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 Copyright
 Introduction
 Physiological problems
 Diseases and major bacterial...
 Major fungal pathogens
 Major viral pathogens
 Major insect pests
 Reference






Group Title: ARC-A foliage plant research note - Agricultural Research and Education Center - RH-83-D
Title: Aglaonemas
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00066521/00001
 Material Information
Title: Aglaonemas
Series Title: ARC-A foliage plant research note
Physical Description: 8 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Chase, A. R ( Ann Renee )
Conover, Charles Albert, 1934-
Osborne, L. S
Agricultural Research Center (Apopka, Fla.)
Publisher: University of Florida, IFAS, Agricultural Research Center-Apopka
Place of Publication: Apopka FL
Publication Date: 1983
 Subjects
Subject: Aglaonema -- Growth -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Foliage plants -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Foliage plants -- Diseases and pests -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: A.R. Chase, C.A. Conover, and L.S. Osborne.
General Note: Caption title.
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00066521
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: oclc - 71302222

Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Introduction
        Page 1
    Physiological problems
        Page 2
    Diseases and major bacterial pathogens
        Page 3
    Major fungal pathogens
        Page 4
    Major viral pathogens
        Page 5
    Major insect pests
        Page 6
        Page 7
    Reference
        Page 8
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida








AGLAONEMAS

A. R. Chase, C. A. Conover and L. S. Osbornel

University of Florida, IFAS
Agricultural Research Center Apopka
ARC-A Foliage Plant Research Note RH-1983-D


Production of Aglaonema has increased dramatically in recent years from

less than 1% of foliage plant production in the 1960s to more than 6% at

present. Originally, Aglaonema modestum (Chinese evergreen) and Aglaonema

commutatum 'Treubii' (ribbon evergreen) were the major cultivars, but many

newer cultivars, including Aglaonema 'Silver Queen', 'Silver King',

'Pseudobracteatum', 'Fransher' and 'Abidjan' have recently become more

important. Aglaonema grows best in fairly heavy shade of 73 to 90%

(approximately 1000 to 2400 foot-candles) with the higher shade level required

where temperatures may exceed 950F. Excellent growth can be obtained with

3-1-2 ratio liquid or slow releaseifertilizer when applied at a rate of 1200

to 1400 Ibs N/A/year (equivalent to 28 to 33 Ibs N/1000 ft2/year). Micronu-

trients must be added, especially copper, since a deficiency of this element

is common. Potting media utilized must have excellent aeration, as Aglaonema

does not grow well in heavy, wet mixes, although ample soil'moisture is

necessary. Good growth occurs when soil temperatures are 700 to 850F, with

similar air temperatures. Limited growth will occur at 650F soil temperature,

but any lower temperature results in poor or no growth. Additionally, tissue

damage as a result of chilling can occur whenever air temperatures drop below

550F, mainly on 'Silver Queen', but also on other cultivars at 500F or below.




1Plant Pathologist, Physiologist and Entomologist, Agricultural Research
Center, Rt. 3, Box 580, Apopka, FL 32703, respectively.


I
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PHYSIOLOGICAL PROBLEMS


1) Copper deficiency

Symptoms Terminal leaves become chlorotic and sometimes even dwarfed

and deformed, with serrated edges. Older leaves become lighter

green than normal and, in severe cases, terminals and lower breaks

abort. Fransher is especially susceptible to copper deficiency.

Control Apply copper sulfate to soil surfaces at a rate equivalent

to 1.5 Ibs CuSO4/1000 ft2, or apply copper sprays to foliage. Always

include copper in the potting medium (1.5 Ibs Micromax or 3 Ibs
Perk/yd3) or use a periodic micronutrient application of copper.

Soil temperatures of 650F or below will contribute to copper

deficiency, as roots are less able to remove copper from cold soils.

Thus, soil temperature should be raised or foliar copper applied

during such periods.

2) Chilling injury

Symptoms Mainly mid to older (lower) leaves develop grayish spotting

and become chlorotic; lower leaves may collapse after 3 to 7 days if

damage is severe. 'Silver Queen' is especially sensitive to cold.

Control Keep 'Silver Queen' at least 550F to prevent damage and most

other cultivars 45 to 50F. The damage is permanent, but damaged

plants.will continue to grow unless terminals are affected by

extreme cold.

3) Excess light and/or temperature

Symptoms Leaves assume a more or less vertical or low angle position

instead of the normal 45 to 90 angle from the stem. Leaf color will

also be light or display a washed-out appearance, and, in extreme

cases, leaf tips will be whitish (pale).
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Control Provide recommended light and temperature levels and leaves

will reas-sume their normal position. Severely bleached leaves may

not fully recover.

4) Unknown (Bent-tip)

Symptoms The terminal leaf spike will have a fishhook appearance,

and some older leaves will also have a hook at the terminal.

Control Not known at this time, although excessive light and Water

stress have been observed to increase severity. The new leaf tip

appears to be obstructed and caught by the succeeding leaf, resulting

in the fishhook appearance.

DISEASES
Aglaonemas are subject to a variety of diseases, including those that

are bacterial, fungal and viral in nature. Although Aglaonemas are suscepti-

ble to these diseases, they are not commonly afflicted with all of them.

The most serious disease of Aglaonemas is probably bacterial blight and stem

rot caused by Erwinia spp. The stem rot phase is most difficult to control

since an infection may not be apparent until cuttings are removed and stuck

and symptoms develop seemingly overnight. In addition to bacterial diseases,

Aglaonemas are periodically affected by root rotting fungi and leaf spotting

fungi. Control of many of these problems should be based on use of very

clean stock plants and propagation material and maintenance of dry foliage.

MAJOR BACTERIAL PATHOGENS

1) Bacterial blights and stem rots (Erwinia carotovora, E. chrysanthemi

and Xanthomonas dieffenbachiae)

Symptoms Bacterial blight is typified by watery leaf spots which

frequently disintegrate. In general, lesions cause by X. dieffenba-

chiae are surrounded by a yellow border, but this occurs sometimes


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with Erwinia blight as well. Bacterial stem rots caused by

Erwinia spp. are generally first noticed following sticking of

cuttings. At this time, the cut end of the stem becomes mushy and

foul smelling and the rooting of the cutting is delayed if not

altogether halted. The cuttings usually yellow quickly.

Control Control of bacterial leaf spots can be best accomplished

through use of clean propagation material and a watering system

that either does not wet the foliage or allows it to dry rapidly.

Both Agri-Strep and copper sprays may aid in control if applied

weekly during the summer months when the disease is prevalent.

Bacterial stem rot is not easily controlled once started. Use of

propagation material is the only successful method of cultural control

although some growers have reported roguing infected plants and

recutting viable ones prior to dipping in Agri-Strep as moderately

successful control methods.

MAJOR FUNGAL PATHOGENS

1) Myrothecium leaf spot (Myrothecium roridum)

Symptoms Myrothecium leaf spot is one of the easiest foliage diseases

to diagnose. Leaf spots are generally found at a wound site,

although it is common to find no obvious wound and very large (up to

1 inch) leaf spots. The spots are usually tan to brown and may have

a bright yellow border. Examination of the lower leaf surface shows

the black and white fruiting bodies of the pathogen in concentric

rings near the outer edge of the spot.

Control Control can be completely achieved if plant foliage is

maintained dry. In the absence of this control, fungicides are









effective. Although both Daconil and Manzate provide good control,

they are not labeled for this use. Benlate is labeled and provides

adequate control.

2) Root rot (generally Pythium spp.)

Symptoms Root rot is typified by wilting of plants and yellowing of

lower leaves. The roots themselves are brown to black, reduced in

mass and mushy. The outer portion of infected roots can easily be

pulled away from the inner core.

Control Use of pathogen-free potting medium and pots, and growing

plants on raised benches, can eliminate much of this problem. If

fungicides are needed, drenches with Banrot,'Truban or Subdue can aid

in control of Pythium or Phytophthora root rot. Since, many times,

other pathogens are also involved,' accurate diagnosis of the cause

must be made prior to choice or fungicides. Benlate is frequently

applied in addition to one of the above, for control of other common

root rot fungi, including Rhizoctonia and Fusarium spp.
MAJOR VIRAL PATHOGENS

1) Dasheen mosaic virus

Symptoms Plants generally show slight distortion and mosaic. The

mosaic may be in the shape of ring spots, which are yellow or dark

green on a medium green background.

Control Control of Dasheen mosaic virus of Aglaonemas is accomplished

through use of virus-free cuttings. This disease is not common on

Aglaonemas and does not appear to cause economically significant

losses in most cases. Since the virus is a serious problem on









Perfection dieffenbachias, control on Aglaonemas may be important

to keep other plants from becoming infected as well.


PHYTOTOXICITY OF BACTERICIDES AND FUNGICIDES ON AGLAONEMAS

SAFE

Banrot 40 WP Ornalin 50 WP

Benlate 50 WP Subdue 2E

Chipco 26019 Truban 5G

Copper (some compounds) Truban 30 WP

Daconil 4.17 F Truban 25 EC

Maneb Compounds

Pesticides were tested at recommended rates and intervals.


MAJOR INSECT PESTS

Aglaonema does not appear to be seriously affected by insect, mite or

related pest problems, with the possible exception of periodic infestations

of caterpillars (larvae) of lepidopterous insects, root-infesting mealybugs

as well as aglaonema and latania scales. In the control section for each

pest a few of the many registered and effective pesticides will be listed.

For a complete listing, please consult the references at the end of this

report. Close attention should be paid to all labels in order to determine

which materials are registered for use in the greenhouse.

1) Mealybugs

Symptoms Mealybugs appear as white, cottony masses in leaf axils,

on the lower surfaces of leaves and on the roots. Honeydew and


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sooty mold are often present and infested plants become stunted,

and with severe infestations, plant parts begin to die.

Control Systemic materials are preferred. Examples of chemicals

which have systemic activity are Dimethoate, Disyston,

Metasystox-R and Orthene. Bendiocarb appears to be as effective

as some of the systemic materials.

2) Scales

Symptoms Infested plants become weakened or stunted and begin to

die. Scales can be found feeding on leaves, petioles or stems.

Their shapes, sizes and colors are variable and many are hard to

distinguish from the plant material on which they are feeding.

Control See mealybugs.

3) Caterpillars (worms)

Symptoms Infestations are easy to detect becauseworms, their

excrement and the damage they cause, are usually quite visible to

the unaided eye. Damage appears as holes in the center or along

the edges of leaves. Old damage can be distinguished from new

by the calloused appearance of the older damaged areas (worms are

usually gone by this time).

Control Lannate, Orthene, Dursban, Sevin and Dipel are effective in

the control of various worm species.


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PHYTOTOXICITY OF INSECTICIDES AND MITICIDES


SAFE
Dipel

Diazinon 50 WP

Diazinon AG-500

Enstar 5E

Lannate

Vydate L

Pesticides were used at recommended rates and intervals.

References

1. Chase, A. R. 1983. Phytotoxicity of some fungicides used on tropical

foliage plants. ARC-Apopka Research Report, RH-83-2.

2. Short, D. E. 1978. Phytotoxicity of insecticides and miticides to foliage

and woody ornamental plants. Extension Entomology Report #57.

3. Short, D. E., L. S. Osborne, and R. W. Henley. 1982. 1982-83 Insect

and related arthropod management guide for commercial foliage and woody

plants in Florida. Extension Entomology Report #52.

4. Simone, G. W. 1982. Disease control pesticides for foliage production-

1982. Extension Plant Pathology Report #30.

Mention of a commercial or proprietary product or of a pesticide in this
paper does not constitute a recommendation by the authors, nor does it
imply registration under FIFRA as amended.




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