W. David Mulkey, and Effie Philippakos. Economic impact of Florida's agricultural and
natural resource industries. Economic Information Report El 00-4, University of Florida, Food &
Resource Economics Department, 35 p., 2000
Implan Professional, Version 2.0, Social Accounting and Impact Analysis Software, User's Guide, Analysis
Guide and Data Guide, 1999. MIG, Inc., Stillwater, MN.
Implan data for Florida counties (2000). MIG, Inc., Stillwater, MN, 2003.
Johnson, K.P. Redefinition of the BEA Economic Areas. Survey of Current Business. Feb. 1995, pp. 75-81.
Miller, R.E. and P.D. Blair. Input-Output Analysis: Foundations and Extensions. Prentice-Hall, Englewood
Cliffs, New Jersey, 464 p., 1985.
Mulkey, W.D. and A.W. Hodges. Using IMPLAN to assess local economic impacts. University of Florida
Extension Electronic Document FE168, 2000. Available at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu









Appendix Table
Output of Agricultural and Natural Resource Industries in Florida, by Sector and Region, 2000
Tampa. St.
Miami, Ft. Ft. Meyers, Sarasota, Talla- State of
Industry Petersburg, Orlando Jacksonville Pensacola
Lauderdale Cape Coral Bradenton hassee Florida
Clearwater


Agricultural Inputs and Services
Agricultural, Forestry, Fishery Services
Nitrogenous and Phosphatic Fertilizers
Fertilizers, Mixing Only
Agricultural Chemicals, N.E.C
Dairy Products
Dairy Farm Products
Creamery Butter
Cheese, Natural and Processed
Condensed and Evaporated Milk
Ice Cream and Frozen Desserts
Fluid Milk
Environmental Horticulture
Greenhouse and Nursery Products
Landscape and Horticultural Services
Field Crops
Cotton
Food Grains
Feed Grains
Hay and Pasture
Grass Seeds
Miscellaneous Crops
Oil Bearing Crops
Flour and Other Grain Mill Products
Cereal Preparations
Rice Milling
Blended and Prepared Flour
Animal and Marine Fats and Oils
Shortening and Cooking Oils
Forest Products
Forest Products
Forestry Products
Logging Camps and Logging Contractors
Sawmills and Planing Mills, General
Hardwood Dimension and Flooring Mills
Special Product Sawmills, N.E.C
Veneer and Plywood
Structural Wood Members, N.E.C
Wood Containers
Wood Pallets and Skids
Wood Preserving
Reconstituted Wood Products


494.8
12.0
46.7
5.4


87.5
47.4
13.2
0.0
6.6
289.6


70.4
0.0
13.9
2.6


1.2
0.0
0.0
0.0
6.5
0.0


142.0
4.5
8.4
0.7


18.5
0.0
0.0
1.5
0.2
0.0


76.5 375.1
553.5 1,209.1
47.2 215.2
7.7 75.6


70.0
3.4
6.8
0.0
0.7
177.5


548.8 76.3 64.1 183.3 628.6
871.6 202.5 143.4 281.5 466.1


2.5
34.6
32.4
33.6
16.8
13.1
7.1
177.5
3.6
8.4
12.9
17.9


11.4
76.0
26.6
29.8
0.2
0.3
6.0
185.5
14.0
39.2
39.2
0.0


42.7
10.6
10.4
1.6


141.5
9.2
0.0
0.0
0.2
165.7


8.4 1,236.9
1.6 1,796.7
0.5 346.5
0.1 94.0


12.7 383.6
0.0 62.0
0.0 19.9
0.0 7.8
0.0 74.3
0.0 653.5


93.9 73.9 15.9 1,684.6
229.6 53.8 72.7 2,321.1


18.5
119.9
159.8
218.4
0.7
2.1
25.4
90.5
13.1
6.8
58.6
3.4


17.9
43.5
124.0
73.6
0.5
0.0
110.2
85.4
0.8
0.2
4.6
0.0


15.5 27.9
0.1 1.0
4.4 20.2
7.5 57.8
0.0 11.5
1.1 28.7
19.1 55.5
17.6 46.4
0.0 0.0
0.0 4.4
1.4 14.0
0.0 45.1
0.0 5.3


11.5 65.7
5.8 389.8
28.5 380.9
12.4 375.5
0.0 19.2
0.0 15.5
0.0 148.8
18.8 650.3
0.0 35.9
3.0 64.4
0.4 193.6
0.0 35.2









Appendix Table
Output of Agricultural and Natural Resource Industries in Florida, by Sector and Region, 2000
Tampa. St.
Miami, Ft. Ft. Meyers, Sarasota, Talla- State of
Industry Petersburg, Orlando Jacksonville Pensacola
Lauderdale Cape Coral Bradenton hassee Florida
Clearwater


Wood Products, N.E.C
Pulp Mills
Paper Mills, Except Building Paper
Paperboard Mills
Paperboard Containers and Boxes
Paper Coated & Laminated Packaging
Paper Coated & Laminated N.E.C.
Bags, Paper
Die-cut Paper and Board
Gum and Wood Chemicals
Fruits & Vegetables
Fruits
Tree Nuts
Vegetables
Canned Specialties
Canned Fruits and Vegetables
Dehydrated Food Products
Pickles, Sauces, and Salad Dressings
Frozen Fruits, Juices and Vegetables
Frozen Specialties
Potato Chips & Similar Snacks
Livestock and Meat Products
Poultry and Eggs
Ranch Fed Cattle
Range Fed Cattle
Cattle Feedlots
Sheep, Lambs and Goats
Hogs, Pigs and Swine
Other Meat Animal Products
Miscellaneous Livestock
Meat Packing Plants
Sausages and Other Prepared Meats
Poultry Processing
Mining
Metal Mining Services
Metal Ores, Not Elswhere Classified
Coal Mining
Natural Gas & Crude Petroleum
Natural Gas Liquids
Dimension Stone
Sand and Gravel
Clay, Ceramic, Refractory Minerals


29.7
0.2
23.4
5.9
150.4
1.0
8.0
1.1
16.8
1.5


729.7
2.6
587.6
4.6
91.0
1.4
79.4
111.8
20.8
2.2


4.3
38.8
35.3
0.3
(0.0)
0.1
0.0
24.9
108.0
114.6
14.8


0.0
1.5
9.8
237.2
0.0
39.1
30.6
1.6


1.8
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.4
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0


92.8
0.0
145.7
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
1.3
0.0
0.0


0.9
4.2
3.3
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
2.6
0.0
0.0
0.0


0.0
0.0
5.4
253.1
0.0
110.2
0.8
0.0


10.8
0.0
1.8
0.4
10.2
0.0
5.8
0.1
0.0
0.0


259.5
0.0
172.1
0.4
880.7
0.0
0.0
43.0
0.0
0.0


9.3
22.2
12.2
0.5
0.0
0.4
0.0
7.0
2.4
0.0
0.0


13.1 18.4
0.0 2.1
3.6 22.9
0.0 16.0
294.7 226.6
35.5 32.1
0.9 0.8
9.8 2.9
1.1 10.6
0.0 0.0


115.2 646.6
0.5 2.2
92.4 203.5
0.3 5.2
80.6 169.9
29.9 0.0
0.6 61.6
314.6 625.0
52.1 8.6
15.3 192.2


39.1 55.5
23.5 80.6
5.1 42.4
0.7 1.5
0.0 0.1
1.1 1.0
0.0 0.0
53.9 155.1
295.7 43.7
34.3 62.4
0.3 0.1


0.4 0.1
0.0 16.9
0.2 15.2
128.0 47.7
0.0 51.1
8.5 26.4
8.9 24.2
0.0 0.1


5.9
2.0
44.4
583.5
233.9
4.2
4.0
42.4
1.7
0.0


9.3
23.8
186.2
0.0
3.0
0.1
2.4
3.1
0.1
2.0


166.3
49.9
5.4
1.1
0.1
1.5
0.0
21.6
41.3
26.0
328.1


1.7
158.2
258.7
3.9
2.3
0.4
0.0
0.3
0.2
0.0


3.6
19.4
53.7
0.0
3.8
0.1
10.7
4.7
0.4
26.4


19.8
17.6
1.1
0.3
0.0
2.8
0.0
6.4
15.1
6.5
2.0


0.5 81.8
0.6 163.2
230.9 585.8
0.5 610.2
4.0 922.6
4.6 77.7
0.0 19.4
27.5 84.1
0.1 30.6
35.1 36.6


2.1 1,858.9
8.9 57.5
14.1 1,455.2
0.0 10.5
0.0 1,229.0
0.0 31.5
8.7 163.4
0.0 1,103.6
0.0 82.0
0.5 238.6


41.3 336.5
12.7 249.5
0.6 105.3
0.6 5.0
0.0 0.1
0.4 7.2
0.0 0.0
2.2 273.6
70.0 576.2
65.9 309.9
65.5 410.8


0.0 0.5
0.1 71.4
0.4 106.5
123.8 899.1
0.0 51.1
0.1 281.9
5.3 81.0
0.0 47.6









Appendix Table
Output of Agricultural and Natural Resource Industries in Florida, by Sector and Region, 2000
Tampa. St.
Miami, Ft. Ft. Meyers, Sarasota, Talla- State of
Industry Petersburg, Orlando Jacksonville Pensacola
Lauderdale Cape Coral Bradenton hassee Florida
Clearwater


Potash Soda and Borate Minemis


0.0


Phosphate Rock 0.2
Chemical, Fertilizer Mineral Mining 0.0
Nonmetallic Minerals (Exc. Fuels) Service 0.0
Misc. Nonmetallic Minerals, N.E.C. 3.0
Other Food & Fiber Manufacturing
Dog, Cat, and Other Pet Food 10.6
Prepared Feeds, N.E.C 24.5
Bread, Cake, and Related Products 268.9
Cookies and Crackers 27.4
Malt Beverages 59.0
Wines, Brandy, and Brandy Spirits 0.9
Distilled Liquor, Except Brandy 41.3
Bottled and Canned Soft Drinks & Water 703.4
Flavoring Extracts and Syrups, N.E.C. 5.0
Roasted Coffee 206.0


Manufactured Ice
Macaroni and Spaghetti
Food Preparations, N.E.C
Seafood Products
Commercial Fishing
Canned and Cured Sea Foods
Prepared Fresh Or Frozen Fish Or Seafood
Sugar & Confectionary Products
Sugar Crops
Sugar
Confectionery Products
Chocolate and Cocoa Products
Tobacco Products


430.5
1,171.7
5.2
0.0


0.0
0.0
0.0
0.2
1.2


0.0
0.0
115.5
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
85.7
0.0
0.0
0.8
0.0
2.5


10.6
0.0
11.8


0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0


Tobacco 0.0 0.0
Cigarettes 85.7 0.0
Cigars 225.8 0.0
Chewing and Smoking Tobacco 7.0 0.0
Source: Implan data for Florida Counties, MIG, Inc., Stillwater MN


0.0 0.4
4.9 772.7
0.0 0.0
0.0 0.2
1.5 38.7


0.0 8.1
9.4 155.1
66.1 208.0
41.4 66.9
84.8 275.4
0.0 2.8
0.0 146.9
422.0 514.0
6.5 145.2
43.3 2.5
3.3 5.2
0.6 0.0
29.9 36.9


17.0 50.3
0.9 5.0
203.8 81.1


0.0 0.0
0.0 0.5
19.8 126.9
0.0 14.9


0.0 0.1
0.0 0.0
1,043.0 0.0
0.0 0.0


0.0
1.3
0.5
0.9
5.0


0.0
26.0
55.1
0.4
62.4
0.0
15.1
261.0
0.2
198.6
0.8
0.0
29.0


8.4
0.9
38.0


0.1
4.3
0.4
0.0


0.0 0.4
0.6 795.2
0.0 0.5
0.0 1.4
0.0 51.1


0.0 0.0 18.7
1.7 8.0 224.6
3.2 63.6 827.1
0.5 0.0 136.6
3.3 0.0 484.9
0.0 0.0 5.5
11.6 0.0 214.9
10.7 0.0 1,996.7
4.6 0.0 161.5
2.5 0.0 453.0
0.2 13.7 25.4
0.1 0.0 8.7
29.0 13.3 215.7


8.1 175.3
0.0 47.6
0.0 399.4


8.9 439.9
0.0 1,186.9
0.0 154.0
0.0 19.6


3.5 0.0 24.8
0.0 0.0 85.7
0.0 272.7 1,546.3
0.0 0.0 7.0




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