• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Copyright
 Materials and methods
 Results
 Observation on root growth
 Conclusion
 Reference
 Table 1: IBA effects on foliage...
 Table 2: Influence of IBA on root...
 Table 3: Begonia x rex-cultorum...
 Table 4: IBA effect on percentage...
 Table 5: IBA effect on stem...
 Table 6: IBA effect on continuing...
 Table 7: IBA effect on Dracaena...






Group Title: ARC-Apopka research report - Agricultural Research and Education Center - RH-82-11
Title: IBA effects on foliage plant cuttings
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00066477/00001
 Material Information
Title: IBA effects on foliage plant cuttings
Series Title: ARC-Apopka research report
Physical Description: 11 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Miller, Victor J
Poole, R. T ( Richard Turk )
Agricultural Research Center (Apopka, Fla.)
Publisher: University of Florida, IFAS, Agricultural Research Center-Apopka
Place of Publication: Apopka FL
Publication Date: 1982
 Subjects
Subject: Plant cuttings -- Rooting -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Foliage plants -- Growth -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 6).
Statement of Responsibility: Victor J. Miller and Richard T. Poole.
General Note: Caption title.
Funding: ARC-A research report ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00066477
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: oclc - 71211656

Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Materials and methods
        Page 1
    Results
        Page 2
    Observation on root growth
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Conclusion
        Page 6
    Reference
        Page 6
    Table 1: IBA effects on foliage plant rooting
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
    Table 2: Influence of IBA on root growth of various foliage plants
        Page 10
    Table 3: Begonia x rex-cultorum leaf cutting response to IBA
        Page 10
    Table 4: IBA effect on percentage (%) of active buds when the cuttings were lifted
        Page 10
    Table 5: IBA effect on stem growth
        Page 11
    Table 6: IBA effect on continuing Hedra helix shoot growth (cm)
        Page 11
    Table 7: IBA effect on Dracaena deremensis 'Compacta'
        Page 11
Full Text





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IBA EFFECTS ON FOLIAGE PLANT CUTTINGS I E I IBRp
Victor J. Miller and Richard T. Poole
University of Florida IFAS i13
Agricultural Research Center
ARC-Apopka Research Report RH-82-11 i.P.A.S. LUniv of Fi- !


Rooting leafy herbaceous cuttings is the principal method of propagating
foliage plants. Although some are grown from seed and tissue cultured trans-
plants, cuttings are still the basic method employed. Chemical substances
which affect root initiation have been used by propagators since 1935 with
indolebutyric acid (IBA) the most widely used. These materials, called
"rooting hormones", have been especially recommended for use on woody,
difficult-to-root cuttings. Hormones are not usually recommended for foliage
plants as most are herbaceous, and root rapidly in comparison to woody plants.

Poole et al. tested two commercial rooting preparations on 10 foliage
plant species with 4 benefiting from the materials and the rest unaffected.
Stevens tested IBA on Dracaena marginata Lam. shoots and found a steady increase
in rooting with 1,000, 2,000, and 3,000 ppm. At 4,000 there was a decrease in
rooting below that at 3,000 ppm.

These experiments included treatment of many foliage plants with varying
concentrations of a rooting hormone to determine benefits, and if there were
effects on plants besides those involving rooting.

Little research has been done on the effect of rooting hormones on most
foliage plants, but hormones are used to some extent in the industry.

Materials and Methods

Foliage plants tested and treatments used are listed in Table 1. Merck
Chemical Division, manufacturer of Hormodin, states the active ingredient
indole-3-butyric acid is 0.1% in Hormodin 1, 0.3% in Hormodin 2, and 0.8% in
Hormodin 3, and recommends that cuttings responding satisfactorily to Hormodin 1
would undoubtedly be injured by Hormodin 3, and in some cases by Hormodin 2.
The first cuttings were stuck February 20, 1981 and the last April 3, 1981.
Lifting dates were from March 10 to April 23. Cuttings were obtained from
sources in central Florida, although some were shipped from tropical America.

The base of each cutting was dipped in water approximately 3 cm, excess
water shaken off, then dipped into Hormodin powder to about 2.5 cm. Larger
cuttings were rotated to make sure their bases were evenly covered. Bases were
then tapped against the container rim to remove excess powder. A cavity was
made in the.peat and the cutting held in place. Moist peat was pulled against
it and firmed in place to prevent the powder from being removed.

Each planted flat was placed in the mist bed and misted 30 sec/30 min from
10 a.m. to 4 p.m. The propagating bench was heated with electrical cables at a
temperature of 240C. Air temperature was 18C 300C. Light intensity on the









mist bed at 11 a.m. on a bright sunny March day was 1200 ft-c, as was the
approximate measurement at several other readings. Extra polyethylene plastic
used to help conserve energy during an abnormally cold spring lowered optimum
light intensities.

Rooted cuttings were graded by visual evaluation of the number and size
of roots on a scale of 1 to 5, with 1 = no roots, 3 = fair rooting, and 5 =
heavy rooting. Cuttings were not evaluated until roots were well established
in all treatments. In some cases, roots were counted. The amount of top
growth which occurred between sticking and harvest was evaluated or measured
when differences seemed apparent. Follow-up measurements were made at ini -
of time after transplanting the cuttings when such measurements appeared to
offer additional information.

Results

IBA effects on rooting are presented in Table 1. Rooting response varied
from species to species. Injury occurred to the bases of some cuttings at
higher concentrations, but rooting from above was usually more prolific than
rooting from uninjured stems. Those showing basal damage from the strongest
concentrations were Aglaonema costatum, A. crispum, Dieffenbachia amoena,
Dracaena deremensis 'Compacta', D. surculosa, Polyscias fruticosa, and
Sansevieria trifasciata.

Sansevieria cuttings treated with 0.3% IBA had approximately the basal 3
dead, while those treated with 0.8% IBA had the basal 5 mm dead. These were
then potted, grown for 19 additional days, and reevaluated. No additional
damage had occurred during this time, but buds were lacking on cuttings treated
with 0.8% IBA. When they were initially evaluated, one adventitious bud was
visible on one control cutting and one 0.1% IBA treated cutting. At the later
evaluation, control cuttings had 5 buds; 0.1% IBA cuttings 7 buds; 0.3% IBA
cuttings 2 buds; and the 0.8% IBA cuttings had no buds.

Evaluations were made of the length, size, and number of roots of some
plants (Table 2). Most roots of D. marginata 'Colorama', and D. deremensis
'Compacta' were on cuttings treated with 0.3% IBA and the control had the
roots. The length of the longest root was measured to give an indication of
root vigor. Those with the most roots had the shortest roots, but the
correlation of length with number ended there.

The diameter of some D. deremensis 'Compacta' roots increased with
increasing IBA concentration. The bases of the cuttings were damaged at higher
concentrations, but roots emerging above this were larger. These were potted
after evaluation and examined 24 days later with no additional damage found;
however, the large roots had grown vigorously. Dieffenbachia had no additional
damage after being potted for 12 days. Their bases had originally deteriorated
as much as 4 cm on cuttings treated with 0.8% IBA.

Leaf cuttings of Begonia x rex-cultorum were cut in a wedge shape with the
narrowest part near the petiole attachment. This point was dipped into the
hormone powder and inserted into the planting mix so the leaf blade stood









almost upright. Plantlets formed both above and below the soil line. When
the cuttings were lifted, the number of individual plantlets large enough to
be easily distinguished was counted, and their vigor graded (Table 3). There
was a positive correlation of 0.863 between increasing IBA concentrations and
rooting index, and a negative correlation of -0.849 between increasing
concentrations and the number of plantlets produced. A negative correlation
of -0.977 was found between the rooting index and number of plantlets produced.
No leaf damage was detected.from IBA.

Some inhibition of shoot growth from the IBA treatments was first noticed
on some single-eye cuttings (Tables 4 & 5). Although shoot growth was slower
to start on cuttings treated with higher concentrations of IBA, this condition
was transitory. Almost all buds of Gynura aurantiaca and Hoya carnosa were
growing a few weeks after they were evaluated and transplanted.

Hedera helix shoot growth originated from buds not touched by the IBA when
treated; however, shoot growth was definitely inhibited by the higher
concentrations. These cuttings were transplanted and shoot length measurements
were recorded at varying intervals (Table 6). Within 4 weeks after transpli
the shoot growth rate was essentially the same for all treatments.

Dracaena deremensis 'Compacta' plants were evaluated after being
transplanted 24 days (Table 7). Cuttings had been quite uniform when started;
however, cuttings treated with 0.8% IBA had the largest roots, were the tallest
plants, and had the most leaves.

Dieffenbachia amoena 'Hicolor Cream' plants were evaluted by counting the
number of essentially mature leaves after 32 days. Many lower leaves died
during this period. More leaves were present on the control and 0.1% IBA
treatment cuttings, with the control 4.3 leaves; 0.1% IBA 4.5; 0.3% IBA 3.0; and
0.8% IBA 3.1 leaves.

On checking Peperomia obtusifolia 'Variegata' and 'Marble' transplants 7
weeks after listing and evaluating their roots, considerable difference was
noted in shoot growth which was not associated with treatment. Both cultivars
had side shoots on half the plants, while the other half were still unbranched;
however, the normal green form cuttings were all sending out side branches with
the exception of one plant.

Observations on Root Growth

Aeschynanthus pulcher. Roots developed on tip and stem cuttings in 2
weeks. In 17 days, roots were visible on the medium surface, produced in
profusion with no obvious pattern of emergence.

Aglaonema costatum. This plant has an underground rhizome, and roots
present when the cuttings were obtained were removed. When lifted after 3
weeks, roots were growing from the stem to the base. Where the base was
damaged by high IBA concentrations, roots emerged above this area. All roots
were similar.










Aglaonema crispum. When cuttings were lifted after 3 weeks in the
progagating bench, roots were just emerging through the epidermis. Minimal
damage occurred on the base of cuttings treated with 0.8% IBA.

Ardisia crenata. Both ardisia rooted at the base of the cuttings with a
profusion of long roots radiating outward. Since the cutting bases were
almost to the flat bottom, no roots had been seen on the surface before they
were lifted.

Begonia x rex-cultorum. Roots were noted 17 days after planting. The
first recognizable plantlets were visible in 26 days. Roots grew in profusion
from the basal area of the leaf blade. Plantlets may have had roots developed
also.

Cissus antarctica. Rooting was from the base of check plant, while roots
emerged up the stem above the base on cuttings treated with stronger
concentrations of IBA.

Cissus rhombifolia. This was one of the least successful rooting enc .-...
Roots came principally from the basal area of the cuttings.

Codiaeum variegatum. Check plants rooted almost entirely at the base of
the cuttings. Increasing concentrations caused rooting for a considerable
distance above the base, as well as at the base. On the 0.8% IBA cuttings, the
lowest roots were short while those near the medium surface were much longer.

Dieffenbachia amoena. Roots were succulent and easily broken. Roots
emerged from any place, including the cut base, with no correlation of eme
with the nodes. All rooted well; however, there was minimal damage to the base
of cuttings with 0.1% IBA, damage to 3 cm above base with 0.3% IBA, and 4 cm
with 0.8% IBA.

Dracaena deremensis 'Compacta'. Roots arose from the base of the cuttings
except those damaged by IBA where roots emerged in a circle just above the
damaged area. Some vertical distribution occurred, but it was small.

Dracaena marginata 'Colorama'. Rooting occurred at and near the base of
the cuttings even when damaged by IBA. Roots became shorter at higher IBA
concentrations with the mean length of the longest root per cutting on the
checks 6.5 cm; on 0.1% IBA 8.0 cm; 0.3% IBA 3.3 cm; and 0.8% IBA 3.2 cm. This
was not correlated with root numbers.

Dracaena surculosa. Roots emerged along the stem. The cultivar 'Florida
Beauty' had stronger roots than the species, and the base of the species
cuttings seemed to be damaged more by IBA.

Epipremnum aureum 'Golden Pothos'. Buds started to grow in 11 days. In
25 days almost all buds were growing and 3 had leaves unfurling. Rooting
occurred at the base of the cutting, at the nodal area of the leaf, and from
new shoots.
Episcia cupreata 'Chocolate Soldier' and 'Tropical Topaz'. These two
cultivars behaved essentially identical with some aerial roots observed after
10 days. Cuttings were well-rooted with roots on the lower part of the stem.









Ficus benjamin. Roots emerged at random on the lower part of the stem.
This was the only flat of cuttings which had roots growing out the bottom of
the flat to any extent.

Fittonia verschaffeltii argyroneura. In 7 days, an aerial root had grown.
In 13 days, the cuttings seemed to be rooted with a few roots at the medium
surface. Rooting was heavier and roots were longer near the surface than at
the base of the cuttings.

Gynura aurantiaca 'Purple Passion'. Buds were enlarging and starting to
grow in 6 days. In 13 days, a few roots were visible on the surface. In 16
days, 1 each of the check, 0.1% IBA, and 0.3% IBA cuttings had roots visible,
and 3 of the 0.8% IBA cuttings did. In 24 days, the inhibition of bud growth
at higher concentrations of IBA was noticed. Rooting was prolific along the
lower part of the stem.

Hedera helix. In 6 days, 2 aerial roots had started. By 13 days, many
plants had aerial roots growing, especially cuttings treated with 0.8% IBA. At
16 days, data showed one check plant with an aerial root, 2 treated with 0.3%
IBA had one, 1 treated with 0.1% IBA had one, and 7 cuttings treated with 0.8%
IBA had aerial roots. Roots emerged from the entire lower part of the stem as
well as the base. Two cuttings had been planted inverted and developed an
extremely heavy aerial root system. Basal rooting took place, however, and
shoot growth was not inhibited.

Hoya carnosa. In 17 days, some roots were visible at the medium surface
and were more obvious in 20 days.

Peperomia obtusifolia. In 17 days, roots were visible around cuttings with
'Variegata' cuttings the most visible, and 0.8% IBA treated cuttings with the
most roots. Two 0.8% IBA 'Variegata' cuttings had aerial roots. By 20 days, 5
cuttings of this treatment had roots growing above the medium. Roots emerged at
the base of the cuttings and at a node, if one was in the medium. Higher IBA
concentrations resulted in roots emerging all along the stem.

Philodendron scandens oxycardium. In 8 days, buds were enlarged; 11 days,
buds were pushing with a few roots visible; by 25 days, almost all had large
buds. All roots came from the nodal area.

Pilea cadierei. Tender plants wilted immediately, but became turgid under
mist. In 10 days, rooting was obvious in the medium. IBA treatment induced
aerial rooting, varying from minimal with 0.1% IBA to all 10 plants having
aerial roots with 0.8% IBA. Roots were well distributed below the medium
surface and as high on the plant as the top leaf pair.

Plectranthus australis. Cuttings were rooted in 8 days, and by 11 days
roots were abundant on the medium surface. Cuttings were lifted in 15 days and
were well-rooted at the base, following no pattern.

Polyscias fruticosa. Masses of short roots were produced on the lower 3
or 4 cm of the stem. At higher IBA rates, the bases were damaged or dead, as
high as 3 cm, but roots emerged above this.









Sansevieria trifasciata 'Laurentii'. No roots were found after 11 days.
Rooting, damage, and bud formation are described in the results.

Senecio rowleyanus. Under mist, aerial roots from previously existing
structures were seen in 6 days and principal rooting occurred from those
entering the soil. The planted, treated bases did little. Had the cuttings
been removed from mist as soon as the aerial roots formed, they would probably
have grown better. Scattering cuttings without planting them should propagate
well under a few days of misting.

Syngonium podophyllum 'Green Gold'. Cuttings progressed very slowly with
a bud or two started after 17 days. After 39 days, minimal growth was visible.
When cuttings were lifted after 54 days, it was discovered that as a new leaf
started to grow, a root grew from its base. A few old roots on the nodes when
the cuttings were planted grew slightly.

Conclusions

IBA does have a favorable effect on the rooting of foliage plants.
Responses to varying concentrations are so different from species to species
that no single conclusion can be made to encompass all foliage plants. The
general statement that only low concentrations of IBA should be used on foliage
plants was found to be incorrect. Basal damage from higher concentrations of
IBA was not correlated with poor rooting response, but transitory inhibition of
bud and stem growth from higher concentrations of IBA was noted for some plants.
This could obviously increase the cost of producing plants when they must be
grown longer; however, stronger rooting would make it possible to lift other
cuttings treated with the higher concentrations of IBA sooner. Cultivars should
be evaluated individually by the grower to determine each response to varying
concentrations of IBA. Results from this experiment indicate that most plants
tested did not benefit from additions of IBA. Those plants that possibly did
benefit are Aglaonema, Begonia, and Sansevieria at 0.1%; Fittonia and Peperomia
at 0.3%; and Hedera helix and Syngonium at 0.8% IBA.

References
Conover, C.A. and R.T. Poole. 1970. Foliage plant propagation. Florida F
Grower 7(4):1-8.
Hartmann, H.T. and D.E. Kester. 1968. Plant Propagation. 2nd Ed. Englewood
Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. 702 pp.
Joiner, J.N., R.T. Poole, and C.A. Conover. 1981. Propagation. In: J.N.
(ed) Foliage Plant Production. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. pp. 284-306.
Nelson, P.V. 1981. Greenhouse Operation and Management. Reston Pub. Co., Inc.
Virginia.
Poole, R.T., C.A.Conover, and C.A. Robinson. 1980. Rooting hormones and
propagation of foliage plants. Foliage Digest 3(8):11-12.
Poole, R.T. and W.E. Waters. 1971. Soil temperature and development of ci
and seedlings of tropical foliage plants. HortScience 6(5):463-464.
Stevens, G.A., Jr. 1976. Propagation of Dracaena marginata Lam. Proc. 3rd
Annual Nurserymen's Short Course. Univ. of Hawaii. Misc. Publ. 134.









Sansevieria trifasciata 'Laurentii'. No roots were found after 11 days.
Rooting, damage, and bud formation are described in the results.

Senecio rowleyanus. Under mist, aerial roots from previously existing
structures were seen in 6 days and principal rooting occurred from those
entering the soil. The planted, treated bases did little. Had the cuttings
been removed from mist as soon as the aerial roots formed, they would probably
have grown better. Scattering cuttings without planting them should propagate
well under a few days of misting.

Syngonium podophyllum 'Green Gold'. Cuttings progressed very slowly with
a bud or two started after 17 days. After 39 days, minimal growth was visible.
When cuttings were lifted after 54 days, it was discovered that as a new leaf
started to grow, a root grew from its base. A few old roots on the nodes when
the cuttings were planted grew slightly.

Conclusions

IBA does have a favorable effect on the rooting of foliage plants.
Responses to varying concentrations are so different from species to species
that no single conclusion can be made to encompass all foliage plants. The
general statement that only low concentrations of IBA should be used on foliage
plants was found to be incorrect. Basal damage from higher concentrations of
IBA was not correlated with poor rooting response, but transitory inhibition of
bud and stem growth from higher concentrations of IBA was noted for some plants.
This could obviously increase the cost of producing plants when they must be
grown longer; however, stronger rooting would make it possible to lift other
cuttings treated with the higher concentrations of IBA sooner. Cultivars should
be evaluated individually by the grower to determine each response to varying
concentrations of IBA. Results from this experiment indicate that most plants
tested did not benefit from additions of IBA. Those plants that possibly did
benefit are Aglaonema, Begonia, and Sansevieria at 0.1%; Fittonia and Peperomia
at 0.3%; and Hedera helix and Syngonium at 0.8% IBA.

References
Conover, C.A. and R.T. Poole. 1970. Foliage plant propagation. Florida F
Grower 7(4):1-8.
Hartmann, H.T. and D.E. Kester. 1968. Plant Propagation. 2nd Ed. Englewood
Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. 702 pp.
Joiner, J.N., R.T. Poole, and C.A. Conover. 1981. Propagation. In: J.N.
(ed) Foliage Plant Production. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. pp. 284-306.
Nelson, P.V. 1981. Greenhouse Operation and Management. Reston Pub. Co., Inc.
Virginia.
Poole, R.T., C.A.Conover, and C.A. Robinson. 1980. Rooting hormones and
propagation of foliage plants. Foliage Digest 3(8):11-12.
Poole, R.T. and W.E. Waters. 1971. Soil temperature and development of ci
and seedlings of tropical foliage plants. HortScience 6(5):463-464.
Stevens, G.A., Jr. 1976. Propagation of Dracaena marginata Lam. Proc. 3rd
Annual Nurserymen's Short Course. Univ. of Hawaii. Misc. Publ. 134.




Table 1. IBA effects on foliage plant rooting.

Treatments
IBAZ

Check 0.1% 0.3% 0.8%
Type of Days in RootingY % not Rooting % not Rooting % not Rooting % not
Foliage plant cuttingM mist bed index rooted index rooted index rooted index rooted


Aeschynanthus
pulcher
Aeschynanthus
pulcher
Aglaonema
costatum
SAglaonema
crispum
Ardisia crenata
(sel. 1)
Ardisia crenata
(sel. 2)
Begonia x
rex-cultorum
Cissus
antarctica
Cissus rhombifolia
'Ellen Danica'
Codiaeum variegatum
'Gold Dust'
Dieffenbachia amoena
'Hicolor Cream'


4.7 a

4.4 al

2.8 c

2.5 c

4.9 a

4.6 a

4.1 b

2.7 b

1.5 a

3.3 b

3.7 a


4.5 a

4.2 b

3.2 b

3.3 b

5.0 a

4.6 a

3.7 c

3.1 a

1.7 a

2.7 c

3.6 a


4.4 a

4.7 a

3.8 a

4.3 a

4.7 a

4.9 a

4.1 b

3.2 a

1.5 a

3.1 c

3.3 a


3.5 b

4.7 a

1.8 d

3.5 b

4.1 b

4.7 a

4.7 a

2.7 b

1.2 b

4.1 a

3.3 a





Table 1. (continued p. 2)

Dracaena deremensis
'Compacta' A 32 4.6 ab 4.7 a 4.4 b 4.8 a
Dracaena marginata
'Colorama' A 32 3.9 b 4.6 a 2.5 c 2.6 c
Dracaena surculosa B 20 3.0 b 3.0 b 2.3 c 3.5 a
Dracaena surculosa
'Florida Beauty' B 20 4.1 a 4.0 a 3.4 b 3.1 b
Episcia cupreata
'Chocolate Soldier' A 18 3.1 a 3.4 a 3.8 a 3.4 a
Episcia cupreata
'Tropical Topaz' A 18 3.7 a 3.6 a 3.8 a 3.9 a
Epipremnum aureum
'Golden Pothos' C 47 4.6 a 3.6 b 3.9 b 4.3 a
Ficus benjamin A 35 4.1 b 3.7 bc 3.2 c 4.7 a
Fittonia verschaffel-
tii argyroneura A 34 2.9 c 3.9 b 4.7 a 4.0 b
Gynura aurantiaca
'Purple Passion' C 34 3.7 b 3.7 b 4.1 ab 4.5 a
Hedera helix B 45 3.6 c 4.0 bc 4.2 b 4.9 a
Hoya carnosa C 41 4.8 a 4.5 a 4.7 a 4.7 a
JPeperomia
obtusifolia A 26 3.2 c 4.5 a 4.5 a 5.0 b
Peperomia
obtusifolia 'Marble' A 26 3.6 c 3.7 c 4.6 a 4.1 b
Peperomia
obtusifolia
'Variegata' A 26 4.0 a 4.0 a 4.3 a 4.3 a




Table 1. (continued p. 3)

Philodendron scandens
oxycardium C
Pilea cadierei A
Plectranthus
australis A
Polyscias fruticosa A
Podocarpus
macrophyllus A
Sansevieria trifasci-
ata 'Laurentii' D
Senecio rowleyanus B
Syngonium podophyllum
'Green Gold' C

Average rooting indexes


4.6 ,
3.4 1

4.2 ,
3.0 1

4.0

3.4 I
3.2

1.7 1

3.64


4.1 b
3.8 a

4.0 a
14 4.0 a 17

2.4 b

4.9 a
10 3.7 ab

50 2.2 b 50

3.75


4.4,
3.7 i

4.2
1.8

2.9 1

3.9 1
3.9 ,

1.7 1

3.73


4.3 ab
3.7 ab

4.0 a
3.0 b

2.7 b

4.0 b
3.4 bc

3.1 a

3.75


ZIndolebutyric acid in powder form. Materials used were Hormodin 1, 0.1%; Hormodin 2, 0.3%; and Hormodin 3,
0.8% IBA.
YRooting index: 1 no roots; 2 very little rooting; 3 fair rooting; 4 good rooting; 5 heavy rooting.
XMean separation in rows by Duncan's multiple range test, 5% level.
WType of cutting: A tip; B stem; C- single eye; D leaf.








Table 2. Influence of IBA on root growth of various foliage plants.

D. marginata 0. deremensis P. scandens S. trifasciata D.
'Colorama' 'Compacta' oxycardium 'Laurentii'
Cream
No. Longest No. Longest Largest No. No. Longest
roots root roots root root roots roots root No.
(cm) (cm) diam (cm) roots
Treatment (mm)

Check 8.4az 6.5b 7.4a 9.0b 2.5 5.4b 10.3a- 2.3a 9.7a
0.1% IBA 13.3b. 8.0b 10.4a 9.6b 3.0 3.8a 32.1b 4.8b 10.8a
0.3% IBA 17.6c 3.3a 17.9b 6.1a 3.0 4.5ab 28.1b 4.2b 10.8a
0.8% IBA 12.9b 3.2a 15.2b 9.3b 5.0 4.0a 26.1b 4.8b 10.3a
ZMean separation in columns by Duncan's multiple range test, 5% level.


Table 3. Begonia x rex-cultorum leaf cutting response to IBA.

Rooting Plantlet No. of
Treatment index indexY plantlets

Check 4.1bx 4.1c 3.3a
0.1% IBA 3.7a 3.1c 3.8a
0.3% IBA 4.1b 2.4a 3.la
0.8% IBA 4.7c 2.8b 2.6a

zl=roots, 5=heavy rooting. Yl=weak, 5=extremely vigorous. XMean
separation in columns by Duncan's multiple range test, 5% level.


Table 4. IBA effect on percentage (%) of active buds when the
cuttings were lifted.

Gynura Cissus Hoya
Treatment aurantiaca antarctica carnosa

Check 90 80 50
0.1% IBA 90 60 20
0.3% IBA 50 70 40
0.8% IBA 40 10 10


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Table 2. Influence of IBA on root growth of various foliage plants.

D. marginata 0. deremensis P. scandens S. trifasciata D.
'Colorama' 'Compacta' oxycardium 'Laurentii'
Cream
No. Longest No. Longest Largest No. No. Longest
roots root roots root root roots roots root No.
(cm) (cm) diam (cm) roots
Treatment (mm)

Check 8.4az 6.5b 7.4a 9.0b 2.5 5.4b 10.3a- 2.3a 9.7a
0.1% IBA 13.3b. 8.0b 10.4a 9.6b 3.0 3.8a 32.1b 4.8b 10.8a
0.3% IBA 17.6c 3.3a 17.9b 6.1a 3.0 4.5ab 28.1b 4.2b 10.8a
0.8% IBA 12.9b 3.2a 15.2b 9.3b 5.0 4.0a 26.1b 4.8b 10.3a
ZMean separation in columns by Duncan's multiple range test, 5% level.


Table 3. Begonia x rex-cultorum leaf cutting response to IBA.

Rooting Plantlet No. of
Treatment index indexY plantlets

Check 4.1bx 4.1c 3.3a
0.1% IBA 3.7a 3.1c 3.8a
0.3% IBA 4.1b 2.4a 3.la
0.8% IBA 4.7c 2.8b 2.6a

zl=roots, 5=heavy rooting. Yl=weak, 5=extremely vigorous. XMean
separation in columns by Duncan's multiple range test, 5% level.


Table 4. IBA effect on percentage (%) of active buds when the
cuttings were lifted.

Gynura Cissus Hoya
Treatment aurantiaca antarctica carnosa

Check 90 80 50
0.1% IBA 90 60 20
0.3% IBA 50 70 40
0.8% IBA 40 10 10


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Table 2. Influence of IBA on root growth of various foliage plants.

D. marginata 0. deremensis P. scandens S. trifasciata D.
'Colorama' 'Compacta' oxycardium 'Laurentii'
Cream
No. Longest No. Longest Largest No. No. Longest
roots root roots root root roots roots root No.
(cm) (cm) diam (cm) roots
Treatment (mm)

Check 8.4az 6.5b 7.4a 9.0b 2.5 5.4b 10.3a- 2.3a 9.7a
0.1% IBA 13.3b. 8.0b 10.4a 9.6b 3.0 3.8a 32.1b 4.8b 10.8a
0.3% IBA 17.6c 3.3a 17.9b 6.1a 3.0 4.5ab 28.1b 4.2b 10.8a
0.8% IBA 12.9b 3.2a 15.2b 9.3b 5.0 4.0a 26.1b 4.8b 10.3a
ZMean separation in columns by Duncan's multiple range test, 5% level.


Table 3. Begonia x rex-cultorum leaf cutting response to IBA.

Rooting Plantlet No. of
Treatment index indexY plantlets

Check 4.1bx 4.1c 3.3a
0.1% IBA 3.7a 3.1c 3.8a
0.3% IBA 4.1b 2.4a 3.la
0.8% IBA 4.7c 2.8b 2.6a

zl=roots, 5=heavy rooting. Yl=weak, 5=extremely vigorous. XMean
separation in columns by Duncan's multiple range test, 5% level.


Table 4. IBA effect on percentage (%) of active buds when the
cuttings were lifted.

Gynura Cissus Hoya
Treatment aurantiaca antarctica carnosa

Check 90 80 50
0.1% IBA 90 60 20
0.3% IBA 50 70 40
0.8% IBA 40 10 10


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Table 5. IBA effect on stem growth.

Gynura Cissus P. scandens E. aureum
aurantiaca antarctica oxycardium
Elongating Avg. shoot Stem Stem
Treatment shoots length length length
() T(cm) (cm) (cm)
Control 60 5.7az 3.2c 4.6b
0.1% IBA 20 6.4a 1.5a 2.7a
0.3% IBA 10 3.6a 2.Ob 2.0a
0.8% IBA 10 0.3a 0.9a 2.4a

ZMean separation in columns by Duncan's multiple range test, 5% level.


Table 6. IBA effect on continuing Hedera helix shoot growth (cm).

10 days 20 days 28 days
When % % % Total Total
Treatment lifted Length inc Length inc Length inc (cm) (%)

Check 5.5bz 6.2b 12.7 8.1b 30.6 10.1b 24.7 4.6a 83.6
0.1% IBA 4.3ab 4.6ab 7.0 6.2b 34.8 9.2b 48.4 4.9a 114.0
0.3% IBA 3.8ab 4.5ab 18.4 6.5b 44.5 9.8b 51.0 5.2a 136.8
0.8% IBA 1.5a 1.6a 6.7 2.8a 75.0 5.2a 85.7 3.7a 246.7
ZMean separation in columns by Duncan's multiple range test, 5% level.


Table 7. IBA Effect on Dracaena deremensis 'Compacta'.

Height Total No. No.
(cm)z leaves leaves over
Treatment visible half grown

Check 22.3ay 19.6a 14.2a
0.1% IBA 22.6a 19.8a 15.0a
0.3% IBA 21.8a 21.4ab 15.8ab
0.8% IBA 24.5b 26.0b 20.4b
ZHeight measured from the attachment of the lowest leaf to
the tip of the highest with leaves folded vertically.
Mean separation in columns by Duncan's multiple range test,
5% level.


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Table 5. IBA effect on stem growth.

Gynura Cissus P. scandens E. aureum
aurantiaca antarctica oxycardium
Elongating Avg. shoot Stem Stem
Treatment shoots length length length
() T(cm) (cm) (cm)
Control 60 5.7az 3.2c 4.6b
0.1% IBA 20 6.4a 1.5a 2.7a
0.3% IBA 10 3.6a 2.Ob 2.0a
0.8% IBA 10 0.3a 0.9a 2.4a

ZMean separation in columns by Duncan's multiple range test, 5% level.


Table 6. IBA effect on continuing Hedera helix shoot growth (cm).

10 days 20 days 28 days
When % % % Total Total
Treatment lifted Length inc Length inc Length inc (cm) (%)

Check 5.5bz 6.2b 12.7 8.1b 30.6 10.1b 24.7 4.6a 83.6
0.1% IBA 4.3ab 4.6ab 7.0 6.2b 34.8 9.2b 48.4 4.9a 114.0
0.3% IBA 3.8ab 4.5ab 18.4 6.5b 44.5 9.8b 51.0 5.2a 136.8
0.8% IBA 1.5a 1.6a 6.7 2.8a 75.0 5.2a 85.7 3.7a 246.7
ZMean separation in columns by Duncan's multiple range test, 5% level.


Table 7. IBA Effect on Dracaena deremensis 'Compacta'.

Height Total No. No.
(cm)z leaves leaves over
Treatment visible half grown

Check 22.3ay 19.6a 14.2a
0.1% IBA 22.6a 19.8a 15.0a
0.3% IBA 21.8a 21.4ab 15.8ab
0.8% IBA 24.5b 26.0b 20.4b
ZHeight measured from the attachment of the lowest leaf to
the tip of the highest with leaves folded vertically.
Mean separation in columns by Duncan's multiple range test,
5% level.


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Table 5. IBA effect on stem growth.

Gynura Cissus P. scandens E. aureum
aurantiaca antarctica oxycardium
Elongating Avg. shoot Stem Stem
Treatment shoots length length length
() T(cm) (cm) (cm)
Control 60 5.7az 3.2c 4.6b
0.1% IBA 20 6.4a 1.5a 2.7a
0.3% IBA 10 3.6a 2.Ob 2.0a
0.8% IBA 10 0.3a 0.9a 2.4a

ZMean separation in columns by Duncan's multiple range test, 5% level.


Table 6. IBA effect on continuing Hedera helix shoot growth (cm).

10 days 20 days 28 days
When % % % Total Total
Treatment lifted Length inc Length inc Length inc (cm) (%)

Check 5.5bz 6.2b 12.7 8.1b 30.6 10.1b 24.7 4.6a 83.6
0.1% IBA 4.3ab 4.6ab 7.0 6.2b 34.8 9.2b 48.4 4.9a 114.0
0.3% IBA 3.8ab 4.5ab 18.4 6.5b 44.5 9.8b 51.0 5.2a 136.8
0.8% IBA 1.5a 1.6a 6.7 2.8a 75.0 5.2a 85.7 3.7a 246.7
ZMean separation in columns by Duncan's multiple range test, 5% level.


Table 7. IBA Effect on Dracaena deremensis 'Compacta'.

Height Total No. No.
(cm)z leaves leaves over
Treatment visible half grown

Check 22.3ay 19.6a 14.2a
0.1% IBA 22.6a 19.8a 15.0a
0.3% IBA 21.8a 21.4ab 15.8ab
0.8% IBA 24.5b 26.0b 20.4b
ZHeight measured from the attachment of the lowest leaf to
the tip of the highest with leaves folded vertically.
Mean separation in columns by Duncan's multiple range test,
5% level.


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