Citation
Agricultural research in Guatemala

Material Information

Title:
Agricultural research in Guatemala
Creator:
Fumagalli, Astolfo
Waugh, Robert K
Place of Publication:
Guatemala
Publisher:
Agricultural Science and Technology Institute
Publication Date:
Language:
Spanish
English
Physical Description:
26 leaves : ill. ; 28 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Agriculture -- Research -- Guatemala ( lcsh )
Genre:
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
Guatemala

Notes

General Note:
"Presented at the Bellagio Conference, October 1977, Bellagio, Italia."
General Note:
Cover title.
Funding:
Electronic resources created as part of a prototype UF Institutional Repository and Faculty Papers project by the University of Florida.
Statement of Responsibility:
Astolfo Fumagalli, Robert K. Waugh.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnología Agrícolas. Permission granted to University of Florida to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
Resource Identifier:
71342420 ( OCLC )

Full Text
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Ing. Astolfo FUMAGALLI Dr. Robert K. WAUGH ICTA Agricultural Science and Technology institute
Presented at the BELLAG40O conference October 1977, Bellagio Italia




AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH IN GUATEMALA
Ing. Astoifo FUMAGALLI C
Dr-. Robert K. WAUGH
iNTRODUCTI ON
Early in the 1970's, Guaitemaa took steps to reorganize the Public Agri cultural Sector (PAS) (ie the Governmental Sector). The principal changes were the unificat or of banking creditto, the establishment of a marketing institute, the reorganization of the operating armofgeneral services of the Ministry of Agriculture which includes extension, promo tion, supervised credit and other activities, and the establishment of a technological institute responsible for research and promotion of the use of technology. This is mainly a report of the latter mentioned institute, the Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology (Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnologla Agr!co!as -ICTA-), established in 1973, as it operates today within the Agricultural Sector.
BRiEF BACKGROUND
Guatemala is a country with 5.5 to 6 million inhabitants withinanarea of 108,000 square kilometers, located at the upper (northern) end of the isthmus connecting the continent of North ard South America. It lies entirely w:thin the tropical belt, The country is mountainus, the t highly varied,




2
Ra i naf -1 s seatzra' M: r' 0 :7c mo'h of May through October.
Tht-e ra i na. cu -I e bv Icrct brno .tu pe a~ Ks a~r ad September. Bet wee the-ze .opea< ceoc t~. -3 n:er ;d of 1,, ra'i f a,,' ( "cantICc',a" ) wh ch s Erore pfo -o-ced sr; --ea~i L'r. oa er The maximum
-alnfafl by area ?s a~sc kii- varlah'e 0-1:h ay.,mu7's of around 4000 a.!(There ar-e excepticns ;' ,th h~~ .or)and ,the mH~n,1, around 500 mm. La-d dstrbu:icj 'j,. C17 'a-t rfc devecp' ottries, with 87%
of the farmrs cotns s-Ang o-,f 18% o' - 1'ard farms; these Derhaps averageing
2 hectares in size, There a,-e p.-obab4y 4%'0,000 to 500,000 ru ral families r ePresent. nq about one-haif of tf'e tolt& opu~atlon, Production by these small farms 'Is highly i71poruant for tt~e supply of the country, these pi-oduc ing a reiatve-iy high percentage of rte basic food grains, Maize Is the main stape of thle d&e:, eapecia' !y of the ru.-a people. The other basic foods are beans,. jOp.hLT,, -Ahea and rice, but with the corn ac-eage belnq 10 times greater than the second largest crop (beans). Other importan T- agr~cutur!aI p-oduts are coffee, sugar, cotton, cattle and bananas. These are produced prncipally by "arge farm~s,
THE PUBLIC AGR1CULTUR4L' SECTOR -PAS
THE PAS
Tvle Guacemalar Gcver~nmer- has developed a isector concept, with the PAS being structured by law, Tl-!'s s ?wus-rated 2n tre diagram~ following this page,




PUBLIC AGRICULTURAL SECTOR (PAS)
NATIONAL NATIONAL
PLANNING COUNCIL .PLANNING OFFICE
I
1
(fOPINA /MING (COMMITTEE HEAD OF SECTOR I COORDINATING COMMITTEE
f (OR -MINISTER OF AGRICULTURE ------------- -- -- r FOR
S!fM[.NTAL S[CTORI PR I VATE SECTOR
VICE MINISTER
I I
VICE MINISTER I
CATTLE I
DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM
I I
!I ADMINISTRATION SECTOR PLANNING UNIT
IAFOR ICTA DIGEST BANDESA INDECA PROLAC
FORESTRY TECHNOLOGY GENERAL SERVICES BANKING MARKETING MILK PROCESSING
PLANT
I t
- - -- -- -REGIONAL REGIONAL REGIONAL REGIONAL REGIONAL
AGENCY DIRECTOR .DIRECTOR AGENCY AGENCY
INAFOR ICTA DIGEST BANDESA INDECA
I Frj CT _ES .I [TADS I "1EC ROA
II II
I I Ii
TECoNOLOGY IIEA NEA NEA O^
I
REG IONAL REG IONAL REG IONAL REG IONA L REG IONAL
AGENCY D IRECTOR .D IRECTOR AGENCY AGENCY
I NAOR I CTA DI GESA BAND ESA I NDECA




This sector headed by the Minister of Agriculture, with two Vice-Ministers, and consists of the Ministry and decentralized, autonomous institutes. The Ministry of Agriculture
The Ministry Agriculture consists of: a. The offices of the Ministry; b. Administrative-Offices;
C. Sectorial Planning;
d.' Special projects such as the cattle project; and e. General Services (Development and Extension) 1/ This latter is a large operating arm directly within the Ministry but with activities at the same operational level as the decentralized institutes. In the diagram this is shown with a solid line. General Services includes the Division of:
1. Development (Desarrollo) (crops). This division includes the supervised
credit program, with funds furnished by the Agricultural Bank.
2. Training and Education (Capacitacion y Ensefianza). This division
includes the extension service and the "Perito" School, a secondary
vocational training program in agriculture.
3. Natural Resources (Recursos Naturales). Mainly irrigation Projects.
4. Livestock development
1/ Before the reorganization of the PAS, General Services also included
research, which has now been transferred to ICTA.




The Autonomous institute are:
1. The National Forestry Institute INAFOR
2. The Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology -ICTA3. The Agricultural Development Bank -BANDESA4. The National Marketing Institute -INDECA5. A Milk Products Plant -PROLACThe Functioning of the Sector
The Head of the PAS, is the Minister of Agriculture as mentioned pre\-
Regionalization
The country is regionalized and the Ministry and the autonomous institute use the common regional system. This allows Regional Committees to f as a sector within a region as parts of the national PAS, in order to coordinate regional activities. The reorganization of the PAS provided for these regional committees but they.only started to function in 1976. A com mittee is chaired by the regional representative for General Services of the Ministry of Agriculture. This system promises to be effe-tive and wil be mentioned along with the functioning of ICTA.
The Board of Directors of the Institutes. The Minister of Agriculture is the chairman of the board of all the autonomous institutes. There are also other interlockings with the boards, which will be mentioned in the discus sions of ICTA.




The Planning System. The Sector Planning Urit is directly related to the National Planning Council. In turn each Institute has a programing Office which relates to the planning system.
The Coordinating Advisory Committee, is a cainmiztee of the Director of the autonomous institutes, as well as the Director of General services of the Ministry which functions as an advisory committee to the Ministry.
The degree of autonomy of the Institutes, while not a complete autonomy it does allow considerable leeway for tihe Institutes :o develop programs, hire and fire personnel and make contractual arrangements. Also the relations with such national control bodies as the budget bureau and civil service are direct. Some controls normally applied to ministries do not apply to the Institutes and authority is given directly to the Director General of the Institute or to him and his Board of Directors. While controls are strict, resulting in cumbersome procedures, the degree of autonomy does allow more initiative to be exercised by the Institutes than by Ministerial organizations such as the General Services.
ICTA: ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTION WITHIN THE SECTOR
With the establishment of ICTA research was moved from General Services of the Ministry to this decentralized Inztitute. However, ICTA is not viewed as a strictly research organization as will be explained more in detail later.




RESPONSIBILITIES OF ICTA
A summary of the responsibilities of ICTA might be stated "to develop technology and promote its use for the wellbeing of the population". More specifically the objectives, policy and philosophy of ICTA are set fcrth n-Congressionai Law (Decreto 68-72) which established the Institute. A summary of the objectives as stated in Article 3 and Article 19 of the 7aw are as follows:
ARTiCLE 3:
1. ICTA is the Governmental Institution responsible for generating and
promoting the use cf science and technology within the agricultural
sector.
2. Therefore, it is ICTA's concern to conduct research focused on the
solution of problems of the agriculture of the country in order to
improve the wellbeing of the population.
3. It falls to ICTA to produce material and determine methods to increase
agricultural production.
4. ICTA should promote the use of technology.
5, iCTA should promote regional rural development.




-8
ARTICLE 19. IMPLIES FURTHER RESPONSIBLTIES:
1. Research and studies relate to agriculture
2. Programs of training and promotion directed toward the application
of results obtained from research.
3. Formulate and propose academic programs for the formation of scien
tific personnel.
4. Interchange of information and materials related to research, and
5. In addition those necessary for the proper function of the institute
allowed within the spirit of the law establishing ICTA. STRUCTURE OF ICTA
Based on the law of ICTA's establishment, it was given a relatively simple structure, as shown in the diagram following page 7. The Board of Directors
In addition to the Minister of Agriculture, other members of the Board of Directors are the Minister of Planning, the Dean of Agriculture of San Carlos University and one citizen at large named by the other members of the board. This gives broad and powerful governmental representation to this board.




In addition, the head of the other decentralized institutes of the Sector
and the head of INTA (agrarian reform institute, which is not a part of the PAS.), are permanent advisers to the board, and are usually invited to the sessions of. the board, which meets about once a month. Thus the board is not only heavily governmental, but a strong PAS voice is present.
The Management Office. l/
The programs and functions of the Institute are directed by a General Manager along with an Associate Manager and Adjunct Director. There are three Units:
I. Unit for Administrative and Financial Services 2/
2. Unit for Programming
3. Technical Unit for Production 2/
I/ The Spanish, term is "Gerencia General" 2/ The terminology was specifically selected believing that the
Administrative Unit should be a service unit to help programs and not run the Institute, and that the Technical Unit should
give emphasis to impact upon production and productivity and
that research results should not be considered the end product.




O I GA NI lZAT II ON OF "u CT ~A
BOARD OF DIRECTORS
AUDITING _LEGAL ADVISE
GENERAL MANAGER
SECRETARY -PUBLIC RELATIONS
ADMINISTRATIVE & FINANCIAL TECHNICAL UNIT
SERVICE UNIT, FOR PRODUCTION PROGRAM UNIT
L> CORN )
ADMINISTRATIVE SERVICES o BEANS z
ojQz Q (7 WHEAT =
PFRSONNEL. RICE
u z RICE c m
Lu SORGHUM u GENERAL PLANNING
FINANCES HORTICULTURE
S -- SWINE C
ACCOUNTING SESAME o
I
I
I
REGION IV REGION I COORDINATOR REGION VI REGION VI REGION VII
REGION CI COOI NA TOR PRODUCTION CENTER COORDINATOR PRODUCTION CENTER
PRODUCTION CENTER REGION II AND III PRODUCITIN CENTER "CHIMALTENANGO" PRODUCTION CENTER "EL OASIS" AND
CO"LABOR OVALLE" "CUYUTA" AND AND "SAN JERONIMO" "JUTIAPA" "CRISTINA"
TECHNOLOGY TESTING "LA MAQUINA" TECHNOLOGY TESTING TECHNOLOGY TESTING TECHNOLOGY TESTING
TECHNOLOGY TESTING
([~~~~ ,JjIT A 9 1 Cr f l




The Technical Unit for Production
This Unit is headed by a Technical Director. The groups within this Unit are:
1. National Commodity Program which are principally research programs
responsible for the identification, generation, adaptation and
initial resting and technical evaluation of technologies.
These National Commodity Programs are:
a. Maize b. Beans c. Wheat d. Rice
e. Sorghum
f. Horticulture
g. Sesame
h. Swine
2. National Discipline or support groups with Coordinators. I/
These are:
a. Socloeconomics
1/ Most technical discipline personnel are assigned directly to
Commodity Programs or to Regional Teams. It is recognized that
not all in this list are technical disciplines.




- 12
b. Validation of Technology (groupswork as area teams within
a regional team, since a Region is too large to be covered
by one group. The National Coordinator is the Technical
Director).
c. Soil Management
d. In Service Training
3. Technical Service Groups
a. Production Centers (Experiment Station)
b. Communications (Publications and documentation)
c. Laboratory Analysis
d. Seed
4. Regional Teams, headed by Regional Directors. These are integrated
multidisciplinary groups of personnel; all personnel assigned to a
region whether from Commodity Programs, support disciplines or
service groups make up the Regicnal Teams. Personnel may be assigned to a Regional Team and at the same time continue to be a
--part of a Commodity Team or a Discipline.
All of these groups of the Technical Unit must work in a coordinated manner, and are focused upon a common technological system in which each group has a direct function within a production system.




- 13
A TECHNOLOGICAL SYSTEM FOR PRODUCTION ICTA has developed a strategy or a group of strategies which might well be designated-a Technologica-l System for Production. -The diagram in page i4 is presented to 'llustrate this system. in alscussing this system by Phases, or by showing these phases in blocks in the d agram, there is no intention to indicate that these are separate ceps. in fact, to the contrary, the concept is that the technological system should be a continuum. Neither does the process necessarily start on the left and proceed to the right. If nothing existed a logical place to start might be with Phase 6, starting by obtaining agronomic and socio economic information to be used in guiding (or influencing) the other pha ses, However if no experience has been gained about all phases it is extremely difficult to start by collecting pertinent information from the farmers.
Phase 1, Use of Available information and Materials
Phase 1, might be called Use of Available Information and Materials. Much of this. information and materials is extrainstitutional. Such sources are:
1. The international Centers
2. Universities
3, Governments and other national programs
4 Industry (fertilizers, seed, herbicides, etc,)
5., Foundations. Regional Organization,- etc.




ECHNOL _ICAL SYSTEM FOR AGRICULTURE
AGRO-SOCIOECONOMIC INFORMATION AGRICULTURAL
SECTOR
TRANSFER
INTERNATIONAL
CENTERS VALIDATION
Promotion
IO I Promotion
GENERATION
Agricultural
UNIVER Sector
UNIVER-E I Farm Farm~ers Sco
SITIES Experiments tests Agencies
experimentt Station s
Generation, Evaluation Organized
YES adaptation YES by the YES Groups YES
Generation and farmer
technical
GOVERN- ) o :and
MENT Technology economic Evaluation Private
===== = evaluation Sector
Technology of Industry,
g I o0 c Inf:rnt etc.
otion Iacceptance
INDUS- ''
TRY NO
NO Farmers
NO
I EVALUATION
OTI IERS --- ---- --_ NO
FEEDBACK OF INFORMATION




15
Phase 2: Research (The National Commodity Programs)
The information from Phase 1 is used largely in Phase 2, by Research Progranswhich generate additional technology. Herein Phase 2 is called the Experiment Station and is what is usually visualized as traditional research. ICTA reiies heavily upon outside sources, and emphazises research that should pay off ;n a relatively short term. Scientific procedure is basic to :he process. We have found no way to short-cut !t. The process can be speeded up by investing m6re money and the msule made more relevant by understanding the interphase between technology and production (technical and socioeconomic information). For this the validation process a: the farm level, along with economic and sociological information, can be effective in reorienting Phase 2 work.,
Phase 3, Farm Trials
Phase 3 is a continuation of the research (Phase 2), conducted -h private farms mainly small ones 4n the case of ICTA, in specific areas by Regional Teams and covers a wide range of different kinds of experimentation, from generation of technology to validation of previously tested technologies, through plots seeded to give a better base for evaluation of the economics or technology, before presenting it to farmers. The design of the trials, the kinds of studies, depend on the level of the technology being advamred, the technology level of the farmers, the conditions of the area one might say-it depends on the status of the art.




- 16
However, it is conceptualized that phase 3 should always include some trials based on two princip.il.s, (a) new technology should always be revalidated by competent scientistis so that ttey w!ill be acquainted first hand with the-technology when managed under farm conditions and (b) the validation should be done in compa.-ison wi:h the fa-mer's technology (farmer's practices). This is the time to combine tech.iology into associated cropping systems. This should be drone in such a manner so that the introduced practice can be evaluated technological'y, as well as giving a measure of its adequacy for farmers of the region. At this time the technicians have. the opportunity and the obligation to learn local farming,
This work should be conducted with experimental design and statistical analyses. It must not be sloppy, careless work. It takes good farming to impress a farmer, If 'ot enough is known about farming practices, which is frequently the case for new areas, incorporate the farmer into the technological system and learn from him. It is in this phase that the feed-back system should begin to furorr., Commodity Programs should know what is happening to their materials at the farm level. The teams doing the validation wo;-k may need help from Commnodity Programs understanding or improving tha technology. Some general idea of what farmers think of the technology should be obtained in this Phase,
If there is adequate confidence in the technology, both from the viewpoint of production and economics, if it is possible to answer in the affirmative the question, "is this technology valuable for immediate use by the farmer?




- 17
the technology is ready to be tested in Phase 4 by the farmer himself. If the answer is "No" or "Doubtful", it is information for the feedback system, must be improved or discarded.
Phase 4, Farmer's Tests.
The farmer's test, is further continuation of the research.process,where the opinion of the farmer is key to the evaluation of the technology. This is a means of getting technology in the hands of farmers without exposing him to much risk, since the technology has been validated in the farmer's area. The success of this Phase depends upon cooperation of farmers, but finding cooperators has not been a problem either for the farm trials or for farmer's tests.
The few year's experience in Guatemala with this kind of farmer participation indicate that:
1. The technology sould be relatively simple. Observations indicate that modification of the farmer's traditional method is preferable to
introducing completely new set of ideas. In other words the technology
should be designed to be managed by the farmers, and should not involve
excesive time, cost or risk
2. The farmer should! understand the new technology and the number of comparisons that are to be made should be limited, to perhaps one introduced technology to be compared with his usual practice, and
difference should be clearly evident




3. This 'test belongs to the farmer and he should pay for the imputs.
When a farmer does nct have the needed inputs to test a new
technology, these are furnished by ICTA, but with the understanding
that the farmer will pay at harvest time. (The institute should
never furnish the land nor the labor).
4. In each zone it is important that the technology be developed for the kind of agriculturist that is testing it. In some cases two or
more alternatives may be offered to the farmer. For a farmer witr
ijn ited resources it may be best for him to test: technology
designed to maximize the return per do'Jar spent, while for another farmer it may be better to introduce technology planned to maximize
total net return, though the cost may be greater.
5. Hopefully yield data can be obtained from the farmer's test. if this
is no possible, the farmers has already seen the results.The main
objective is farmer evaluation.
6. There is an indication that the size of plot is important. If it is
too small, even though the differences be great, the farmer is not
impressed, gives it little consideration. The size of plot will
depend upon availability of land. In one area in Guatemala farmers have seeded tests as large as one manzana (7,000 sq. meters), while
in other areas the common size is a cuerda (a cuerda varies from
region to region from 1/6 to 1/16 of a mranzana).




- 19
7 treasure of the evaluation by the farmer in addition to his yields
and his opinior, is his use of the practice the following year which
is being used to estimate the acceitabiflty of the technology,,
The feedback of information to the corrodity programs starts w,.th
the farm trials and should be continued through the farmers tests.
This is a critical evaluation of varieties and practices and all
technicians should be informed.
While the principal purpose of both h fa~rm trials and the farmer's tests is critical evaluation, these do have an importanc transfer or
extension function both to extension workers and to farmersio. Wide and intensive testing, of the k ind mentioned under .,oth farm trials (Phase 3) and farmer's tests (Phase 4) develop expertise and confidence in agronomists,allowing them to speak with authority and
confidence.
ases 5 and 6 Production and Promotion
oneses 5 and 6 are visualized as generalized promotion (Extension or transfer). and production phases. The prior phases are considered research, although they ,o have a transfer function. There is some indication that farm trials along
.t farmer's tests, can effect transfer on a large scale, However they were ro. visualized as generalizing the transfer to large production groups, butonly to start the process and establish a solid technological base.




- 20
The farmers with which ICTA works in conducting farm trials and farmer's test are considered ICTA's .clients. These may represent and appreciable number of the farmers of the area in which the testing is done, but it in no way represents an extension system.
The General Services of the Ministry has the responsibility of the extension of technology to the farmers. Therefore ICTA must consider the credit and extension programs of General Services of the Ministry of Agriculture as direct clients, and the farmers who work with them as indirect'"eclpients of the technology.
This transfer to General Services has not been considered adquate. However, since the Regional Committees (See Page 4) have begun to function this transfer shoaid now improve.
This year (1977), on a pilot basis in one region, ICTA and General Services are working together with farmers who have seeded farmer's trials,, the strategy being to put ICTA and General Services personnel together at the field level.
ICTA has also worked with..two private groups, where the private organization is responsible-for the farmer's tests. In other words ICTA has made the technology.-available and the private groups have done the testing under farmer conditions, while ICTA only serves to furnish technological backstopping. This system seems 'to have merit and ICTA is studying the possibility of extending this arrangement to other private groups, such as cooperatives.




n ary even:,, w i'h the psraert s .ruc :e -. -ra --gy1CTA muzt fi nd nterreda'_e3 Lo -eceve Lhe echr'o a~ r~~ m
e!v Ceea S e: Ve C~ w"'a TA Ca
Oh 3 S r a te g qihi c ie T e c 1ri jYo
1, With the iarge amcuit of work.1 n I control led, but
iome t ;mes ar-t IF 7c ia i, co:J oni of -xle jyK-~~n sta tions 1z much
1 ess a ', 1mi t 1g f accor I n deve c:z"nc r'Iev: : -30noY~
2. The Natioa Ccmnvdity Programns ar, '~T hat the Regknma Teams
can be a higqily efsz:tve mears o-F sxfars>g efforts and in
creasing their efficiency, Wit h th-s cbra -n ~f thJpse Regional Teams advance breeding materiaI3 cs-' _,e -%ch more thro~ughiy tested,
and earlier within. the select ior.
3.The Regional Teams flow do mcist- of : i- '1-i work on soil fertJiflty,.
associated cropping systems, p"a!-t je.ns'y, ti'4ne o-F planting etc. on
private fa~rms.
4, The Regiona Iem wor1n w-fi ~ erooi~ System is amchanism focr socioeconorric stucdizs:? r.zo nuczed with tha participation
of- both agroromiL-ts and social centi.;ts in ad'-ition to the agronomic
studies. The agronomist ?Is Iearn~rjg t -_ 'n_.Iue c4: economic evaliation
and is becoming aware of the a~c alofct s of technology. It Seems
to be important that agronomist-s aA ~ s.~a ci4,entdcts participate
together conducting s-tudles. t-esis lack of, comun jca Icon
and respect between the twto gr~o




-22
5.Socioeconomic studies 4w.thln th~e Tech--Dojical System have bee2l
largely the Folowi.Ing kind,
a. Survey to collect ag!*o-soc ecornIojc ~n--ainto guide
agronomic Field wo'-k,
b. Farm records to document cos!ts of farn'n~a system. So far
this has been on an idiv-cuai crop bas,-,5
c. Evaluation of the accepLabjlity of techncogy fo1owing
farmer's trials.,
improvement oF prod ,t.Con through modiFo'-at ion of the trad!Li-.r~al
systems as practiced by Farmers; seem3 to be more effective than
introducing new systems. Therefore :tudies on associated cropo'nq
snirt at the farm level, not on the ex;D rmenut stations.
7. With little objective data to confjnim the belief, farmer's tests
seem to be more effective than demonstrations; A demonstration is something done by the government aqronom 'st, The government hzs unlimited resources, Demontrot~ons havv the inherent defect oF
being always planned and desigrned Lo be successful, and as a
result do not face up to the realities --F small farming. Also
demonstrational failures I embarrasing to the agronomist and
point of derision on the part of fa-r-ers., Far.mers understand both success and failure betLter when they do the work, especially w.,hen
their traditional practices fai! at the same time.




- 23
8, Technological packages do not fit well in an area of highly varied
conditions, nor with the vagrancies of farmer practices. If a
package approach is used, the value or contribution of each
component should be well understood.
The area being studied should be delimited, and the work well
distributed within the area. It is more efficient to select and delimit areas which can later be expanded with a minimum of cost and effort, than attemp to cover too large an area at the start.
10: Sol] and water managements, particularly conservation has been
neglected within the ICTA system, and must now be given attention.
Empirical data indicate that this can yield high dividends within
relatively short periods.
International Dialog and Backstopping
international support, technological backstopping and training, can be of ".rst order of importance. But this international "dialog" must be made more relevant, more effective than normally ocurrs. he first point of good international dialog is that it should be two way and should not be an imposition. The national program can only be an equal partner in international dialog when it knows what is needed, what can be helpful to it. This clearly means that the national programm must have a good degree of capability to define its own technological problems.




- 24
ICTA has taken several measures to improve this dialog and international help. has contributed favorably, in a major fashion, mostly from the international Centers,. CIAT and CIMMYT.
TRAINING
ICTA has developed a pragmatic in-service training program, based largely on experiences at CIAT, and with the direct aid of CIAT, molded to the pattern of operation in ICTA. As contrasted to the usual in-service tra ining where a person is supposedly given special opportunities to learn while on assigment to a given position, in ICTA a course was structured, based upon the Technological System already discussed, and trainees assigned to the- ourse. The cours- is assigned a major responsibility for conducting a plan of work. The course replaces the Area Team within a
Regional Team.
This training program is in addition to short course training, principally at the International Centers and graduate training at universities.
TECHNOLOGY IS NOT EVERYTHING
ICTA recongnizes that technology carried through the Technological System as conceptualized and practiced within ICTA is not everything.Credit, mar keting, infrastructure, availability of inputs are necessary. Thus there must be other."systems" operating along with the Technological System,and requires the coordination of other institutions of the public and private sectors.




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GOVERNMENT SUPPORT
The national-governments are the prime factors in food production an-d rural development. Population and food supply must be brought into balance, not just on a year to year basis, but over a long span of year-s. Latin America is presently in an enviable position when present food production and potential production is viewed in relation to the food demand, but is not taking advantages of this favorable position to assure the continuation of this position over a long span of years. How to mount rational demographic and food production programs is a political problem because tetim span necessary for programs to be effective is longer than the short term interest of politicians.
The continuity of programs, managed by personnel whose training period is also long, has not been given high priority. It is incumbent upon the scientists themselves, and those responsible for national programs,
-1o help those making political decision to rationalize demogra~' ic and food production programs in order to assure continuity of action, of personnel and agility with objectivity. IN SUMMARY
ICTA is not just a research organization, nor research results its end product. ICTA is a technological organization, using research as 'a tool to develop technology, which is throughly tested and validates, by scientists and farmers, before being promoted for general use.




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ICTA has the responsibility to generate technology and promote its use. As to the generation and validation of technology, the first few year's experience indicate that the system is a good one. Promotion of the use of technology, as a major responsibility, is not interpreted as operating all or even-the major transfer mechanism, but in finding means to backstop the transfer mechanisms, and to help them to effectively transfer technology to the producers, and within the limited experience of ICTA the strategies discussed herein show promise of being effective.
Ma.u.
9-3-78




LEY ORGAN ICA DEL I CTA
DECRETO LEGISLATIVE NO.68-72
ARTICULO lo.- CREACION. Con caracter.de entidad estatal descentralizada autonomy, con personalidad jurtdica, patrimonio proplo y plena capacidad oara adquirir derechos y contrary obligaciones, se crea el Instituto de
I
:-:encla y Tecnologla Agrtcolas, cuya denomination abreviada sera ICTA,
i-l.RTICULO 30-- OBJETIVO. El institute de Ciencia y Tecnologta Agrfcolas,
,.s la Institucion de Derecho Priblico responsible de general y promoter el .-,so de la Ciencia y Tecnologta Agricolas en el sector respective. En con zecuencia le corresponded conducir investigations tendientes a la solu-cion de Jos problems de explotacion rational agrfcola que incidan en el Dienestar social; producer materials y mi todos para incremental ]a pro:;jctividad agricola; promoter la utilizaci6n de la tecnologla a -nivel del acricultor y del desarrollo rural regional, que determine el Sector PO-biico Agrtcola.
INSTITUTE DE CIENCIA Y TECNOLOGIA AGRICOLAS
5a. Ave. 12-31 Zona 9. Edificio "El Cortez"
Teldfonos: 66985 310581 67935.