Title: Fairy ring
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00066825/00001
 Material Information
Title: Fairy ring
Series Title: Plant Pathology Fact Sheet PP-43
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Elliot, Monica L.
Simone, Gary W.
Affiliation: University of Florida -- Florida Cooperative Extension Service -- Department of Plant Pathology -- Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
Publisher: Department of Plant Pathology, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publication Date: 2001
 Subjects
Spatial Coverage: North America -- United States of America -- Florida
 Notes
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00066825
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Full Text



Plant Pathology Fact Sheet


Fairy Ring

Monica L Elliott, Associate Professor, Ft. Lauderdale Research and Education
Center, University of Florida, 3205 College Ave, Ft. Lauderdale, Fl 33314 and
Gary W. Simone, Professor Emeritus, Plant Pathology Department, University of
Florida, Gainesville, Florida, 32611. Revised April 2001
Florida Cooperative Extension Service/ Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences/ University of Florida/ Christine Waddill, Dean


Causal Agent(s)

Chlorophyllum, Marasmius, Lepiota, Lycoperdon
and other basidiomycete fungi

Turfgrasses Affected

All warm-season turfgrasses.

Occurrence

Fairy rings, especially the mushrooms,
are most commonly observed during the sum-
mer months when Florida receives the major-
ity of its rainfall. Fairy rings occur when large
quantities of organic matter, such as lumber,
tree stumps, logs, etc., are naturally located or
have been buried in a turfgrass site. The fungi
"feed" off this material. The mushrooms, which
are all sizes and shapes, are the fruiting stages
of these fungi.

Symptoms/Signs

There are three types of fairy rings. Type
I rings have a zone of dead grass just inside a
zone of dark green grass. Type II rings have
only a band of dark green turf, with or without
mushrooms present in the band (Figure 1). Type
III rings do not exhibit a dead zone or a dark
green zone, but simply have a ring of mush-
rooms present (Figure 2).


Rings may be very small initially, less
than 1 foot, but normally expand each year. It
is not uncommon for rings to be 6 feet or more
in diameter. The size and completeness (circu-
lar, semi-circular, quarter circles) of the bands
varies considerably. Mushrooms will normally
be produced during rainy weather. Since some
of the mushrooms (ex.: Chlorophyllum spp. Fig-
ure 3.) are poisonous, mushrooms should be
removed or destroyed. Chopping them up with
the mower is adequate.

Cultural Controls

If necessary for aesthetic purposes, mask
the dark green ring symptoms with nitrogen
fertilizers. Although it is possible to excavate
and fumigate the fairy ring sites, it is quite likely
the rings will return if the food source for the
fungi is still present underground. The rings
will disappear naturally, but it may take up to
five years.
In some situations, the fungi will coat the
soil particles to make the soil hydrophobic (re-
pel water). This will result in rings of dead
grass because the grass is being subjected to a
very localized drought situation. If the soil
under this dead grass is dry but the soil under
healthy grass next to it is wet, then it will be
necessary to break up the soil under the dead
grass. A pitch fork is a good tool. Then apply
a soil wetting agent and water the ring, and only
the ring, daily to rewet the soil and encourage
turfgrass recovery.


PP-43









Chemical Controls

azoxystrobin, flutolanil


Refer to "Turfgrass Disease Management" PPP-
64 for explanations of chemical and cultural
controls.


The fungicides inhibit the fungus only.
They do not eliminate the dark green or dead
rings of turfgrass, and they do not solve the
dry soil problem.


rigul 1.1 yFe 11
and mushrooms.


prguesen .
present.


Figure 3. The mushroom of the poisonous fairy nng
fungus Chlorophyllum spp.


[iy ling wiui ouly nlilsmuNUsrns




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