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Group Title: AREC-A research report - Agricultural Research and Education Center - RH-84-19
Title: Growth of Calathea Makoyana as influenced by media, fertilizer, and irrigation
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00066553/00001
 Material Information
Title: Growth of Calathea Makoyana as influenced by media, fertilizer, and irrigation
Series Title: AREC-A research report
Physical Description: 6 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Conover, Charles Albert, 1934-
Poole, R. T ( Richard Turk )
Agricultural Research and Education Center (Apopka, Fla.)
Publisher: University of Florida, IFAS, Agricultural Research and Education Center-Apopka
Place of Publication: Apopka FL
Publication Date: 1984
 Subjects
Subject: Calathea -- Growth -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Calathea -- Fertilizers -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Plant growing media -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 3).
Statement of Responsibility: C.A. Conover and R.T. Poole.
General Note: Caption title.
Funding: AREC-Apopka research report ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00066553
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: oclc - 71316853

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HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
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Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida








ri, GROWTH OF CALATHEA MAKOYANA AS INFLUENCED BY MEDIA,
FERTILIZER AND IRRIGATION

C. A. Conover and R. T. Poolel
University of Florida, IFAS "",'-- -
Agricultural Research and Education eenter-Apoppa A '
AREC-A Research Report RH- -19

Calathea makoyana E. Morr (peacock plant) re some mes obsved
with cultural problems that have not been full explained, including
slow growth, chlorosis and necrosis of leaf ma gif.fis -vd1l .s.as.spot-!
ting within leaves. Growth reductions, spottirng-an-necrosis-of-_aleai
margins have been associated with fluoride toxicity and high air temp-
erature (4, 5, 7) and chlorosis has been shown to be related to nitro-
gen source (3), but other cultural problems still exist.

Peacock plant is popular as a potted foliage plant in Europe as
well as in the U.S., and among the calatheas sold at the Aalsmeer auction
is second only to Calathea louisae (1). Several researchers (2, 8) have
examined cultural factors under European conditions for growing Calathea
makoyana and found excellent growth could be obtained in peat, straw
and bark compost. Best growth in bark compost was observed when 2 kg
20-10-15 (slow release fertilizer) was incorporated /m3 (8).

Research in Florida has shown that good quality Calathea makoyana
can be grown in media composed of peat:sand (3:1) or peat:pine bark:
cypress shavings (2:1:1) (6). In the same experiment, 2 irrigations
per week were sufficient for peat:sand while 3 were excessive and re-
duced plant grade. On the other hand, grade improved with increased
irrigation in the peat:pine bark:cypress shavings medium.

The experiments reported in this report were designed to further
examine the effects of medium, fertilization and irrigation on pro-
duction of Calathea makoyana.

Experiment 1. A 2x3x2 factorial experiment was established July
24, 1980 when 12.5 cm pots of Calathea makoyana with 7 to 10 plants
were potted into 20 cm pots. Treatment variables were replicated 5
times and included potting media; peat:sand (3:1) or peat:pine bark:
cypress shavings (2:1:1) by volume, irrigation frequency; 2, 3 or 4
times/week and fertilizer level, 4 or 8 g 14-14-14 Osmocote/pot. 3
Potting media were amended with 4.2 kg dolomite and 1.2 kg Perk/m .
Fertilizer was reapplied as a surface application October 20, 1980 at
the same rates. Plants were grown in a glasshouse at a light level
of 1500 ft-c maximum with a temperature range of 200 to 320C. Plant
height and grade (1 = poor, not salable, 3 = good, salable and 5 =
excellent quality) were determined September 27th and November 29,
1980. Plants grown in 3:1 were taller and had better plant grade


1Professor and Center Director and Professor, Plant Physiology, Agricultural
Research and Education Center, 2807 Binion Road, Apopka, FL 32703,
respectively.








than those in 2:1:1 (Table 1). Potting media interacted with irrigation
frequencies for all height and plant grade measurements, and showed de-
creasing height or plant grade with increased irrigation for the 2:1:1
medium, but not with 3:1. Table 2 is an example of this interaction,
with grades in the 2:1:1 medium as good as 3:1 at 2 irrigations per
week, but lower with 3 or 4 irrigations.

Experiment 2. A 2x3x3 factorial experiment was established Sep-
tember 1, 1980 when 5 to 7 plant divisions of Calathea makoyana were
potted into 15 cm pots. Treatment variables were replicated 5 times
and included potting media; peat:sand (3:1) or peat:pine bark:cypress
shavings (2:1:1); irrigation frequency; 1, 3 or 5 times per week and
S.T.E.M. micronutrient levels of 3 g/l applied as 100 ml 0, 2, (initially
and after 12 weeks) or 4 (initially and then each 6 weeks) times during
the production period. Potting media were amended with 4.2 kg dolomite/
m and 4 g/pot 14-14-14 Osmocote was surface applied at experiment ini-
tiation and 3 months later. Plants were grown in a glasshouse at a
light level of 1500 ft-c maximum with a temperature range of 180C to
32C. Plant grade (same as Expt. 1) and plant color (1 = light green,
3 = medium green and 5 = dark green) were determined March 9, 1981. As
in Experiment 1, plants in 3:1 had a higher plant grade and color grade
was also better than plants in 2:1:1 (Table 3). Potting media inter-
acted with frequency of S.T.E.M. applications, with plant grade in the
3:1 medium improving with an increase in the micronutrient level, while
no change occurred in the 2:1:1 medium (Table 4). Increasing irriga-
tion frequency lowered plant and color grades, but did not interact with
medium as in Experiment 1.

Experiment 3. A 2x2x3 factorial experiment was established March
17, 1981 when 5-7 plant divisions of Calathea makoyana were potted into
15 cm pots. Treatment variables were replicated 5 times and included
potting media; peat:sand (3:1) or peat:pine bark:cypress shavings
(2:1:1), irrigation frequency; 1 or 2 times per week and fertilizer
level, 2.5, 5 or 7.5 g/pot from Osmocote 14-14-14. 'Fertilizer was reapplied
as a surface application June 19, 1981 at the same rates. Potting media
were amended with 4.2 kg dolomite and 1.8 kg Perk/m3. Plants were grown
in a glasshouse at a light level of 1200 ft-c maximum with a temperature
range of 20 to 350C. Plant grade and color grade (same as Expt. 2)
were determined July 19th and September 15, 1981. Plants growing in
(3:1) had higher plant and color grades at 4 and 6 months than plants
growing in (2:1:1) (Table 5). Plant and color grade was similar at 4
and 6 months with 1 irrigation per week and at 4 months with 2 irrigations
per week, but grades were lower at 6 months when irrigated twice weekly.
Plants were graded one month after applying slow release fertilizer at
4 months, but 3 months after fertilizer application at 6 months, which
probably accounts for lowered grades due to the higher irrigation level
and increased leaching.








Summary

Highest quality Calathea makoyana were produced in the peat:sand
(3:1) potting medium in all three experiments. Based on previous re-
search (6), we have found that the 3:1 medium has higher water holding
and cation exchange capacities and lower non-capillary pore space than
the peat:pine bark:cypress shavings (2:1:1) medium. Thus, the 3:1 me-
dium is more retentive of nutrients and holds more water than the 2:1:1
medium, and this is apparently needed by Calathea. Depending on season,
1, 2 or 3 irrigations per week are adequate for production of high qual-
ity plants, with the higher frequency needed during spring and summer.
Use of S.T.E.M. was more efficient when applied to the 3:1 medium,
probably because it was held better against leaching and thus more a-
vailable to plants. Higher levels of fertilizer produced better plant
and color grades, and based on this and previous research (3, 4), we
would recommend a fertilizer level of 1500 to 1800 lb N/A/yr (3.0 to 3.5
lb N/1000 ft2/month) plus micronutrients.

LITERATURE CITED

1. Anonymous. 1981. Statistische overzichten snijbloemerr potplanten.
Verenigde Bloemenveilingen Aalsmeer W. A.

2. Beel, E. and A. Schelstraete. 1979. The culture of and fertilizer
trials on Calathea makoyana. Verbondsnieiws voor de Belgische
Sierteelt 23:765-768.

3. Conover, C. A. and R. T. Poole. 1982. Influence of nitrogen source
on growth and tissue nutrient content of three foliage plants. Proc.
Fla. State Hort. Soc. 95:151-153.

4. Conover, C. A. and R. T. Poole. 1984. Relationships of dolomite
and superphosphate to production of Calathea. Univ. of Fla., IFAS,
Agric. Res. and Ed. Center-Apopka, Research Report 84-16.

5. Poole, R. T. and C. A. Conover. 1976. Fluoride and foliage. Univ.
of Fla., IFAS, Agric. Res. Center-Apopka, Research Report RH-76-2.

6. Poole, R. T. and C. A. Conover. 1979. Melaleuca bark and solite
as potential potting ingredients for foliage plants. Proc. Fla.
State Hort. Soc. 92:327-329.

7. Poole, R. T. and C. A. Conover. 1981. Influence of maximum air
temperatures and irrigation frequencies during high temperature
periods on growth of four foliage plants. HortScience 16:556-557.

8. Verdonck, L. F. and I. Cappaert. 1978. Growth experiments with
bark compost. Acta Horticulturae 82:55-57.







Table 1. Influence of media, irrigation, and fertilization
makoyana (Expt. 1).


on Calathea


Ht (cm) Plant grade
Treatments 2 mo. 4 mo. 2 mo. 4 mo.

Potting media
Peat:sand (3:1) 43.7 46.0 4.7 4.5
Peat:pine bark:
cypress shavings
(2:1:1) 39.5 42.5 3.8 3.7
Irrigations (per week)
2 40.7 43.4 4.5 4.6
3 42.7 44.8 4.1 4.1
4 41.4 44.5 4.1 3.7
Fertilizer (g/pot 14-14-14 Osmocote)
4 41.3 43.0 4.2 4.0
8 42.0 45.5 4.2 4.2
Significant effectsy
Potting media ** ** ** **
Irrigations NS NS L* L**
Fertilizer NS NS NS NS
Potting media x Irrigations ** **
z1 = poor, not salable, 3 = good, salable, 5 = excellent quality.
YSignificant at 1% (**) or 5% (*) levels, no significance (NS); and
linear (L) or quadratic (Q) for irrigation level.



Table 2. Interaction of potting media times number of irrigations
after 4 months on plant gradeY of Calathea makoyana (Expt. 1).

Potting media Irrigation level (no./wk)
2 3 4
Peat:sand (3:1) 4.7 4.5 4.4
Peat:pine bark:cypress shavings
(2:1:1) 4.4 3.6 3.1
ZSignificant at 1% level.
Y1 = poor, not salable, 3 = good, salable and 5 = excellent quality.








Table 3. Influence of media, irrigation, and fertilization
on growth of Calathea makoyana (Expt. 2).

Plants Colory
Treatments grade grade
Potting media
Peat:sand (3:1) 3.5 3.6
Peat:pine bark:cypress shavings
(2:1:1) 3.0 2.9
Irrigations (per week)
1 3.8 3.8
3 3.0 3.0
5 3.0 2.9
S.T.E.M. applications (per experiment)
0 2.8 3.1
2 2.6 3.4
4 3.4 3.4
Significant effects
Potting media ** **
Irrigations L** L*Q**
S.T.E.M. L**Q** L*
Potting media x S.T.E.M. ** **
Z1 = poor, not salable, 3 = good, salable, 5 = excellent
quality.
Y1 = light green, 3 = moderate green, 5 = dark green color.
XSignificant at the 1%(**), or 5% (*) levels, no significance
(NS); and linear (L) or quadratic (Q) for irrigation and
S.T.E.M. levels.


Table 4. Interaction of potting media times number of S.T.E.M.
applications on plant gradeY of Calathea makoyana (Expt. 2).

Potting media No. S.T.E.M. applications
0 2 4
Peat:sand (3:1) 2.7 4.0 3.8
Peat:pine bark:cypress shavings
(2:1:1) 3.0 3.1 2.9
ZSignificant at 1% level.


Y1 = poor, not salable, 3 = good, salable
quality.


and 5 = excellent







Influence of media, irrigation, and
of Calathea makoyana (Expt. 3).


fertilization on


Plant grade Color gradey
Treatments 4 mo 6 mo 4 mo 6 mo
Potting media
Peat:sand (3:1) 4.2 3.9 4.3 3.8
Peat:pine bark:cypress
shavings (2:1:1) 3.5 3.0 3.5 3.0
Irrigations (per wk)
1 3.8 3.7 3.8 3.7
2 3.9 3.2 3.9 3.1
Fertilizer (g 14-14-14/
Osmocote 15 cm pot)
2.5 3.4 2.8 3.4 3.0
5.0 4.0 3.5 4.1 3.3
7.5 4.2 4.2 4.2 3.9
Significant effects
Potting media ** ** ** **
Irrigations NS ** NS **
Fertilizer L** L** L** L**


z1 = poor, not salable,
quality.


3 = good, salable, 5 = excellent


Y1 = light green, 3 = moderate green, 5 = dark green color.
XSignificant at 1% (**) or 5% (*) levels, no significance
(NS); and linear (L) or quadratic (Q) for fertilizer level.


Table 5.
growth




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