• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Copyright
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Background
 The agricultural sector and formation...
 ICTA after two years experienc...
 Objectives, policy and strateg...
 Development vs. production
 A policy for institutional development...
 Training
 International relations
 Organization of the governmental...
 The structure of ICTA
 Personnel
 Physical facilities
 Financing and budget
 The technical unit for product...
 Production centers
 Seed program
 Disciplines
 Projects for testing technolog...
 What, where, when, and how?
 Reference
 Annexes






Title: Four years of history
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00066725/00001
 Material Information
Title: Four years of history
Alternate Title: ICTA four years of history
Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology of Guatemala four years of history
4 years of history ICTA
Physical Description: 51 p. : ill. maps ; 22 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Waugh, Robert K
Publisher: Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnología Agrícolas, Sector Público Agrícola
Place of Publication: Guatemala
Publication Date: 1975
 Subjects
Subject: Agriculture -- Guatemala   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Guatemala
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 48).
Statement of Responsibility: Robert K. Waugh.
Funding: Electronic resources created as part of a prototype UF Institutional Repository and Faculty Papers project by the University of Florida.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00066725
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 71325720

Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Background
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
    The agricultural sector and formation of ICTA: October 1971 - May 10, 1973
        Page 4
        Page 4a
        Page 4b
        Page 4c
        Page 4d
        Page 4e
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
    ICTA after two years experience
        Page 14
    Objectives, policy and strategies
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 20a
        Page 20b
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
    Development vs. production
        Page 24
    A policy for institutional development and program expansion
        Page 24
        Page 25
    Training
        Page 26
    International relations
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 28a
        Page 28b
    Organization of the governmental agricultural sector
        Page 29
    The structure of ICTA
        Page 29
    Personnel
        Page 30
    Physical facilities
        Page 30
    Financing and budget
        Page 31
    The technical unit for production
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
    Production centers
        Page 36
        Page 36a
        Page 36b
    Seed program
        Page 37
    Disciplines
        Page 38
        Page 39
    Projects for testing technology
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 42a
        Page 42b
        Page 42c
        Page 42d
        Page 42e
        Page 42f
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 44a
        Page 44b
        Page 45
    What, where, when, and how?
        Page 46
        Page 47
    Reference
        Page 48
    Annexes
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
Full Text


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THE INSTITUTE OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND
TECHNOLOGY OF GUATEMALA
(Instiuto de Ciencia v Teenologil Agricolas)


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THE INSTITUTE OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGYOF GUATEMALA


(Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnologra AgrTcolas)


ICTA




fQI YEARSQiFHIQSTORY


Robert K. Waugh
ICTA/ Guatemala
September, 1975

























4 Years of History ICTA



This, with very few changes, is the second printing of this brief

story of the development of the Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnologia

Agricolas. The supply of the first printing of 100 copies was

exhausted rapidly, and ICTA is replenishing supply with an

additional 500 copies in changed format.



An edition in Spanish is being prepared.














TABLE OF CONTENTS


BACKGROUND. .... ..... ... . 1

THE AGRICULTURAL SECTOR AND FORMATION OF ICTA:
October 1971 May 10, 1973 ............ .... .. 4

ICTA AFTER TWO YEARS EXPERIENCE.... ..... ........ ... .14

OBJECTIVES, POLICY AND STRATEGIES .... .................. ..... 15

DEVELOPMENT VS PRODUCTION ........... ........ 24

A POLICY FOR INSTITUTIONAL AND PROGRAM EXPANSION ...... ... 24

TRAINING .. ... ............ ... .... .. .... 26

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS.. .. .......... ................. 26

ORGANIZATION OF THE GOVERNMENTAL AGRICULTURAL SECTOR.... ... 29

THE STRUCTURE OF ICTA .... ... ... ... ......... .. 29

PERSONNEL ... ........... .................. ....... 30

PHYSICAL FACILITIES ........ ........... ...... ...... 30

FINANCING AND BUDGET .. ....... .... .......... .... 31

THE TECHNICAL UNIT FOR PRODUCTION. .... ..... ........... ..... 32

PRODUCTION CENTERS .. ....... ......... ...... 36

SEED PROGRAM....... ........................ ............... 37

DISCIPLINES .. .. ........... ........... ... .. 38

PROJECTS FOR TESTING TECHNOLOGY ..... .. 42

WHAT, WHERE, WHEN & HOW? 47

REFERENCES 49

















A


7%'


'C,
U -


CIAT-ICTA Collaboration
Among the relations maintained by ICTA with international and foreign organizations
throughout the world, the joint collaboration with CIAT is one of the most important. In
the above picture, Dr. John L. Nickel, Director of CIAT, pays close attention to the
explanations given by an ICTA technician. In the center of the picture is Dr. Robert K.
Waugh, author of this report.









THE INSTITUTE OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY OF GUATEMALA
(Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnologia Agricolas ICTA)



BACKGROUND



Guatemala is a country with 5.5 to 6 million inhabitants within an area of 108,000
square kilometers. It lies entirely within the tropical belt. Temperatures are markedly
influenced by elevation above sea level, an important factor in this mountainous country.
Rainfall is limited principally to the months of May through October. The rainfall curve by
months is bimodal with peaks in June and September. Total rainfall is highly variable between
areas with the maximum total around 4,000 mm. (there are exceptions with greater amounts)
and the minimun total around 500 mm. (Annex B, C).


Land distribution in similar to many of the developing countries (Table 1.). There are
probably 400,000 to 500,000 rural families with very limited resources. This group represents
about one-half of the total population.


Most of the agricultural units are very small and the agricultural practices traditional
and almost primitive. A low percentage of the farms use chemical fertilizer and most of the
energy is human (Table 2). Even though the data cited is not recent, and the accuracy is
not known, these data do reflect the present situation.


The population increase is probably 2-9 to 3.2o/o annually. While the data at hand
indicated that over the years production of basic food grains (corn, beans, wheat, rice,
sorghum) have increased, yields have increased only slightly or not at all except for rice.
(Tables, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7).


The contribution of the small farmer to overall production is relatively large. Applying
the percentages of Table 8 to total basic grain production gives a weighted average of about 55
percent by farms under 7 hectares. Table 9 shows hectares of basic grains by size of farm.
These data, for example, show 80 percent of the corn acreage being seeded on farms under 45









-2-


hectares. Thus, it is evident that the small farmer's production is of first order of importance
to the country, And this is produced on a small percentage of the land in farms. The 67
percent of the total number of farms in the size group 0,7 to 7 hectares have only 18 percent
of the total land in farms. (Table 1)







-3-


Traditional Agriculture


Guatemala has a history of agricultural development quite similar to that of many
other countries of Latin America. During the first 40 or so decades after the arrival of the
Spanish, food production for local consumption was considered as a simple process, using the
natural resources of the soil, sun and water with almost no technological inputs. The energy
input under this system, other than solar energy, was almost exclusively the energy of man.
Only the commercial crops for export (sugar, bananas, coffee, cotton, etc.) received the
benefit of technology which in many cases reached a rather high degree of sophistication
during the recent decades.


For production of food for local consumption there was no advantage in an individual
parcel or farm being larger than what a man and his family could cultivate. Neither was there
much advantage in the land being level or free from obstructions because the land was
worked by hand. The small agriculturist was content, and relatively efficient, even though
relegated to a hillside parcel. In Guatemala the small farmer, especially in the highlands, lived
where his ancestors lived. He knew the land. He had corn, beans and squash, that his
ancestors had cultivated. He also knew the crops. If he received the axe, the machete and the
hoe from the new masters, he also continued with the planting stick. Traditional agriculture
was established.


But new generations divided the land parcels, crops mined the soil of plant food, and
erosion further reduced productivity. Some remained without land. But it was still no major
problem to feed the people, and the landless worked in services and on the large commercial
farms producing export crops. The country needed the export dollar for importations to
develop the cities, to raise the standard of living of those who shared in the export dollar
and who benefited from the economic growth of the country which was taking place.


But under this system the majority remained a small farmer or a laborer with a low
standard of living. Farms were further divided, land parcels became smaller, more people
were landless, fertility decreased.







-4-


Traditional System for Technology


The government did initiate programs to increase production. Point IV programs of
the U.S. government stimulated this movement. The U.S. and other countries continued to give
technical assistance. International Centers were established.


But what Point IV, and the later agencies, brought to Guatemala, naturally was what
the U,S. had at home. Butis was not exported in its entirety and it was exported piecemeal.


The U.S. University sent people to Guatemala but the University stayed at home; the
home base for agricultural-research and extension was the University. Extension and Research
programs were established within the Ministry of Agriculture in Guatemala, but the two never
worked hand in hand. Small but highly capable discipline groups were developed, but they
remained as islands within the governmental burocracy. Technology had relatively little effect
upon agricultural production except on the large farm. The margin between food produced
and demand widened.


There still remained open for the Guatemalan Government a "safe position strategy":
import relatively small amounts of grain, at favorable prices and conditions. This was also a
"comfortable" strategy. If local production was 5 percent below needs, this margin of
deficiency contributed to maintaining prices without needed price supports. This deficiency
could be met easily by importations, The prices were right and the conditions of credit
favorable. Under this system storage and distribution problems were minimum.


THE AGRICULTURAL SECTOR AND FORMATION OF ICTA: OCTOBER 1971 -MAY 10,1973


The situation has now changed. The margin of deficiency grows larger. Importations
are not so easily arranged; the costs are higher. The source of importation is not as sure. The
situation has truly changed.


Reorganization of the Ministry of Agriculture.


Early in the presidential term (1970-1974) of General Carlos Manuel Arana, action











Table: 1. Number, size, and fragmentation of farms in Guatemala, 1964 (1)
Percent
Number Percent Area of land Average
Farm size class of farms of farms (ha) in farms size
Less than 0.10 haa 85.083 20.0 32.619.2 0.9 0.38
From 0.70 to 6.99 haa 279.797 67.0 607.855.6 17.7 2.17
From 6.99 to 45.13 haa 43.656 10.0 648.900.2 18.8 14.86
From 45.13 to 902.51 ha 8.420 2.0 1,258.545.2 36.6 149.47
More than 902.51 ha 388 0.9 894.600.4 26.0 2,305.67
Total 417.344 100.0 3,442.520.6 100.0 8.25
aBy definition all farms of 28 ha or less are classed as small or medium by DIGESA
bRepresents 31 60oo of the total area of the county (10 888 999 ha)
Source: Segundo Censo Agropecuarlo 1964 Diecci6n General de Estad:stica


REFERENCE:


"Appraisal of Fertilizer Markets & Distribution Systems in Central America with
Emphasis on Small Farmers", prepared for the Agency for International Development
by John T. Shields, Curtis L. Ahrens and H.B. Tatum, National Fertilizer Development
Center, Muscle Shoals, Alabama 35660.


Table 2. Agricultural production practices in Guatemala, 1964 (1)
Energy use in Fertilizer use
production o/o No. of Percent of Percent of Percent of
Number Area in crop Mechanical Animal farms farm4 farms using farms using
of and and and Human using using natural chemical
Farm size class farms (ha) human human only fertilizer fertilizer fertilizer only fertilizer
Less than 0.70 ha 85.083 80.614.5 0.1 2.5 97.4 29.0~ 34.1 88.3 19.5
From 0.70 to 6.99 ha 279.797 486.655.4 0.3 6.7 93.0 88.617 31.7 83.1 28.3
From 6.99to 45.13ha43.656 321.525.2 1.8 14.4 83.8 15.260 35.0 78.8 36.1
From 45.13 to 902.51 ha 8.420 421.422.3 13.1 26.5 60.4 3.867 45.9 62.9 62.0
More than 902.51 ha 388 223.248.3 40.2 10.3 49.5 261 67.3 51.7 79.3
Total 417.344 1,483.465.6 0.7 7.0 92.3 137.011 32.8 83.1 28.4
aIncludes farms using natural and chemical fertilizer
Source: Segundo Censo Agropecuano, 1964 Direccl6n General de Estadistica






REFERENCE: "Appraisal of Fertilizer Markets & Distribution Systems in Central America with
Emphasis on Small Farmers", prepared for the Agency for International Development
by John T. Shields, Curtis L. Ahrens and H.B. Tatum, National Fertilizer Development
Center, Muscle Shoals, Alabama 35660.











Table 3. Maize crop production
statistics in Guatemala, 1961-72
Area harvested Total production Yield
Crop year mz q q/mz
1971-72 943.250 16.247.055 17.2
1970-71 947.236 17.083.601 18.0
1969-70 992.411 15.626.492 15.7
1968-69 987.872 14.975.870 15.2
1967.68 946.997 13.789.759 14.6
1966-67 944.206 12.901.420 13.7
1965-66 968.237 14.036.107 14.5
1964-65 910.467 13.906.072 15.4
1963-64 525.141 9.900.000 18.8
1962-63 1.061.532 14.451.771 13.6
1961-62 895.787 11.263.344 13.05
Source: Direcci6n General de Estadfstica


REFERENCE:


Table 4. Production, importation, and apparent
consumption of wheat (1,000 t), Guatemala, 1962-73
Apparent
Year Production Imports consumption
1973a 50.0 (est.) NA NA
1972b 40.0 75.0 115.0
1968-71 NA NA NA
1967c 35.3 59.6 94.9
1966 40.1 64.4 104.5
1965 39.4 65.7 105.1
1964 36.1 54.5 90.6
1963 34.1 64.2 98.3
1962 25.8 51.2 77.0


aAssociacion Supervisora de Compras de Trigo Nacional y Fomento
Indu strial.
bUSDA. FAS. Guatemala-Agricultural Situation report G1-3001.
CGuatemala's Economic Development: The Role of Agriculture,
Iowa State University Press, p. 97.


"Appraisal of Fertilizer Markets & Distribution Systems in Central America with
Emphasis on Small Farmers", prepared for the Agency for International Development
by John T. Shields, Curtis L. Ahrens and H.B. Tatum, National Fertilizer Development
Center, Muscle Shoals, Alabama 35660.


Table 5. Bean crop production
statistics, Guatemala, 1962-72
Area harvested Total production Yield
Crop year mz q q/mz
1971-72 253.182 1.420.489 5.6
1970-71 215.474 1.408.053 6.5
1969-70 264.670 1.358.999 5.1
1968-69 217.185 1.427.019 6.6
1967.68 185.956 921.271 5.0
1966-67 179.836 959.718 5.3
1965-66 204.532 1.076.313 5.3
1964-65 173.208 1.130.201 6.5
1963-64 83.548 679.300 8.1
1962-63 100.998 717.817 7.1
1961-62 72.808 710.917 9.8
Source: Direcci6n General de Estadistica


REFERENCE:


Table 6. Rice crop production
statistics. Guatemala, 1961-72
Area harvested Total production Yield
Crop year mz q q/mz
1971-72 28.389 1.275.207 44.9
1970-71 16.140 492.679 30.5
1969-70 13.376 315.327 23.6
1968-69 19.410 544.798 28.1
1967-68 19.813 618.032 31.2
1966-67 8.783 319.525 36.4
1965-66 8.710 285.887 32.8
1964-65 16.335 528.711 32.4
1963-64 12.377 283.364 22.9
1962-63 14.728 355.630 24.1
1961-62 12.854 273.015 21.2
Source: Direcci6n General de Estadistica.


"Appraisal of Fertilizer Markets & Distribution Systems in Central America with
Emphasis on Small Farmers", prepared for the Agency for International Development
by John T. Shields, Curtis L. Ahrens and H.B. Tatum, National Fertilizer Development
Center, Muscle Shoals, Alabama 35660.


--]



























Table 7. Grain sorghum (maicillo) crop
production statistics Guatemala, 1961-72
Area harvested Total production
Crop year mz q
1971-72 71.747 822.891
1970-71 57.817 646.597
1969-70 73.448 992.965
1965-69 NA
1964-65 68.245 591.505
1963-64 24.541 335.200
1961-63 NA
Source: Direcci6n General de Estadistica.


Yield
q/mz
11.5
11.2
13.5

8.7
13.7


REFERENCE: "Appraisal of Fertilizer Markets & Distribution Systems in Central America with
Emphasis on Small Farmers", prepared for the Agency for International Development
by John T. Shields, Curtis L. Ahrens and H.B. Tatum, National Fertilizer Development
Center, Muscle Shoals, Alabama 35660.










Table 8. Basic grain production by farm size. (2)


TOTAL CORN BEANS WHEAT RICE SORGHUM

FARM SIZE o/o 0/0 0/0 0/0 o/o 0/0

Total 11625.2 100.0 9883.7 100.0 679.3 100.0 397.5 100.0 329.9 100.0 335.2 100.0

less than 0.7 658.9 5.7 578.7 5.9 16.8 2.5 14.8 3.7 42.2 12.8 6.4 1.9

0.7 to 1.4 1463.3 12.6 1279.8 12.9 77.4 11.4 42.2 10.6 17.6 5.3 46.3 13.8

1.4 to 3.5 3285.3 28.3 2776.9 28.1 224.8 33.1 109.5 27.6 49.8 15.1 124,3 37.1

3.5 to 7.0 1810.5 15.6 1528.1 15.5 115.8 17.0 83.2 20.9 34.9 10.7 48.5 14.5

7.0 to 22.4 2 192.7 18.8 1 874.8 19.0 114.9 16.9 81.5 20.5 64.9 19.7 56.6 16.9

22.4 to 44.8 496.5 4.3 395.4 4.0 40.3 5.9 23.8 6.0 19.6 5.9 17.4 5.2

more than 44.8 1 718.0 14.7 1 450.0 14.6 89.3 13.2 42.5 10.7 100.6 30.5 35.6 10.6


Farm size in hectares.
Production in thousands of cwt.


Taken from: II Censo Agropecuario 1964.
Direcci6n General de Estadistica.











Table 9. Areas in hectares seeded to basic grains according to farm size. (2)


TOTAL 0.7 to 1.4 to 3.5 to 7.0 to 22.4 to more than
CROP HAS. 0.7 1.4 3.5 7.0 22.4 44.8 44.8


Total 578477 26318 72853 174472 97896 114378 24431 68 156
?-pI X )431 /1. A.' -T/-+ 1/2.4, ;-TT
Corn 525029 25046 68157 159746 87574 103330 21296 59880
,!____ _______1.__-__ i I I______-, ______, J.o 1___,5
Beans 19 457 22? 1455I 5813" 3735 4119 1259 2844

Rice 8649 154 425 1463 1052 1915 602 3038

Wheat 22863 867 2639 6678 5112 4555 1 122 1890

Sorghum 2479 19 177 772 423 459 152 477


Taken from: Censo II, 1964.
Direcci6n General de Estadfstica.









-5-



was taken to reorganize the Agricultural Sector of the Government. Colonel Miguel Angel
Ponciano was Minister (VII-1-70 to VI-9-71) (3) and Ingeniero Agr6nomo Mario A.
Martinez Guti6rrez was Viceminister (and Minister following Colonel Ponciano), Ingeniero
Agr6nomo Rodolfo Perdomo Menendez was named Viceminister when Ing. Martinez was
named Minister, There was professional competence in the Ministry, which became an
important factor in the organization of ICTA.


The reorganization of the Ministry sought to revitalize the agricultural sector, in
view of the increasing demands for food grains and a very large rural population with limited
resources, a group better informed each day of different living conditions elsewhere. The
campesino or peasant has remained relatively loyal to the land, his traditional way of life.
But the system is running out of land, and the peasant may run out of patience.


Thus, there were two principal goals: increase food production, especially of the basic
food grains, and stimulate rural development. The small and medium sized farmer were the
main target group. This st ategy offered the possibility of increasing food production and
contributing to rural development without decreasing production of export crops: coffee,
cotton, bananas, cattle and essential oils.


The first three major changes were:


1, The establishment of INDECA as a decentralized marketing organization;

2. The reorganization of the agricultural credit in one institute, BANDESA;

3. Reorganization of the general services of the Ministry of Agriculture, DIGESA,
which is the non-decentralized operating arm of the Ministry, INDECA and
BANDESA were decentralized, with the Minister of Agriculture chairman of
both the boards of directors.


DIGESA was organized into "Direcciones" or divisions:

1. Development (Desarrollo). This division operated mainly as a supervised
agricultural cued r organization. The agents of the program (Promotores) were
given some training, but the technology was mainly cook book, recipe style.


1









-6-


2. Training and Education (Capacitacion y Ensefianza). This division
included the extension service and the "Perito" School, a secondary vocational
training program at BArcenas,


3. Natural Resources (Recursos Naturales). Mainly irrigation projects.


4. Research (Investigaci6n). This was a traditional research program,
fractionated, working on many crops. This division was headed by Ing. Astolfo
Fumagalli, later named as the first director of ICTA.


At this point, as shown above, agricultural research continued within the Ministry
(DIGESA)


National Planning. The GuatemalanGovernment has had an economic planning office
for several years (Secretaria Nacional de Planificaci6n Econ6mica). A national economic
five-year plan had been developed during the presidential term of Julio C6sar M6ndez
Montenegro, president just prior to General Arana. This plan placed first priority on agriculture,
followed by education, health and industrial development It was the policy of President Arana
to follow this plan. Some refinements and modifications were of course necessary, and its
execution depended upon financing approved each year by the Congress of the Republic. Under
this five-year plan, the Planning Office of President Arana developed a basic grain plan to be
executed by the agricultural sector (governmental).


Marketing had been placed in a decentralized agency, INDECA, credit reorganized and
programed under BANDESA, the DIGESA programs designed, without giving the source of
technology (research) much attention. The sequence of reorganizing the governmental
agricultural sector did not foresee the importance of structuring transfer of technology with the
development, identification and adaptation of technology to Guatemalan small farmer
conditions. This did not necessarily indicate that research was to be given a low priority.


It was time to take a look at research. The information at hand (4) indicates that the
first concrete move on the part of the Guatemalan government to reorganize research was a
visit to CIMMYT in Mexico and the Ford and Rockefeller Foundations in New York in October







-7-


of 1970 by Ing. Mario Martinez, at that time Viceminister of Agriculture, Ing. Astolfo Fumagalli,
the Director of Research, and Robert Culbertson, Head of USAID/Guatemala. The purpose of
the trip was to inform the Foundation of the interest and desire of the Government of Guatemala
to establish a research institute, and to request the collaboration of the two Foundations. The
collaboration was sought based on the experience of the Foundatons and not for economic aid.


A meeting was held in the office of the Ford Foundation with Dr Lowell Hardin of the
Ford Foundation and Drs. Sterling Wortman and John Pino of the Rockefeller Foundation
present. (The documentation in the ICTA files of this small conference does not specifically
indicate whether or not Fumagalli and Culbertson attended but it is assumed that they did so.)


Viceminister Martinez made the presentation on the part of the Guatemalan Government.


The Rockefeller Foundation indicated interest in the project of a new agricultural
research institute for Guatemala, and suggested that Guatemala consider a meeting in Guatemala
of a group of Latinamerican Scientists with the purpose of studying the Guatemalan proposal
and to write up a preliminary project. For the purpose of the sequence of developments with
reference to the organization of the new institute, it should be noted that the request for
collaboration was for the development of a research institute. Extension and use or application
of technology had already been organized within DIGESA.


While in Mexico discussions were held with Drs Robert Osler, Elmer C. Johnson and
Norman E. Borlaug on the same subject.


Work Group I. (Grupo de Trabajo I) (5) With the collaboration of the Rockefeller
Foundation and AID/Guatemala, the Ministry of Agriculture organized a conference which was
held in Guatemala in January 11-15 of 1971 with the following persons participating:


Ing. Astolfo Fumagalli C., Director Agricultural Research,

Dr. Canuto Cardona A., Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT), Colombia,

Dr. Alejandro Ortega, Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maiz y Trigo, CIMMYT, M6xico,


Dr. Eduardo Venezian, Ford Foundation, Mexico,







-8-


Dr. Luis Marcano C., Shell Foundation, Venezuela,

Alphonse C. Chable, USAID/Guatemala,

Dr. Ricardo Bressani, INCAP, Guatemala,

Agr. Jos6 Manuel Tirano, SIECA, Guatemala,

Lic. Jos6 Angel Andrade, National Planning Office, Guatemala,

Lic. Hector Ramirez, National Planning Office, Guatemala,

Lic. Tomas Nlfiez A., National Planning Office, Guatemala,

Ing. Edgar Ibarra, Instituto T6cnico de Agriculture, Guatemala,

Ing. Luis Manlio Castillo, Agricultural Research, Guatemala,

Dr. Albert N. Plant, Mississippi State University, Agricultural Research, Guatemala.


The group, known as Work Group I, prepared a report with both specific and general
recommendations for the formation of a new institute.


The importance of a strong tie between the research group and those responsible for the
use of the technology at the farm level was given emphasis in the report. While it was
recommended in the report that the new institute be responsible for both, researchand
"promoci6n", the recommendations as to how to relate the research and its application was
couched in a terminology, which indicates that the group was aware that extensionn" and
"promoci6n" already existed, the latter having only recently been organized within DIGESA,
that recommendations for major changes in promotion and extension were touchy subjects. It
seems clear that the sequence of planning, which hardly touched the existing extension service,
and organized a program of "promoci6n" separated from extension, without planning the
identification, generation, and adaptation of technology for farm use was faulty. This is
mentioned here because the structural arrangement continues as it was before the formation of
ICTA.


March 1971, meeting with Dr. John Pino at Texas A&M. With the specific
recommendation of a highly capable group of scientists, Work Group I, to structure a








-9-


decentralized, flexible and dynamic institute within the Agricultural Sector responsible for
research to be focused pragmatically upon the needs of the small farmer, and with responsibility
for the use of the technology, the Guatemlan Government sought a commitment on the part of
the Rockefeller Foundation to participate in the planning of the new organization. A group from
Guatemala, Ing. Mario Martinez G., Vicermnister of Agriculture, Ing. Edgar L. Ibarra, Dean of the
School of Agronomy at San Carlos University and Ing. Rodolfo Perdomo M., Consultant to
AID/Guatemala for Renewable Natural Resources met with Dr. John A, Pino of the Rockefeller
Foundation at College Station, Texas.


Work Group II (Grupo de Trabajo II) (6) Work Group II met in May of 1971, with the
following participants:


Dr. Canuto Cardona A., Director del Proyecto de Fomento y Promoci6n de Maiz Opaco,
Institute Colombiano Agropecuario (ICA) y CIAT, Colombia;


Dr. Alfredo Carballo Q., CIMMYT/Mexico;


Ing. Astolfo Fumagalli, Director de Investigacion Agricola;


Ing. Edgar Leonel Ibarra, Decano Facultad de Agronomia;


Ing. Rodolfo Perdomo, Director Departamento de Suelos, Facultad de Agronomia y Asesor
Desarrollo Rural y Recursos Naturales AID/Guatemala;


Lic. Luis Arturo del Valle, Director Unidad Sectorial de Planificacion Agricola, Guatemala.


This group elaborated on the ideas expressed in the report of Work Group I, specifically
policy, overall strategy, and sketches of possible organization patterns. Emphasis was made for
a strong and close relationship with the technological promotional activities of DIGESA, close
ties with the University of San Carlos, and the importance of conducting research at the farm
level.


Work Group III (Grupo de Trabajo III) (7) This group met for about 3 weeks during







June of 1971. The participants were:


Dr. Alfredo Carballo, CIMMYT/Mexico;


Dr. Robert K.Waugh, ICA/Colombia, Representante de la Fundaci6n Rockefeller;


Ing. Edgar Leonel Ibarra, Decano Facultad de Agronomia, Guatemala;


Ing. Rodolfo Perdomo, AID/Guatemala, Facultad de Agronomia, Guatemala;


Lic. Luis Arturo del Valle, Director de la Unidad Sectorial de Planificaci6n Agricola, Guatemala;


Ing. Astolfo Fumagalli, Director, Investigaci6n Agricola, Guatemala;


Also contributed in this group in specific assignments:


Lic. Hugo Soto, DIGESA


Dr. Jos6 de Jesis Castro, Facultad de Agronomia, Profesor y Director del Departamento de
Entomologia,


Ing. Romeo Rodriguez, Divisi6n de Recursos HidrAulicos, Ministerio de Agricultura


Sr. Manuel Arag6n, Jefe del Departamento de Dibujo y Fotograbado, Instituto Geografico
Nacional.


Ing. Astolfo Fumagalli, later named the first Director General of ICTA, was group coordinator.


The report of this group was a more complete project which included a brief analysis of
the agriculture sector, justification for the new institute, its functions, areas of work and goals,
geographical zones of concentration, for personnel, operations, constructions and machinery.
Estimated costs for the first five years of operation were approximately $12,000,000.


An important and specific part of the plan presented were the geographical areas for
concentration of field work at the farm level, naming specific crops as target crops. The strategy
was based principally upon the basic grains: maize, beans, wheat, rice and sorghum.







- 11 -


This report has become known as the "Libro Verde" or Green Book, and was the
document presented to the National Planning Council (Consejo Nacional de Planificaci6n
Economica) for their consideration The Planning Council approved the creation of the Instituto
de Clencia y Tecnologia Agricolas the 20th of August 1971 according to "Resoluc6ln nfmero
2008".


The Group IV report (November 1971) (8) was a brief presentation for the purpose
of clarifying points in relation to the plan presented by Group III. It did propose a transition
period to move ICTA into activities at the farm level, and to coordinate programs with DIGESA.


Contact an discussion was continued with the Rockefeller Foundation during November
and December with the objective of determining the interestof that organization in continued
collaboration with the new institute The answer was affirmative but requested more concrete
proposal and suggested that such be studied and prepared with CIAT, CIMMYT and
USAID/Guatemala early in 1972.


Work Group V (Grupo de Trabajo V) (9) of Guatemalans and a representative of
AID/Guatemala met in March 1972, for the purpose of including in one brief document the
basic philosophy of the new institute, and write a draft of a law which would be presented
to Congress to create the new institute.


Also this work group made a study and summary of available funds to be used by the
new institute, highly important for the first stage of operation and which was used in discussions
with the Rockefeller Foundation, CIMMYT, CIAT, AID/Guatemala and the Ministry of
Agriculture.


Included in this important group were:


Ing. Rodolfo Perdomo, Viceminister of Agriculture, President of the Commission,


Ing Alfredo Gil Spillari, Director of DIGESA, Coordinator,


Lic AdAn Rodriguez, Sectonal Unit, Planning Office, Ministry of Agriculture,







- 12-


Ing. Astolfo Fumagalli, DIGESA,


Lic. Yolanda Castillo de Arevalo, INDECA


Lic. Arturo Tobar Blanco, Sectorial Unit, Planning Office, Ministry of Agriculture,


Mr. Joseph Courand, USAID/Guatemala,


The Group to Organize ICTA was named by the Minister on March 24, 1972. This
group consistent of:


Ing. Rodolfo Perdomo Menendez, Viceminister of Agriculture, President of the Commissions,


Mr. Alfredo Gil Spillari, Director of DIGESA, Coordinator,


Lic. Adan Rodriguez, Chief of the Sectorial Unit, Planning Office, Ministry of Agriculture,


Ing. Astolfo Fumagalli, Director of Agricultural Research,


Lic. Yolanda Castillo de Ar6valo, INDECA


Robert K. Waugh of the Rockefeller Foundation and Joe Courand of AID were named as
advisors.


Also in March 1972 (4) high level personnel of the Ministry of Agriculture met with
representatives of CIAT, the Rockefeller Foundation, CIMMYT and AID/Guatemala, having
already agreed that a satisfactory method for the Rockefeller Foundation to collaborate with
ICTA would be through CIAT with a grant in aid to that organization. A document for
technical cooperation between ICTA and CIAT was prepared which later was signed by the
Minister of Agriculture and the Director General of CIAT in May. At this time it was agreed that
Robert K. Waugh would come to Guatemala for three weeks in April, and after that as frequently
as foreseen necessary to collaborate in the preparation in the more specific plans, and review of
work plans.






- 13-


At this time the Rockefeller Foundation agreed to support two scientists to work with
ICTA through the arrangement with CIAT, one to work at the administrative level and the
other at the technical level


The participants at this meeting were:


From the Rockefeller Foundation: Dr. Lewis M Roberts and Dr. Robe t K Waugh,

From CIAT Dr Ulysses J. Grant and Dr Colm McClung,

From CIMMYT: Drs. Elmer C. Johnson and Alfredo Carballo,

From USAID/Guatemala. Messrs. Harlan Harrison, Alphonse Chable & Joseph Courand,

From the Mi:istry of Agriculture: Ing. Mario A. Martinez, Minister; Ing. Rodolfo Perdomo,
Vic minister, Mr. Alfredo Gil Spillari, Director of DIGESA, an 1 Ing. Astolfo
Fur-,agalli, Director of Agricultural Research.


On October 24, 1972 the Congress of the Republic passed the law creating ICTA, under
"Decreto nimero 68-72".


There were other participants who contributed much to the organization of ICTA during
this phase of almost two years They cannot all be mentioned here in this brief presentation;
they were important


Conversations and discussions were held with both local and foreign personnel,
especially with personnel of CIAT for the purpose of reviewing wo ik plans. Thus, following
the decision of March 1972 to work with CIAT, close contact was maintained with that
organization. In this manner, work plans were developed before the inauguration of ICTA,
and CIAT which has contributed technology and training, was "present" from the beginning.


ICTA was formally inaugurated on May 10, 1973 and )fficially opened its doors on
June 1 of that year.







- 14-


ICTA AFTER TWO YEARS EXPERIENCE


Allowing ourselves the privilege of being subjective, we feel that ICTA, during the two
years and a few monthsaof operation, was organized and has progressed in accordance with
the basic philosophy and. objectives of the planning documents. For those involved in the
organization of ICTA and-the initiation of activities, the experience has been unique, one that is
seldom available within the official or governmental sector. In the case of the "Direcci6n de
Investigaci6n", the lights. were turned off, the theater closed. With some.of the same actors
present, ICTA opens as a new performance and in a new location, to perform before the same old
audience, the same-clients. Will the performance be a better one than presented in the old
theater? We think so. The curtain is now going down on the final dress rehearsal. The analogy
is defective, because at the same time the curtain is already going up on opening night, and we
feel that the first scenes have been favorably received.


During the period of March, April and May of 1973, there was much to be done to start
the new ICTA to function. Determining the organic structure, administrative procedures,
obtaining the basic facilities, hiring the first people, and planning and initiating the first
technological activities required attention.


The Government was helpful, and special mention is deserved by DIGESA, and at that
time Director Alfredo Gil Spillari for the excellent cooperation.


The Ministry of Agriculture participated directly in taking inventory of the facilities
which ICTA needed to receive and control so that work could begin without loss of time.
DIGESA arranged for ICTA to receive control of experiment stations, and loaned vehicles.


Since a cropping season would have been lost if work did not start before the
inauguration of the institute, and before opening new headquarters, it was arranged with
DIGESA for loaned office space, loaned technicians, and land. ICTA agreed to review the
work previously under DIGESA in order not to precipitously erase an important activity or lose
valuable breeding materials. So, the first seedings were made in cooperation with DIGESA with
the agreement that ICTA would assume responsibility by June 1, then extended to July 1.







- 15-


OBJECTIVES, POLICY AND STRATEGIES


The general objectives, policy and philosophy of ICTA are set forth in the Congressional
Law (Decreto 68-72) which established the institute and other planning documents related to
its creation. The law of course takes precedent over any other document in case of discrepancies.


Over the period of its short life span to present, the law and other documents have been
interpreted, in a few cases modified, and amplified.


A summary of the objectives and actions as stated in Article 3 and Article 19 of the law
are as follows:


Article 3 refers to objectives.


1. ICTA is the Governmental institution responsible for generating and promoting
the use of science and technology within the agricultural sector.


2. Therefore, it is ICTA's concern to conduct research focused on the solution of
problems of the agriculture of the country related to social welfare.


3. It falls to ICTA to produce the materials and determine the methods to increase
agricultural production.


4. ICTA should promote the use of technology.


5. ICTA should promote regional rural development.


Article 19 refers to the operations or functions mentioned below which imply general
objectives.


1. Research and studies related to agriculture.


2. Programs of training and promotion directed toward the application of results






-16-


obtained from research.


3 Formulate and propose academic programs for the formation of scientific personnel


4. Intei change of information and materials related to research, and,


5 In addition those necessary for the proper function of the Institute allowed within the

spirit of the law establishing ICTA


In addition, Article 19 says that the Instituteof Agricultural Science and Technology is the

public governmental ) institute responsible for generating and promoting the use of science and

technology in its respective sector This assigns large responsibility to ICTA. While other

institutions are not excluded form these activities, since the law reads "the institute" it is clear

that ICTA cannot evade this responsibility,


The law implies that the action of ICTA towards technology is direct, saying that "le

corresponde investigar". while with reference to the application or use the technology ICTA's

responsibility is to promote its use.


This leads to the interpretation that ICTA has a direct responsibility for creating, identifying

generating technology, testing it under conditions where it will be used and adapting it to these

same conditions. ICTA has further decided that it must know the results of the technology when

in the hands of farmers, when managed by the agriculturist. With regard to transfer of

technology, ICTA's responsibility is to promote its use, but who conducts the action of transfer

is not stated. ICTA is not excluded as an instrument of direct transfer, ICTA has made the

interpretation that while it is not necessarily responsible for the action of transfer it is responsible

for studying transfer strategy and logistic (transfer systems), that ICTA must assure itself that

the technology is transferable, must know how the farmer evaluates the technology, and must

accept that the degree of transfer which can be obtained is a important measure of the value of

the technology (for Guatemalan agriculture). The transfer obtained has usually been a measure of

the success of tle extension service.








- 17-


Since the purpose, of ICTA seeks to correct the deficiencies of the traditional system
with the objective of increasing production, it has been important to identify the defects of the
prior organizations In general it is believed that major faults lay in the fractionated steps of (1)
identifying the problems of the farmer, (2) identifying and developing technology, (3) testing
of technology at the farm level and adapting it to farmers' conditions, (4) evaluating the
technology when managed by farmers, (5) evaluating the acceptance of the technology and (6)
the general promotion of its use, along with assurance of availability of inputs and services.


The traditional system had only two steps which were research to determine the
potential of a given technology, this usually under favorable conditions, and the extension
service, with these two activities managed by separate groups.


FurthermQrp, research has failed for the small farmer because:


1. The researcher has not taken into consideration the problems of the small farmer
and his systems of farming.


2. The researcher is not competent as an agriculturist as practised by the small
farmer..,


3. The researcher has not tested the technology at the farm level, under conditions of
the small farmer, because he has not mastered his system, and has not truly felt the
responsibility to do so.


4. Acceptance by the small farmer has not been a part of the evaluation of the
technology, and,


5. No workable system has been found to bring about sufficient dialogue and
communication between researchers and extension agents when separated into two
functional groups.


Likewise, extension has failed for the small farmer







- 18-


1. Because adequate technology has not been available and recommendations
given by the extension agent are taken from a book, a folder, or the classroom.


2. Because the extension agent has not worked with the farmer to compare the
traditional varieties and practices with new technology before recommending it.


3. Because the new technology is presented to the farmer as demonstration in
which the farmer has no confidence.


4. Because the extension agent has not mastered first hand the practices of the
farmer, nor on the other hand does he know what the researcher worker is doing.


5. Because the evaluation of the work of the extension agent has been based on
quantifying activities and not based upon his effect upon production,



Technology development and transfer. The generalobjectives of ICTA have not been
changed during the first two years of operation. The policies and philosophy have been modified
slightly, and the strategy of work has passed through a "controlled evolution". The idea is to
maintain a good degree of flexibility, with considerable opportunity for innovation at the
regional or project level, but not allow changes to result in chaos.


ICTA thought from the beginning (1) that the steps mentioned previously (page 17 )
should not be separated one from the other, (2) that the quality of the work depends on the
capacity of the personnel, their training, their dedication and adequate logistic support and (3)
due to limited resources, human, economic and physical, as well as limited administrative
capacity, that it is important to focus upon those areas of work most important in order to make
an impact upon production, and that the efforts should not be diluted by academic interest or
activities of low priority.


Parallel with the evolution of policy and philosophy, the identification of priorities, a
basic strategy has been developed illustrated in the Diagram 1, for the development and transfer
of technology. ICTA believes that all of these steps are important, but also recognizes that







- 19-


these are flexible, can be applied with modifications, and is certainly willing to accept change
when justified. The number of the paragraphs which follow immediately correspond to the
numbers in parentheses in the diagram.


1. The identification of the problems of the farmer and an understanding of his
system and practices, and to the point possible the reason for them, is the first step on
the part of the technician (agronomist). For example, under the old system of research
crop varieties had been selected, testing them only under favorable conditions, or
perhaps only under highly favorable conditions without recognizing and understanding
the problems and conditions of the small farmer. During several years fertilization of
beans was studied in monoculture, while 70 percent of the beans produced are cultivated
in association with maize (10) Therefore, it is the policy of ICTA to give emphasis to
the understanding of the system of the farmer, m order to correctly focus the research.


At this stage it is important to try to judge whether or not the problem can be solved
by technology, and if so what should be the priority given to it.


Also, many problems will cede to the scientific attack, but one must ask with what period
of time and at what cost. We have the technological backstopping of international
centers and universities where it is very possible the problem should be studied.


When the problem is not technical such as poor markets, lack of credit, or lack of inputs,
the technician (agronomist) should not remain silent, because if there is coordination
within the agricultural sector ICTA can, institutionally, make the problem known.


2. Once the problem is described, and a decision made to try to improve it with
technology, the technician has the facilities of the Production Centers (experiment
stations), the collaboration of the regional or zonal Project for Testing Technology, the
backstopping of many other professional contacts, including the international centers.


The technician has the responsibility of developing his technological work at an intensity
in agreement with the priority given to the problem.







- 20 -


3. If the effort to develop a technology is successful the next step is to try it, to
test it at the farm level, and not only on the best farms, the best land It is important
to know the potential of a variety or a technique under favorable conditions but it is
also even more important to evaluate the variety under conditions of reality for the
farmer. Preferably the same technician who developed the technology should do this
testing. In this manner he will know the behavior of his technology, he will have to
learn to use it under farmer conditions, he will learn its weaknesses, and will learn more
about the problems of the farmer. These are designated farm experiments.


4. The farmer himself should test the technology, and hopefully compare it with
his own technology (Farmer's tests). With the participation of the farmer it is possible
to test the technology over larger areas, under a wider range of conditions, and results
used to refine the technology. Also the farmer's test can serve to introduce (also the
farm experiments) a new practice into an area. If the farmers collaborators are well
selected this can be the "prueba de fuego" (critical test) for the technology under test.
It should be possible to collect a large amount of useful data and information with
this system. 1/

5. It is to be expected that the farmer's trials will give favorable results Therefore,
it is important to have taken the steps to assure the availability of the necessary inputs,
so that he can use the new technology if he chooses to do so. Hopefully he will wish to
do so. Availability of seeds of improved varieties definitely needs attention. There is
the risk that seed will be produced that the farmer does not wish to use, but it must be
done, because on testing a new variety and the farmer decides to use it, he will be
discouraged if seed is not available. In the case that the new variety does not prove out
as well under farmer conditions as anticipated, seed can be sold as grain







1/ ICTA pay- for all of the putss for the farm expemec n!. But the farmer :, saying fo,
the inputs for farme''s te t, Thui, the f~mer is pat tpatng m the tost of adapt:ng
technology to hus conditions.






























. I


Reviewing Plans of Action:


Work conducted by the different Programs is periodically reviewed in order to orient it
towards the needs and objectives of the Institute: Maize Program technicians at a work session
with the Directors of ICTA.


K%11









D(SaRROLLO Y TRMNSFCR(NCIfl A GRICOLA


INSTTUTO DE
aENCIA Y TECNOLDGIA AGRICOLAS
SECTOR PUBIC
ArCOLA








-21-


This also apples to other inputs.


6. If the five steps above are successful, the new technology should be introduced
into programs of technology transfer that cover as large an area as possible. The
technology should be continuously evaluated based upon its effect on production, the
net income to farmers and its general acceptation.



ICTA has organized three projects for testing technology which will be explained
further under Projects and Activities. These are technology transfer or production projects
conducted within specific areas, on specific crops as the target crops. Even though DIGESA
is the agency of the government responsible for conducting such programs on a country-wide
basis, it is important for ICTA to conduct technology transfer at the farm level on a scale
sufficiently large in order to evaluate the technology, including its acceptance by farmers.


ICTA is also working with two privately organized groups to introduce and test
technology at the farm level. Since the private organization is responsible for the work
with farmers, and ICTA only serves as the source of technology and as the technological
backstop, the cost of such programs is low. This system promises to be highly effective. It
will be discussed later.


Expansion and extension of transfer projects or activities in Guatemala should be given
high priority. At this time ICTA should consider the expansion of transfer projects along two
lines:


1. The extension, or expansion of the Test of Technology zonal projects, and,


2. The promotion of the use of technology through other groups, especially the
official agencies and already organized rural groups such as mentioned on page 19


The present Projects for Testing Technology, which are rather small production projects
of limited size, are far from sufficient to meet the needs of the country. It is important that
in these projects, a strategy be developed which can be extended to other areas, whether directly








- 22-


by ICTA or by other agencies.


The extension of a given production project to an adjacent or neighboring area should
be possible at less cost and be effective in less time because some of the same technology should
be relevant and useful, even of direct application, and some personnel will already have been
trained in the area to serve as the nucleus of the group for the new area.


It is important to test, probe, and gain experience in the transfer of technology, but also
in the expansion of a successful strategy to a new area. Nothing should be left to change that can
be effectively and rapidly checked. As in the case of the transfer of technology, the method of
testing the expansion of production projects is to carry out the expansion on a scale sufficiently
large so that the results can be analized, interpreted and evaluated. This can be done with ICTA
still meeting the needs only of a very small part of the country.


ICTA must recognize that in order to meet the needs of the country directly with their
own programs, the institutional growth in order to meet such a goal would be very great and
take time. Neither would such a strategy be in agreement with the policy of the government for
the agricultural sector.


ICTA, as mentioned previously, must have a direct action program for transfer of
technology (Projects for Testing Technology) but if ICTA, over the long run, is to have a major
responsibility for direct transfer, it has not been decided. It will be important for the
government to study the problem, and define a policy. But a precipitous decision should not
be made and a plan should be based upon results obtained under different systems which at
present exist. ICTA should contribute to the development of this policy in a major fashion.


There is always the problem of sufficient personnel, adequate budget and the overall
logistical problems. Abrupt major changes would probably not be efficient,.and a plan of
transition should be made for developing new agricultural production projects with small
farmers. Perhaps ICTA should concentrate a major part of its resources and limited number
of prepared (trained) personnel in training programs for production projects.


In the meantime, ICTA should continue its Projects for Testing Technology (Production







- 23 -


Projects), and also take action to assure that information reaches the individuals and the groups
of people, both government and private, that can use it.


In this case of indirect transfer of technology, the acceptability is justas important as
in the case of farmers. It is important that the attitude of ICTA not offend these receptor
groups, that the information and the technology be easily understood. ICTA should define a
strategy, methods and systems to effect such transfer, deviating from traditional methodology
when indicated.


ICTA should take under consideration different methods such as:


1. Short courses


2. Conferences


3. Publications


4. Work sessions or clinics,


ICTA should take the initiative to seek the groups, to make the contacts, notjust wait
until a request is received. ICTA should consider this as a mean of advancing their own
programs toward meeting their objectives. Very little of this has been done, but the reasons
for this can be explained.


ICTA feels that the programs should remain flexible. If the programs as designed at
present do not result in a satisfactory technology with effective transfer, the programs should
be modified. The programs should be sufficiently flexible to take advantage of what is learned
through experience, evaluation and feedback of information from the farm. The time, and the
creditability, lost in uneffective programs which could not be turned around, given a new
direction, or modified rapidly has been a major drawback to technological transfer.
Furthermore, with time farmers will be learning and the manner of working with them can be
modified; hopefully will reduce the time for acceptance of new technology.








- 24 -


The clients of highest priority of ICTA are the small and medium sized farmers. The
large farmers are not excluded, but they are not sought out as prospective clients.


ICTA has not defined what is a small or medium sized farmer. The largest average size
farms with which ICTA is working today is 20 hectares, at La Maquina. DIGESA uses 28
hectares and down as medium and small. For the time being, ICTA accepts this as a guide.


DEVELOPMENT VS. PRODUCTION


ICTA is profoundly interested in the wellbeing of the rural population but ICTA's
prime responsibility is to increase production. This increase in production will not take place
unless new technology necessary to increase production is economically favorable. The country
needs food in increasing amounts, and the increased production can serve as a stronger economic
base for development. In this manner the rural areas can contribute to the costs of their
development.


Rural development is a process more complex than increased production; in agreement
with the National Planning Office the goal is production. The production effort, to be
successful, will put the rural people in contact with people from outside of their region, should
improve communications, and can contribute to development in this manner.


A POLICY FOR INSTITUTIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND PROGRAM EXPANSION


The objective of ICTA is not to develop itself, but to develop sound programs. It should
not seek institutional development and then look for programs.


The principal components of institutional development are trained personnel, physical
facilities, and financing. While programs cannot be carried out without these components,
these should be justified on specific program planning.


Many laboratories have been constructed ajd equipped without adequate personnel,
without budget and without a plan of work, believing that the laboratory is development
when it is nothing more than a structure. This should be avoided.








- 24 -


The clients of highest priority of ICTA are the small and medium sized farmers. The
large farmers are not excluded, but they are not sought out as prospective clients.


ICTA has not defined what is a small or medium sized farmer. The largest average size
farms with which ICTA is working today is 20 hectares, at La Maquina. DIGESA uses 28
hectares and down as medium and small. For the time being, ICTA accepts this as a guide.


DEVELOPMENT VS. PRODUCTION


ICTA is profoundly interested in the wellbeing of the rural population but ICTA's
prime responsibility is to increase production. This increase in production will not take place
unless new technology necessary to increase production is economically favorable. The country
needs food in increasing amounts, and the increased production can serve as a stronger economic
base for development. In this manner the rural areas can contribute to the costs of their
development.


Rural development is a process more complex than increased production; in agreement
with the National Planning Office the goal is production. The production effort, to be
successful, will put the rural people in contact with people from outside of their region, should
improve communications, and can contribute to development in this manner.


A POLICY FOR INSTITUTIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND PROGRAM EXPANSION


The objective of ICTA is not to develop itself, but to develop sound programs. It should
not seek institutional development and then look for programs.


The principal components of institutional development are trained personnel, physical
facilities, and financing. While programs cannot be carried out without these components,
these should be justified on specific program planning.


Many laboratories have been constructed ajd equipped without adequate personnel,
without budget and without a plan of work, believing that the laboratory is development
when it is nothing more than a structure. This should be avoided.







- 25 -


ICTA must grow, .but growth can cause stagnation. Therefore, it is important to
be dynamic but cautious, aggressive but discrete and diplomatic, have faith but demand facts.
Likewise, ICTA must spend money but in a justifiable manner, must believe in itself and its
programs without being egoistical. ICTA must respect tradition, be competent in modern
technology and act for the future.


At this time ICTA is developing a five-year plan. While the first, draft of this should
be finished within a matter of weeks, additional study will be necessary, before discussing it
with the National Planning Office.


Programs must change with time, a fact which must be recognized by the technicians
of ICTA and the administration. At times the modification should be accompanied by
expansion. For example, the soils work has been focused principally upon fertility and soil
testing. Now it seems logical to give more attention to soil management, soil conservation,
crop rotation, associated and multiple cropping, fertilizer use and water conservation. The
Mediterranian fruit fly has. recently appeared in Guatemala. The objectives of the horticultural
programs must be reviewed. Maize as a crop is 10 times larger than any other crop and very
little technology is used in highland corn production. Should not the efforts of ICTA be
expanded with the objective of making highland corn more productive?


The expansion of the programs to give major attention to additional crops must be
carefully considered. Basic grains should receive first attention, but the institute also
recognizes that other tropical crops can contribute to food production and rural development.
The problems facing bean production might be alleviated if other pulses and soybeans could be
substituted. The Guatemalan diet is not high in energy and yuca is good possibility for food as
well as industrialization. Additional emphasis should be given to rice production in order to
lower its price to consumer and alleviate the demand for corn. Horticultural crops can become
much more important both for local consumption and export, but again grains should receive a
higher priority and within ICTA the chaotic situation which can easily occur when many such
crops are studied must be avoided. Industry should develop any major export enterprises.


In considering new crops it is important not to allow academic, professional or group
interests to unduly affect the decision.






- 26 -


The expansion of production programs and increased production through other means of
increasing the application of technology should be given major consideration, as contrasted with
increasing the number of crops under study.


TRAINING


No one is indispensable but the institute's success will depend.upon people.


The world has seen that agricultural technology, poorly managed, in the developing
countries can be costly without making a contribution to food production and the wellbeing of
the rural people.


ICTA needs highly trained personnel, but at the same time they must be oriented tp
the application of technology under conditions of the small farmer. ICTA should not limit nor
commit itself to one kind of training. Graduate studies are important but it is also important to
take advantage of other kinds of training programs such as the production training in CIAT and
CIMMYT. A production training course will be given by ICTA in Guatemala in 1976. (See
Annex A.)


INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS


The external aid received by ICTA has been modest but very important This- aid has
arrived mainly in the form of donations and has been used principally to obtain the services of
foreign technicians, for scholarships and technical support through the international centers.


ICTA recognizes the value of this aid, especially during the first stages of developing
programs and to establish institutional and professional contacts which serve as an important
base for the long run interchange of genetic materials and professional dialogue and training.


ICTA understands that it cannot always have this help available. In the use of foreign aid
to obtain professionals from other countries, they have been integrated into the programs, are
not advisers, and do not develop satellite programs which will be dropped when they leave.






- 26 -


The expansion of production programs and increased production through other means of
increasing the application of technology should be given major consideration, as contrasted with
increasing the number of crops under study.


TRAINING


No one is indispensable but the institute's success will depend.upon people.


The world has seen that agricultural technology, poorly managed, in the developing
countries can be costly without making a contribution to food production and the wellbeing of
the rural people.


ICTA needs highly trained personnel, but at the same time they must be oriented tp
the application of technology under conditions of the small farmer. ICTA should not limit nor
commit itself to one kind of training. Graduate studies are important but it is also important to
take advantage of other kinds of training programs such as the production training in CIAT and
CIMMYT. A production training course will be given by ICTA in Guatemala in 1976. (See
Annex A.)


INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS


The external aid received by ICTA has been modest but very important This- aid has
arrived mainly in the form of donations and has been used principally to obtain the services of
foreign technicians, for scholarships and technical support through the international centers.


ICTA recognizes the value of this aid, especially during the first stages of developing
programs and to establish institutional and professional contacts which serve as an important
base for the long run interchange of genetic materials and professional dialogue and training.


ICTA understands that it cannot always have this help available. In the use of foreign aid
to obtain professionals from other countries, they have been integrated into the programs, are
not advisers, and do not develop satellite programs which will be dropped when they leave.







- 27 -


It is important to maintain relations with international and foreign organizations and
play a role as a member of the international scientific community. This is important to assure
that important information and the up-to-date technology are received in Guatemala. It is
important that ICTA not only receive but must also contribute.


The United States Agency for International Development (AID), The Rockefeller
Foundation, and the Centro Interacional, de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT), (see Financing) have
been the principal foreign contributors to ICTA, but also other organizations have made
important contributions to the new institute, such as CIMMYT, Cornell University, Michigan
State University North Carolina State University, the Government of Spain, the Government of
the Republic of China (Taiwan). The U.S. Peace Corps, Texas A&M University, and Utah State
University. Contacts have been made with a good many other organizations, which overall have
clearly been beneficial to ICTA.


Official documentation will probably not reflect any special or unique relationship of
USAID/Guatemala with ICTA, but that agency, especially through its personnel in Guatemala,
has contributed much, in addition to what the records probably will reflect. Their stated
willingness to help the new institute began before its establishment and has continued.
Technical foreign personnel funded by AID have been integrated into ICTA and have carried
major loads of responsibility directly under the ICTA administration.


The Rockefeller Foundation collaborated early in the establishment of ICTA and then
continued support through CIAT. They furnish technicians both directly and through CIAT, and
give scholarship and training support.


The case of CIAT deserves special mention. Their contributions have been largely, but
not exclusively, supported by the Rockefeller Foundation. An agreement was signed between
CIAT and the Ministry of Agriculture of Guatemala, before the institute was established, This
agreement simply states that CIAT will give technological support to the new institute within
the capabilities of CIAT, taking into account availability of financing. This agreement also serves
as the formal basis for locating CIAT personnel in Guatemala to work in ICTA. ICTA thus
became an "outreach" program of CIAT, and ICTA has received major technological support.
In this manner, ICTA became one of the first new organizations which was structured, and







- 28-


whose programs developed, based upon such a relationship with an international center, and
thus ICTA has not developed the biological disciplines such as genetics, entomology and plant
pathology, has not developed the research programs in an academic manner, and has relied
upon CIAT for strong technological backstopping. CIAT has accepted ICTA as a direct
technological responsibility, and ICTA has felt "comfortable" and has not hesitated in requesting
specific aid from CIAT.


ICTA also is developing closer relations with CIMMYT. The wheat program of the
Ministry of Agriculture, over the years has had close relationship with CIMMYT which has
continued. To a certain degree the same is true for the corn program, but here better working
relationships are developing, probably due to the greater capability of ICTA to use what the
CIMMYT corn program has to offer. National organization, strength and capability is basic
in order to use to good advantage what international organizations can offer.


National institutions do not always understand what a foreigner international institution
can offer, how it is offered, and what the relationship should be. The written agreement with
CIAT has served as a green light to develop the relationships with CIAT needed to "get the
job done".


Such an agreement should not be necessary to work with international organizations but
perhaps it is an effective mechanism in developing close working relations. It is a manner of
saying, on, the part of the international organization, that we are willing to help, and on the
part of the national program, that the door is open.


International agreements are often too formal, cumbersome, and time consuming. In the case
of ICTA, the law establishing the institute, foresees this problem with the provision that ICTA
can sign agreements with national and international organizations, with the approval of its
Board of Directors, and in such cases the foreign personnel would have the rights and
privileges accorded to personnel of international organizations under Guatemalan law. The
personnel assigned to ICTA by CIAT come under this provision.





DIAGRAM II

ORGANIGRAMA DEL SECTOR PUBLIC AGRICOLA







"_' I I








L**- I I -_1 li_ *l~_f Il "_ I
-o------- -
__oH |
\^_____________________________________________________________________









DIAGRAM III


OR G A N I G R A M A ICTA


t J--Actividades Centralizadas.
- -Ejecucion Regionalizoda.


Unidod de Programacion Sep,/1975-








- 29 -


ORGANIZATION OF THE GOVERNMENTAL AGRICULTURAL SECTOR



With the organization of ICTA, the agricultural sector of the government was as shown
in Diagram II. The only change since this time is the organization of INAFOR, which absorbed
CETEFOR, as a decentralized forestry institute.


The dotted lines indicate decentralized agencies, with their own board of directors, the
chairman of the board being in each case the Minister of Agriculture.


INTA, agrarian transformation institute, operates directly under the presidency of the
country.


DIGESA, solid line in the diagram, is not decentralized.


THE STRUCTURE OF ICTA


The organization of ICTA is illustrated in Diagram II.


As a decentralized institute of the Governmental Agricultural Sector, it has a board of
directors, whose president is the Minister of Agriculture.


In addition to the Minister of Agriculture, other members are the Minister of Finance,
the Minister of Economics, the Secretary for National Planning, the Dean of Agriculture of San
Carlos University and one citizen at large named by the other members of the board.


The heads of the other decentralized institutes of the Sector and the head of INTA, are
permanent advisers to the board, and are usually invited to the sessions of the board, which
meets about once a month.


The technical activities are carried out within the Technical Unit for Production. There
are National Programs for the major crops, headed by a Coordinator. Disciplines are not








- 29 -


ORGANIZATION OF THE GOVERNMENTAL AGRICULTURAL SECTOR



With the organization of ICTA, the agricultural sector of the government was as shown
in Diagram II. The only change since this time is the organization of INAFOR, which absorbed
CETEFOR, as a decentralized forestry institute.


The dotted lines indicate decentralized agencies, with their own board of directors, the
chairman of the board being in each case the Minister of Agriculture.


INTA, agrarian transformation institute, operates directly under the presidency of the
country.


DIGESA, solid line in the diagram, is not decentralized.


THE STRUCTURE OF ICTA


The organization of ICTA is illustrated in Diagram II.


As a decentralized institute of the Governmental Agricultural Sector, it has a board of
directors, whose president is the Minister of Agriculture.


In addition to the Minister of Agriculture, other members are the Minister of Finance,
the Minister of Economics, the Secretary for National Planning, the Dean of Agriculture of San
Carlos University and one citizen at large named by the other members of the board.


The heads of the other decentralized institutes of the Sector and the head of INTA, are
permanent advisers to the board, and are usually invited to the sessions of the board, which
meets about once a month.


The technical activities are carried out within the Technical Unit for Production. There
are National Programs for the major crops, headed by a Coordinator. Disciplines are not







- 30-


programs but activities focused upon the commodities and production programs through the
Projects for Testing Technology.


ICTA is using the same system of regionalization as DIGESA and the rest of the Sector.
The Regional Director is also Head of the Zonal Project for Testing Technology, these being the
main activities in the regions. The Production Center (experiment station) within a region with
a Regional Director has a station director responsible to the Regional Director. All other
activities in a region, including the projects of the national commodity programs are under the
Regional Director.


PERSONNEL


As of May 1, 1975, the personnel of the Institute were:


Office of the Director General, Administrative Services and Planninghad: 1 Ph.D.,


2 M. S., 9 University Graduates and 14 Peritos (Secondary level education);
The Technical Unit had: 5 Ph.D., 10 M.S., 49 University Graduates and 30 Peritos.


Of the previously mentioned personnel, 4 Ph. D. and 3 Agronomists are foreign, the
remainder is Guatemalan.


PHYSICAL FACILITIES


ICTA rents headquarters office space in Guatemala, 1200 square meters, fifth floor,
Galerias Espafta: 7a. Avenida 11-59, Zona 9. Also within Guatemala there is the laboratory for
soils analysis; still located in La Aurora, Zona 13.


Other physical facilities are the Production Centers (experiment stations) located as
shown in Map. I. This map also shows the Regional divisions. The Centers are described in the
sections of this report under the Technical Unit for Production.


With the exception of two, the centers are small, as they should be since much of the







- 30-


programs but activities focused upon the commodities and production programs through the
Projects for Testing Technology.


ICTA is using the same system of regionalization as DIGESA and the rest of the Sector.
The Regional Director is also Head of the Zonal Project for Testing Technology, these being the
main activities in the regions. The Production Center (experiment station) within a region with
a Regional Director has a station director responsible to the Regional Director. All other
activities in a region, including the projects of the national commodity programs are under the
Regional Director.


PERSONNEL


As of May 1, 1975, the personnel of the Institute were:


Office of the Director General, Administrative Services and Planninghad: 1 Ph.D.,


2 M. S., 9 University Graduates and 14 Peritos (Secondary level education);
The Technical Unit had: 5 Ph.D., 10 M.S., 49 University Graduates and 30 Peritos.


Of the previously mentioned personnel, 4 Ph. D. and 3 Agronomists are foreign, the
remainder is Guatemalan.


PHYSICAL FACILITIES


ICTA rents headquarters office space in Guatemala, 1200 square meters, fifth floor,
Galerias Espafta: 7a. Avenida 11-59, Zona 9. Also within Guatemala there is the laboratory for
soils analysis; still located in La Aurora, Zona 13.


Other physical facilities are the Production Centers (experiment stations) located as
shown in Map. I. This map also shows the Regional divisions. The Centers are described in the
sections of this report under the Technical Unit for Production.


With the exception of two, the centers are small, as they should be since much of the







-31-


work must be done off station on farmer's land. Some also serve as regional headquarters.


Most of the centers need considerable improvements in order to be more useful.


A small seed handling facility will be mounted at Barcenas, where there presently exists
some seed equipment and storage.


It is proposed that additional facilities such as laboratories be built but only when
justified, based on their contribution to production.


FINANCING AND BUDGET


As of July 31, 1975, ICTA had spent the following funds of the Guatemalan Goverment:


$ 697,485


1975 to July 31


TOTAL:


The budget for 1975 is:


$ 3,484.732


$ 2,595,167*


Financing has been adequate. Grant funds from foreign sources have been used almost
exclusively to contract and support foreign personnel. Such funds have not been used to
facilitate purchasing of equipment or to support ongoing operations, despite the fact that
governmental controls and required procedures are at best cumbersome. This policy has been
upon the need to foresee the future when no flexible funds are available and that now is the time



* This includes $ 185,000 loan funds from AID.


1973

1974


1,560,590

1,226,657







- 32 -


to learn how to operate the institute strictly under Guatemalan rules. Progress has been good
and more effective, administrative procedures have been adopted, especially for purchases
and sales.


Foreign donations are being used:


AID about $ 200,000 a year


RF/CIAT about $ 200,000 a year. Thisisanestimated figure. (This is both direct
from RF and also through CIAT.)


Anticipated additional funds:


AID $ 100,000 per year


BID $ 600,000 over a three year period, $ 410,000 for seed programs and $ 190,000
for local training program.


THE TECHNICAL UNIT FOR PRODUCTION


The activities of the technical unit began in May of 1973 with a technical personnel of 9
Ingenieros Agr6nomos and 11 Peritos Agr6nomos.


The first step which was taken consisted in changing the traditional organization of
departments to a system of National Commodity Programs focused upon farming systems and
oriented toward production. Discussions were held with each of the technicians and a work plan
for 1973 was designed. CIAT personnel participated in many of these original plans. The first
step strategy was to test and re-evaluate existing technology, in other terms, to screen available
information and materials.


The following is a brief statement about the National Commodity Programs:






- 33 -


Maize Program


The Maize Program of ICTA has worked principally with materials brought from
CIMMYT, having tested the most outstanding varieties including the opaque. As a result of the
work conducted, it has been possible to obtain the ICTA-Tropical-101 hybrid and the C-11
variety, both of them to be used in the Pacific Coast of Guatemala. These varieties of maize
have competed favorably with the best commercial varieties, and during the present year
approximately 2,000 cwt. of seed of the ICTA-Tropical-101 variety were produced with
collaborating farmers.


Several problems were confronted with the opaque varieties, especially due to the
lightness of the ear and ear rot, but ICTA has now selected families that are considerably
improved for these characteristics.


A weakness in the program continues to be the lack of varieties available in the
Highlands. The best variety is a selection called San Marcefio.


The Maize Program has been reviewed by experts:


Dr. Edwin Wellhausen and Dr. Ernest Sprague of CIMMYT, and


Dr. Dale Harpstead of Michigan State and others, who have been of great help with their
opinions.


Bean Program


Since the beginning, this program has been strongly related to the Program in CIAT.
About 4,000 vareties brought from CIAT have been evaluated at this time, and selections have
been made.


The program selected the varieties: Negro Jalpatagua, Cuilapa, San Pedro Pinula and
Ipala. These varieties were submitted to tests in plots and in two occasions seed production
was arranged with small farmers who produced 2,000 cwt, of seed in each case.







- 34 -


This seed has been disseminated in the Eastern region.


Rice Program


This program has also been closely coordinated with CIAT and has concentrated its
efforts on the germplasm under local conditions. As a result, new varieties of CICA-4, CICA-6
and another new line, have been selected.


Further improvements have been made on the CICA-4 variety and approximately 1,500
cwt. of CICA-4 and 100 cwt. of CICA-6 are now available for distribution.


Sorghum Program


This program has received material from CIMMYT and Texas A&M and as a result, it has
obtained the varieties of Guatex rojo, Guatex blanco, Guatex enano and Guatecau. These
varieties compete with the commercial hybrids.


This seed was distributed among the farmers, packed in small bags, and sold in the
villages. Last year, ICTA sold 3 tons in 3 weeks, this evidently being an efficient manner of
distribution.


Wheat Program


The wheat program receives the germplasm from CIMMYT. All of its personnel has
received training in that institution and we are sending a person every cycle for the cropping
season, to obtain the material.


As a result of this, the varieties Gloria and Maya were obtained. Seed was quickly
increased and approximately 2,000 cwt. has been placed in the hands of the farmers.
Considerable differences between the commonly used and the new varieties showed up in field
trials with small farmers.







- 35 -


Horticulture Program


This program is designed to take advantage of the irrigation districts to obtain products
for export.


From the crops experimented with up to this time, garlic and melons seem to be the
best selections for production and export.


In the case of melons, semi-commercial seed production has been carried out and a high
quality product has been produced and exported. Profit to growers has been satisfactory. An
important aspect is to give additional attention to irrigation which is essential for obtaining a high
quality product.


Swine Program
This program is very recent and it is oriented towards assisting the small farmer and
improving the swine production. It was initiated with simple recommendations and the
establishment of several small units with farmers. Up to the moment, the results have been
satisfactory and are drawing the attention of the people. This program has also been reviewed
by CIAT Swine specialists, and techniques and strategy improved.


Soybean Program
Soybean production in Guatemala is essentially nil. Trials have shown that soybeans
can be successfully grown in the lower areas of the country.


After screening several hundred lines Improved Pelican is the variety selected to study
further this new crop possibility and to introduce it to farmers.


Other lines are showing promise of greater yields, but Improved Pelican has the advantage
of availability of seed.


There is much interest in small farmers as well as the industrialists. Its category within
ICTA will be raised to a national program for 1976.







- 36 -


A few other miscellaneous crops, such as cowpea, are being studied for possible
introduction on a large scale.


PRODUCTION CENTERS


ICTA has eight production centers (experiment stations) for developing technology
(See Map I)


Center Location Hectares Principal crops


Labor Ovalle Quezaltenango 21 Maize, wheat,potatoes


Cuyuta Cuyuta 220 Maize, sesame, cowpea,


La Maquina



Chimaltenango



San Jeronimo


Jutiapa



El Oasis



Cristina
(rented)


La MAquina



Chimaltenango



San Jeronimo


Jutiapa



Zacapa



Cristina


soybeans, rice, sorghum


Maize, sesame, cowpea,
soybeans, rice seed


Maize, garlic, potatoes,
beans


Maize, beans, horticulture


Beans, sorghum, maize,
soybeans


Horticulture, beans,
sorghum


Rice








,.*











"Our father is corn"- a quote

The ancestral crop corn, is the most important harvest for the sustenance of rural Guatemalans.


Aoilg


If I







MAPI


REGIONALIZACION
SECTOR PUBLIC AGRICOLA
`ENTROS DE PRODUCTION ICTA


ICTA
INSTITI DE CIENCIA Y TECNOLOGIA
AGRICOLAS
Sector Publico Agricola Guatemala,julio 1975
CENTROS DE PRODUCTION
A LABOR OVALLE F SAN JERONIMO
B LA MAQUINA G JUTIAPA
C NUEVA CONCEPCION H EL OASIS
D CHIMALTENANGO I IZABAL
E CUYUTA
<_____________._ ___-






- 37 -


SEED PROGRAM


Early in the work of ICTA it became clear, that not only would adequate supply of
high quality seed of good varieties be important but that the national commodity programs
were not organized nor trained to produce even the minimal quantities of the basic seed needed.
Also it became immediately evident that there was no seed industry in Guatemala that would
assure adequate supplies of seed.


The commodity programs worked hard to help in a difficult situation and the Technical
Production Unit with the commodity programs, in cooperation with the Production Centers,
produced appreciable quantities of seed, demonstrating considerable imagination and capacity
for innovation


For example, four varieties of beans were quickly selected for seed increase; but they
were also contaminated with seed transmitted disease. CIAT, in a crash program, was able to
furnish ICTA with small quantities of clean seed of these varieties, by producing in the
greenhouse, in time for August seeding in Guatemala for (1973) initial seed increase. Then was
seeded again by farmers under an unconventional arrangement, whereby ICTA furnished seed
and fertilizer to farmers at San Matias, an area traditionally dedicated to onions, beam, etc.,
under irrigation, in January during the dry season. This seed was available for the first and
second plantings in May and again in August of 1974. The farmers paid ICTA for the seed and
fertilizer with beans and also sold to ICTA much of the remaining seed for a price negotiated at
the time of harvest. In 1975 (January) the same general procedure was used, with some
improvements, such as paying farmers is cash.


While these kind of procedures got the work with farmers off to a good start, the system
had several defects such as insufficient equipment for handling and storage. It was evident that
ICTA did not have enough trained personnel. Part-time dedication to the overall seed problems
was not enough.


On March 3,1975 the Seed Program was established with its own personnel, in order to
focus more effectively on this important input for production.







- 38-


The commodity programs continue to produce small quantities of seed and collaborate
with the ICTA seed program.


The Seed Program has as its role to:


1. Determine what should be the seed program within ICTA;


2. Determine the facilities and personnel that are necessary in order for ICTA to
carry out its determined role;


3. Take initiative in developing a seed policy and program for Guatemala, in
collaboration with other agencies and private industry.


4. Do all possible so that lack of seed will not be a deterent to increased production,
and that seed as an input is used to fullest advantage.


5. Be responsible for that part of the national seed program assigned to ICTA.


Until the national seed policy and program is further developed, the ICTA seed program
is doing all possible to assure adequate amounts of the best known varieties for use within the
areas of concentration of ICTA, and collaborating with other agencies, such as DIGESA, in the
manner which is deemed most logical



DISCIPLINES


Areas of work, which are not commodities, but deemed important for agricultural
production, are not considered national programs, but as activities or disciplines oriented around
one or more national commodity programs or the projects for testing technology. In some cases,
the technician is assigned directly to a commodity program and there is no national coordinator
for that discipline. In other cases there is a national coordinator for a discipline. Soil
management and socio-economics are two examples of the latter case.






- 39 -


ICTA is aware of the great importance of high capacity and capability in certain
disciplines ICTA as a technological institute must be responsible for bringing to bear upon
production technology the knowledge and knowhow which is most important, both those
disciples which are considered specifically agronomic and others as well such as the social
sciences. In Diagram III, under the Unidad T6cnica de Producci6n, these areas or disciplines
are written vertically while the national commodity programs are written horizontally


The disciplines of socio-economics are the newest but the most developed of the
non-agronomic disciplines. The work of the group is integrated with the agronomic groups.
The interest of ICTA in the social sciences is based on their possible contributions to the
efficiency and effectiveness of agricultural production. The work of the social science group is
focused upon:



1. The micro economics of the systems presently m use by the small farmer;


2. An analytic function to assure that the recommended practices are ecomically
favorable for the farmer;


3. Detecting and identifying the desires and needs of the small farmer with the
objective of making the research more efficient and the transfer of technology to
the farmer more effective.


4. Contributing to the feedback of information from the field to the commodity
programs and to the administration, and


5. Participating m the evaluation of the institutional projects.


Other possible disciplines should be included when the possibilities of their
contributions are sufficient to justify them.







- 40 -


PROJECTS FOR TESTING TECHNOLOGY


ICTA area projects. The need for ICTA to be directly involved at the farm level was
set forth in the section of this report on Strategy, Philosophy and Objetives. Early in the
organization of ICTA three areas were selected where ICTA would concentrate work with
farmers. These consist of three geographical areas, each different in their ecology and the ethnic
groups of their populations.

In each of the three areas, target crops were selected. The plan is to work with these
crops according to the farming systems of the area. The work would be a direct extension of
the work of the national commodity programs.

Areas Target crops
Highlands, around Quezaltenango, Maize and wheat. Secondary crops
covering about 8,000 hectares with are beans, potatoes, and other
perhaps 15,000 families, commonly grown in the region.

Pacific Coastal plain at La MAquina, Maize. Secondary crops are sesame,
covering an area of 24,000 hectares rice, cowpea, soybeans.
with 1,200 families.

Eastern Guatemala, around Jutiapa, Beans, sorghum and maize. Secondary
the area is large, perhaps 100,000 crop is rice.
hectares.


This field work was started by the national commodity programs, but in order to cover
greater areas, intensify the work by increasing the number of farm experiments and farmer's test
and assure that the target crop were being tested under farmer's conditions, all the work in each
of the three areas were put under the direction of a Coordinator. The purpose of this
arrangement is to bring about greater participation of technicians, that have a direct relationship
with commodity programs, in the field testing and also assure the reflection of the results of the
field work in the commodity program efforts.


The location of these three Projects for Testing Technology are indicated on Map II.
Maps III, IV and V show more details of the areas of the three projects.







-- 41 -


Summary of work in the three Pojects for Testing Technology 1975

EASTERN GUATEMALA


Kind of Trial Farm Experiments Farmer's Trials

Maize 20

Varieties 12
Nitrogen 12
Density 7
Weed effect 3
Date of seeding 4
Insect control foliage 3
Insect control soil 7

SUB-TOTAL 48 20

Beans 8

Varieties 7
Nitrogen 6
Density 6
Weed effect 3
Date of seeding 3
Insect control soil 6
Rice on Chicaj soil 2 3
Soybeans 15
Cowpea 2







- 42 -


Kind of Trial Fe rm Experiments Farmer's Trials Total

Sorghum -- 1

SUB-TOTAL 33 29 --

TOTALS 81 49 130


HIGHLANDS

Maize 34 20

Wheat 17 35

Potatoes 3 1.0 ..

TOTALS 54 65 119


PACIFIC COAST

Agronomic Practices 94
Maize 96

Cowpea 24

Rice 48

Sesame 48

Soybeans --- 24 -

TOTALS 94 240 334






MAP I)


Project for Testin* Techology


REGIONALIZACION
SECTOR PUBLIC AGRICOLA
CENTROS DE PRODUCTION ICTA


ICTA
INSTITUTE DE CIENCIAY TECNLOGIA
AGRICOLAS
Sector Publico Agricolo Guotemolo,julio 1975
CENTROS DE PRODUCTION
A LABOR OMALLE F SAN JERONIMO
8 LA MAQUINA G JUTIAPA
C NUEVA CONCEPCION H EL OASIS
0 CHIMALTENANGO I IZABAL
E CUYUTA






Map .V.Eastern Project for Testing Technology 1975


AREAS DE ACCION SUR ORIENTE- REGION =E
Area cubierta por el Equipo de Produccion del ICTA en Jutiapa
Superfide cubierta 120,000 Has.


Note: The numbers beside the symbols
indicate the number of farmer's trials
in each area.


MUNICIPIOS 8 CABECERA DEPARTMENTAL
I JUTIAPA CABECERA MUNICIPAL
2EL PROGRESS
3 SANTA CATARINA MITA ENSAYOS EN MAIZ
4AGUA. BLANCA
5 ASU"CION MITA ENSAYOS ENFRIJOL
6ATECYLATEMPA U [ PARCELAS PRUEBA EN MAIZ
JERYUPILEZ PARCELAPEUE P A FIJOL 0 SOYA
8 JEREZ ] PARCELAS PRUEBA FRIJOL 0 O0YA












































Work in the Pacific Coast


"Different strategies in the testing and transfer of technology, as well as studies to evaluate
economic feasability, are used by ICTA at La Maquina, over an area of 24,000 hectares",
is explained by Ing. Carlos Crisostomo, Head of the Team on the Pacific Coast.




























Pacific Coa


Project for


Technology


stal Plain


Testing /


- 1975



'--- / /0 -












,O '
w -aft*l* -














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ep m


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RMUTO DE CENOA Y TECNOLOGLA AGR40LAS


SbcO ECONOMIC*

PROYECTO SE-7-75



C= aWTmOS BE FR CA
PAACCLAS OC PAUIE
'C- W EXPERIMENTOS WE


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Farming Systems are being studied in the Highlands


Farmers in the cool climates use many unique farming practices to assure the food supply
with a minimum of risk. ICTA technicians headquartered at the Center of Labor Ovalle look
for productive innovations and alternatives.






MAP III

AREA DE ACCION ALTIPLANO-REGION I
Area cubierta por el Equipo de Produccidn de ICTA en Quezbt4enango


Superficie cubierta


8,000 Has.


EnX


UNIDAD DE PROGRAMACION- Agosto 75 )


REFERENCIAS
0- CABECERA DEPARTMENTAL
O CABECERA MUNICIPAL
* ENSAYOS EN MAIZ
-=.- PARCELA DE PRUEBA EN MAIZ
7 EXPERIMENT DE PAPA
- PARCELA DE PRUEBA DE PAPA
X EXPERIMENT DE TRIGO
S_ PARCELA PRUEBA DE TRIGO






- 43 -


ICTA is also collaborating with two privately organized groups, for testing and transfer
of technology.


These two groups are World Neighbors at San Martin Jilotepeque and the Cooperativa
Santa Lucia at Novillero (Map VI),


ICTA was seeking rural groups already organized, that were interested in using new
technology, that could receive information and materials and test it with farmers, with the
objectives of improving small farmer production. The other aspect was that the group would
require practically no supervision.


The World Neighbor group works in an area of 12 communities with perhaps 1,200 or
1,500 families. World Neighbors has named a Perito Agr6nomo who heads the agricultural
activities. He has one bilingual helper, and three farmer "extension agents" (barefoot
agronomists) who work with farmers testing varieties and agronomic practices and through
conferences. ICTA is paying the three farmers, not to work for ICTA, but to work with World
Neighbors. A recent preliminary evaluation of this project by the ICTA Socioeconomic group
carries the following information: (11)


FARMER'S TRIALS 1975


Wenceslao Armira

Jos6 Cupertino Sunuc

Angel Marfa Moreno


TOTAL


Potatoes Corn Wheat Beans Soybeans
25 30 2

5 1 32 15 2

8 25 12 1

13 1 82 57 5








- 44-


Comparisons of average yields with traditional technology and introduced technology


Previous New Increase in
Technology Technology o/o


Corn 24 qq/mz 56 qq/mz 133

Beans 18 qq/mz 36 qq/mz 100

Wheat very few was 33 qq/mz
seeded

Potatoes nothing was 360 qq/mz
seeded
Source: Evaluation test of the Socioeconomic group of ICTA. July 1975. (11)


The Cooperative Santa Lucia is considered a progressive and successful organization with
1,200 families as members. The recent evaluation report of the ICTA Socio-Economics group
presents the following information:


Farmer's Trials 1974-1975


Maize


Wheat


1974 20 15


1975


Recently ICTA has agreed to pay two farmers to work with the Perito Agr6nomo.






















*~r\ 4g 'r-. ~;k --L 'b~:


New strategy of action:


A local leader of the World Neighbors Program, trained by ICTA, transmits his recent
experiences to a group of farmers at San Martin Jilotepeque. This dynamic of group has
been used with success in the transfer of technology.








MAP VI Collaboration with privately orgamzed rural groups.


REGIONALIZACION
SECTOR PUBLIC AGRICOLA
CENTROS DE PRODUCTION ICTA


ICTA
INSTITUTE DE CIENCIA Y TECNOLOGIA
AGRICOLAS
Sector Publico Agricola Guotemolo,julio 1975
CENTROS DE PRODUCTION
A LABOR OVALLE F.- SAN JERONIMO
B LA MAQUINA G JUTIAPA
C- NUEVA CONCEPCION H EL OASIS
D CHIMALTENANGO I IZABAL
E CUYUTA. .







- 45 -


Comparisons of average yields with traditional technology and new technology.



Previous New Increase
Technology Technology in o/o

Corn 21 qq/mz 46qq/mz 104
Wheat 19 qq/mz 41 qq/mz 114
Potatoes 300 qq/mz 450 qq/mz 50
Source: Evaluation test of the Socieconomic group of ICTA. (10) July 1975.


Based on the results of the 15 farmers' testswith wheat in 1974, the Cooperativa Santa
Lucia requested 5 tons of seed of the new variety "Gloria".


The evaluation of these two projects is highly favorable, and we may be setting a pattern
for an effective system of transfer of technology, specially for the highlands of Guatemala.


At the present time, ICTA has requests from
programs.


additional organizations for similar


Summary of Technological Testing on Farms, 1975*


Group Farm Experiments Farm Trials Total
Eastern Guatemala 81 49 130
Highlands 54 65 119
Pacific Coast 94 240 334
World Neighbors -- 158 158
Cooperativa Santa Lucia 50 50
229 562 791

* Does not include trials by national commodity programs.






- 46 -


WHAT, WHERE, WHEN, AND HOW?


As this report is terminated, it is recognized that ICTA has not been fully described.
In other words, the description is not complete.


The technical activities of ICTA, the backbone of the institute, have been given short
treatment. But there are annual technical reports, and these will continue to be published.


The administration, the small library, publications, information, communications and
public relations, have not even been mentioned. Relations with other organizations of the sector
are highly important, as well as with the university, and with other institutes of Central America
and those have not been treated here. All of these, and more, are important. Some are poorly
developed and need attention, while others are being developed with interesting characteristics.
They are not forgotten.


The errors that have been made, the slippage so to speak, could be discussed, along
with a series of topics whose list alone is almost too long to be included here, not to mention
discussing them. Such things as budgets, purchasing and sales, flexibility of administration; the
logistics of transportation, gasoline and fertilizer; personnel policy and salaries; the coordination
of national commodity programs with regional activities and decentralization; the development
of physical facilities; the need for objective evaluation, and many more are subjects important.


The attempt here has been to present the sequence of events that led to the organization
of ICTA as an official technological organization to increase food production in Guatemala, the
policy and philosophy which has been developed, and a general description of the current
activities of the institute.


It has not been the purpose of this report to discuss future programs. The institute
during its first two years of operation has established a pattern which can serve as a solid base
for future programs. The programs for 1976 have been written and a first draft of a five-year








47 -



plan 1976-1980, is well advanced, to be presented to the board of directors of ICTA in

September, 1975. ICTA is preparing this document with the belief that the basic approach or

developing technology to serve farmers, and testing the technology on farms that represent the

true conditions of production under which the small and medium sized farmer in Guatemala

labors, is a good one. With the objectives of reaching a large number of farmers, ICTA must

expand its activities and/or extend the work through other organizations.







-48-


REFERENCES


(1) Appraisal of Fertilizer Markets & Distribution Systems in Central America with Emphasis
on Small Farmers. Prepared for the Agency for International Development by John T.
Shields, Curtis L. Ahrens & H.B. Tatum. National Fertilizer Development Center, Muscle
Shoals, Alabama 35660.

(2) II Censo Agropecuario 1964. Direcci6n General de Estadistica. Guatemala. Adapted by
Hugo Soto, Unidad de Programaci6n, ICTA.

(3) Acciones 1970-1974. Sector Publico Agricola. Ministerio de Agricultura, 1974.
Guatemala.

(4) Crorologia de Eventos para la Estructuraci6n del Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnologa
Agrpolas. Presentada en la primer reuni6n de la Junta Directiva, Diciembre de 197w.
Archivos ICTA.

(5) Grupo de Trabajo para la Creaci6n del Instituto Guatemalteco de Investigaci6n y
Proroci6n Agricola, Enero 1971.

(6) Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnologia Agricolas (Grupo de Trabajo II), Mayo 1971.

(7) Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnologia Agricolas (Grupo de Trabajo III), Junio 1971.

(8) Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnologia Agricolas ICTA. Proyecto de Establecimiento del
Institute. (Grupo de Trabajo IV)

(9) Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnologia Agricolas (Grupo de Trabajo V), Marzo 1974.

(10) II Censo Agropecuario 1964. Recopilado por Hugo Soto, Unidad de Programaci6n,
ICTA.

(11) Evaluaci6n del Trabajo del Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnologia Agricolas en la Cooperativa
Santa Lucia R.L., Departamento de Solola y con el Programa de Vecinos Mundiales,
Departamento de Chimaltenango, Socioeconomia Rural, ICTA, Agosto 1975.

(12) Atlas Nacional de Guatemala. Institute Geogrifico Nacional. Ministerio de
Comunicaciones y Obras PRblicas, Guatemala.































ANNEXES














BECADOS ESTUDIANDO FUERA


GUILLERMO CALDERON:


WERNER SCHMOOCK:




RAMIRO ORTIZ:


GILBERTO SANTAMARIA.


RICARDO DEL VALLE:


Curso Comercialzaci6n Internacional, Brasil
Abril 2-Agosto 2, 1975 (OEA)

Suelos, Chapingo, M.S.
Agosto 1973-Enero 1975 (FR)
Actualmente se encuentra realizando la labor de
tesis en Guatemala.

Suelos, Chapingo, M.S.
Febrero 1975-Febrero 1976 (FR)

Economia Agricola, ICA/Colombia, M.S.
Enero 1973-Junio 1975 (AID/ICTA)


Entrenamiento Tecnico, CIAT
Enero Abril 1975 (CIAT)


3 meses -


ROLANDO LARA:


CARLOS HERNANDEZ CAMPOLLO:


DANILO GONZALEZ:


RAUL MATHEU:


OSCAR MARTINEZ:



MARCO A. DARDON:


JUAN FRANCISCO GALVEZ:


CARLOS FIGUEROA:

PORFIRIO MASAYA:


Curso de producci6n, CIAT 7 meses -
Enero Agosto 1975 (ICTA)

Curso de Producci6n, CIAT 7 meses -
Enero Agosto 1975 (ICTA)

Curso de Producci6n, CIAT 7 meses -
Enero- Agosto 1975 (ICTA)

Curso de Producci6n, CIAT 7 meses -
Enero Agosto 1975.

Curso de Producci6n, CIAT
Finaliz6 en 1974, comisionado actualmente para
impartir cursos en CIAT. (CIAT)
Curso de Mejoramiento de Matz
Mayo a Noviembre 1975 (CIMMYT)
Curso de Mejoramiento de Mafz
Mayo a Noviembre 1975 (CIMMYT)
Entrenamiento T6cnico, CIAT 3 meses -
Enero Abril 1975 (CIAT)
Ph. D. Frijol, Cornell
15 Agosto de 1974 (FR)


-50-


ANNEX "A"


AL lo. de JUNIO de 1975







-51-


Al o. de JUNIO de 1975


BECADOS CON STUDIOS TERMINADOS


M.S.


FREDDY ALONZO:
CARLOS 0. ARJONA:
OSCAR PAIZ ALFARO:
GUILLERMO CALDERON:

I.A.
ROBERTO RENE VELASQUEZ:
ROBERTO RODRIGUEZ:

CURSOS CORTOS
ROBERTO FONSECA:
OSCAR A. MARTINEZ:
MARCO MALDONADO:
ALFONSO VELASQUEZ:
RENE CASTAN-EDA:
ROLANDO AGUILERA:
OSCAR LEIVA:
EDGAR RIOS:
SALVADOR CRUZ:
CARLOS ALBUREZ:
FREDDY ALONZO:
RAMIRO PAZOS.
FELIPE DARDON:
EDNA DE MORALES:
VALENTIN AZAION:
MIGUEL A. HIGUEROS:


Entomolga Frijol, Monterrey (FR)
Producci6n Trigo, Chapingo (FR)
Hcrucultura, Puerto Rico (AID)
Administraci6n, INCAE/Nicaragua (AID)



Chapingo (AID)
Chapingo (AID)



Equipo de Producci6n, CIAT (CIAT)
Equipo de Producci6n, CIAT (CIAT/BID)
Equipo de Producci6n, CIAT (CIAT/BID)
Equipo de Producci6n, CIAT (ICTA)
Equipo de Producci6n, CIAT (ICTA)
Frijol, CIAT (CIAT)
Frijol, CIAT (CIAT)
Frijol, CIAT (ICTA)
Trigo, CIMMYT (CIMMYT)
Arroz, CIAT (ICTA)
Entomologia Frijol, CIAT (CIAT)
Producci6n de Arroz, CIAT (ICTA)
Papa, CIP (CIP)
Bibliotecologia, CIAT (ICTA)
Selecci6n de material de trigo, CIMMYT (ICTA)
Fitomejoramiento de Trigo, CIMMYT (ICTA)











ANNEX "B"


PtIIS


PRECIPITATION MEDIA ANNUAL emmm.
Pirfodo: 1931 1960


ILULM










ANNEX "C"


pllfm


TEMPERATURE MEDIA ANNUAL
enl OC


mIlIlC




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