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Full Text


awards a Viable Development



VOLUME 9, NUMBER 5 MAY 28, 1974


for the Caribbean

DENIS G. CAR TER is currently a Ph.D. candidate in economics at the University of Florida. He is a native of Jamaica and has worked on several development projects in Jamaica.

VINOD VYASULU recently completed a Ph.D. in Economics at the University of Florida. He holds the B.A. (Honors) and M.A. degrees from the University' of Delhi and has taught economics at the Universidad de las A mericas in Pueblo, Mexico. He also worked as a statistician/economist in the Bahamian Ministry of Tourism in Nassau. He recently returned to India, where he joined the Pacultv of the Indian Institute of Management, Bangalore.

The countries of the Caribbean have suffered the ravages of Portuguese, Spanish, English, French, and Dutch colonization over the last four hundred years. Colonialism depopulate Aand repopulated the area to suit its exploitative fancy. Today, in the post-colonial era, the situation is not much different despite the material trappings of well-lit tropical plazas and the national and international comments regarding the astonishing success of "such and such" a country's economic development plan. It is our intention to show how economic stagnation has been disguised as economic development. Unlike "Broadway critics", we will suggest an alternative approach to economic development in the Caribbean.
Unfortunately,. because of space limitations, we are forced to omit much of the theoretical and empirical work which has gone into the formulation of this developmental approach. However, we will attempt to present all relevant conclusions of our prior working models.
At present, there is scarcely a Caribbean country which does not possess a four, five, or ten year development plan. If one were to consider only the national dominions (independent countries), then one would discover that all such countries have a development plan. Development plans are fairly essential for underdeveloped countries. Surveys by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) have shown a positive correlation between economic development planning and changes in a country's economic growth. These plans, however, concern themselves with government allocation of development funds (from whatever source), primarily to urban industrial investment. This is not to deny that there are

minor allocations made to rural development. Such practices are based, in our opinion, on the fallacious development theories of this century. Economic advisers and planners are implementing that which the theorists have told them is best, but in so doing, they have unconsciously perpetuated the cycle of underdevelopment which has plagued the Caribbean ever since 1492.
Not until the last two centuries has serious consideration been given to the economic development of people. Adam Smith's exhortation to concentrate on large scale division of labor encouraged other theorists to turn to areas where this principle could best be applied. It is simple to deduce from this that the factory system and mass-production technology became the pet of growth oriented governments. Development planners were advised to industrialize as much as possible. If there was a shortage of capital they could follow the leading sector approach. This theory holds that initial development efforts should be concentrated in one industrial sector, which would then play the role of leader in the economy, since its economic returns and expansion would disseminate throughout the economy, creating positive externalities and spurring the other sectors to develop.
W.W. Rostow and, to some extent, P. Rosenstein Rodan advocate increasing a country's capital investment and capital formation until the economy attains the point of "take-off". At this point the economy breaks out of slow development into rapid development, the initial stage of self-sustaining growth. A simple analogy to this concept is the take-off of an airplane. Initially, the plane consumes more fuel in relation to the distance travelled. As soon as it gathers sufficient speed, it can "take off" into self-sustained flight. In flight, the need for fuel becomes less in relation to the distance travelled, and the plane can fly on its own resources at a much faster rate.


Most recent theorists have advocated capital formation with a view to an import substitution developmental approach. The rationale is that underdeveloped countries usually import most of their processed goods (as opposed to raw materials) from more developed countries. These goods, since they are relatively more costly than raw goods, force the underdeveloped countries, which usually produce raw materials, into unfavorable terms of trade, and balance of payments deficits. The import substitution approach finds that economic development can best occur if the underdeveloped countries begin to manufacture more of their needed goods at home. The result, however, is that
underdeveloped countries following this approach merely copy the structure of the manufacturing sector of the more developed countries. Such a structure is totally unsuitable for underdeveloped economies, which abound in unskilled labor, and lack capital markets and an industrial infra-structure.
The implication of such theories of development is that the road to economic development is:
1) increased capital investment
2) the accumulation of capital
3) a resulting increase in productivity (GNP) and employment
4) a resulting increase in national income
5) a population attainment of a higher level of social welfare.
As W. Arthur Lewis has pointed out, development programs of this type do more to stagnate the Caribbean economies than to develop them. They perpetuate the poverty, ill-health, malnutrition, and discontent of the people. They leave the masses of unemployed in a worse situation since increased output is achieved by increasing the capital-output ratio at the expense of the jobless, who flock into the urban-industrial areas seeking status jobs, better wages, and city lights. The inevitable result is overcrowding, unsanitary living conditions, social diseases, increased criminal activity, and social and political unrest. Whatever increase there is in GNP often shows up in the portfolios of the landed class. This is not detrimental to the underdeveloped countries "a priori", but often the landed-classes' portfolios consist of little local consumption and local investment, and rather significant portion of foreign expenditure and high-yield investment. In the meantime, these "enclaves of modernity" (isolated urban-industrial areas) become a monument of neo-colonialism to the underdeveloped people. The initial investment has dried up, unemployment and discontent are rampant, and the massive burden of imported inflation grips the economy.
Development programs of this nature often ignore the demand aspects of the economy and concentrate on merely providing for an

Cost, Price


Average Cost

7----- b________01 02 Commodity Output


increase of the supply of goods and services. Too little research is devoted to demand analysis prior to planning proposals. It is not surprising that a majority of the Caribbean countries possess an excess capacity problem. The problem is basically one of inefficient production.
As shown in Illustration 1, industries commonly operate with a U-shaped average cost curve. If an industry is producing efficiently, it will operate at point a on the average cost curve where the quantity produced is Q2 at a price of Pl. At this point, the industry is minimizing its costs. Whereas capital equipment purchased by the underdeveloped country from a more developed country is often designed to operate efficiently in the latter country in terms of that country's demand, the demand in the Caribbean is frequently less than, or different from, that of its more developed counterpart. It should be kept in mind that Caribbean industrialization was (and is) simply the transferral of the capital and technology designed for the comparatively huge U.S., Japanese, and West European markets. Accordingly, Caribbean industries often end up operating at point b. At this point, a smaller quantity, QI, is produced at a higher price, P2. This situation can be tolerated if there are no further effects, but this is seldom the case.

A further problem arising out of the ignorance of demand in developmental planning is that of excessive duplication. Is it because of competitionor faulty planning that there are so many subsidized industries in the underdeveloped countries of the Caribbean? The application of faulty planning which disregards effective demand perpetuates a cycle of inefficient production, a burden on the public sector, the mis-allocation of resources, and no real improvement in the production and consumption sectors of the economy.

Economists must break away from the tradition of narrowly defined analytical models. Economic development must be viewed from a systemic perspective. We cannot afford to construct plans for one Caribbean economy while pretending that the entire region and the rest of the trading world does not affect, or is not affected by, such planning. We can no longer maintain the above mentioned concepts of development and blame fate and the political moods of the times for the Caribbean's economic stagnation.
Economic development means a qualitative change of the economic system as opposed to the quantitative change connoted by the concepts of economic growth. Certainly, under current development plans the Caribbean countries will experience quantitative growth, but they may simultaneously regress rather than develop. It is possible, as was the case during the 1960's, to increase a country's Gross National Product, absolute level of employment, and monetary stability, while a smaller percentage of the population is provided with adequate food, clothing, and shelter. This is the fallacy of a quantitative concept of economic development, whereby development is judged according to the size of the economic system.

A qualitative systemic approach means changing the variables of the system as well as changing the systemic structure so that the "remodelled" system is preferred to the original. The Economic System, as shown in Illustration II, is composed of three interrelated sub-systems: production, consumption, and organization. These Economic sub-systems are a function of a set of Institutional Systems: communicational, cultural, educational, health, monetary, and political. The Institutional Systems are in turn determined by certain variables peculiar to each system, as well as the interaction of these variables. For example, the variable, nutrition, is a primary determinant of the health system, but also plays a role in the educational system.

Each country possesses a certain allocation of factors of production: namely land (which includes mineral deposits and other natural assets), labor (generally referring to the volume and types of human productivity), capital (any non-human source of productivity), and entrepreneurial potential (inventive, uniquely talented, and charismatic people). Given this allocation, a country will mould its Economic System according to its Institutional Systems (cf. Illus. II). In light of this, economic development means changing the relationships of the variables of the Institutional Systems and altering the structure of the Institutional Systems. The result is a qualitative chance of the Economic sub-systems and thus, the Economic System. It is therefore possible to place the economy on a preferred (better) social welfare level without increasing Gross National Product.

The Caribbean countries must undertake a remodelling of their Economic and Institutional Systems. Some areas demanding special attention are:
1. Cultural Institutional sub-systems must be altered to dignify labor, native productivity, and the non-Westernized Caribbean man and woman.
2. The Caribbean version of the European liberal educational system must be changed to a more practical, vocational-oriented one. Innovative education in organizing and conducting business ventures must be increased. This will aid in the redistribution of "commercial power" and its accompanying income.
3. Basic health and nutritional education must be introduced at the primary educational level.
4. Economic evaluation should be made of taxation programs, government business regulations and incentives, local industry protection and subsidization policies, foreign investment regulation, labor regulations, and land reforms. Government, as the Leadership system, has to incorporate changes whereby economic resources are properly valued: labor should receive a proportional share of output corresponding to its input; mineral resources should be valued by sound economic methods rather than by the arbitrary action of self-interest groups. Governments' efforts to develop Caribbean tourism must take into account the impact tourism will have on the other sub-systems of the economy.
5. A move must be made towards improving intra-Caribbean communications with less duplication of services.
6. Intra-Caribbean education should be increased.
7. A Caribbean Clearing House should be established to collate and disseminate multi-disciplinary Caribbean research.

8. Governments should move to strengthen their support of such trade and monetary organizations as the Latin American Free Trade Association, the Caribbean Free Trade Association, the Central American Common Market, the Caribbean Development Bank, and the Inter-American Development Bank. Such action should be geared towards the eventual development and expansion of trade, stabilization of Caribbean currencies in relationship to each other, and establishment of an effective common pool of credit.
9. Many benefits would be derived from the establishment and utilization of an inter-Caribbean organization of resource personnel. These experts in a variety of fields would be available to governments for problem analysis and remedial consultation.

Our suggested approach for developing the economies of the Caribbean is neither entirely unique nor unknown. Despite this fact we are fully into the United Nations' Second Development Decade without seeing significant developmental changes in the welfare of the Caribbean people. It is difficult to perceive why economic planners have not broken away from the conventional approaches which have led to isolated pockets of modernity as well as the perpetuation of a dual society an elite class and a have-not class.
We have argued that the viable alternative is the effectuation of qualitative systemic changes in the structure of the Caribbean economies. Such changes are rooted in the improvement of the welfare of the masses rather than the unrealistic growth of aggregate economic indicators.


-Transportation -Work Ethic
-Audial -Social Customs

-Liberal -Nutrition
-Business -Disease
-Vocational -Population

-Money -Laws

-Foreign Exchange
-Local and International

-Social Representation
-Social Stability





B. Higgins, Economic Development, New
York: W.W. Norton and Co. Revised
edition, 1968.
P.E. Koefod, "Comparative Systemic
Conditions for Economic Growth.
Unpublished paper presented at the annual meeting of the Southern Economic Association, 1971.

W.A. Lewis, Theory of Economic Growth.
London: Oxford University Press, 1967.

G.M. Meier (ed.), Leading Issues In
Development Economics. New York: Oxford University Press, Second edition,

V. Vyasulu, "Economic Analysis and
Baran-development." Unpublished PhD.
dissertation, University of Florida, 1974.

C.K. Wilber (ed.), The Political Economy
of Development and Underdevelopment.
New York: Random House, 1973.

Race Relations in Southern Brazil:

The Porto Alegre Experience

The speaker at the Coloquium of April 4, 1974 was Dr. Leslie B. Rout, Jr., Associate Professor of History at Michigan State University. Dr. Rout received his Ph.D. in History from the University of Minnesota and has published several books and articles. He has been a frequent visitor to Brazil and has lectured extensively on the topic of comparative race relations in Brazil and the United States. Currently, Dr. Rout is completing work on the manuscript of a book on the Black man in Spanish America. He has recently returned from Southern Brazil where he has been conducting research on race relations in Porto Alegre.

In various of his works, such as Brazil: An Interpretation, (1945), Gilberto Freyre has suggested that racial prejudice was either insignificant or nonexistent in Brazil. What might be interpreted as race and/or color prejudice, he insisted, was in reality, class prejudice.
Since that time, Brazilian sociological students such as Oracy Nogueira, Florestan Fernandes, Octavio lanni, and Fernando Henriques Cordozo, have demonstrated that whatever the veracity of Freyre's views in regard to northeastern Brazil, conditions in the towns and cities of the southeast are quite different. Race and color are often decisive elements here, and the darker a person happens to be, the more likelihood of his suffering from discriminatory pressures.
In the far south of Brazil, specifically the state of Rio Grande do Sul, a comprehensive study of racial conditions in the post-slavery era has never been conducted. This failure is of more than passing importance, since as early as 1910 writers like Sir Harry Johnston (The Negro In the New World) pointed out that racial barriers in southern Brazil were much more prevalent than in other regions of the country.
Leslie Rout previously visited Brazil in 1962, 1965, and 1970. Since a newspaper in 19'/0 had presented his views on racial questions in Brazil (0 Globo, March 1970), he decided to return to the area, not simply to study racial relations, but to discover, if

possible, what were the basic reactions of Afro-Brazilians in Porto Alegre to the existing racial conditions.
The most surprising factor, in many respects, was to discover that hair styles, insignias, and dress which originally at least were expressions of Afro-American racial-awareness, were being copied by young blacks and mulattoes in Porto Alegre. There also existed a vague understanding of the socio-political significance of these fashions (i.e., black is beautiful). In particular, the younger black and mulatto university students did not hesitate to speak of the discriminatory situations which they encountered in Rio Grande. A small number of these belonged to study groups, the major intention being to encourage the study of Afro-Brazilian history by Afro-Brazilians. Such activities were not nearly so common among the young Afro-Brazilians who did not attend the universities, but on several occasions, Professor Rout was stopped by such young people on the street and asked if he could supply them with Afro-combs, copies of Ebony magazine, and works by W.E.B. DuBois, Martin Luther King, Kwame Nkrumah, and other men of African ancestry with political and literary reputations.
It would appear that an understanding of racial situations in Brazil has always revolved around the societal conception of the mulatto. In the northeast for example, blacks could not count on any special

consideration, but mulattoes with "good" (i.e., straight) hair, caucasian features, and powerful familial connections could count themselves as "'white." Moreover, those classified as mulatto in Bahia, Pernambuco, and some other areas of the northeast, represented the largest single racial group in population. Short of constant uprisings (like the mulatto-led plot of 1798 in Bahia), some accommodation for the lightest-skinned of these people and those who somehow succeeded economically was a societal necessity.
In the south of Brazil, however, the number of blacks and mulattoes is not nearly as great. Furthermore, European immigration has been significant so that one encounters surprising numbers of persons with Nordic (as opposed to Latin or Mediterranean) features. Moreover, in Porto Alegre, one finds white as well as black maids, cooks, and household help. Given the large number of unquestioned whites, plus the fact that there is competition for jobs even on the lowest strata between whites and colored, to be a mulatto in Porto Alegre is no advantage. As one fair-skinned young mulatto lady with straight hair put it: "Here, a man can go out and get a real blonde; attempting to 'pass for white' is thus a meaningless exercise. "
This kind of situation will no doubt tend to spur the growth of racial consciousness on the part of the resident Afro-Brazilian population in the southern part of Brazil.


Modernization for Emigration:

The Argentine Brain Drain

Dr. Alejandro Portes, Associate Professor of Sociology and Associate Director, Institute of Latin American Studies, University of Texas, Austin, Texas, received his Ph.D. in Sociology from the University of Wisconsin in 1970. He has written over 30 articles in the last five years covering a wide range of topics and has had extensive experience in various national and international programs. Dr. Portes' current research interests include assimilation of foreign minorities into U.S. society and the political consequences of urbanization in Latin America. His presentation at the Colloquium on April 24 was based on exploratory social psychological research carried out at the Di Tella Institute in Argentina last year.

There is little doubt that the "brain drain" is one of the most sensitive issues between poor. underdeveloped countries and developed countries. Research carried out on this problem in Argentina was performed to complement the descriptive level of aggregate conditions and to cope with certain contradictions, most notably the argument that emigration occurs as a result of an ambition for higher paying jobs. In Argentina, emigration of professionals represents less than 7 per cent of Argentina's university graduates. The data indicate that Argentine emigration to the U.S. has diminished in the last two years, and that the emigration of professionals from Western Europe represents a higher percentage of university graduates migrating to the U.S. than those from Argentina. Physicians were selected as the study group of professional emigrants since they represent the most numerically important group of emigrants from Argentina to the U.S. The study was performed on a qualitative basis, and all data were drawn from interviews with 60 physicians, 30 of whom were emigrating.
The decision to emigrate is not a single, final, rational decision, but is based on a sequence of progressive decisions. All the physicians interviewed noted the difficulty of practicing "good" medicine in Argentina. Hospital practice is preferred, but admission to hospital centers in Argentina is very difficult, and as a result young doctors are almost forced into private practice. The severity of professional competition in Buenos Aires forces young doctors into considering the alternative of emigration, or of practicing medicine in the interior provinces of the country.
Most physicians were not economically ambitious. They held middle class values and desired stability, not quantity, of economic rewards. It is not possible, however, for the young physician to attain these goals in Buenos Aires. It is believed that by practicing medicine in the interior, however, a young doctor can attain his economic goals. The need for medical personnel in the interior is also recognized, but there is no desire to go to the interior because "empirical" medicine, not "good" medicine, is practiced there. Thus attainment of economic aspirations goes against professional aspirations. This dilemma is solved by emigration.
The attitudes toward emigration are determined by an interplay between an emphasis on scientific innovation the dominant attitude and nationalistic values. The desire for scientific innovation does not recognize national limitations. In other words, the conditions that facilitate the physician to do his work as he should are the key determinants. If these conditions do not exist. then the country must take the blame for causing emigration by not being able to satisfy the scientist. No guilt is felt by the departing physician. Nationalistic values, presently the minority viewpoint, are clearly defined as having a responsibility to the

country. Collective orientation is important in that the individual's improvement is sacrificed in favor of collective goals. and emigration is viewed as a betrayal of the country. Although this attitude is held by a minority at present, it is possible that it will become more popular and, through it, pressure will build against emigration.
Reference groups play a key role in influencing the decision to emigrate. The family often exerts influential pressure on the young professional. More established colleagues act as an information source. Most important in this group are those physicians who have emigrated to the U.S. and returned. Their opinions are taken seriously and diffused widely throughout the ranks of the professionals. The young physician's peer group will either endorse the scientific value attitude, thus supporting emigration, or reject it.
Three subjective imbalances faced by the young physician are important factors leading to the decision of whether or not to emigrate. They are:
1. The high education investment in medicine vs. the low income once practice begins.
2. The high quality of training and training facilities vs. the low quality of practice conditions.
3. The high imput by the student of efforts into training vs. the decreasing prestige of physicians in Argentina.
These conditions lead to the realization that the high income possibility of work in the United States is not the key determinant in emigration. The search in emigration is not a search for high salaries, but a search for less contradictory settings for practicing a profession.
To conclude: The process of professional emigration depends more on the external push factors than on the internal pull. The key dynamic is the changing status of the profession and the contradiction between training and practice. The attraction magnet plays a secondary role. with the receiving country acting as a willing receptacle of professional emigrants, providing opportunities that soothe their frustrations.
There is a curious affinity between modernization and the "brain drain" problem. The training of physicians from developing countries in the institutions of developed countries may be detrimental to the developing countries, since this training is not geared to the needs of actual practice in developing countries, where the physicians are expected to practice. The values. goals. and life styles implanted during training in Buenos Aires or abroad are often not related to the real situtation in the home country. The "brain drain' problem, while a manifestation of the problem between developed and developing areas, can be solved by the home government generating a coherent policy concerning training and practice.

Dominican Republic Coffee Atlas to result from

Cooperative Research Project

A cooperative research project aimed at preparing a Coffee Atlas of the Dominican Republic has been undertaken jointly by the Center for Latin American Studies and the Department ot Coffee and Cacao, Ministry of Agriculture, Dominican Republic. The project aims at providing national planners with the information required to undertake integrated rural development in the Dominican Republic and to provide for a rational use of its natural resources. The Atlas will furnish information concerning key agronomic, ecologic, social, and economic characteristics that influence the actual production of coffee in the Dominican Republic.

The project which is financed by the Dominican government, will be coordinated with the Bani' Computer-Assisted Cartographic Research Project, a cooperative effort recently initiated by the Center for Latin American Studies and the Geographic Research Institute of the Autonomous University of Santo Domingo. This latter project is being carried out under the auspices of the Tinker Foundation of New York. Research personnel from the Center of Latin American Studies' Cartographic Research Laboratory currently engaged in the Bani project, headed by Dr. Gustavo A. Antonini, Associate Professor of Geography and Latin American Studies, will assist the Cartographic Unit of the National Statistics Office (ONE) of the Dominican Republic in the preparation of a Coffee Atlas by providing professional advice in programming, planning, compiling, and designing the coffee agricultural maps. Two members of the ONE Cartographic Unit will be trained at the Center for Latin American Studies' Cartographic Research Laboratory at the University of Florida over a period of 12 weeks in the cartographic techniques that will be needed in order to supervise the eventual completion of the project in the Dominican Republic.

The Center's research team currently conducting the Bani'project, has initiated a pilot study entitled "A Cartographic Analysis of the Bani' Ocoa-San Cristobal Coffee-Producing Regions." The study of the pilot area, one of eight major coffee

producing regions in the Dominican Republic, will be carried out through the use of data from the Agriculture Census of 1971, the Population Census of 1970, and various other relevant, completed studies. Scheduled for completion by June, 1974, the pilot study will serve as a basis for the future computer-assisted mapping analyses of the other coffee producing regions in the country.

The maps of the Atlas, which will be published at a scale of 1:50,000, will provide basic information on distribution, age, yield, and density of coffee plantations in the Republic, and some type of yet unspecified indicator of physical resource constraints on coffee production, along with an update of such cultural information as schools, roads, and highways.

Endowment for Jose? Marti

Studies Established

The Jos6 Marti Foundation has announced the establishment of an endowment for the study of Jose Marti at the University of Florida. The fund, designated as the Manuel Pedro Gonzdlez Endowment for Jose' Marti Studies at the Universtiy of Florida is intended for use in the promotion of research and academic activities dealing with the life and works of Jose' Marti'. Administration of the endowment will rest in the hands of an Academic Advisory Committee consisting of three members. The committee will have as its permanent member the person occupying the position of Director, Center for Latin American Studies at the University of Florida. Initially this will be Dr. William E. Carter, the current Director of the Center for Latin American Studies. Dr. Ivan A. Schulman, Graduate Research Professor of Latin American Literature, University of Florida, and Dr. Josef Olivio Jimenez of Hunter College, City University of New York, will be the members of the committee. Dr. Manuel Pedro Gonzalez, Professor Emeritus, University of California, will serve as an Ex Officio member of the committee during his lifetime.
The funds of the endowment will be used for the following types of programs and studies:
a. Symposia or colloquia, national and international, dealing with specific aspects of Marti's works, or the relationship of his works or ideas to those of other Latin American writers or philosophers.
b. Special lectures by distinguished national or international figures.
c. Support or awards in connection with Marti' studies, for promising graduate students at the M.A. and Ph.D. level, or for junior faculty members at the University of Florida.
d. Publication subsidies to gather in a single volume significant papers of colloquia, symposia, or special lectures dealing with the life and works of Jose' Marti, or for book length manuscripts on Marti submitted to the University of Florida Press.
The Academic Advisory Committee will be able to draw on the yearly earnings of the Endowment in order to finance activities and studies related to the program. After the year 2000 A.D., the objectives and performance of the Endowment shall be reviewed to determine whether revisions should be made. For additional information write to: Director, Center for Latin American Studies, 319 Grinter Hall, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611.

T. Lynn Smith Retires in June

Dr. T. Lynn Smith, Graduate Research Professor of Sociology at the University of Florida, will retire this June after 43 years of teaching and research. He has had a most distinguished career that spans many years and thousands of miles and that has made him one of the best known specialists on Latin America in the United States.
Dr. Smith began his professional career at Lousiana State University in 1931 after receiving his Ph.D. in Sociology from the University of Minnesota. At LSU he helped develop, and eventually became head of its Sociology Department. From 1947 to 1949, Dr. Smith served as professor and head of the Sociology Department at Vanderbilt University. He founded and was director of the Institute of Brazilian Studies at Vanderbilt. In 1949, he joined the faculty at the University of Florida and for a time was chairman of the Department of Sociology. Many of his students, such a Jos6 Artur Rios of Brazil and Orlando Fals Borda of Colombia, as well as many North Americans, are now leaders in Latin American sociology.
In 1942, Dr. Smith went to Brazil as Agricultural Attache to the U.S. Embassy. He returned to Brazil in 1952 on a mission from the U.S. Department of Agriculture, to serve as an advisor to the Brazilian Government on agrarian reform. In 1944-45 he was advisor to the government of Colombia on colonization and settlement. He has returned to these two countries many times and has travelled extensively throughout Latin America.
Dr. Smith has been a most prolific writer. He has published over 30 books including: text books in sociology and

Notes &

After four years at the University of Florida, Dr. John T. Reid, Associate Professor of Spanish, will retire from teaching this June. Before coming to the University of Florida, Dr. Reid spent 20 years in the United States Foreign Service as Cultural Attache' to Cuba, Venezuela, Argentina, and Spain. Dr. Reid received his Ph.D. in Romance Languages and Literature from Stanford University in 1936. He has taught at Duke University, UCLA, and Stanford University. Retire-

demography, some 18 monographs, 50 chapters in various publications, and almost 200 articles. In 1970, some of his most important essays were brought together by Anchor Press in a volume entitled Studies of Latin American Societies. In the Field of Latin American studies, Dr. Smith is perhaps best known for his two books Colombia: Social Structure and the Process of'Development and Brazil, People and Institutions. This latter book is now in its fourth edition and is universally recognized as one of the most comprehensive books on Brazil in the English language. Many of Dr. Smith's publications have been translated into Portuguese and Spanish.
He has been honored many times for his scholary work and for his teaching. He has been a Guggenheim Fellow. He received the Outstanding Achievement Award from the University of Minnesota. He was decorated by the Brazilian government with the Order of the Southern Cross. He was given honorary doctoral degrees by the University of Brazil (Rio de Janeiro) in 1946 and by the University of Sio Paulo (Brazil) in 1949.
During the meetings of the Southern Sociological Association in Atlanta recently, a dinner was given in his honor by Dr. Smith's former students and colleagues. The Latin American Faculty of the University of Florida also gave a dinner in Dr. Smith's honor on June 6th. Dr. Samuel Schulman, Professor of Sociology, University of Houston, a former student of Dr. Smith, gave the principal address.
Retirement for T. Lynn Smith seems to mean that he will have more time for his

ment will give Dr. Reid the opportunity to complete work on his book on artistic and symbolic nationalism in Latin America. In the near future his book Spanish A merican Images of the United States will be published by the University of Florida Press.
Dr. Cornelis Ch. Goslinga, Professor of Latin American History, presented a paper entitled "Colonial Architecture in the Vice
Kingdom of New Granada" at the Institute of Latin American Studies, University of Alabama. Dr. Goslinga also attended the Convention of Caribbean Historians April 4-9 in Puerto Rico.
The Center for Latin American Studies and the Federation of Cuban Students presented an art exhibition at the Grinter


scholarly activities. He currently has four books underway and has almost completed the editing of another. To Dr. T. Lynn Smith, renowned rural sociologist, expert on Brazilian and Colombian culture, long-time student of population demographics, and university teacher, the faculty, students, and staff of the Center wish all the best for a long and productive retirement.

Hall Gallery from April 21 to May 3. The exhibition, entitled "GALA 5 Exhibition," featured the works of Rosana McAllister, Osvaldo Gutie'rrez, Jose' Mijares, Enrique Riveron, Baruh Salinas, and Rafael Sorinano.
Dr. Eugene Witkopf, Assistant Professor of Political Science, and Mr. Clement Bezold and Ms. Elizabeth Ferris, graduate students in Political Science, presented a paper entitled "Issues and Issue-Areas in Latin American Foreign Policy" at the 15th Annual Convention of the International Studies Association in St. Louis, Missouri, on March 21, 1974. This paper represents the second research report of LATINS (Latin American Transaction/Interaction Survey).



Dr. T. Lynn Smith. Graduate Research Professor of Sociology, presented a paper entitled "Agricultural Development in Colombia Since 1940: An Autobiographical Account with Accompanying Documents" at the Conference on Modern Colombia held at the University of Alabama in March.
Dr. Frank Traina, Assistant Professor of Sociology, attended a Scholar-Diplomat Seminar for Latin American Affairs in Washington, D.C., sponsored by the Department of State on March 25-29.
Dr. David Bushnell, Professor of History, has been elected Vice-Chairman of the Conference on Latin American History for 1974 (and thus Chairman-elect for 1975). Just three years ago Dr. Lyle McAlister, Professor of History, was elected to the same position. For the Center for Latin American Studies to provide the presiding officer of U.S. Latin American historians twice in so short a period is an honored recognition.
The Brazilian film, "A Compadecida," was shown on April 10 to interested Brazilianists. The showing was sponsored by the Brazilian-Portuguese Club, the Department of Romance Languages, and the Center for Latin American Studies.
Dr. Raymond Crist, Research Professor of Geography, was in Caracas, Venezuela from February 20-22 where he attended a meeting on the "Use of Ecological Guidelines for Development in the American Humid Tropics." The meeting was held under the auspices of the International Union for Conservation of

Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN). Between quarters, Dr. Crist lectured on 'The Background of the Mayan Civilization" on the French cruise ship, M/S "Mermoz", as it cruised the Caribbean, stopping at Port-au-Prince, the San Bla's Islands, Cartagena, Panami, Puerto Cortez, Playa del Carmen and San Andr's Island.
An Academic House has been established near Cochabamba, Bolivia, to serve Latin Americanists carrying out research in, or travelling through, the Cochabamba area. Established by Mr. Alfredo Montalvo, the house, "Inca Hostel," can accommodate a limited number of people with food and lodging, transportation within Bolivia by jeep, and any other assistance needed by the visitor. Inca House contains a small but growing library, composed almost exclusively of Bolivian materials. Further information can be obtained by writing Mr. Alfredo Montalvo, Inca Hostel, Casilla 1514, Cochabamba, Bolivia.
Dr. Manuel Carvajal, Director of the Latin American Data Bank (LADB), travelled to the Dominican Republic twice in mid-April to tabulate data of the Dominican Agricultural Census. Dr. Carvajal also travelled to Madrid to attend a Symposium of World Data Banks April 16-19. and to Geneva April 20-24 to collect data from the United Nations Social Development Institute and International Labor Organization.
The University of Florida Press has recently published The Afro-Asian

Dimension of Brazilian Foreign Policy, 1956-1972 by Wayne A. Selcher. The publication, sponsored by the Center for Latin American Studies, is part of the Latin American Monograph Series. A complete list of CLAS publications may be obtained by writing to the Assistant Director, Center for Latin American Sudies, 319 Grinter Hall, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, 32611.
The Center for Latin American Studies sponsored a piano recital by Marcia Abraham of compositions by several Latin American composers: Alberto Nepomuceno (Brazil), Francisco Mignone (Brazil), Antonio Tauriello (Argentina), Heitor Villa-Lobos (Brazil), Octavio Pinto (Brazil), Ricardo Castillo (Guatemala), and Ernesto Lecuona (Cuba). The recital was given May 20 at South Campus, Florida Junior College at Jacksonville.
Juan Julio Alba and Jose Miguel Valdez, members of the Cartographic Unit of the National Statistics Office of the Dominican Republic, arrived at the University of Florida on May 15 to undertake training in cartographic techniques at the Cartographic Research Laboratory of the Center for Latin American Studies. The cartographic training, which will cover a period of three months, is being given under the direction of Dr. Gustavo A. Antonini, Associate Professor of Geography and Latin American Studies, and is part of a cooperative research project with the Government of the Dominican Republic aimed at preparing a Coffee Atlas of the Dominican Republic.

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