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 Introduction and brief backgro...
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Title: Agricultural research in Guatemala
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00066726/00001
 Material Information
Title: Agricultural research in Guatemala
Physical Description: 26 leaves : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: Spanish
Creator: Fumagalli, Astolfo
Waugh, Robert K
Publisher: Agricultural Science and Technology Institute
Place of Publication: Guatemala
Publication Date: 1977
 Subjects
Subject: Agriculture -- Research -- Guatemala   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Guatemala
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: Astolfo Fumagalli, Robert K. Waugh.
General Note: "Presented at the Bellagio Conference, October 1977, Bellagio, Italia."
General Note: Cover title.
Funding: Electronic resources created as part of a prototype UF Institutional Repository and Faculty Papers project by the University of Florida.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00066726
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 71342420

Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Introduction and brief background
        Page 1
    The public agricultural sector - PAS
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
    ICTA: Organization and function within the sector
        Page 6
        Responsibilities of ICTA
            Page 7
        Structure of ICTA
            Page 8
            Page 9
            Page 10
            Page 11
            Page 12
        A technological system for production
            Page 13
            Page 14
            Page 15
            Page 16
            Page 17
            Page 18
            Page 19
            Page 20
            Page 21
            Page 22
            Page 23
        Training
            Page 24
        Technology is not everything
            Page 24
        Government support
            Page 25
        Summary
            Page 25
            Page 26
    Back Matter
        Back Matter
Full Text


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AG~c bU4,EEBY _~G4EfAh


Ing. Astolfo FUMAGALLI
Dr. Robert K. WAUGH

ICTA Agricultural Science and
Technology Institute


Presented at the BELLAGIO conference
October 1977, Bellagio Italia


c2&6~a









AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH IN GUATEMALA




Ing. Astoifo FUMAGALLI C
Dr. Robert K. WAUGH




INTRODUCTION



Early in the 1970's Guatemala tcok steps to reorganize the Public Agri

cultural Sector (PAS) (ie. the Gove;rmenial Sector). The principal

changes were the unificatior of banking (credito), tne establishment of

a marketing Institute, the reorganization of the operating armof general

services of the Ministry of Agricuiture which includes extension, promo

tion, supervised credit and other activities, and the establishment of

a technological institute responsible for research and promotion of the

use of technology, This is mainly a report of the matterr mentioned ins-

titute, the Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology (Instituto

de Ciencia y Tecnologra Agr!colas -ICTA-), established in 1973, as it

operates today within the Agricultural Sector,



BRiEF BACKGROUND



Guatemala is a country with 5.5 to 6 million inhabitants withinanarea

of 108,000 square kilometers, located at the upper (northern) end of

the isthmus connecting the continent of North and South America. It lies

entirely within the tropical belt, The country is mountains, the t

highly varied-






- 2 -


RainFall .s sea.cra^, 'Imrr-e m:a y c :r, mcrths of May through October.

The rainfa,' cur-ve by -orKtis i; b'mda: iT r peaks in Jure and September.

Betwee- these :o peak ce: io ds tere- :. a per 'od of lo'v ra'ifal ( "canf-

cl.a" ) which is more pr'oon,-ced . somr a ieas L'ar others. The maximum

-ainfall by area s a! c highly variable 't';:h maximurs of around 4000 n.m,

(There are exceptrins ,''th hh-er a.'o.nrs) and :hre miniiimu around 500 mm.


La-d d'istrbu:icn is s.'.a; to r-y c :;he deve'cping countries, with 87%

of the farms cons-string of 18% o' -:,he ;a-.d in farms; these perhaps averaging

2 hectares in size. There are p.obab4y 4020,000 o 500,000 rural families

represents about one-ha:f of the total copulacion, Production by these

small farms is highly important for Lre supply of the country, these produce

ing a relatively high percentage of the basic food grains.


MaIze is the main stable of the d;e:, especlaily of the rural people. The

other basic foods are beans, sorgh.m, Ahea" and rice, but with the corn

ac-eage being !0 times greater than the second largest crop (beans).


Other important agr'cult.ura pr-odJct s are coffee, sugar, cotton, cattle and

bananas. These are produced principally by large farns ,



THE PUBLIC AGRICULTURAL SECTOR PAS


THE PAS


The Guatemalan Gover-'rmen has developed a sector concept, with the PAS being

structured by law, Ts s Wu i'.scrated in r-e diagram following this page,









PUBLIC AGRICULTURAL SECTOR (PAS)


NATIONAL
PLANNING COUNCIL


NATIONAL
PLANNING OFFICE


c(lf; ni fAT ING COMMITTEE
-- fO -------
C r vi !rrJME NT'l. SCTOR

















I I
ADMINISTRATION





r --~-~"-r~



I NAFOR ICTA

FORESTRY TECHNOLOGY

r

I I
I I
I I,,,,,_


COORDINATING COMMITTEE
----- ." FOR
PRIVATE SECTOR







OGRAM




SECTOR PLANNING UNIT





- -~ ---------------
I I

INDECA PROLAC
MARKETING MILK PROCESSING
PLANT


. V


--


-- -- -- _-... .. ...


Ii_ __ ri


i I









This sector headed.by the Minister of Agriculture, with two Vice-Ministers,

and consists of the Ministry and decentralized, autonomous institutes.


The Ministry of Agriculture


The Ministry Agriculture consists of:


a. The offices of the Ministry;

b. Administrative Offices;

c. Sectorial Planning;

d. Special projects such as the cattle project; and

e. General Services (Development and Extension) 1/


This latter is a large operating arm directly within the Ministry but with

activities at the same operational level as the decentralized institutes.

In the diagram this is shown with a solid line. General Services includes

the Division of:


1. Development (Desarrollo) (crops). This division includes the supervised

credit program, with funds furnished by the Agricultural Bank.


2. Training and Education (Capacitacion y Enseianza). This division

includes the extension service and the "Perito" School, a secondary

vocational training program in agriculture.


3. Natural Resources (Recursos Naturales). Mainly irrigation Projects.


4. Livestock development

1/ Before the reorganization of the PAS, General Services also included
research, which has now been transferred to ICTA.






- 5 -


The Autonomous Institute are:


:. The National Forestry Institute INAFOR

2. The Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology -ICTA-

3. The Agricultural Developmant Bank -BANDESA-

4. The National Marketing Institute -INDECA-

5. A Milk Products Plant -PROLAC-



The Functioning of the Sector

The Head of the PAS, is the Minister of Agriculture as mentioned prev\- -



Regionalization


The country is regionalized and the Ministry and the autonomous institute

use the common regional system. This allows Regional Committees to f

as a sector within a region as parts of the national PAS, in order to co-

ordinate regional activities. The reorganization of the PAS provided for

these regional committees but they.only started to function in 1976. A com

mittee is chaired by the regional representative for General Services of

the Ministry of Agriculture. This system promises to be effective and wil

be mentioned along with the functioning of ICTA.



The Board of Directors of the Institutes. The Minister of Agriculture is

the chairman of the board of all the autonomous institutes. There are also

other interlockings with the boards, which will be mentioned in the discus

sions of ICTA.










The Planning System. The Sector Planning Unit is directly related to

the National Planning Council. In turn each Institute has a programing

Office which relates to the planning system.



The Coordinating Advisory Committee, is a committee of the Director of

the autonomous institutes, as well as the Director of General services

of the Ministry which functions as an advisory committee to the Ministry.



The degree of autonomy of the Institutes, while not a complete autonomy

it does allow considerable leeway for the Institutes to develop programs,

hire and fire personnel and make contractual arrangements. Also the re-

lations with such national control bodies as the budget bureau and civil

service are direct. Some controls normally applied to ministries do not

apply to the Institutes and authority is given directly to the Director

General of the Institute or to him and his Board of Directors. While

controls are strict, resulting in cumbersome procedures, the degree of

autonomy does allow more initiative to be exercised by the Institutes

than by Ministerial organizations such as the General Services.



ICTA: ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTION WITHIN THE SECTOR



With the establishment of ICTA research was moved from General Services

of the Ministry to this decentralized Institute. However, ICTA is not

viewed as a strictly research organization as will be explained more in

detail later.


- 6 -




- 7 -


RESPONSIBILITIES OF ICTA



A summary of the responsibilities of ICTA might be stated "to develop

technology and promote its use for the wellbeing of the population".


More specifically the objectives, policy and philosophy of ICTA are set

fcrth in Congressional Law (Decreto 68-72) which established the Institute.

A summary of the objectives as stated in Article 3 and Article 19 of the

law are as follows:



ARTICLE 3:



1. ICTA is the Governmental Institution responsible for generating and

promoting the use cf science and technology within the agricultural

sector.


2. Therefore, it is ICTA's concern to conduct research focused on the

solution of problems of the agriculture of the country in order to
i
improve the wellbeing of the population.


3. It falls to ICTA to produce material and determine methods to increase

agricultural production.


4. ICTA should promote the use of technology.


5. iCTA should promote regional rural development.





- 8 -


ARTICLE 19. IMPLIES FURTHER RESPONSIBILITIES:



1. Research and studies related to agriculture


2. Programs of training and promotion directed toward the application

of results obtained from research.


3. Formulate and propose academic programs for the formation of scien

tific personnel.


4. Interchange of information and materials related to research, and


5. In addition those necessary for the proper function of the institute

allowed within the spirit of the law establishing ICTA.



STRUCTURE OF ICTA



Based on the law of ICTA's establishment, it was given a relatively

simple structure, as shown in the diagram following page 7.



The Board of Directors


In addition to the Minister of Agriculture, other members of the Board of

Directors are the Minister of Planning, the Dean of Agriculture of San

Carlos University and one citizen at large named by the other members of

the board. This gives broad and powerful governmental representation to

this board.






- 9


In addition, the head of the other decentralized institutes of the Sector

and the head of INTA (agrarian reform institute, which is not a part of

the PAS), are permanent advisers to the board, and are usually invited

to the sessions of the board, which meets about once a month. Thus the

board is not only heavily governmental, but a strong PAS voice is present.



The Management Office. 1/



The programs and functions of the Institute are directed by a General

Manager along with an Associate Manager and Adjunct Director. There are

three Units:


i. Unit for Administrative and Financial Services 2/


2. Unit for Programming


3. Technical Unit for Production 2/



/ The Spanish, term is "Gerencia General"

2/ The terminology was specifically selected believing that the
Administrative Unit should be a service unit to help programs
and not run the Institute, and that the Technical Unit should
give emphasis to impact upon production and productivity and
that research results should not be considered the end product.





O t CA I II ZAT I ON OF n c T A


TECHNICAL UNIT
FOR PRODUCTION


REGION I
PRODUCTION CENTER
"LABOR OVALLE"
TECHNOLOGY TESTING


REGION II AND III


REGION IV
COORDINATOR
PRODUCE ( N CENTER
"CUYUTA" AND
"LA MAQUINA "
TECHNOLOGY TESTING


REGION VI
PRODUCTION CENTER
"CHIMALTENANGO"
AND "SAN JERONIMO"
TECHNOLOGY TESTING


REGION VI
COORDINATOR
PRODUCTION CENTER
"JUTIAPA"
TECHNOLOGY TESTING


REGION VII
PRODUCTION CENTER
"EL OASIS" AND
"CRISTINA"
TECHNOLOGY TESTING


ADMINISTRATIVE SERVICES

PERSONNEL

FINANCES

ACCOUNTING


CORN
BEANS
WHEAT
RICE
SORGHUM
IRTICULTU
SWINE
SESAME


GENERAL PLANNING


If f T 9 i I I I 1 1 t f I I I I







- 11 -


The Technical Unit for Production


This Unit is headed by a Technical Director. The groups within this Unit

are:


1. Natioral Commodity Program which are principally research programs

responsible for the identification, generation, adaptation and

initial resting and technical evaluation of technologies.


These National Commodity Programs are:


a. Maize

b. Beans

c. Wheat

d. Rice

e. Sorghum

f. Horticulture

g. Sesame

h. Swine


2. National Discipline or support groups with Coordinators. 1/

These are:


a. Socioeconomics


1/ Most technical discipline personnel are assigned directly to
Commodity Programs or to Regional Teams. It is recognized that
not all in this list are technical disciplines.






- 12


b. Validation of Technology (groupswork as area teams within

a regional team, since a Region is too large to be covered

by one group. The National Coordinator is the Technical

Director).


c. Soil Management

d. In Service Training


3. Technical Service Groups


a. Production Centers (Experiment Station)

b. Communications (Publications and documentation)

c. Laboratory Analysis

d. Seed


4. Regional Teams, headed by Regional Directors. These are integrated

multidisciplinary groups of personnel; all personnel assigned to a

region whether from Commodity Programs, support disciplines or

service groups make up the Regicnal Teams. Personnel may be as-

signed to a Regional Team and at the same time continue to be a

part of a Commodity Team or a Discipline.


All of these groups of the Technical Unit must work in a coordinated manner,

and are focused upon a common technological system in which each group has

a direct function within a production system.






- 13 -


A TECHNOLOGICAL SYSTEM FOR PRODUCTION


ICTA has developed a strategy or a group of strategies which might well

be designated-a Technological System for Production. -The diagram in page

i4 is presented to illustrate this system,


ir discussing this system by Phases, or by showing these phases in blocks

in the diagram, there is no intention to indicate that these are separate

iceps. in fact, to the contrary, the concept is that the technological

system should be a continuum. Neither does the process necessarily start

on the left and proceed to the right. If nothing'existed a logical place

to start might be with Phase 6, starting by obtaining agronomic and socio

economic information to be used in guiding (or influencing) the other pha

ses, However if no experience has been gained about all phases it is ex-

tremely difficult to start by collecting pertinent information from the

farmers.



Phase 1, Use of Available information and Materials


Phase 1, might be called Use of Available Information and Materials. Much

of this. information and materials is extrainstitutional. Such sources are:


1. The international Centers

2. Universities

3, Governments and other national programs

4, industry (fertilizers, seed, herbicides, etc.)

5. Foundations, Regional Organization, etc.






ECHNOL OICAL SYSTEM FOR AGRICULTURE


AGRO-SOCIOECONOMIC INFORMATION


-7


Farmers
tests

Eva uat ion
by the
farmer


acceptance


Promotion


Sector
Agencies


Organized
Groups


Pr i vate
Sector
Industry,
etc.


Promotion


Farmers


FEEDBACK OF INFORMATION


INTER-
NATIONAl
CENTERS


UNI VER-
SITIES


MENT


INDUS-
TRY


OTIIERS






- 15 -


Phase' 2: Research (The National Commodity Programs)


The information from Phase 1 7s used largely in Phase 2, by Research

Progranswhich generate additional technology. Herein Phase 2 is called

the Experiment StatioE and is what is usually visualized as traditional

research. ICTA relies heavily upon outside sources, and emphazises

research that should pay off in a relatively short term. Scientific

procedure is basic to zhe process, We have found no way to short-cut

*t, The process can be speeded up by investing mdre money and the resuls

made more relevant by understanding the interphase between technology and

production (technical and socioeconomic information). For this the

validation process a: the farm level, along with economic and sociological

information, can be effective in reorienting Phase 2 work.,,



Phase 3, Farm Trials


Phase 3 is a continuation of the research (Phase 2), conducted on private

farms mainly small ones In the case of ICTA, in specific areas by Regional

Teams and covers a wide range of different kinds of experimentation, from

generation of technology to validation of previously tested technologies,

through plots seeded to give a better base for evaluation of the economics

or technology, before presenting it to farmers. The design of the trials,

the kinds of studies, depend on the level of the technology being advanced,

the technology level of the farmers, the conditions of the area one might

say-it depends on the status of the art.






- 16 -


However, it is conceptualized that phase 3 should always include some

trials based on two princip.il.s. (a) new technology should always be

revalidated by competent scientists so that they w;ill be acquainted

first hand with the-technology when managed unde- farm conditions and (b)

the validation should be done in compa.-ison wi:h the fa-mer's technology

(farmer's practices). This is the time to combine technology into

associated cropping systems. This should be dcre in such a manner so that

the introduced practice can be evaluated teshnological', as well as giving

a measure of its adequacy for farmers of the region. At this time the

technicians have. the opportunity and the obligation to learn local farming,


This work should be conducted with experimental design and statistical

analyses. It must not be sloppy, careless work. It takes good farming to

impress a farmer, If not enough is known about farming practices, which

is frequently the case for new areas, incorporate the farmer into the

technological system and learn from him.


It is in this phase that the feed-back system should begin to function,

Commodity Programs should know what is happening to their materials at

the farm level. The teams doing the validation work may need help from

Commodity Programs understanding or improving th. technology. Some general..

idea of what farmers think of the technology should be obtained in this

Phase,

If there is adequate confidence in the technology, both fromthe viewpoint

of production and economics, if it is possible to answer in the affirmative

the question, "Is this technology valuable for i:imediate use by the farmer?






- 17 -


the technology is ready to be tested in Phase 4 by the farmer himself.

If the answer is "No" or "Doubtful", it is information for the feedback

system, must be improved or discarded.



Phase 4, Farmer's Tests.


The farmer's test, is further continuation of the research.process,where

the opinion of the farmer is key to the evaluation of the technology.


This is a means of getting technology in the hands of farmers without

exposing him to much risk, since the technology has been validated in the

farmer's area. The success of this Phase depends upon cooperation of

farmers, buc finding cooperators has not been a problem either for the

farm trials or for farmer's tests.


The few year's experience in Guatemala with this kind of farmer participation

indicate that:
---

1. The technology should be relatively simple. Observations indicate that

modification of the farmer's traditional method is preferable to

introducing completely new set of ideas. In other words the technology

should be designed to be managed by the farmers, and should not involve

excessive time, cost or risk


2. The farmer sho!ud understand the new technology and the number of

comparisons that are to be made should be limited,.to perhaps one

introduced technology to be compared with his usual practice, and

difference should be clearly evident.






3. This 'test belongs to the farmer and he should pay for the imputs.

When a farmer does not have the needed inputs to test a new

technology, these are furnished by ICTA, but with the understanding

that the farmer will pay at harvest time. (The institute should

never furnish the land nor the labor).


4. In each zone it is important that the technology be developed for

the kind of agriculturist that is testing it. In some cases two or

more alternatives may be offered to the farmer. For a farmer wict

lijnited resources it may be best for him to test technology

designed to maximize the return per do'lar spent, while for another

farmer it may be better to introduce technology planned to maximize

total net return, though the cost may be greater.


5. Hopefully yield data can be obtained from the farmer's test. if this

is no possible, the farmers has already seen the results.The main

objective is farmer evaluation.


6. There is an indication that the size of plot is important. If it is

too small, even though the differences be great, the farmer is not

impressed, gives it little consideration. The size of plot will

depend upon availability of land. In one area in Guatemala farmers

have seeded tests as large as one manzana (7,000 sq. meters), while

in other areas the common size is a cuerda (a cuerda varies from

region to region from 1/6 to 1/16 of a manzana).





- 19


A "measure of the evaluation by the farmer in addition to his yields

and his opinior, is his use of the practice the followIng year which

is- being used to estimate the acceptability of the technology.


2. The feedback of information to the corr.-odity programs starts with

the farm trials and should be continued through the farmer's tests.

This is a critical evaluation of varieties and practices and all

technicians should be informed,


-. While the principal purpose of both the farm trials and the farm.er's

tests is critical evaluation, these do have an important transfer or

extension function both to extension workers and to farmers.


0, Wide and intensive cesting, of the kind mentioned under _,oth farm

trials (Phase 3) and farmer's tests (Phase 4) develop expertise and

confidence in agronomists,allowing them to speak with authority and

confidence.



a:;ases 5 and 6 Production and Promotion


"-ases 5 and 6 are visualized as generalized promotion (Extension or transfer)

and production phases. The prior phases are considered research, although they

do have a transfer function. There is some indication that farm trials along

,;[h farmer's tests, can effect transfer on a large scale. However they were

rot visualized as generalizing the transfer to large production group;, but -

on,/ to start the process and establish a solid technological base.





- 20 -


The farmers with which ICTA works in conducting farm trials and farmer's

test are considered ICTA's clients. These may represent and appreciable

number of the farmers of the area in which the testing is done, but it in

no way represents an extension system.


The General Services of the Ministry has the responsibility of the ext-

ension of technology to the farmers. Therefore iCTA must consider the

credit and extension programs of General Services of the Ministry of

Agriculture as direct clients, and the farmers who work with them as

indirecrt'eclpients of the technology,


This transfer to General Services has not been considered adequate. However,

since the Regional Committees (See Page 4) have begun to function this

transfer should now improve.


This year (1977), on a pilot basis in one region, ICTA and General Services

are working together with farmers who have seeded farmer's trials,.the

strategy being to put ICTA and General Services personnel together at the

field level.


ICTA has also worked with..two private groups, where the private organization

is responsible-for the farmer's tests. In other words ICTA has made the

technology- available and the private groups have done-the testing under

farmer conditions, while ICTA only serves to furnish technological

backstopping. This system seems 'to have merit and ICTA is studying the

possibility of extending this arrangement to other private groups, such as

cooperatives.











in any even:, with the present sCiruce-;~:r a -.~ ra 3egy 3 CTA muzt find

'~errmeda:es to receive the tec'o 03', a : ar-;fe- i to farmer-n .f

L Z .3 pos 1 b;.e, -: a c- f "'Dou j C-: to ed I o C h) : 3: acc -; ^ : 3hd

by Ge Ieal Se:v.C.e o 1'-a: 'CTA ca" Co c ,


O'-her Strategies within che Techno 31i I Sy -'e:!


1, With the iarge am.cu.t of work on i r, 3':.: t h. control ed, but

sometimes artl-fcJia, cond:zions of .--: ex'ce:- -ent stations is much

less a flmit1ng faccor in devel png re'eva:.: 4:e hno iogy.

2. The Nationa! Commodity Programs ar:' ,ari-r? that the Regiona* Teams

can be a highly effective means cf spand'"g t~e- efforts and in

creasing their efficiency, Wih th-s co lboaihas~on of these Regional

Teams advance breeding mate-rail csan e m;ch more thoroughly tested,

and earlier within the selection cocss.

3. The Regional Teams now do most: of :ihe f;ald work on soil fertility,

associated cropping systems, piart dens'ry, time of planting etc, on

private farms.

4. The Regional Team, working within the Technological System is a me-

chanism for sociceconomic studies, c-ncucted with the participation

of both agronomists and social scient._ts in add-ition to the agronomic

studies. The agronomist ?s learn:r3. t`'e value of economic evaluation

and is becoming aware of the socti aspects of technology. It seems

to be important that agronomists ar.d soca] scientists participate

together conducting studies. Ohher.-:w.i others s lack ofl communication

and respect between the tw.o grous


- 21





- 22


5. Socioeconomic studies within tme Teh-o;jcgica System have been

largely the fo!cwipng kind:


a. Survey to collect agro-socloecoomic information to guide

agronomic field wo'k,

b. Farm records to document costs cf farming system. So far

this has been on an irdivicuai crop basis.

c., Evaluation of the acceptability of technology following

farmer's trials.


6. Improvement of production through modification of the traditi.ral

systems as practiced by farmers, seems to be more effective than

introducing new systems. Therefore :tudies on associated cropopng

start at the farm level, not on the expr iment stations.


7. With little objective data to confirm the belief, farmer's tests

seem to be more effective than demonstrations- A demonstration is

something done by the government agro-omist, The government has

unlimited resources. Demonstraotons have the inherent defect cf

being always planned and designed to be successful, and as a

result do not face up to the realities of small farming. Also

demonstrational failures is embarrassing to the agronomist and

point of derision on che part of fa-'mer., Far.mers understand both

success and failure better when they do the work, especially when

their traditional practices fai! at the same time.






- 23


8, Technological packages do not fit well in an area of highly varied

conditions, nor with the vagrancies of farmer practices. If a

package approach is used, the value or contribution of each

component should be well understood.


9, The area being studied should be delimited, and the work well

distributed within the area. It is more efficient to select and

delimit areas which can later be expanded with a minimum of cost

and effort, than attempt to cover too large an area at the start.


10. Soil and water managements, particularly conservation has been

neglected within the ICTA system, and must now be given attention.

Empirical data indicate that this can yield high dividends within

relatively short periods.



International Dialog and Backstopping


international support, technological backstopping and training, can be of

f;rst order of importance. But this international "dialog" must be made

more relevant, more effective than normally ocurrs.


The first point of good international dialog is that it should be two way

and should not be an imposition. The national program can only be an

equal partner in international dialog when it knows what is needed, what

can be helpful to it. This clearly means that the national program 'must

have a good degree of capability to define its own technological problems.

f ,




- 24 -


ICTA has taken: several measures to improve this dialog and international

help-has contributed favorably, in a major fashion, mostly from the in-

ternational Centers,- CIAT and CIMMYT.



TRAINING


ICTA has developed a pragmatic in-service training program, based largely

on experiences at CIAT, and with the direct aid of CIAT, molded to the

pattern of operation in ICTA. As contrasted to the usual in-service tra

ining where a person is supposedly given special opportunities to learn

while on assignment to a given position, in ICTA a course was structured,

based upon the Technological System already discussed, and trainees as-

signed to the-course. The course. is assigned a major responsibility for

conducting a plan of work. The course replaces the Area Team within a

Regional Team.


This training program is in addition to short course training, principally

at the International Centers and graduate training at universities.



TECHNOLOGY IS NOT EVERYTHING



ICTA recongnizes that technology carried through the Technological System

as conceptualized and practiced within ICTA is not everything.Credit, mar

keting, infrastructure, availability of inputs are necessary. Thus there

must be other_."systems" operating along with the Technological System, -

and requires the coordination of other institutions of the public and

private sectors.




- 24 -


ICTA has taken: several measures to improve this dialog and international

help-has contributed favorably, in a major fashion, mostly from the in-

ternational Centers,- CIAT and CIMMYT.



TRAINING


ICTA has developed a pragmatic in-service training program, based largely

on experiences at CIAT, and with the direct aid of CIAT, molded to the

pattern of operation in ICTA. As contrasted to the usual in-service tra

ining where a person is supposedly given special opportunities to learn

while on assignment to a given position, in ICTA a course was structured,

based upon the Technological System already discussed, and trainees as-

signed to the-course. The course. is assigned a major responsibility for

conducting a plan of work. The course replaces the Area Team within a

Regional Team.


This training program is in addition to short course training, principally

at the International Centers and graduate training at universities.



TECHNOLOGY IS NOT EVERYTHING



ICTA recongnizes that technology carried through the Technological System

as conceptualized and practiced within ICTA is not everything.Credit, mar

keting, infrastructure, availability of inputs are necessary. Thus there

must be other_."systems" operating along with the Technological System, -

and requires the coordination of other institutions of the public and

private sectors.






- 25 -


GOVERNMENT SUPPORT


The national governments are the prime factors in food production

and rural development. Population and food supply must be brought

into balance, not just on a year to year basis, but over a long span

of years. Latin America is presently in an enviable position when

present food production and potential production is viewed in relation

to the food demand, but is not taking advantages of this favorable

position to assure the continuation of this position over a long span

of years. How to mount rational demographic and food production

programs is a political problem because the time span necessary for

programs to be effective is longer than the short term interest of

politicians.


The continuity of programs, managed by personnel whose training period

is also long, has not been given high priority. It is incumbent upon

the scientists themselves, and those responsible for national programs,

to help those making political decision to rationalize demographic and

food production programs in order to assure continuity of action, of

personnel and agility with objectivity.


IN SUMMARY


ICTA is not just a research organization, nor research results its end

product. ICTA is a technological organization, using research as a

tool to develop technology, which is throughly tested and validates,

by scientists and farmers, before being promoted for general use.






- 25 -


GOVERNMENT SUPPORT


The national governments are the prime factors in food production

and rural development. Population and food supply must be brought

into balance, not just on a year to year basis, but over a long span

of years. Latin America is presently in an enviable position when

present food production and potential production is viewed in relation

to the food demand, but is not taking advantages of this favorable

position to assure the continuation of this position over a long span

of years. How to mount rational demographic and food production

programs is a political problem because the time span necessary for

programs to be effective is longer than the short term interest of

politicians.


The continuity of programs, managed by personnel whose training period

is also long, has not been given high priority. It is incumbent upon

the scientists themselves, and those responsible for national programs,

to help those making political decision to rationalize demographic and

food production programs in order to assure continuity of action, of

personnel and agility with objectivity.


IN SUMMARY


ICTA is not just a research organization, nor research results its end

product. ICTA is a technological organization, using research as a

tool to develop technology, which is throughly tested and validates,

by scientists and farmers, before being promoted for general use.






- 26 -


ICTA has the responsibility to generate technology and promote its use.

As to the generation and validation of technology, the first few year's

experience indicate that the system is a good one. Promotion of the use

of technology, as a major responsibility, is not interpreted as operating

all or even the major transfer mechanism, but in finding means to back-

stop the transfer mechanisms, and to help them to effectively transfer

technology to the producers, and within the limited experience of ICTA

the strategies discussed herein show promise of being effective.






i'. '


















Mau.

9-3-78




, r


LEY ORGANIC DEL ICTA

DECRETO LEGISLATIVE N0.68-72



ARTiCULO lo.- CREACION. Con caracter.de entidad estatal descentralizada
autonoma, con personalidad jurldica, patrimonio propio y plena capacidad
oara adquirir derechos y contraer obligaciones, se crea el Instituto de
C^encia y Tecnologta Agrtcolas, cuya denomination abreviada sera ICTA.


ARTICULO 30.- OBJETIVO. El institute de Ciencia y Tecnologla Agrfcolas,
-s la Institucion de Derecho Piblico responsible de general y promover el
-so de la Ciencia y Tecnologta Agrfcolas en el sector respective. En con
zecuencia. le corresponde conducir investigaciones tendientes a la solu--
cion de los problems de explotacion racional agricola que incidan en el
oienestar social; producer materials y metodos para incrementar la pro-
:;jctividad agricola; promover la utilizacion de la tecnologla a .nivel del
agricultor y del desarrollo rural regional, que determine el Sector PO--
olico Agrtcola.





INSTITUTE DE CIENCIA Y TECNOLOGIA AGRICOLAS .

5a. Ave. 12-31 Zona 9. Edificio "El Cortez"

Telefonos: 66985 310581 67935.


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