| Material Information
||Aglaonema hybridization guide
||ARC-A research report
||2 p. : ; 28 cm.
||Henny, R. J
Rasmussen, Eleanor M
Central Florida Research and Education Center--Apopka
||University of Florida, IFAS, Agricultural Research Center-Apopka
||Place of Publication:
||Aglaonema -- Growth -- Florida ( lcsh )
Foliage plants -- Growth -- Florida ( lcsh )
||government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent) ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
||Statement of Responsibility:
||R.J. Henny and E.M. Rasmussen.
||Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.
Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
AGLAONEMA HYBRIDIZATION GUIDE
R. J. Henny and E. M. Rasmussen NUvE LIBRARY
University of Florida, IFAS
Agricultural Research Center-Apopka ) 9 '. 33
ARC-A Research Report RH-82-16
.F.A.S Univ. of Florida
Aglaonemas are an important group of foliage plants because they Tifstad--
interior growing conditionsbetter than many other plants. Commercial cultivars of
Aglaonema generally have green, bluish-green or grey foliage which may be marked
with lighter grey or silver patterns. Petioles may be green, mottled green and
ivory, or ivory colored. In general, algaonemas are considered to be relatively
slow growing and small to moderate in size.
Some of the objectives of the plant breeding program at the Agricultural
Research Center Apopka include development of new Aglaonema cultivars with
increased vigor, larger size, and novel foliar or petiole colors. However,
different chromosome numbers, variable flowering times, dichogamy and apomixis are
all characteristic of Aglaonema which serve to hinder breeding efforts. In spite
of those difficulties, several important Aglaonema hybrids have been developed by
nurserymen and hobbyists previously including: 'Silver King', 'Silver Queen',
Fransher' and 'Parrot Jungle'. The purpose of this report is to describe the
techniques of Aglaonema hybridization at ARC-Apopka and hopefully encourage other
people to attempt crosses on their own. A list of aglaonemas useful for breeding
is also included (Table 1).
Aglaonema stock plants are grown in a medium consisting of 2 parts Florida
peat moss, 1 part cypress shavings and 1 part pine bark by volume. This basic
medium is amended with 7 lbs dolomite, 3 lbs Peri and 10 lbs Osmocot'B (19-6-12)
per cubic yard. They are grown either in greenhouses or slat sheds with light
intensities of 800-1500 foot-candles and temperatures ranging from 65-950F. Under
these conditions, Aglaonema tend to flower from April through July.
The Aglaonema inflorescence is made up of a spadix and a spathe. The spadix
consists of an upright central axis covered with several minute petalless flowers.
Staminate (male) flowers cover the upper half of the spadix and pistillate
(female) flowers are located on the basal half. Pistillate flowers consist of a
stigma, style and ovary, while the staminate flowers are made up of the anther and
filament and produce pollen. Pollination involves transfer of pollen from
selected staminate flowers to stigmas of selected pistillate flowers.
The spathe covers the spadix until anthesis (the day of flower opening) at
which time it unfurls and exposes the staminate portion of the spadix. Whenever
possible the inflorescence should be pollinated the same day as the spathe unfurls.
Usually the spathe unfurls during the night, so flowering plants should be checked
each morning for newly opened inflorescences; subsequent pollination may be made
at any time during the day of anthesis.
It is desirable to use freshly collected pollen for use in pollination;
indications are that Aglaonema pollen will only survive a few days in storage,
even at 40F.
When making a pollination, a camel hair brush may be used to pick up
pollen and transfer it to the stigmatic surface of pistillate flowers. The
brush will pick up pollen easier if it is first brushed lightly across the
moist sticky surface of the stigma. The stigmatic surfaces of the pistillate
flowers may be identified by their golden yellow color. Following a successful
pollination, the pistillate flowers (now actually a fruit) will begin to
enlarge and turn dark green. In 4-5 months following pollination the fruits
turn bright red and should be harvested.
The fleshy red seed coat should be removed soon after harvest and the seed
planted before it shows any signs of drying. As an extra precaution, cleaned
seeds can be soaked in 10% Clorox for 10 minutes followed by a similar dip in a
benomyl solution. Seeds are then placed in small plastic trays in a shallow
depression made in a moistened medium consisting of 1 part peat moss and 1 part
perlite, by volume and amended with 3 Ibs dolomite and 1 lb Perk per cubic yard.
Each container is enclosed with a plastic bag to maintain the high relative
humidity around the seeds. The trays are placed under fluorescent lights which
are on 12 hours daily in a growth room held at 800F. Any environment which keeps
the seeds warm and moist and provides some light should yield excellent germinat-
tion. Once the seeds have germinated (after 4-8 weeks) and at least one leaf has
matured, the plastic cover is removed and seedlings are transferred to the green-
house. When seedlings have produced 4-5 leaves they are transplanted into 4-inch
pots containing the same medium used for germination. Seedlings are finally
repotted into 6-inch pots using our normal 2:1:1 medium.
Aglaonema hybrids display their mature foliar variegation pattern in the
first leaf which shortens the waiting period for determining which hybrids are
Table 1. A listing of Aglaonema
Species or cultivars
commutatum var. picturatum
crispum 'Chartreuse Halo'
ZNomenclature based on:
1980. 64 pp.
species and cultivars that may be useful
Desirable traits for breeding
vigor, foliar color
petiole color (pink)
large leaf size, vigor
round leaf shape, compact growth
red foliar color, round leaves
foliar color, dwarf
foliar color, dwarf
foliar markings (stripes)
foliar color, vigor, suckering
foliar color, large size
Aglaonema Grower's Notebook, by R. N. Jerris.