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Group Title: AREC-Apopka research report - Agricultural Research and Education Center - RH-84-22
Title: Using water to reduce low temperature damage to cut foliage crops
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00066539/00001
 Material Information
Title: Using water to reduce low temperature damage to cut foliage crops
Series Title: AREC-Apopka research report
Physical Description: 3 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Stamps, R. H ( Robert Huguenor ), 1948-
Agricultrual Research and Education Center (Apopka, Fla.)
Publisher: University of Florida, IFAS, Agricultural Research and Education Center-Apopka
Place of Publication: Apopka FL
Publication Date: 1984
 Subjects
Subject: Cut foliage -- Postharvest technology -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Foliage plants -- Effect of cold on -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 3).
Statement of Responsibility: Robert H. Stamps.
General Note: Caption title.
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00066539
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: oclc - 71313809

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HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida




S, 0




USING WATER TO REDUCE LOW TEMPERATURE DAMAGE TO CUT FOLIAGE CROPS

Robert H. Stamps1
University of Florida, IFAS
Agricultural Resear- -t Center
AREC-Apo kaRifh ade-e'aA.!lp^. 8 -22


Shipments of Florida gro n cut foliage have been increasing at a rate
of about 15% per year for th ILaSt8 years and in 19 3 the unofficial
wholesale crop value was est Mti t a eeflarid' ion (2). The industry
is centered around Pierson, Florida, wh e eth--m a rop grown is
leatherleaf fern. Leatherleaf fern, as well as most of the other cut
foliage crops grown in Florida, can be damaged by the low temperatures
normally occurring in central Florida during the winter. During the early
1960's, University of Florida climatologist John Gerber and agricultural
engineer Dalton Harrison experimented with using sprinkler irrigation to
protect citrus from cold damage (3). Gerber and Harrison found that a
water application rate of 0.10"/hr was effective when temperatures were
26.5-27.70F and wind speeds were less than 1 mph, but that application rate
was ineffective and even harmful when temperatures were lower and wind
speeds were higher. Meteorologist Rollo Dean determined that sprinklers
applying 0.29" of water/hr were effective in prevention of freeze damage to
"fern", Asparagus setaceus 'Nanus' (1) and by the mid 1960's most of the
cut foliage acreage equipped with overhead irrigation was being cold
protected using water.
HEATING WITH WATER
Most cut foliage growers in Florida still use water as the heat source
to reduce plant damage caused by low temperatures. As water cools to 320F,
8.3 BTU*/OF/gal of water is released. When 320F water freezes to ice an
additional 1200 BTU/gal is released. The total amount of heat released
depends on the initial water temperature, the amount of water that is
applied and the amount of water that freezes. As long as the plants are
covered with the freezing ice-water mixture, their temperature will remain
near freezing.
HEAT LOSS

Heat is lost by conduction, convection, radiation and evaporation.
Evaporation consumes about 7.5 times as much heat as is liberated by
freezing (6) so inadequate water application rates can actually increase
cold damage. Entire crops may be lost if there is a power or pump failure
while using irrigation for cold protection. Since most cut foliage crops
are grown under polypropylene shade fabric or natural shade sources such as
trees, cut foliage growers can have reduced heat losses compared to growers
of full sun crops such as strawberries and citrus. Heat losses can be
decreased further by reducing air movement using windbreaks and sealing
shade fabric using ice, sprays or plastic liners. Water application rates
necessary for cold protection increase as wind speed increases (4).

*A BTU, British Thermal Unit, is defined as the heat required to raise 1 lb
of water 10F.

Assistant Professor of Ornamental Horticulture, Agricultural Research and
Education Center, 2807 Binion Road, Apopka, FL 32703.








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application rates which could thereby decrease soil erosion, incidence of
root rots, and leaching of fertilizers and pesticides (5,7). Since cut
foliage irrigation systems are designed primarily for freeze protection,
reductions in application rates for cold protection would reduce irrigation
system materials and operations costs. Reduced application rates would
also mean reduced ground water withdrawals which could reduce effects on
sinkhole development and salt water intrusion into the Floridan aquifer
(8).
LITERATURE CITED

1. Dean, R. H. 1966. Use of water sprinklers to protect fern against
freeze damage. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 79:420-424.

2. Fieser, S. and E. F. Scarborough. 1984. Marketing Florida ornamental
crops, fresh flowers and ferns, summary 1982-83 season. Federal-State
Market News Service. (In press).

3. Gerber, J. F. and D. S. Harrison. 1964. Sprinkler irrigation for
cold protection of citrus. Trans. of the ASAE, 7(4):464-468.

4. Gerber J. F. and J. D. Martsolf. 1965. Protecting citrus from cold
damage. Univ. Florida, Ag. Ext. Serv., Cir. 287.

5. Harrison, D. S. and C. A. Conover. 1970. Irrigation of leatherleaf
and plumosus ferns. Univ. Florida, Inst. Food Agr. Sci. Agr. Eng.
Mimeo Rep. 70-7. 5 pp.

6. Harrison, D. S., J. F. Gerber, and R. E. Choate. 1971. Sprinkler
irrigation for cold protection. Univ. Florida, Inst. Food Agr. Sci.,
Cir. 348. 19 pp.

7. Leary, P. L. 1982. Investigation of fern water use in southeast
Putnam County, Fl. St. Johns River Water Management District, Water
Resources Dept. Tech. Memo. No. 5. 9 pp.

8. Ross, F. W. 1980. Effects on the Floridan aquifer of ground water
withdrawals for fernery freeze protection southeast Putnam County, Fl.
St. Johns River Water Management District, Water Resources Dept. Tech.
Rep. No. 8. 34 pp.

9. Stamps, R. H. and A. R. Chase. 1981. Protecting leatherleaf fern
from cold damage winter 1980-81. Univ. Florida, Inst. Food Agr.
Sci. Agr. Res. Center, Apopka, Res. Rep. RH-81-10. 7 pp.

10. Stamps, R. H. and D. D. Mathur. 1982. Reduced water application
rates and cold protection of leatherleaf fern. Proc. Fla. State Hort.
Soc. 95:153-155.

11. Wheaton, R. Z. and E. P. Kidder. 1965. The effect of frequency of
application on frost protection by sprinkling. Quarterly J. Mich.
State Univ., Agr. Expt. Sta. 47:439-445.




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