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Group Title: ARC-A research report - Agricultural Research and Education Center - RH-82-2
Title: Evaluation of safer Agro-Chem's insecticidal soap for the control of mites in the interior environment
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00066485/00001
 Material Information
Title: Evaluation of safer Agro-Chem's insecticidal soap for the control of mites in the interior environment
Series Title: ARC-A research report
Physical Description: 6 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Osborne, L. S
Henley, Richard W
Agricultural Research Center (Apopka, Fla.)
Publisher: University of Florida, IFAS, Agricultural Research Center-Apopka
Place of Publication: Apopka FL
Publication Date: 1982
 Subjects
Subject: House plants -- Diseases and pests -- Control -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Plant mites -- Control -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 6).
Statement of Responsibility: L.S. Osborne and R.W. Henley.
General Note: Caption title.
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00066485
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: oclc - 71213176

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HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida








EVALUATION OF SAFER AGRO-CHEM'S INSECTICIDAL SOAP

FOR THE CONTROL OF MITES

,U.E LIB:R N THE INTERIOR ENVIRONMENT

i L. S. Osborne and R. W. Henley
IFAS University of Florida
Agri cultural Research Center-Apopka
.F.A.S.-Uni. of 01U C-A Research Report RH-82-2

The dilemma of finding legal products available for insect and mite

control on foliage plants indoors is a problem for professional interior-

scapers. Pesticides to be used on plants inside buildings other than

greenhouses must be relatively harmless to plants and animals, non-

staining, and nearly odorless. Recently, some chemical companies have

developed products and obtained labels for their use against insects and

mites on interior plants. Table 1 contains a list of these products and

the addresses of their manufacturers.

Research has been conducted at the Agricultural Research Center in

Apopka, Florida on effectiveness and potential for causing phototoxicity

of Safer Agro-Chem's Insecticidal Soap. The studies reported in this

paper were conducted to determine if this material could control Tetranychus

urticae Koch (two-spotted spider mite) on Brassaia actinophylla Endl.

grown in the interior.

Safer Agro-Chem's Insecticidal Soap is composed of potassium salts

of several fatty acids. The mode of action of these fatty acids is believed

to disrupt the pest's cellular membrane which results in loss of cellular

contents, thus causing the cells to die. Not all fatty acids are considered

good insecticides, but those that appear most "active" are straight carbon

chains with ten carbon atoms (Anonymous, 1981).








Table 1. Pesticides labeled for the

interior plants.


Product Name


control of insects and mites on


Manufacturer or Distributor


EC-2 Resmethrin Insect Spray


Ficam W



Ortho House Plant Insect Control


Ortho Whitefly & Mealybug Killer


24.3% SBP-1382-2 EC


Safer Agro-Chem's Insecticidal Soap


Pratt-Gabriel Division
Miller Chemical & Fertilizer Corp.
Hanover, PA 17331

BFC Chemicals, Inc.
4311 Lancaster-Pike
P. 0. Box 2867
Wilmington, DE 19805

Chevron Chemical Company
Ortho Consumer Products Division
San Francisco, CA 94119

Chevron Chemical Company
Ortho Consumer Products Division
San Francisco, CA 94119

Penick Corporation
1050 Wall Street West
Lyndhurst, NJ 07071

Safer Agro-Chem, Inc.
3233 Vista Diego Road
Jamul, CA 92035


Materials and Methods

Experiment 1 was conducted to determine if Safer's Soap could control

mites. Brassaia actinophylla seedlings were planted in 4" pots containing

soil composed of peat moss, pine bark, and cypress shavings in a ratio of

2:1:1 by volume. This potting medium was amended with dolomite (7 lbs/yd3),

19-6-12 Osmocote (7.5 Ibs/yd3) and Micromax (1 Ib/yd3). Seedlings

were grown to a height of 8 inches in a shaded greenhouse and acclimatized

prior to being used.








Of the ten plants that were used in this experiment, five were

sprayed to runoff with a 3.13% solution of Safer's Soap (31.28 mi/1) and

water and the remaining plants were sprayed with water only. A one gallon

tank sprayer equipped with an 8002 nozzle was used to spray each plant at a

pressure of 20 psi. After treatment, each plant was isolated in an interior

room on raised benches by placing it on an inverted 4" pot which was

placed into a saucer containing water. This was done to reduce movement of

mites between plants.

Plants were grown under 130 foot-candles of light from Cool White

fluorescent lights in a room with a temperature range of 260C to 280C

and relative humidity ranged between 33.6% and 43.3%.

A pre-treatment count of all spider-mite stages, except eggs, was

made on 7/10/81 and chemical treatments were made on 7/15/81 and 7/22/81.

The number of live mites on three leaves per plant were counted 1, 5, and

8 days after the initial treatment, while the final count on day 8 was

one day after the second treatment.

Experiments 2 and 3 were similar to experiment 1 except that there

was an additional treatment. Treatments were: 1) Pentac 50 WP (0.25

lb AI/100 gal), 2) 3.13 Safer Agro-Chem's Insecticidal Soap (31.28 ml/1),

and 3) water only.

In both experiments 2 and 3, mites present on the entire plant were

counted, but eggs were not because residue on Pentac treated plants made

precise counts difficult.

Pre-treatment counts were conducted on 8/10/81 (Experiment 2) and

10/19/81 (Experiment 3) and initial treatments were made the same day as








the pre-treatment counts. Safer's Soap was applied a second time on 8/21

(Expt. 2) and 10/28 (Expt. 3); all other treatments were sprayed with

water. Post-treatment counts were made during Experiment 2 on days 1, 4,

7, 10, and 15, and during Experiment 3 on days 2, 7, 11, and 14.

Results of Experiment 1 are summarized in Table 2. These data

demonstrated that Safer's Soap was effective in controlling mites.

However, a minimum of two applications might be needed to completely

control two-spotted spider mites on plants in an interior environment.



Table 2. Preliminary screening of Safer's Soap for the control of spider

mites on B. actinophylla in an interior environment.

Days Post Mean No. Mites / Sample
Treatment SAFER'S CONTROL

0 31.8 a** 33.4 a

1 10.6 a 38.6 b

5 3.2 a 58.8 b

8 (1)* 0.0 a 59.4 b


*Number in parenthesis corresponds to the number of days after a second
application of Safer Agro-Chem's Insecticidal Soap.

**Means in the same row which are followed by the same letter are not
significantly different based on the Student test (c-= .05).



Results of Experiments 2 and 3 are presented in Tables 3 and 4,

respectively. These studies indicate that Safer's Soap is comparable to

Pentac 50WP in its ability to control two-spotted spider mites. These

studies also indicate that multiple applications are needed to achieve


-4-








complete control. When compared with Pentac 50WP, Safer's Soap was

not as effective at killing spider-mite eggs. The difference in egg

survivorship was indicated by the appearance of larval stages on a few

of the soap treated plants days after they were determined to be free of

all motile stages.


Table 3. Comparison of Safer's Soap and Pentac 50WP for the control

of spider mites on B. actinophylla under interior conditions.

Days Post Mites (X)/Treatment
Treatment Safer's Pentac Control


0 4.3 a** 3.0 a 3.2 a

1 0.1 a 011 a 14.1 b

4 0.0 a 0.0 a 23.9 b

7 0.0 a 0.0 a 22.7 b

10 0.2 a 0.0 a 28.9 b

15 (4)* 0.0 a 0.0 a 50.6 b


*Number in parenthesis corresponds to the number of days after a second
application of Safer Agro-Chem's Insecticidal Soap.

**Means in the same row which are followed by the same letter are not
significantly different according to Duncan's Multiple Range Test
(cx = .05).


Preliminary indication from these experiments indicate that Safer's

Soap does not cause phytotoxicity when applied as indicated on the label for

mite control. However, damage can occur when Safer's Soap is applied two







times a week for two consecutive weeks (4 applications) at the same

rate used in the studies reported in this paper.

Based on these experiments, Safer Agro-Chem's Insecticidal Soap

appears to be effective at controlling T. urticae Koch on B. antinophylla

growing under interior conditions. Two applications should be used; the

second being made after all surviving eggs have hatched and before these

survivors reach sexual maturity. This period would depend on temperature,

but a 7-10 day interval would seem appropriate under most interior

conditions. Caution should be exercised, however, until further phyto-

toxicity studies are performed. We intend to conduct additional phyto-

toxicity studies as well as to determine the minimum concentration of

Safer's Soap needed to achieve acceptable control of this serious pest.


Table 4. Comparison of Safer's Soap and Pentac 50WP for the control of

spider mites on B. actinophylla growing under interior conditions.


Days Post Mites (X)/Treatment
Treatment Safer's Pentac Control

0 30.7 a** 33.1 a 33.6 b

2 5.7 a 0.5 a 46.2 b

7 1.0 a 0.0 a 63.7 b

11 (2)* 0.3 a 0.0 a 83.3 b

14 (5)* 0.0 a 0.0 a 91.3 b

*Number in parenthesis corresponds to the number of days after a second
application of Safer Agro-Chem's Insecticidal Soap.
**Means in the same row which are followed by the same letter are not
significantly different according to Duncan's Multiple Range Test (cc=.05).


Literature Cited

Anonymous. 1981. Fatty acid soaps A new class of insecticides. The IPM

Practitioner Vol. 3, No. 7:1.




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