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 Foliar nematodes - Aphelenchoi...
 Cyst nematodes - Heterodera
 Root knot nematodes - Meloidog...
 Lesion nematodes - Pratylenchu...
 Burrowing nematodes - Radophol...
 Reference
 Table 1: Some nematode pests of...






Group Title: ARC-A research report - Agricultural Research and Education Center - RH-83-5
Title: Nematode pests of tropical foliage plants and leatherleaf fern
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00066488/00001
 Material Information
Title: Nematode pests of tropical foliage plants and leatherleaf fern
Series Title: ARC-A research report
Physical Description: 5, 5 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Chase, A. R ( Ann Renee )
Kaplan, D. T
Osborne, L. S
Agricultural Research Center (Apopka, Fla.)
Publisher: University of Florida, IFAS, Agricultural Research Center-Apopka
Place of Publication: Apopka FL
Publication Date: 1983
 Subjects
Subject: Plant nematodes -- Control -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Leatherleaf fern -- Diseases and pests -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Foliage plants -- Diseases and pests -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 6-9).
Statement of Responsibility: A.R. Chase, D.T. Kaplan, and L.S. Osborne.
General Note: Caption title.
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00066488
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: oclc - 71213428

Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Foliar nematodes - Aphelenchoides
        Page 1
    Cyst nematodes - Heterodera
        Page 2
    Root knot nematodes - Meloidogyne
        Page 3
    Lesion nematodes - Pratylenchus
        Page 4
    Burrowing nematodes - Radopholus
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Reference
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
    Table 1: Some nematode pests of foliage plants and leatherleaf fern
        Page 10
Full Text





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Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida







NEMATODE PESTS OF TROPICAL FOLIAGE PLANTS AND LEATHERLEAF FERN

A. R. Chase, D. T. Kaplan and L. S. Osbornei
University of Florida, IFAS
Agricultural Research Center Apopka
ARC-A Research Report RH-83-5


Foliage plants are subject to many types of pests which cause serious losses
during plant production. Plant parasitic nematodes often go unnoticed by growers
but under some production regimes they are among the most destructive pests of
tropical foliage plants and leatherleaf fern. Both roots and leaves can be
parasitized by nematodes. Symptoms caused by nematodes depend upon the nematode
species and population density, plant susceptibility and growing conditions.
Increased use of control methods for root diseases and insects has inadvertently
led to reduced occurrence of some nematode pests, since these methods may aid in
nematode control as well. Nematode pests remain an important consideration in
foliage plant production since, in many cases, the losses are serious prior to
accurate diagnosis of the causal agent.
Chemical and cultural control strategies for nematodes on foliage plants
have been previously published for some production regimes (2,3,8,9,26). Major
nematode pests of foliage plants and leatherleaf fern, information on host range,
parasitic habit, symptomatology and control strategies are summarized in this
article.

FOLIAR NEMATODES Aphelenchoides (1,11,12,18,19,20,21,27,32,34,36,37,40,41)

Many species of Aphelenchoides parasitize foliage plants. Although these
nematode species are distinct, they all cause similar symptoms. One of the most
susceptible plants is Ficus elastica 'Decora' which is widely grown in south
Florida as a landscape ornamental as well as a foliage crop. Ficus are fre(
grown in open fields where they can become infested with foliar nematodes.
Infestation occurs when leaves of certain weed hosts of the nematode, such as
Sporobolus poiretii (a grass) contact the lower leaves of Ficus. Warm, wet
conditions favor nematode movement from the grass to Ficus leaves. Symptoms of
infestation in the Ficus are necrotic areas between leaf veins which result from
nematode feeding. Ficus leaves can develop a striped appearance. The grass
host does not show any symptoms of infection and nematodes are found only in its

1Research Plant Pathologist (Nematology), USDA, ARS, Hort. Res. Ctr. Orlando.







inflorescenses (flowers). Keeping weeds in ground plantings of Ficus under
control by use of herbicides or mowing has greatly reduced the incidence of
this nematode in Ficus.
Foliar nematodes also cause lesions in leaves as Asplenium nidus (Birds's
nest fern) and several other ferns grown as foliage plants. Infestation of
Bird's nest ferns by this nematode is severe since the brown-to-black necrotic
areas formed between leaf veins are conspicuous and removal of that leaf results
in a poorly balanced plant of diminished quality. Lesions first appear as
water soaked areas, later turning brown to black, and usually start at frond
bases and extend upward. High temperatures and moisture levels favor disease
development. These lesions remain turgid and do not collapse as is the case in
bacterial infection of this fern. Control of foliar nematode on ornamentals
should be based on cultural practices, such as use of sterile potting medium,
pots and benches, and pathogen-free propagation material; plants should be
grown on raised benches. Plants in stock areas infested with foliar nematodes
should be removed and the area sanitized with nematicides and replanted with
nematode-free stock.
Several other foliage plants susceptible to foliar nematodes include
Anthurium sp., Begonia sp., Saintpaulia ionantha (African violet), and Sinningia
speciosa (gloxinia). Symptoms in small anthuriums can be quite severe and
result in plant death. Lesions usually appear at the midvein and enlarge to
encompass entire leaves. Foliar nematode infestation of African violet is
characterized by distinctive foliar symptoms. Lesions appear as tiny, sunken
areas between leaf veins on the lower leaf surface. These areas enlarge and
appear on the upper leaf surface as well. Eventually, leaves become cupped,
irregularly shaped and stunted, and necrotic tissues may appear. Symptoms on
Reiger begonia are quite similar to those seen on African violet, with the
lesions gray to red instead of tan to black. Gloxinia generally shows symptoms
of infestation on basal leaves first. Lesions are dull and black and appear on
leaf margins, but rapidly encompass the entire leaf as in infested anthurium
seedlings. Several commercially available nematicides have been shown
effective in controlling foliar nematode of many of these plants (12,27,40,41).

CYST NEMATODES Heterodera (4,15,24,31)

The cactus cyst nematode, Heterodera cacti, has a narrow host range. The
primary hosts of interest include Schlumbergera truncata (holiday cactus) and








many.species of small ornamental cacti grown for dish gardens. Holiday cactus
shows symptoms of wilting and discoloration of stems (red), which is consistent
with conditions of water stress. Examination of roots reveals the presence of
the female nematode (cyst) on roots. These cysts are initially white and may
be seen with a magnifying glass or by an unaided, but educated, eye. As they
mature, the cysts turn a golden brown color. The spread of nematodes from pot
to pot is most severe if water runoff from one pot can drain into another. Thus,
watering systems which minimize runoff, or benches designed for rapid drainage
of excess water can greatly diminish spread to noninfested pots. Use of
nematode-free propagation materials and sterile potting media, and producing
plants in single pots with adequate drainage are recommended. Chemical control
of cactus cyst nematode has also been investigated (4,24) and has been success-
ful in many cases.

ROOT KNOT NEMATODES Meloidogyne (5,14,16,17,23,29,33,38)

One of the most important groups of nematode pests of foliage plants is the
root knot nematode, Meloidogyne spp., which causes swellings or galls on roots.
Galls vary in size and shape and may be found singly or in clusters and appear
like a chain of beads. Both roots and shoots are also frequently stunted and
sparse as a result of root knot nematode infestations and are often more
susceptible to water stress.
Root knot nematodes are rarely a problem when foliage plants are grown in
containers on benches. Some of the plants susceptible to root knot nematodes
include: Brassaia actinophylla (schefflera), Caladium bicolor (caladium),
Epipremnum aureum (pothos), Maranta leuconeura, Philodendron spp., Sansevieria
trifasciata, and Siderasis fuscata (Tradescantia). Symptoms on each of these
plants are similar to those described above, except in the case of Siderasis,
on which the nematode infests the plant leaves. Galls initially appear on
lower leaf surfaces, generally on midveins or parallel veins. As the circular
galls mature, leaf tips can become necrotic. On the upper leaf surface, these
galls appear as depressions or pits and the leaves become distorted.
Eradication of the nematode in infested plants can be accomplished through use
of hot water dips (1220F for 15 min) which can cause some leaf damage.
Control of root knot nematodes in root systems can be accomplished using
cultural practices similar to those used to control other root-infesting
nematodes, such as Heterodera. Additional literature on chemical control of







this nematode is available (5,29,38). Growers should keep in mind that many
plants, other than those listed (Table 1), are susceptible to this nematode
pest, and any plant grown on or in the ground can be infested by nematodes.

LESION NEMATODES Pratylenchus (6,13,25,28,35,39)

Pratylenchus penetrans is a serious pest of leatherleaf fern, but has not
been detected in many foliage plants. Symptoms of lesion nematode infestation
are much the same of those of other nematodes previously discussed; poor growth
of roots and shoots, resulting in diminished leatherleaf fern production. Root
and soil samples should be collected and sent to state or private laboratories
to confirm Pratylenchus infestation. Little is known regarding the numbers of
nematodes necessary to cause economically important losses to fern at this
time. In addition, the only methods of control are preplant or postplant
nematicides (6,25,28) and use of nematode-free rhizomes. Dipping fern rhizomes
at the time of transplant can result in near eradication of the pest on the
rhizomes (39). Boston fern is also parasitized by P. penetrans; infested plants
are gray, showing symptoms of severe water stress. Root systems of lesion
nematode-infested fern may be greatly reduced.
Pratylenchus coffeae has also been a problem on some foliage-plants. The
primary above-ground symptom of infestation is stunting of the host plant.
Slight water stress can cause infested plants to wilt. Roots may be necrotic
and rotted and are generally much reduced. Some of the plants which are
susceptible to this nematode pest include: Aglaonema, Caladium, Chamaedorea,
Codiaeum, Dracaena, Ficus, Monstera, Philodendron and Syngonium. Since most of
these plants can be produced on raised benches in nematode-free soil, infesta-
tions of Pratylenchus coffeae can be easily avoided. This nematode may be
introduced into a nursery through use of nematode-infested plants or cuttings,
since this nematode can live inside the stems of host plants (endoparasitic).
If Pratylenchus infestations are found in plants grown under optimum conditions
(raised benches and sterile potting medium and pots), it is probable that
infested propagation material was used. Never propagate from known nematode-
infested material, regardless of whether or not symptoms are apparent at the
time of propagation.

BURROWING NEMATODES Radopholus (7,9,22,30)

Radopholus similis, the burrowing nematode, has been identified as a pest
of several genera of foliage plants, including: Anthurium sp., Calathea sp.,







this nematode is available (5,29,38). Growers should keep in mind that many
plants, other than those listed (Table 1), are susceptible to this nematode
pest, and any plant grown on or in the ground can be infested by nematodes.

LESION NEMATODES Pratylenchus (6,13,25,28,35,39)

Pratylenchus penetrans is a serious pest of leatherleaf fern, but has not
been detected in many foliage plants. Symptoms of lesion nematode infestation
are much the same of those of other nematodes previously discussed; poor growth
of roots and shoots, resulting in diminished leatherleaf fern production. Root
and soil samples should be collected and sent to state or private laboratories
to confirm Pratylenchus infestation. Little is known regarding the numbers of
nematodes necessary to cause economically important losses to fern at this
time. In addition, the only methods of control are preplant or postplant
nematicides (6,25,28) and use of nematode-free rhizomes. Dipping fern rhizomes
at the time of transplant can result in near eradication of the pest on the
rhizomes (39). Boston fern is also parasitized by P. penetrans; infested plants
are gray, showing symptoms of severe water stress. Root systems of lesion
nematode-infested fern may be greatly reduced.
Pratylenchus coffeae has also been a problem on some foliage-plants. The
primary above-ground symptom of infestation is stunting of the host plant.
Slight water stress can cause infested plants to wilt. Roots may be necrotic
and rotted and are generally much reduced. Some of the plants which are
susceptible to this nematode pest include: Aglaonema, Caladium, Chamaedorea,
Codiaeum, Dracaena, Ficus, Monstera, Philodendron and Syngonium. Since most of
these plants can be produced on raised benches in nematode-free soil, infesta-
tions of Pratylenchus coffeae can be easily avoided. This nematode may be
introduced into a nursery through use of nematode-infested plants or cuttings,
since this nematode can live inside the stems of host plants (endoparasitic).
If Pratylenchus infestations are found in plants grown under optimum conditions
(raised benches and sterile potting medium and pots), it is probable that
infested propagation material was used. Never propagate from known nematode-
infested material, regardless of whether or not symptoms are apparent at the
time of propagation.

BURROWING NEMATODES Radopholus (7,9,22,30)

Radopholus similis, the burrowing nematode, has been identified as a pest
of several genera of foliage plants, including: Anthurium sp., Calathea sp.,







Chamaedorea elegans (Parlor palm), Maranta leuconeura, Philodendron spp. and
Syngonium sp. Radopholus similis is an endoparasite which burrows through
roots and destroys cells as it feeds. Symptoms include lesions on roots and
root rot, leading to reduced plant vigor. These symptoms are not exclusive
to nematode infestations and can be attributed to numerous other causes if
positive nematode identification is not made. Several papers are available
discussing both hot water control treatments (1220F for 10 min or 1110F for 1
hr) and chemical controls (10,30) for R. similis. Shipping infested plants
destined for other states requires treatment to eradicate burrowing nematodes.


Mention of a pesticide in this paper does not constitute a guarantee or warranty
by the University of Florida or the U. S. Department of Agriculture, nor does it
imply registration under FIFRA.





Literature Cited


1. Ark, P. A. and C. M. Tompkins. 1946. Leaf-nematode infestation of

Bird's-nest fern. Phytopathology 36:892-893 (Abstr.).

2. Birchfield, W. and H. M. van Pelt. 1958. Thermotherapy for nematodes

of ornamental plants. Plant Dis. Reptr. 42(4):451-455.

3. Dunn, R. A. 1982. Nematode control on Florida commercial foliage

crops. Extension Nematology Report #19. Plant Protection Pointer, Florida

Cooperative Extension Service, IFAS, University of Florida. 9 pp.

4. Hamlen, R. A. 1975. Evaluation of nematicides for control of Heterodera

cacti affecting Zygocactus truncatus. Plant Dis. Reptr. 59(8):636-637.

5. Hamlen, R. A. 1976. Efficacy of nematicides for control of Meloidogyne

javanica in groundbed and container production of Maranta. Plant Dis.

Reptr. 60(10):872-875.

6. Hamlen, R. A. 1978. Suppression of Pratylenchus penetrans in leather-

leaf fern by nematicides. Plant Dis. Reptr. 62:899-902.

7. Hamlen, R. A. and C. A. Conover. 1977. Response of Radopholus similis -

infected Calathea spp., container-grown in two soil media, to applications

of nematicides. Plant Dis. Reptr. 61(7):532-535.

8. Hamlen, R. A., D. W. Dickson, D. E. Short and D. E. Stokes. 1981.

Insects, mites, nematodes and other pests. pp. 428-479. In: Foliage

Plant Production, J. N. Joiner, Ed. 614 pp.

9. Hamlen, R. A. and M. V. Wettstein. 1978. Soil insect and nematode

pests of tropical foliage plants. Florists' Rev. 162(4195):22,23,73-76.

10. Holtzman, 0. V., T. Higaki, and S. Matayoshi. 1967. Control of Radopholus

similis in anthurium by hot-water treatment. Phytopathology 57:1006.

11. Hunter, J. E., W. H. Ko, R. K. Kunimoto, and T. Higaki. 1974. A foliar

disease of Anthurium seedlings caused by Aphelenchoides fragariae.

Phytopathology 64:267-268.







12. Johnson, A. W. and D. L. Gill. 1975. Chemical control of foliar

nematodes Aphelenchoides fragariae on 'Fluffy Ruffles' fern. Plant

Dis. Reptr. 59(9):772-774.

13. Kaplan, D. T. and J. B. MacGowan. 1982. Ability of selected common

weeds and ornamentals to host Pratylenchus coffeae. Nematropica 12:

165-170.

14. Kemp, W. G. 1953. A nematode associated with a root rot of Scindapsus.

Plant Dis. Reptr. 37(11):545-546.

15. Langdon, K. R. and R. P. Esser. 1969. Cactus cyst nematode, Heterodera

cacti, in Florida, with host list. Plant Dis. Reptr. 53(2):123-125.

16. Lehman, P. S. and D. E. Stokes. 1979. Effect of the root-knot nematode,

Meloidogyne incognita, on pothos. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 92:343-345.

17. Lehman, P. S., D. E. Stokes and A. Donnan. 1980. Effects of three

species of Meloidogyne on the growth of schefflera. J. Nematol. 12(4):229.

18. Marlatt, R. B. 1966. Ficus elastica, a host of Aphelenchoides besseyi

in a subtropical climate. Plant Dis. Reptr. 50(9):689-691.

19. Marlatt, R. B. 1970. Transmission of Aphelenchoides besseyi to Ficus

elastica leaves via Sporobolus poiretii inflorescences. Phytopathology

60(3):543-544.

20. Marlatt, R. B. 1975. Control of foliar nematode, Aphelenchoides

besseyi in Ficus elastica 'Decora'. Plant Dis. Reptr. 59(4):287.

21. Marlatt, R. B. and V. G. Perry. 1971. Growth stimulation of Sporobolus

poiretii by Aphelenchoides besseyi. Phytopathology 61(6):740.

22. Martin, K. J. 1978. Occurrence of Radopholus similis and other plant-

parasitic nematodes in ornamental plants being transported into Arizona.

Plant Dis. Reptr. 62(4):293-294.

23. Miller, H. N. and A. A. DiEdward. 1962. Leaf galls on Siderasis fuscata

caused by the root knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita. Phytopathology

52:1070-1073.






24. O'Bannon, J. H. and R. P. Esser. 1970. Control of Heterodera cacti

infecting Zygocactus truncatus. Plant Dis. Reptr. 54(8):692-694.

25. Overman, A. J. 1975. Control of Pratylenchus penetrans, endoparasitic

nematode of leatherleaf fern. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc 88:573-578.

26. Perry, V. G. and H. N. Miller. 1963. Recommendations for control of

nematodes infecting ornamental foliage plants in Florida. Proc. Fla.

State Hort. Soc. 76:449-454.

27. Powell, C. C., R. M. Riedel, and V. R. Walter. 1975. The effect of

aldicarb on Aphelenchoides fragariae on Rieger Begonia. Plant. Dis.

Reptr. 59(4):370-372.

28. Rhoades, H. L. 1968. Pathogenicity and control of Pratylenchus

penetrans on leatherleaf fern. Plant Dis. Reptr. 52:383-385.

29. Rhoades, H. L. and R. A. Hamlen. 1975. Response of root knot-infected

caladiums, with and without hot water treatment, to foliar applications

of oxamyl and phenamiphos. Plant Dis. Reptr. 59(1):91-93.

30. Rhoades, H. L. and D. B. McConnell. 1972. Control of the burrowing

nematode, Radopholus similis, on Philodendron 'Burgundy'. Proc. Fla.

State Hort. Soc. 85:358-359.

31. Southey, J. F. 1957. Observations on Heterodera cacti Filipjev et

Sch. Stekhoven and Meloidogyne spp. on imported cactus plants with a

list of new host records. Nematologica 11(1957):1-6.

32. Stokes, D. E. 1967. Newly reported fern hosts of Aphelenchoides

fragariae in Florida. Plant Dis. Reptr. 51(6):508.

33. Stokes, D. E. 1976. Effects of root knot nematodes on Philodendron

cv. 'Red Princess'. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 89:292-293.

34. Stokes, D. E. 1978. Foliar nematode infection to Ficus elastica.

Fla. Dept. Agric. and Cons. Serv., Div. of P1. Ind. Nematology Circ.

No. 44, 2 pp.







35. Stokes, D. E. 1979. Pratylenchus coffeae: A lesion nematode affecting

foliage plants. Fla. Dept. Agric. and Cons. Serv., Div. of Pl. Ind.

Nematology Circ. No. 58. 2 pp.

36. Stokes, D. E. 1979. Some plant symptoms associated with Aphelenchoides

spp. in Florida. Fla. Dept. Agric. and Cons. Serv., Div. of P1. Ind.

Nematology Circ. No. 49. 2 pp.

37. Stokes, D. E. and S. A. Alfieri, Jr. 1968. A foliar nematode and a

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81:376-380.

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in sansevieria groundbeds. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 85:360-361.

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287-288.

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violet. Plant Dis. Reptr. 63(5):378-382.








Table 1. Some nematode pests of foliage plants and leatherleaf fern.

Host Plant Nematode Common name


Aglaonema
Anthurium

Asplenium
Begonia
Brassaia
Cacti
Caladium

Calathea
Chamaedorea

Codiaeum
Dracaena
Epipremnum
Ficus

Maranta

Monstera
Nephrolepis

Philodendron


Rumohra
Saintpaulia
Sansevieria
Schlumbergera
Siderasis
Sinningia
Syngonium


Pratylenchus coffeae
Aphelenchoides sp.
Radopholus similis
Aphelenchoides fragariae
Aphelenchoides fragariae
Meloidogyne spp.
Heterodera cacti
Meloidogyne incognita
Pratylenchus coffeae
Radopholus similis
Pratylenchus spp.
Radopholus similis
Pratylenchus coffeae
Pratylenchus coffeae
Meloidogyne incognita
Aphelenchoides spp.
Pratylenchus spp.
Meloidogyne javanica
Radopholus similis
Pratylenchus sp.
Aphelenchoides fragariae
Pratylenchus sp.
Meloidogyne javanica
Pratylenchus spp.
Radopholus similis
Pratylenchus penetrans
Aphelenchoides sp.
Meloidogyne incognita
Heterodera cacti
Meloidogyne incognita
Aphelenchoides sp.
Pratylenchus spp.
Radopholus similis


Lesion nematode
Foliar nematode
Burrowing nematode
Foliar nematode
Foliar nematode
Root knot nematode
Cactus cyst nematode
Root knot nematode
Lesion nematode
Burrowing nematode
Lesion nematode
Burrowing nematode
Lesion nematode
Lesion nematode
Root knot nematode
Foliar nematode
Lesion nematode
Root knot nematode
Burrowing nematode
Lesion nematode
Foliar nematode
Lesion nematode
Root knot nematode
Lesion nematode
Burrowing nematode
Lesion nematode
Foliar nematode
Root knot nematode
Cactus cyst nematode
Root knot nematode
Foliar nematode
Lesion nematode
Burrowing nematode




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