• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Copyright
 Light and production under...
 Production under sun and conversion...
 Soluble salts, microelements, and...
 Fertilizer ratios and fertilizer...
 Fertilizer sources
 Fertilizer application frequency...
 Table 1: Suggested light and nutritional...
 Table 2: Approximate amount of...
 Table 3: Suggested annual application...
 Table 4: Analysis and pH characteristics...
 Table 5: Amounts of 9-3-6 fertilizer...
 Table 6: Amounts of 20-20-20 fertilizer...
 Table 7: Amounts of 14-14-14 Osmocote...
 Table 8: Amounts of 19-6-12 Osmocote...






Group Title: ARC-A research report - Agricultural Research and Education Center - RH-1984-7
Title: Light and fertilizer recommendations for production of acclimatized potted foliage plants
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00066524/00001
 Material Information
Title: Light and fertilizer recommendations for production of acclimatized potted foliage plants
Series Title: ARC-A research report
Physical Description: 11 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Conover, Charles Albert, 1934-
Poole, R. T ( Richard Turk )
Agricultural Research Center (Apopka, Fla.)
Publisher: University of Florida, IFAS, Agricultural Research Center-Apopka
Place of Publication: Apopka FL
Publication Date: 1984
 Subjects
Subject: Foliage plants -- Effect of light on -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Foliage plants -- Fertilizers -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Acclimatization (Plants) -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Plants, Potted -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: C.A. Conover and R.T. Poole.
General Note: Caption title.
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00066524
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: oclc - 71302361

Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Light and production under shade
        Page 1
    Production under sun and conversion under shade - Nutrition
        Page 2
    Soluble salts, microelements, and superphosphate
        Page 3
    Fertilizer ratios and fertilizer levels
        Page 4
    Fertilizer sources
        Page 5
    Fertilizer application frequency and fertilizer rates
        Page 6
    Table 1: Suggested light and nutritional levels for production of some potted acclimatized foliage plants
        Page 7
    Table 2: Approximate amount of materials required to change pH of potting mixtures
        Page 8
    Table 3: Suggested annual application rates of micronutrients for foliage plants
        Page 8
    Table 4: Analysis and pH characteristics of some common fertilizer materials
        Page 9
    Table 5: Amounts of 9-3-6 fertilizer to use to supply suggested fertilizer levels for specific crops (see Table 3)
        Page 9
    Table 6: Amounts of 20-20-20 fertilizer to use to supply suggested fertilizer levels for specific crops (see Table 3)
        Page 10
    Table 7: Amounts of 14-14-14 Osmocote to use to supply suggested fertilizer levels in various sized pots for specific crops (see Table 3)
        Page 10
    Table 8: Amounts of 19-6-12 Osmocote to use to supply suggested fertilizer levels in various sized pots for specific crops (see Table 3)
        Page 11
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida







LIGHT AND FERTILIZER RECOMMENDATIONS
& FOR PRODUCTION OF ACCLIMATIZED POTTED FOLIAGE PLANTS

C. A. Conover and R. T. Pool .7. -
University of Florida, IFAS ,i
Agricultural Research Center A opka
ARC-A Research Report RH-84- ju, 24 i

Acclimatized foliage plants have become the standard -d -the f "Florid
industry and have increased consumer acceptance ofL-iteri-or-pDlants-with -'
their increased tolerance of interior environments. Although numerous
factors influence acclimatization, the most important factor during
production of foliage plants are light intensity and fertilization level.

LIGHT

Light acclimatization is not beneficial to all plants because
physiological responses to light can be divided into three categories.
The first includes extreme shade plants, those that must have moderate to
heavy shade to produce attractive plants and cannot be acclimatized to
high light. Examples of these plants include Aglaonema, Maranta and
Spathiphyllum. The second category includes extreme light plants, those
that must have high light to grow and cannot be acclimatized to low
light. For the most part, none of these plants are used in the foliage
industry, but would include plants such as pine trees or flowering annuals
that require full sun to bloom profusely. The last category includes
plants termed sun-shade, which means they can adapt or be acclimatized
to a wide range of light intensities. Examples of these plants include
Ficus, Dracaena, and Sansevieria, and it is within this group we find the
greatest application of the light acclimatization process.

Research has shown that foliage plants can be light acclimatized in
two ways: 1) plants can be grown under a specific shade level for their
entire production period, or 2) they can be grown under high light or even
full sun, and then converted to low light at some period during production.
Extreme shade plants must always be grown under shade, while sun-shade
plants can be grown with either system.

PRODUCTION UNDER SHADE

Foliage plants grown under suggested shade levels from propagation to
finishing are the most highly light acclimatized. This system is the
normal production system for most foliage plants and yields plants with
low light compensation points, good color and an open form that allows the
most efficient use of available light. Excellent quality acclimatized
foliage plants can be produced by using the light intensity recommendations
in Table 1, which will produce plants with greatest interior longevity and
consumer satisfaction.

Professor and Center Director and Professor, Plant Physiology, respectively,
Agricultural Research Center, 2807 Binion Road, Apopka, Florida 32703.








PRODUCTION UNDER SUN AND CONVERSION UNDER SHADE


Some foliage plants grow rapidly in full sun and produce a form that
is considered more acceptable aesthetically by some producers and
interiorscapers. The main example would be Ficus cultivars which produce
heavier caliper trunks and more compact crowns in full sun. Many consumers
also prefer the shape of Araucaria and Brassaia grown in full sun. Other
genera used for interiors that are sometimes grown in full sun include
Chamaedorea, Chrvsalidocarpus, Dracaena, Sansevieria, Yucca and others.
Time necessary to achieve sun-shade conversion depends on cultivar, plant
size and method of production. Small plants grown in containers are able
to convert much faster than large plants, with large field grown plants
taking longest. However, we suggest shade growing for all plants in 10 inch
(3 gallon) containers and smaller. Larger specialty plants such as
Brassaia and Ficus can be converted and will yield good quality plants.
Suggested shade levels for conversion are the same as the production levels
(Table 1). Most converted plants require six weeks to six months or more
to convert, depending on size, since large sun grown trees require much
longer to acclimatize than small trees.

Much has been written about the relative value and likelihood of
survival of sun-shade conversions indoors, but the final result will probably
never be known because of the widely differing conditions under which these
plants are utilized. Some facts are known, however, and relate mainly to
Ficus benjamin: 1) lowest light compensation points will only be achieved
when all sun grown leaves have been replaced by shade leaves, 2) because of
the larger trunk surface area in relation to size and leaf area, sun grown
trees will have higher respiration rates than shade grown trees, and 3)
sun-shade conversions appear acceptable for most interior situations except
those with marginal light situations (less than 100 ft-c).

NUTRITION

Fertilization of foliage plants has a direct effect on acclimatization
which may be related to respiration rate or high soluble salts. High levels
of nitrogen and some other elements during production have been shown to
decrease ability of foliage plants to adjust to interior environments.
Increased respiration rates increase carbohydrate consumption, often
exceeding the amount produced through photosynthesis, thus requiring use of
stored reserves.

An understanding of the potting medium is necessary before fertilizer
programs can be developed. Of great importance is pH, since it controls
release of nutrients provided in the fertilizer program. If pH is too low,
it will reduce conversion of ammonia to nitrate nitrogen, while high pH
levels reduce availability of most microelements. Most foliage plants grow
best when the pH is between 5.5 and 6.5, although some such as Maranta and
Calathea prefer a range of 5.5 to 6.0. It is desirable to adjust pH level
prior to planting crops.

Low pH levels can be raised in potting media by addition of liming
material such as dolomite or calcium carbonate, while high pH levels can be
lowered by addition of sulfur. The amount of liming material or sulfur to


-2-








change pH depends on amount of organic material present and its beginning
pH; therefore, small amounts of lime or sulfur will change pH of sandy
potting media while larger amounts are needed to change pH of pure peat.
Table 2 provides a guide for adjusting pH levels of potting media during
preparation.

Once foliage plants are growing in a potting medium, elevating pH is
difficult. The best material to raise pH is calcuim hydroxide (hydrated
lime) which cap damage plants unless applied in solution of 1 lb/100 gal or
less to 100 ft of surface area (pots or benches). This can be followed by
another treatment 4 weeks later if pH has not reached desired levels.
Calcium carbonate applied to the potting medium surface and watered in
will also raise pH, but it usually takes several weeks before its effect
is noticeable. Where pH levels are too high, sulfur can be applied at the
rate of 1 lb/100 ft to lower pH. Do not apply sulfur more often than
every 4 weeks until the desired level is reached, as plant damage may
result from rapid pH changes.

SOLUBLE SALTS

Although most components used in Florida potting media are low in total
soluble salts, salts should be determined prior to medium preparation,
Special fertilizer programs can be designed for media with high salts to
limit addition of unnecessary fertilizer ions or smaller amounts of
fertilizer applied frequently to reduce damage.

MICROELEMENTS

In most potting media used to grow foliage plants, microelements are
needed. Where good mixing equipment is available, microelements should be
thoroughly incorporated into the medium at time of mixing. Many products
are available for this purpose; Micromax and Perk have given excellent
results in experimental plots when added at the rate of 1 to 1 1/2 Ibs/yd3

Where micronutrients cannot be incorporated into the potting medium
they should be added separately or incorporated into the fertilizer program,
either as a periodic application or along with every fertilizer application.

On an annual or monthly basis, Table 3 provides the average amounts of
6 microelements that are needed to grow good quality foliage plants. If a
micronutrient mix is added to the potting medium, the annual rates should
not be started until at least 6 months after potting.

Incorporation of dolomite and a micronutrient mixture into the potting
medium supplies calcium and magnesium from dolomite and sulfur plus micro-
nutrients from Micromax or Perk. If a different source of micronutrients
is used, check to be sure sulfur is in the mixture, or add sulfur, as this
is usually the only source except for sulfur in water.

SUPERPHOSPHATE

Incorporation of superphosphate into potting media used to grow many
crops has been a common practice. Research, however, on foliage plants
has shown that preincorporation of phosphorus is unnecessary for quality








foliage plant production and can result in serious phytotoxicity on some
foliage genera from excessive fluoride levels. Superphosphate contains
1 to 2% fluoride as a contaminant and this will cause foliar damage on
Calathea, Chlorophytum, Cordyline, Dracaena, Maranta, and Yucca. Since no
unique benefit has been observed from superphosphate additions to potting
media used for production of foliage plants, its use is discouraged.

FERTILIZER RATIOS

Relative levels of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in a fertilizer
analysis are referred to as the N-P205-K20 ratio. Research in this area has
shown that foliage plants grow very well on a 1:1:1 ratio, such as in an
8-8-8 or 20-20-20 fertilizer analysis, but just as well on a 3:1:2 ratio,
such as a 9-3-6 or 18-6-12 analysis. The benefits of using the 3:1:2 ratio
are reduced fertilizer costs per unit of nitrogen and lower total soluble
salts levels which improve a plant's ability to acclimatize to interior
environments. For these reasons, a 3:1:2 ratio fertilizer is suggested for
foliage plant production where no-soil potting media are utilized. When
potting media are used that include clay containing soils, it is suggested
that a 1:1:1 ratio be used to prevent reduced availability of phosphorus
and potassium.

FERTILIZER LEVELS

Selection of the proper amount of fertilizer to apply to a specific
foliage crop varies with the growing environment. Some major factors
influencing fertilizer level include light intensity, temperature, rainfall
or irrigation level, and ability of potting medium to retain nutrients
(cation exchange capacity).

Light levels or intensities used for production of foliage plants
must be selected for optimum plant growth as well as effect on acclimati-
zation. Best growth can be obtained at light intensities that provide
highly acclimatized plants. See Table 1 for information on suggested
fertilizer levels for a wide variety of foliage plants when grown under
recommended light intensities. If plants are grown under higher light
intensities, even full sun for plants like schefflera or areca palms, the
suggested fertilizer levels will have to be increased by 50 to 100% (this
is not recommended for production of acclimatized plants). If lower light
intensities are present, suggested fertilizer level can be reduced by as
much as 25%.

Temperature has a strong effect on fertilizer needs of foliage
plants. Most foliage plants grow slowly, if at all, when soil temperatures
drop below 60?F and night air temperatures are 650F or below. Thus,
maintenance of standard fertilizer levels during this time is unnecessary
and can often be reduced 50%. Slow release fertilizers are generally only
partially available to plants during periods when potting media are cold,
but become available as media warm; therefore, rates can be adjusted with
such fertilizers by lengthening the time between application periods. During
high temperature periods (850 to 950 days and 750 to 850 nights) foliage
plants grow rapidly and can utilize slightly more fertilizer than listed
rates. A general rule that will account for cool and warm season foliage
production is to reduce suggested fertilizer levels by 25% during December -
February and raise them by 25% from June September.








Rainfall or irrigation level affects amount of fertilizer leached
from potting media. Where excessive levels of water are applied through
irrigation or where plants are grown under shadecloth and are open to
periods of heavy rainfall, irrigation levels can be adjusted downward to
reduce leaching. Addition of extra fertilizer is, however, desirable
after periods of excessive rainfall (4 to 6 inches over a one week period)
to compensate for leaching.

Nutrient retention ability (cation exchange capacity) of potting
media used to grow foliage plants is important in establishing fertilizer
levels. Fertilizer levels in Table 1 are based on utilization of potting
media composed primarily of organic components with high cation exchange
capacity. Examples of such potting media include (1) 75% peat moss -
25% sand, (2) 50% peat poss 25% pine bark 25% cypress shavings, and
(3) 80% peat moss 20% perlite, styrofoam or similar materials. Potting
media composed of greater amounts of sand, perlite, styrofoam or pine
bark may require slightly higher fertilizer levels.

FERTILIZER SOURCES

Selection of a fertilizer includes not only the form of the fertilizer
such as liquid, granular or slow release, but also the source of the
nutrients themselves.

Nutrient sources have not always been considered in selection of
fertilizers by foliage producers. For example, nitrogen is presently
available in fertilizer from three primary sources: nitrate (NOR-), ammonia
(NH4+), and urea (CO(NH2)2). In years past most fertilizers contained 20
to 50% nitrate nitrogen and the remainder came from ammonia or urea nitrogen
forms. In recent years fertilizer formulators have substituted urea for
much of the nitrate nitrogen because of its lower cost.

Although information has been published on the influence of nitrogen
source on several flower crops, little is available on foliage plants.
Limited research by this research center has not shown much difference in
growth or quality of foliage plants when grown on the presently recommended
50:50 ratio of nitrate to ammonia or urea nitrogen or a combination higher
in ammonia or urea. Since research on many floricultural crops shows
benefits of including nitrate nitrogen as one of the nitrogen sources, we
still suggest using 10 to 25% nitrate in combination with ammonia or urea
nitrogen.

Research has not been conducted on effects of different sources of
other macro- or micronutrients on foliage plant production. Thus, the major
consideration in their selection should be their effect on pH and availability
of nutrients (Table 4).

Nutrient form selection is influenced by method of fertilizer
application and economics. Factor that influence selection of liquid or
slow release fertilizers is covered in "Effective and Economical Fertilizer
Considerations", Agricultural Research Center-Apopka Research Report RH-80-3.








FERTILIZER APPLICATION FREQUENCY

Liquid fertilizers can be applied with each irrigation, weekly or
every other week. Wider applications (such as once each 4 weeks) will
result in reduced growth and lower quality.

Slow release fertilizers have a specified release period, such as
2 to 4, 3 to 4, 8 to 9 months or more. The release rate for slow release
fertilizers is usually calculated for a soil temperature near 700F.
During periods when potting media are near 650F or lower, the release
rate will be slower, or if temperatures reach 80 to 900F, will be much
faster. These factors must be considered when using slow release
fertilizers in Florida, since release rate of a 3 to 4 month material may
be 2 to 3 months in the heat of summer or 4 to 5 months during a cool
winter.

FERTILIZER RATES

Suggested rates for various areas, pot sizes and sources are shown in
Tables 5-8. If fertilizer is to be applied as a ppm solution, check rates
against footnotes on Tables 5-6. Suggested N, P and K levels in ppm for
continuous application are 150 ppm N, 50 ppm P and 100 ppm K.






Table 1. Suggested light ind"nutritional levels
acclimatized, foliage plants.


for production of some potted


Fertilizer requirements
Light intensity lbs/1000 sq ft/yr1
Botanical name (foot-candles) N P205 K20


Aeschynanthus pulcher
Aglaonema spp.
Aphelandra squarrosa
Araucaria heterophylla
Asparagus spp.
Brassaia spp.
Calathea spp.
Chamaedorea elegans
Chamaedorea erumpens
Chlorophytum comosum
Chrysalidocarpus lutescens
Cissus rhombifolia
Codiaeum variegatum
Coffea arabica
Cordyline terminalis
Dizygotheca elegantissima
Dieffenbachia spp.
Dracaena deremensis (cultivars)
Dracaena fragrans (cultivars)
Dracaena marginata
Dracaena other species
Epipremnum aureum
Ficus benjamin
Ficus elastica (cultivars)
Ficus lyrata
Fittonia verschaffeltii
Gynura aurantiaca
Hedera helix
Hoya carnosa
Maranta spp.
Monstera deliciosa
Nephrolepis exaltata (cultivars)
Peperomia spp.
Philodendron scandens oxycardium
Philodendron selloum
Philodendron spp.
Pilea spp.
Pittosporum tobira
Polyscias spp.
Sansevieria spp.
Schlumbergera truncata
Spathiphyllum spp.
Syngonium podophyllum
Yucca elephantipes


1500-3000
1000-2500
1000-1500
4000-8000
2500-4500
3000-5000
1000-2000
1500-3000
3000-6000
1000-2500
4000-6000
1500-2500
4000-8000
1000-2500
1500-3500
2000-4000
1500-2500
2000-3500
2000-3500
3000-6000
1500-3500
1500-3000
4000-6000
5000-8000
4000-6000
1000-2500
1500-3000
1500-2500
1500-3000
1000-3500
2000-4000
1500-3000
1500-3000
1500-3000
3000-6000
1500-3500
1500-2500
3000-6000
1500-4500
1500-6000
1500-3000
1500-2500
1500-3000
2500-4500


Rainfall or irrigation level affects amount of fertilizer leached from potting
media. Where excessive levels of water are applied through irrigation or where
plants are grown under shadecloth and are open to periods of heavy rainfall,
additional fertilizer may be necessary.


-7-


34.5
34.5
41.4
34.5
27.6
48.3
34.5
34.5
41.4
34.5
41.4
34.5
48.3
34.5
34.5
34.5
34.5
34.5
34.5
48.3
34.5
34.5
48.3
48.3
48.3
27.6
34.5
34.5
34.5
27.6
41.4
34.5
27.6
34.5
41.4
34.5
20.7
34.5
41.4
20.7
27.6
34.5
34.5
34.5


11.5
11.5
13.8
11.5
9.2
16.1
11.5
11.5
13.8
11.5
13.8
11.5
16.1
11.5
11.5
11.5
11.5
11.5
11.5
16.1
11.5
11.5
16.1
16.1
16.1
9.2
11.5
11.5
11.5
9.2
13.8
11.5
9.2
11.5
13.8
11.5
6.9
11.5
13.8
6.9
9.2
11.5
11.5
11.5


23.0
23.0
27.6
23.0
18.4
32.2
23.0
23.0
27.6
23.0
27.6
23.0
32.2
23.0
23.0
23.0
23.0
23.0
23.0
32.2
23.0
23.0
32.2
32.2
32.2
18.4
23.0
23.0
23.0
18.4
27.6
23.0
18.4
23.0
27.6
23.0
13.8
23.0
27.6
13.8
18.4
23.0
23.0
23.0








Table 2. Approximate amount of materials required to change pH
of potting mixtures.


Pounds per cubic yard to change acidity to pH 5.7 for:
Beginning 50% Peat 50% Peat 100% Peat
pH 50% Sand 50% Bark

Add dolomitic lime or equivalent amount of calcium to
raise pH to 5.7:

5.0 1.7 2.5 3.5
4.5 3.7 5.6 7.4
4.0 5.7 7.9 11.5*
3.5 7.8 10.5* 15.5*

Add sulfur or acidifying mixture to lower pH to 5.7:

7.5 1.7 2.0 3.4
7.0 1.2 1.5 2.5
6.5 0.8 1.0 2.0

Additions of more than 10 pounds of dolomite per cubic yard
often caused micronutrient deficiencies.


Table 3. Suggested annual application rates of micronutrients
for foliage plants.

Rate of application
Element gm/1000 sq ft/yr gm/1000 sq ft/mo lb/A/yr

Boron (B) 5.2 0.43 0.5
Copper (Cu) 52.0 4.33 5.0
Iron (Fe) 208.0 17.33 20.0
Manganese (Mn) 104.0 8.67 10.0
Molybdenum (Mo) 0.2 0.02 0.02
Zinc (Zn) 52.0 4.33 5.0








Table 2. Approximate amount of materials required to change pH
of potting mixtures.


Pounds per cubic yard to change acidity to pH 5.7 for:
Beginning 50% Peat 50% Peat 100% Peat
pH 50% Sand 50% Bark

Add dolomitic lime or equivalent amount of calcium to
raise pH to 5.7:

5.0 1.7 2.5 3.5
4.5 3.7 5.6 7.4
4.0 5.7 7.9 11.5*
3.5 7.8 10.5* 15.5*

Add sulfur or acidifying mixture to lower pH to 5.7:

7.5 1.7 2.0 3.4
7.0 1.2 1.5 2.5
6.5 0.8 1.0 2.0

Additions of more than 10 pounds of dolomite per cubic yard
often caused micronutrient deficiencies.


Table 3. Suggested annual application rates of micronutrients
for foliage plants.

Rate of application
Element gm/1000 sq ft/yr gm/1000 sq ft/mo lb/A/yr

Boron (B) 5.2 0.43 0.5
Copper (Cu) 52.0 4.33 5.0
Iron (Fe) 208.0 17.33 20.0
Manganese (Mn) 104.0 8.67 10.0
Molybdenum (Mo) 0.2 0.02 0.02
Zinc (Zn) 52.0 4.33 5.0








Table 4. Analysis and pH characteristics
materials.


of some common fertilizer


Analysis Effect Speed of pH
Name of material N-P205-K20 on pH reaction

Ammonium sulfate (NH4) S04 20-0-0 Very acid Rapid
Calcium nitrate Ca(N03)2.2H20 15-0-0 Basic Rapid
Potassium nitrate KNO3 13-0-44 Neutral Rapid
Ammonium nitrate NH4N03 33-0-0 Acid Rapid
Urea CO(NH2)2 46-0-0 Sl. acid Rapid
Mono-ammonium phosphate NH4H2PO4 11-48-0 Acid Rapid
Superphosphate
Ca(H2P04)2+CaS04 0-20-0 Neutral Medium
Potassium chloride KC1 0-0-60 Neutral Rapid
Potassium sulfate K2SO4 0-0-50 Neutral Rapid
Dolomite MgCO3.CaCO3 -- Basic Very slow
Limestone CaCO3 --- Basic Slow
Hydrated lime Ca(OH)2 ---- Basic Rapid
Gypsum (calcium sulfate)CaSO4 --- Neutral Medium
Sulfur --- Acid Slow
Epsom salts (magnesium sulfate)
MgSO4.7H0 ---- Neutral Rapid
Urea formaTdehyde 38-0-0 Sl. acid Slow


Table 5. Amounts
specific crops


of 9-3-6 fertilizer to
(see Table 3).


use to supply suggested fertilizer levels for


lb/1000 sq ft/yr lb 9-3-6/1000 gms 9-3-6/pot-month1
N P205 K20 lb N/A/yr sq ft/month 4" 6" 8" 10" 12"

20.7 6.9 13.8 900 19.12,3 0.7 1.3 2.6 4.0 5.9
27.6 9.2 18.4 1200 25.6 0.9 1.8 3.5 5.3 7.9
34.5 11.5 23.0 1500 31.9 1.1 2.2 4.4 6.6 9.9
41.4 13.8 27.6 1800 38.4 1.3 2.6 5.3 7.9 11.9
48.3 16.1 32.2 2100 44.9 1.5 3.0 6.2 8.2 13.9
*1


'One teaspoon 9-3-6 equals approximately 5 gms.
If fertilizing with each irrigation is desired,
tions during the month.


divide by expected number of irriga-


.3
One quarter i9ch of 100 ppm N applied ten times monthly equals approximately 12.8 Ibs
9-3-6/1000 ft








Table 4. Analysis and pH characteristics
materials.


of some common fertilizer


Analysis Effect Speed of pH
Name of material N-P205-K20 on pH reaction

Ammonium sulfate (NH4) S04 20-0-0 Very acid Rapid
Calcium nitrate Ca(N03)2.2H20 15-0-0 Basic Rapid
Potassium nitrate KNO3 13-0-44 Neutral Rapid
Ammonium nitrate NH4N03 33-0-0 Acid Rapid
Urea CO(NH2)2 46-0-0 Sl. acid Rapid
Mono-ammonium phosphate NH4H2PO4 11-48-0 Acid Rapid
Superphosphate
Ca(H2P04)2+CaS04 0-20-0 Neutral Medium
Potassium chloride KC1 0-0-60 Neutral Rapid
Potassium sulfate K2SO4 0-0-50 Neutral Rapid
Dolomite MgCO3.CaCO3 -- Basic Very slow
Limestone CaCO3 --- Basic Slow
Hydrated lime Ca(OH)2 ---- Basic Rapid
Gypsum (calcium sulfate)CaSO4 --- Neutral Medium
Sulfur --- Acid Slow
Epsom salts (magnesium sulfate)
MgSO4.7H0 ---- Neutral Rapid
Urea formaTdehyde 38-0-0 Sl. acid Slow


Table 5. Amounts
specific crops


of 9-3-6 fertilizer to
(see Table 3).


use to supply suggested fertilizer levels for


lb/1000 sq ft/yr lb 9-3-6/1000 gms 9-3-6/pot-month1
N P205 K20 lb N/A/yr sq ft/month 4" 6" 8" 10" 12"

20.7 6.9 13.8 900 19.12,3 0.7 1.3 2.6 4.0 5.9
27.6 9.2 18.4 1200 25.6 0.9 1.8 3.5 5.3 7.9
34.5 11.5 23.0 1500 31.9 1.1 2.2 4.4 6.6 9.9
41.4 13.8 27.6 1800 38.4 1.3 2.6 5.3 7.9 11.9
48.3 16.1 32.2 2100 44.9 1.5 3.0 6.2 8.2 13.9
*1


'One teaspoon 9-3-6 equals approximately 5 gms.
If fertilizing with each irrigation is desired,
tions during the month.


divide by expected number of irriga-


.3
One quarter i9ch of 100 ppm N applied ten times monthly equals approximately 12.8 Ibs
9-3-6/1000 ft








Table 6. Amounts of 20-20-20 fertilizer to use to supply suggested fertilizer levels
for specific crops (see Table 3).

lb/1000 sq ft/yr lb 20-20-20/1000 qms 20-20-20/pot month1
N P205 K20 lb N/A/yr ft2/month 4" 6" 8" 10" 12"

20.7 20.7 20.7 900 8.62,3 0.3 0.6 1.2 1.8 2.7
27.6 27.6 27.6 1200 11.5 0.4 0.8 1.6 2.4 3.6
34.5 34.5 34.5 1500 14.4 0.5 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.5
41.4 41.4 41.4 1800 17.3 0.6 1.2 2.4 3.6 5.4
48.3 48.3 48.3 2100 20.2 0.7 1.4 2.8 4.2 6.3

lOne teaspoon 20-20-20 equals approximately 5 gms.
21f fertilizing with each irrigation is desired, divide by expected number of
irrigations during the month.
30ne quarter inch of 100 ppm N applied ten times monthly equals approximately 6 lbs
20-20-20/1000 ft2.


Table 7. Amounts of 14-14-14 Osmocotel to use to supply suggested fertilizer levels
in various sized pots for specific crops (see Table 3).

lb/1000 sq ft/yr Surface application
N P205 K20 Ib N/A/yr gm /pot/3 months
4" 6" 8" 10" 12"

20.7 20.7 20.7 900 1.5 3.0 6.0 8.0 13.5
27.6 27.6 27.6 1200 2.0 4.0 8.0 12.0 18.0
34.5 34.5 34.5 1500 2.5 5.0 10.0 15.0 22.5
41.4 41.4 41.4 1800 3.0 6.0 12.0 18.0 27.0
48.3 48.3 48,3 2100 3.5 7.0 14.0 21.0 31.5

1Sulfur coated slow release formulations can be substituted at equivalent rates.
For urea formaldehyde slow release formulations increase rates by 25% or more.
2One level teaspoon = approximately 5 gms.


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Table 6. Amounts of 20-20-20 fertilizer to use to supply suggested fertilizer levels
for specific crops (see Table 3).

lb/1000 sq ft/yr lb 20-20-20/1000 qms 20-20-20/pot month1
N P205 K20 lb N/A/yr ft2/month 4" 6" 8" 10" 12"

20.7 20.7 20.7 900 8.62,3 0.3 0.6 1.2 1.8 2.7
27.6 27.6 27.6 1200 11.5 0.4 0.8 1.6 2.4 3.6
34.5 34.5 34.5 1500 14.4 0.5 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.5
41.4 41.4 41.4 1800 17.3 0.6 1.2 2.4 3.6 5.4
48.3 48.3 48.3 2100 20.2 0.7 1.4 2.8 4.2 6.3

lOne teaspoon 20-20-20 equals approximately 5 gms.
21f fertilizing with each irrigation is desired, divide by expected number of
irrigations during the month.
30ne quarter inch of 100 ppm N applied ten times monthly equals approximately 6 lbs
20-20-20/1000 ft2.


Table 7. Amounts of 14-14-14 Osmocotel to use to supply suggested fertilizer levels
in various sized pots for specific crops (see Table 3).

lb/1000 sq ft/yr Surface application
N P205 K20 Ib N/A/yr gm /pot/3 months
4" 6" 8" 10" 12"

20.7 20.7 20.7 900 1.5 3.0 6.0 8.0 13.5
27.6 27.6 27.6 1200 2.0 4.0 8.0 12.0 18.0
34.5 34.5 34.5 1500 2.5 5.0 10.0 15.0 22.5
41.4 41.4 41.4 1800 3.0 6.0 12.0 18.0 27.0
48.3 48.3 48,3 2100 3.5 7.0 14.0 21.0 31.5

1Sulfur coated slow release formulations can be substituted at equivalent rates.
For urea formaldehyde slow release formulations increase rates by 25% or more.
2One level teaspoon = approximately 5 gms.


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Table 8. Amounts of 19-6-12 Osmocote' to use to supply suggested fertilizer levels
in various sized pots for specific crops (see Table 3).


lb/1000 sq ft/yr Surface application
N P205 K20 lb N/A/yr gm2/pot/3 months
4" 6" 8" 10" 12"
20.7 6.9 13.8 900 1.0 2.5 4.3 6.7 9.6
27.6 9.2 18.4 1200 1.4 3.3 5.7 9.0 12.7
34.5 11.5 23.0 1500 1.8 4.2 7.1 11.2 15.9
41.4 13.8 27.6 1800 2.1 5.0 8.5 13.4 19.1
48.3 16.1 32.2 2100 2.5 5.9 9.9 15.8 22.3

Sulfur coated slow release formulations can be substituted at equivalent rates.
For urea formaldehyde slow release formulations increase rates by 25% or more.

2One level teaspoon = approximately 5 gms.


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