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Group Title: AREC-A research report - Agricultural Research and Education Center - RH-84-17
Title: Use of sewage effluent as an irrigation source for foliage plants
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00066555/00001
 Material Information
Title: Use of sewage effluent as an irrigation source for foliage plants
Series Title: AREC-A research report
Physical Description: 9 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Conover, Charles Albert, 1934-
Poole, R. T ( Richard Turk )
Agricultural Research and Education Center (Apopka, Fla.)
Publisher: University of Florida, IFAS, Agricultural Research and Education Center-Apopka
Place of Publication: Apopka FL
Publication Date: 1984
 Subjects
Subject: Foliage plants -- Irrigation -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Sewage irrigation -- Testing -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: C.A. Conover and R.T. Poole.
General Note: Caption title.
Funding: AREC-Apopka research report ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00066555
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: oclc - 71317020

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Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida









USE OF SEWAGE EFFLUENT AS AN IRRIGATION SOURCE FOR FOLIAGE PLANTS


C.A. Conover and R. T. Poolle
University of Florida, IF S jeil y ..
Agricultural Research and Educat on Cene
AREC-A Research Report RH-8 -17
.F..- Un. of orida

Municipal wastewater treatment plants throughout the country are
generally upgrading facilities into large centralized units that require
disposal of large quantities of water that meet advanced secondary or even
tertiary standards. Florida State Department of Environmental Regulation
rules restrict disposal of effluent water into waterways, and landspreading
has become a more popular disposal method. This is an inefficient disposal
method, since the water is rarely used to produce crops of significant
value.

During 1982-83, a plan was devised by the city of Orlando and Orange
County to deliver up to 25 million gallons of effluent water a day to
citrus growers in Orange and Lake Counties. These growers would either
utilize the water on their trees or place it in rapid infiltration ponds on
their properties.

Foliage producers within the discharge area became concerned about the
potential for infiltration of effluent water into their irrigation systems
and the possibility of plant injury. After consultation with a group
composed of eight foliage plant producers, we decided to determine plant
response to three water sources at two irrigation rates. The plants
selected for testing included those most commonly grown in the area of
concern.

The experiments were initiated March 31, 1983, when liners of
Nephrolepis exaltata 'Bostoniensis', Nephrolepis exaltata 'Bostoniensis
Compacta, Nephrolepis exaltata 'Florida Ruffle', Nephrolepis exaltata
'Rooseveltii' and Epipremnum aureum 'Marble Queen' were potted into 15 cm
diameter tubs containing Vergro Container Mix (a mixture of peat, vermicu-
lite and perlite manu actured by Verlite Company, Tampa, FL) and amended
with 1 lb Micromax/yd Plants were grown in a glass greenhouse under 1500
ft-c with temperatures of 65 F minimum and 90OF maximum and fertilized at
recommended rates of 1200 lb N/A/yr for Nephrolepis and 1500 lb N/A/yr for
Epipremnum (2). Treatments were replicated 5 times and included 3 water
sources, 1) Deionized water (pH 7.2), 2) AREC-Apopka deep well water
(pH 7.3) and 3) Orlando McLeod Road\wastewater treatment plant effluent
water (pH 6.4); and 2 irrigation rates 1) irrigated 2 times/week and 2)
irrigated 4 times/week. At time of potting, plants were watered in with
the appropriate water source and they received this source exclusively
until the end of the experiment.



Professor and Center Director and Professor, Plant Physiology,
AREC-Apopka, respectively.









Plant growth measurements were determined on June 9, 1983 and again on
July 22, 1983, when the experiments were terminated. Data obtained
included plant height, plant width, frond or vine length (average of 2
largest fronds for ferns and 2 largest vines for Epipremnum). Fern runner
production was also determined at the termination of the experiment.

Growth of all plants was rapid and plants were of excellent quality at
experiment termination. Fern height was not influenced by water source at
either date, but increasing the rate of application from 2 to 4 times per
week increased height on all 4 cultivars (Table 1).

Width of ferns was similar to height, in that water source had no
effect, while doubling the rate of application improved width (Table 2).

Measurements of frond length showed no effect of water source except
after 16 weeks on 'Florida Ruffle' where plants watered with effluent water
had shorter fronds than plants watered with deep well water (Table 3).
Increasing the water rate increased frond length on all cultivars except
the 10 week measurement on 'Rooseveltii'.

Several differences were observed in runner production with
'Bostoniensis' and 'Florida Ruffle' plants grown on deionized water having
the fewest runners while the lowest number was shared by deionized water
and effluent water on 'Compacta' (Table 4). Water source had no effect on
runner number of 'Rooseveltii'. Increasing the water rate increased runner
production of all cultivars with increases ranging from 39 to 76%.

Response of 'Marble Queen' to water sources and rates was similar to
responses observed on fern cultivars, with no response to water source and
an increase in vine length with increasing water rate (Table 5).

Data obtained in these experiments indicate that the effluent water
utilized as the irrigation source was not damaging to the 4 fern cultivars
utilized or to Epipremnum. Because a specific effluent water source was
utilized in these experiments, the chemical constituents are listed in
Table 6. The absence of priority pollutants in the wastewater utilized is
fairly typical of effluent from non-industrial areas and should not present
problems for producers. Wastewater utilized was of advanced secondary
quality, but water to be supplied to growers will meet tertiary standards,
which are higher. However, it is possible that other effluent water
sources may be damaging to ferns, depending on source and level of treat-
ment.

Increasing frequency of water application was beneficial to ferns and
Epipremnum. Improvement in growth rate of Nephrolepis has been reported
previously (1), but not with as many cultivars under similar conditions.
These data indicate that improvement in growth and turnover rate can be
achieved by irrigating Boston fern cultivars even when they do not appear
to need water.









Literature Cited


1. Conover, C. A. and
quinquenervia as a
of foliage plants.


R. T. Poole. 1983. Utilization of Melaleuca
potting medium component for greenhouse production
HortScience 18:886-888.


2. Conover, C. A. and R. T. Poole. 1981. Light and fertilizer
recommendations for production of acclimatized potted foliage plants.
Univ. of Fla., IFAS, ARC-Apopka Research Report RH-81-1.





Table 1. Height (cm) of Nephrolepis exaltata cultivars grown using
different water sources and rates.

Cultivars


Bostoniensis Compacta Florida Ruffle Rooseveltii

Treatment 10 wks 16 wks 10 wks 16 wks 10 wks 16 wks 10 wks 16 wks


Water source

Deionized 38.0az 42.3a 29.6a 34.0a 32.3a 41.0a 37.3a 46.5a
Deep well 38.8a 42.1a 30.2a 33.1a 34.8a 41.5a 35.1a 46.0a
Sewage effluent 35.8a 42.4a 31.9a 34.7a 32.4a 39.3a 34.2a 43.8a

Water rate

2 times/wk 35.8a 39.4a 28.4a 32.1a 30.7a 37.5a 33.5a 42.2a
4 times/wk 39.3b 45.1b 32.7b 35.8b 35.6b 43.7b 37.6b 48.7b


ZMean separation within columns and
multiple range test, 5% level.


treatment categories by Duncan's









Table 2. Width (cm) of Nephrolepis exaltata cultivars grown using
different water sources and rates.

Cultivars


Bostoniensis Compacta Florida Ruffle Rooseveltii

Treatment 10 wks 16 wks 10 wks 16 wks 10 wks 16 wks 10 wks 16 wks


Water source

Deionized 56.0az 110.la 44.0a 85.3a 33.1a 79.0a 45.4a 97.5a
Deep well 59.7a 111.4a 46.0a 87.0a 36.9a 82.8a 45.la 103.0a
Sewage effluent 55.9a 104.6a 45.6a 84.2a 34.7a 76.7a 44.3a 95.0a

Water rate

2 times/wk 52.9a 103.5a 42.5a 80.9a 32.7a 75.1a 42.3a 93.2a
4 times/wk 61.5b 113.9b 47.9b 90.1b 37.1b 83.9b 47.5b 103.8b

ZMean separation within columns and treatment categories by Duncan's
multiple range test, 5% level.




Table 3. Average length (cm) of two longest fronds of Nephrolepis exaltata
cultivars grown using different water sources and rates.

Cultivars

Bostoniensis Compacta Florida Ruffle Rooseveltii

Treatment 10 wks 16 wks 10 wks 16 wks 10 wks 16 wks 10 wks 16 wks


Water source

Deionized 52.0az 64.8a 36.3a 48.6a 36.0a 54.4ab 40.6a 65.5a
Deep well 51.4a 69.3a 35.8a 49.3a 39.1a 58.7b 39.4a 66.7a
Sewage effluent 48.7a 62.6a 36.7a 48.8a 36.1a 50.1a 40.4a 61.9a

Water rate

2 times/wk 48.7a 60.8a 33.1a 45.9a 34.1a 51.3a 39.2a 60.5a
4 times/wk 52.6b 70.3b 39.2b 51.9b 40.0b 57.5b 41.0a 68.9b


ZMean separation within columns
multiple range test, 5% level.


and treatment categories by Duncan's









Table 4. Runner production of Nephrolepis exaltata cultivars grown for
16 weeks using different water sources and rates.

Cultivars

Treatment Bostoniensis Compacta Florida Ruffle Rooseveltii


Water source

Deionized 65.2az 39.7a 17.Oa 29.5a
Deep well 75.5b 45.3b 26.0b 26.6a
Sewage effluent 74.5b 39.7a 23.6b 26.la

Water rate

2 times/wk 60.la 30.la 17.7a 20.2a
4 times/wk 83.4b 53.0b 26.7b 34.6b


ZMean separation within columns and treatment categories by Duncan's
multiple range test, 5% level.




Table 5. Average vine length (cm) of Epipremnum aureum 'Marble Queen'
grown using different water sources and rates.

Treatment 10 wks 16 wks


Water source

Deionized 33.3az 99.9a
Deep well 34.8a 97.la
Sewage effluent 37.Oa 100.9a

Water rate

2 times/wk 33.8a 97.la
4 times/wk 36.3b 101.5b


ZMean separation within columns and
multiple range test, 5% level.


treatment categories by Duncan's










Table 6. WATER QUALITY DATA SUMMARY; ORLANDO, FLORIDA
McLEOD ROAD TREATMENT PLANT (March 1983).


(mg/l unless noted)
Mean and standard deviation

Items tested Influent Effluent


1. acenaphthene
2. acrolein
3. acrylonitrile
4. benzene
5. benzidine
6. carbon tetrachloride
tetrachloromethanee)
7. chlorobenzene
8. 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene
9. hexachlorobenzene
10. 1,2-dichloroethane
11. 1,1,1-trichloroethane
12. hexachloroethane
13. 1,1-dichloroethane
14. 1,1,2-trichloroethane
15. 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane
16. chloroethane
17. bis(chloromethyl) ether
18. bis(2-chloroethyl) ether
19. 2-chloroethyl vinyl
Ether (mixed)
20. 2-chlornaphthalene
21. 2,4,6-trichlorophenol
22. parachlorometa cresol
23. chloroform trichloromethanee)
24. 2-chlorophenol
25. 1,2-dichlorobenzene
26. 1,3-dichlorobenzene
27. 1,4-dichlorobenzene
28. 3,3-dichlorobenzidine
29. 1,1-dichloroethylene
30. 1,2-trans-dichloroethylene
31. 2,4-dichlorophenol
32. 1,2-dichloropropane
33. 1,2-dichloropropylene
(1,3 dichloropropene)
34. 2,4-dimethylphenol
35. 2,4-dinitrotoluene
36. 2,6-dinitrotoluene
37. 1,2-diphenylhydrazine
38. ethylbenzene
39. fluoranthene
40. 4-chlorophenyl phenyl ether


0.01
0.100
0.100
0.001
0.01


0.0016
0.001
0.01
0.01
0.001
0.022
0.01
0.0011
0.001
0.0021
0.001
0.01
0.01

0.001
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.013+0.007
0.01
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.01
0.001
0.001
0.01
0.001

0.001
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.001
0.01
0.01


0.01
0.100
0.100
0.001
0.01

0.001
0.001
0.01
0.01
0.001
0.0013
0.01
0.001
0.001
0.0011
0.001
0.01
0.01

0.001
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.017+0.014
0.01
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.01
0.001
0.001
0.01
0.001

0.001
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.001
0.01
0.01









41. 4-bromophenyl phenyl ether < 0.01 < 0.01
42. bis(2-chloroisopropy1) ether < 0.01 < 0.01
43. bis(2-chloroethoxy) methane < 0.01 < 0.01
44. methylene chloride
(dichloromethane) < 0.0039 < 0.001
45. methyl chloride
(chloromethane) < 0.0014 < 0.001
46. methyl bromide
(bromomethane) < 0.001 < 0.001
47. bromoform (tribromomethane) < 0.001 < 0.001
48. dichlorobromomethane < 0.001 < 0.001
49. trichlorofluoromethane < 0.001 < 0.001
50. dichlorodifluoromethane < 0.001 < 0.001
51. chlorodibromomethane < 0.0013 < 0.001
52. hexachlorobutadiene < 0.01 < 0.01
53. hexachlorocyclopentadiene < 0.01 < 0.01
54. isophorone < 0.01 < 0.01
55. naphthalene < 0.01 < 0.01
56. nitrobenzene < 0.01 < 0.01
57. 2-nitrophenol < 0.01 < 0.01
58. 4-nitrophenol < 0.01 < 0.01
59. 2,4-dinitrophenol < 0.011 < 0.01
60. 4,6-dinitro-0-cresol < 0.01 < 0.01
61. N-nitrosodimethylamine < 0.01 < 0.01
62. N-nitrosodiphenylamine < 0.01 < 0.01
63. N-nitrosodi-n-propylamine < 0.01 < 0.01
64. pentachlorophenol < 1.62 < 0.01
65. phenol < 0.010 < 0.015
66. bis(2-ethylhexyl)phythalate < 0.01 < 0.01
67. butyl benzyl phthalate < 0.01 < 0.01
68. di-n-butyl phthalate < 0.01 < 0.01
69. di-n-octyl phthalate < 0.01 < 0.01
70. diethyl phthalate < 0.01 < 0.01
71. dimethyl phthalate < 0.01 < 0.01
72. benzo(a)anthracene
(1,2-benzanthracene) < 0.01 < 0.01
73. benzo(a) pyrene (3,4-
benzopyrene) < 0.01 < 0.01
74. 3,4-benzofluoranthene < 0.01 < 0.01
75. benzo(k)fluoranthane
(11,12-benzofluoranthene) < 0.01 < 0.01
76. chrysene < 0.01 < 0.01
77. acenaphthylene < 0.01 < 0.01
78. anthracene < 0.01 < 0.01
79. benzo(ghi)perylene
(1,12-benzoperylene) < 0.01 < 0.01
80. fluoride < 0.01 < 0.01
81. phenanthrene < 0.01 < 0.01
82. dibenzo(a,h)anthracene
(1,2,5,6-dibenzanthracene) < 0.01 < 0.01
83. indeno (1,2,3-cd)pyrene
(2,3-a-phenylenepyrene) < 0.01 < 0.01
84. pyrene < 0.01 < 0.01
85. tetrachloroethylene < 0.0011 < 0.001


-7-









86.
87.
88.
89.
90.
91.
92.
93.
94.
95.
96.
97.
98.
99.
100.
101.
102.
103.


105. g-BHC-Delta
106. PCB-1242 (Arochlor
107. PCB-1254 (Arochlor
108. PCB-1221 (Arochlor
109. PCB-1232 (Arochlor
110. PCB-1248 (Arochlor
111. PCB-1260 (Arochlor
112. PCB-1016 (Arochlor


113.
114.
115.
116.
117.
118.
119.
120.
121.
122.
123.
124.
125.
126.
127.
128.


toxaphene
antimony (total)
arsenic (total)
asbestos (fibrous)
beryllium (total)
cadmium (total)
chromium (total)
copper (total)
cyanide (total)
lead (total)
mercury (total)
nickel (total)
selenium (total)
silver (total)
thallium (total)
zinc (total)


1242)
1254)
1221)
1232)
1248)
1260)
1016)


129. 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-
dioxin (TCDD)


Barium
Iron
Manganese
2-4-D-Pesticides
2-4-5-T-P Pesticides
Demeteon-Pesticides
Biological Oxygen Demand,
BOD


toluene
trichloroethylene
vinyl chloride (chloroethylene)
aldrin
dieldrin
chlordane
4,4-DDT
4,4-DDE (p.o-DDX)
4,4-DDD (p.p-TDE)
a-endosulfan-Alpha
b-endosulfan-Beta
endosulfan sulfate
endrin
endrin aldehyde
heptachlor
heptachlor epoxide
a-BHC-Alpha
b-BHC-Beta
r-BHC (lindane)-Gamma


0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.01
0.01
N.A.
0.01
0.005
0.021
0.15+0.11
0.028+0.011
0.061
0.00047
0.011
0.005
0.013
0.10
0.013+0.039

0.01
.5
2.77+2.1
0.027+0.013
0.01
0.001
0.001

176.9+55.8


-8-


0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.01
0.01
10 ng/l
0.01
0.005
0.014
0.049
0.026+0.010
0.01
0.0005
0.011
0.005
0.01
0.10
0.057+0.025

0.01
.5
0.46+0.54
0.034+0.029
0.01
0.001
0.001

7.24+5.44


104.


130.
131.
132.
133.
134.
135.
136.









137. Chemical Oxygen Demand,
COD
138. Total Suspended Solids,
TSS
139. Total nitrogen
Total Kjeldahl
Nitrite Nitrogen
Nitrite Nitrogen
Organic Nitrogen
Ammonia Nitrogen
140. Phosphorus
141. Oil and Grease
142. Total Organic Carbon
TOC
143. Turbidity, NTU
144. Color, PCU
145. Foaming Agents, MBAS
146. Chlorophenoxys
147. Specific Conductance
umhos/cm
148. Total Dissolved Solids
149. Total Hardness


150.
151.
152.
153.
154.
155.
156.
157.
158.
159.
160.
161.
162.
163.
164.
165.
166.


pH
Chlorides
Sulfates
Sodium
Calcium
Alkalinity
R 226 p (i/1)
Ra228 p (i/1)
G oss Alpha Activity p (i/1)
Methoxychlor
Magnesium
Carbonate, CO
Bicarbonate, ACO3
Ammonia, NH
Potassium,
Boron, B
Lithium, Li


452.4+105

192.9+226.3
26.8+7.47
24.6+5.9
< 1.36
< 0.01
< 11.14+6.3
14.4+2.07
8.84+4.09
41+5.07

154.4+59.2
92.6+39.2
30+14.14
1.55+0.84
< 0.01

544.3+65.5
348.43+26.1
137.1+8.07
6.9+0.18
59.9+21.9
36.07+25.29
52.79+8.92
39.22+2.6
205.1+12.54
0.37+0.14
< 0.19
1.94+0.91
< 0.001
9.54+1.58
0
205+12.54
14.4+2.07
10.97+1.92
1.27+0.33
< 0.25


44.14+7.73

9.86+6.47
5.25+1.45
2.77+0.8
'2.21+1.49
0.27+0.27
1.9470.75
0.84+0.20
2.21+0.80
0.73+0.30

16.43+6.73
5.4+2.54
13.57+2.44
< 0.081
< 0.01

480.7+58.9
332.3+15.7
131.7+7.25
7.5+0.19
60.97+22.04
43.79+14.42
49.76+7.23
41.49+3.37
129.43+16.11
< 0.19
< 0.19
< 0.86
< 0.001
6.86+1.04
0
129.4+16.11
0.84+0.20
8.91+3.87
0.89+0.06
< 0.25


- .9-




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