'-M4R- .9 1973
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA CENTER FOR LATIN AMERICAN STUDIES LRvPARY GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA
VOLUME 8, NUMBER 3
FEBRUARY 15, 1973
Brazil moves to
integra i __ e Amazon
Emilio F. Mora Florida. He ha
_7: from 1971 to th MAR 10 1913 Anthropology.
n is s be e p He
He obtained a Cer
in Economics from
\jAmerican History + -Amazon in prepara
h.(2 adaptation along t
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The L 'mrgO efforts to develop
the Amazon region have revealed the scarcity of research concerning the region. The development of the Amazon region and its integration into the economy of Brazil has become one of the Brazilian government's top priorities. This herculean task is multi-faceted, including the construction of the 5,000 km. Trans-Amazonian highway, and a colonization scheme to resettle thousands of Brazilians in the Amazon region. The paucity of systematic research has led to innumerable questions -questions such as what forms of social life can best be fitted to successful agriculture of the terra fire environment? What management inputs can maximize outputs in this situation? What densities of population and what sort of population quality are needed to maintain a stable and productive life? What ways can be developed to create a new and more satisfying symbiosis between man and the tropical rain forest? The move to open the Amazon is of vital importance to researchers from all countries; the role of research is crucial to the development of plans to maintain forest biomass productivity while channelling more of this productivity to man.
Research in many areas of the Amazon rain forest has been hampered by the "legend of the Amazon." This legend projects a conception of the Amazon as a forbidding foresta forest which will defeat all intensive human attempts at cultivation. It is reflected in the data available on the forest networks in 1973 -data which are full of deficiencies and simplifications.
a candidate for the Ph.D. in Anthropology at the University of en the recipient of NDEA Title VI fellowship from 1968-69 and resent. His main interests are Cultural Ecology and Economic has pursued work in sysicms ecology and tropical agriculture. ificate in Ecology from Leiden University (Holland) and one the University of North Carolina. He holds an M.A. in Latin from the University of Florida. He recently visited the tion for his doctoral dissertation on Socio-ecological he Trans-Amazon Highway.
The Amazon Basin has the lowest population density
of any non-desert region in the world. Within Brazil, the
regional imbalance is striking.
Amazon region Northeast Center-South
area 59% 15% 26%
8% 25% 67%
Brazil's current moves into the Amazon manifest its commitment to drive fast and to drive hard in order to make this area contribute its share to the national goals. The contrast between the teeming humanity in the drought-ridden Northeast, and the sparse population of the most biologically productive region of the earth immediately to the west is one which begs solution.* President Emilio M~dici apparently recognized this possibility in his 1970 announcement of the Brazilian government's intentions to develop the region.
The opening of the first half of the Trans-Amazonian highway in September 1972 produced not only a road but also progress in colonization efforts and a growing body of research to aid decision-makers in their plans.
The colonization program controls a 100-kilometer wide strip of land on each side of the road. These lands are being distributed in 100 hectare lots to selected families. Various
*In studies of shifting cultivation in Latin America', Watter identifies the problem as one of availability of land and intensity of use.
forms of colonization are being tried. The agrovila, a nucleated type settlement, takes 2 forms one with the lands contiguous with the settlement and the other with the houses spaced along the highway at 500 meter intervals. By September 1972, 8 agrovilas and one agropolis (a larger nucleated settlement which services a number of agrovilas) had been established.
The intention of the Brazilian government is clear: research is considered essential to development. Generous funds have been made available to the "Program for the Humid Tropics," an inter-agency research program concerned with developing a unified body of knowledge about the Amazon with special attention to its potential for human use. Traditional research institutions whose research is oriented to development and applied areas are finding little difficulty in obtaining funding. The main difficulty is a lack of manpower and delay in analysis due, in some cases, to the nature of the problems involved. IPEAN (Institute of
Agronomic Research, Belem) and INPA (National Institute of Amazonian Research, Manaus) have been sending teams of researchers to collect data in the path of the road-builders. IPEAN emphasizes agricultural productivity while INPA is concerned with more detailed analyses of forest systems. The director of INPA has developed a demanding course, Programa Intensivo de Adestramento para o Trabalho na Amaz~nia (PIATAM), designed to train a new generation of rugged Amazonian scholars. The response to this course has be en surprisingly high among college graduates. Increased accessibility to the region is, for the first time, making research practical and increasingly productive. Unfortunately, basic research is not keeping up with the pace of the road builders. This lag is due to a combination of factors: paucity of researchers, insufficientsupport fromoutside the country, and the consideration of ethical questions concerning the relationship of foreign research to national security.
PICTURE 1. Typical tapiri, a make-shift dwelling, along the highway. These rake many shapes and forms depending on the origin of the colonists. Tapiris often become used as produce and storage facilities after INCRA builds a house as in picture 2.
PICTURE 2. Standard house-type in agrovilas. They consist of two large rooms and a kitchen. An out house is located behind each house. Hammocks are strung in the large rooms.
The areas already opened to colonization (e.g. Altamira and Itaituba) provide a look at an Amazon which has rarely been explored. The forest is a surprisingly pleasant place. Although humidity reaches 100%, the temperatures are in the upper 70s and 80s. Soil types vary greatly,2 and the topography offers surprises with each turn in the road. Supplies flow at an even rate with only rare interruptions caused by the rainy season. The quality of the road is amazingly good, particularly in view of the difficulties presented by the uneven landscape.
Altamira presents a picture of a new Latin American "western frontier," characterized by bustling activity, dust, and high prices (in comparison with Belem and Manaus). Despite the apparent chaos, one discovers a hardworking crew of young men and womenbearing INCRA3 tee-shirts. These youthful frontier-managers,with theirunpretentious bearing, give the sense of a society in search of a goal; the managers and workers together, wearing the same inscribed tee-shirts ("TransAmazonica building a giant Brazil"), are equally dirty with the promise held by the red dust of Altamira soils.
Hundreds of colonists await the vehicles that will transport them to their new lands. At the end of the long journey, they are often confused and frustrated. They have been chosen according to planned criteria which will make the Amazon a true melting pot of Brazil. While the blonde, blue-eyed catarinenses and sulistas are most visible, the northeasterners form the largest contingent. Data obtained from two agrovilas indicate that 58% of the colonists come from the Northeast, 24% from Central States, and 31% from Southern States.4 The average household has six children with two or more males of working age;in-laws are rarely present.
The speed at which the colonists arrive makes it hard for the INCRA house-builders to keep up. Colonists often have to build a tapir/ (see first picture) until the houses designed by the government are built for them (see second picture). The contrast between the twotypes of shelters is great. While the INCRA houses appear hot to those unfamiliar with the region, the author
found that they were relatively cool even though his visits took place at the hottest times of the day in the hottest time of the year. The house model in picture 2 is similar to the ideal house designed for Amazinia in a theoretical study sponsored by the Superintendencia do Densenvolvimento da A mazonia (SUDAM), with modifications made to make its construction cheaper and faster. 5
The government has provided education for the colonists; given the educational level of most of the colonists, it seems certain that their children will have an opportunity to stay in school longer than the parents. Secondary and vocational education will be available in cities such as Altamira and in agropolis (such as Brasil Novo on Km. 46 of Altamira). Technical education will be emphasized in order to form the necessary local expertise. The development of farming is proceeding slowly, and technologies differ as widely as the regions from which the colonists come. Time, research, and differential success will determine which patterns of cultivation become established. In these early stages, slash-and-burn agriculture is being practiced but, as cooperatives form, there may be significant changes. The activities of farm extension agents may aid by providing a continuous input of new information. The extension agents educate incoming farmers concerning the use of seeds, the maintenance of records, and other agricultural methods adapted to the environment. It is in this area that most work needs to be done. The possibilities for agricurtural development are simply un-
known. IPEANhas a first approximation of the optimal use of land in relation to crops;6 but it is still highly tentative. INPA is discovering many previously unknown networks in the nutrient cycle of river waters and in plant nutrient uptake.
The Amazon offers an agricultural potential almost unsurpassed anywhere with one of the highest yearly inputs of solar energy and rainfall, no seasonality, good soil structure, and abundant space. These positive factors make one wonder why the region has failed to attract people and become a major food producer. The positive factors must be maximized and the negative factors, such as inadequate farming techniques, lack of pest seasonality, isolation, high prices for goods, difficulties of transporting produce to markets, disease and inadequate health facilities, dealt with effectively.
The Brazilian development program should be encouraged by researchers everywhere. It is possible to work within Brazilian research institutions to obtain essential data for the purposes of ecological knowledge and the implementation of better development and management techniques. One look atFalesi's maps of the soils along the Trans-Amazonian highway7 immediately makes one conscious of the magnitude of the tasks facing the researcher: ecosystem diversity and complexity which staggers the imagination of any temperate-zone ecologist. What are the limiting factors in crop production, the timing of nutrient uptake? What plants can help prevent erosion along the shoulders of the
Livestock, Poultry Conference
The 7th Annual Conference on Livestock and Poultry in Latin America, sponsored by the Center for Tropical Agriculture and the Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, will be held at the University of Florida from May 3-11, 1973. There will be a Beef Cattle Shortcourse presented in English from May 3-5. The Latin American Conference on Livestock and Poultry, to be held from May 6-11, will be conducted in Spanish and will cover topics such as beef cattle, forage, dairy, swine, horse, and poultry production. The conference will conclude with a tour of some Florida livestock ranches and a cattle judging contest to be held in Tampa, Florida.
highway? What happens to organic matter after field burning? What temperatures are reached atvarious soil depth's? What is the effect on colloids? Could a "corridor system'' I la Congo be practiced in the Amazon? What animal and plant species are available and what is their genetic potential? What is the food web? What constitutes stress in the system?
The many questions of human adaptation to new environments must also be considered: the formation of social networks, the cycles of life, the use of time and space, belief systems in the melting pot composition of an agrovila, and all the complex aspects of cultural development.
These are but a few of the many unknowns that only research can attempt to answer. Brazil will manage to develop and integrate the Amazon. The question remains, however: will rescarch aid in the optimal integration of the Amazon or, by failing to live up to its responsibilities, support the prophets of doom?
IR. F. Watters, Shi/ting Cultivation in
Latin America. FAP Forestry Development Paper No. 17. Rome: FAO, 1971) 2ftalo Claudio Falesi, Solos da Rodovia
Transamazonica. Boletim Tecnico No.
55. Belem: Instituto de Pesquisa Agropecuaria do Norte, 1972. This study includes survey of the area from Estreito on the Tocantins river to Itaituba on the
Tapajos, an area of 1180 km.
3INCRA: Instituto Nacional de Colonizaao
e Reforma Agraria. It is an organ of the .inisterio de Agricultura and both have their headquarters in Brasilia. It is directly responsible for land surveying, choosing and mobilizing the settlers from throughout Brazil and help them
get established in the agrovilas.
4Most frequent northeastern states were
Rio Grande do Norte, Piaui, Alag6as, Cear&, Pernambuco and Paraiba. Central states are Bahia, Goias, Espirito Santo, and Minas Gerais. Southerners came from Sao Paulo, Paran Rio Grande
do Sul and Santa Catarina.
5Cf. V.C. Irasek, Casa Tropical de Madeira:
um modelo de habitajao rural na Amaznia (Belem: 1971)
6IPEAN, Zoneamnento Agricola da Amazonia (Ia. aproxima~ao). Boletim Tscnico No. 54, Belem: Instituto de Pesquisa
Agropecuaria do Norte, 1972. 7Falesi, op, cit., 196-ff.
Marijuana and Motivation: Cultural
factors in the use of Ganja in Jamaica
The speaker at the December 6 Colloquium was Dr. Vera Rubin, Director of the Research institute for the Study of Man. Dr. Rubin has specialized in.psychiatry and mental health and currently holds positions as Visiting Lecturer at the Postgraduate Center for Mental Health and Clinical Associate Professor of Psychiatry New York Medical College. She has conducted research on Caribbean and South American epidemology, youth in developing societies, family structure, social structure, education, and race relations. She edited Plantation Systems of the New World (1959), Social and Cultural Pluralism in the Caribbean (1960), and Caribbean Studies: a Symposium (1966). The Research Institute for the Study of Man, which Dr. Rubin founded in 1958, recently'completed research on the effects of long-term use of cannabis in Jamaica.
The research project of the Research Institute for the study of Man attempted to study for the first time the effects of long-term usage of marijuana in Jamaica. Cannabis (the scientific name for marijuana) is one of the oldest plants of the world. John Langsley maintains that it was used in prehistoric times. Reference to the use of cannabis has been found in the New Testament and there is also evidence that it was extensively used in Palestine, China, Egypt, and India. Cannabis was introduced to the New World relatively late. It was introduced in Chile and Brazil by the Spaniards and bro u gh t to the British co I o n i e s by the Puritans. In tracing the diffusion of the plant's use, an important factor is that Cannabis is also the same plant which produces hemp. During the 18th century, Russia had a world monopoly on hemp; out of a desire to break this monopoly, Britain encouraged its production on a wide scale. Although 90 percent of all hallucinogens are of New World origin, Cannabis is an exception; there is no evidence of its use by American Indians. Although there is some -controversy as to who introduced Cannabis to the West Indies, it seems that the plant was brought by indentured servants from India.
The ethno-history of the plant's diffusion is complex; Cannabis was cultivated for primarily mercantilistic purposes until the 19th century. Then Baudelaire and other French intellectuals experimented with eating the plant; there is a whole literature of their presumed experiences. Cannabis was introduced to the U.S. as a medicinal drug; although it was useful in treating a number of illnesses, its usage was limited due to difficulty in prescribing exact dosages.
The multidisciplinary research project undertaken by the Institute attempted to study the effects of long-term usage of Cannabis, or ganja as it is called in Jamaica. Anthropologists first studied seven communities with ecological differentiation. A sample of 60 subjects was chosen 30 of whom were chronic users of ganja (7-10 years or more) and 30 of whom were non-smokers. The study concentrated on working classes because most of the users of marijuana outside the United States are from the lower classes. All subjects were from the same socio-economic background; all were from the working classes, had relatively little education, and similar family backgrounds. The researchers collected a mass of clinical data as well as detailed life histories in an attempt to determine the atti-
tudes and histories of the subjects and their smoking experiences.
This project was a unique one in that smokers and nonsmokers were studied in their natural environments. In the past, research funds have gone largely to biochemical studies of marijuana. There has been some laboratory research in the U.S.; however, there is increasing recognition that laboratory studies are irrelevant in that most of the subjects are captive participants (usually students or prisoners.) The study in Jamsica focused on the natural population and existing patterns of usage.
One of the difficulties in the project was in finding a control group. Although illegal in Jamaica, ganja is widely used. Ganja in Jamaica is considered to be a "divine weed" and there are many folk tales focusing on the plant's origins. One such example is the idea that the bird which came to Noah after the flood was carrying a ganja branch in his beak. Ganja is used in Jamaica for a variety of functions. It is eaten, drunk, used as a poultice, as a liniment, and as a tonic. In some areas, ganja is given to infants at birth, with gradually increasing dosages. Often mixed with a variety of other materials such as soups and stews, the consumption of ganja is widespread.
How does one become a member of the subculture of ganja smokers? What determines whether or not an individual will become a smoker? The researchers found that for most individuals in both groups, the first experience with smoking ganja was the determining factor. Even though many individuals had been fed ganja tea or had eaten ganja in early years, the first experience with smoking the weed was always clearly remembered. This situation differs from that of alcoholics who rarely recall their first drink. Nonsmokers tended to have their first experience much later than smokers. The research found that those who had early experiences (around age 8) and had a "good" first experience were most likely to become long-term users of ganja. The classic reason given for trying ganja the first time was that the individual wanted to test himself-to "see if he had the head for it." This attitude is important in determining the gestalt of the groups. There is no prejudice against either smoking or non-smoking; the idea of "having the head for it" preserves the integrity of the individuals and insures the fact that the non-smoker will not become an informer. The researchers found that non-smoking individuals were more motivated and upwardly mobile than
smokers. This was attributed to the f a c t that non-smokers are usually raised in a more rigid culture. The non-smokers all had bad or neutral experiences with their first try. One man reported that the ganja made him wolfishly hungry and he ate 24 buns. Although some non-smokers reported dizziness and fear, there were no really severe reactions. These bad or neutral experiences were not associated with the amount of ganja consumed but were rather the product of the individual's anxiety. Long-term users frequently stated that the first try made them feel "sweet." Visions were reported by smokers as occurring only during the first smoking experience. They are considered high status and followed a standardized cultural pattern. The most frequently reported vision is that of a small creature (either man, woman, or animal) dancing quite gleefully.
The use of ganja is situational. It is used in leisure time, as medication, and most of all, it is used to produce energy-energy to work. Ganja helps one to sleep so that he can work well the next day or it helps one to work if he takes it in the morning. The subjects were extremely aware of the conditional factors in using ganja; they always related their reactions to ganja in terms of when it was used. Nonsmokers often give ganja to workers so that they will work better. The West Indies produce rum and, not surprisingly, there are virtually no teetotalers in the working classes. However, there is a difference in the social structure of drinking and smoking. Ganja is often considered to be the ''poor man's rum" and research indicates that non-smokers drink more than smokers. (Smokers usually respond by stating the alcohol is bad for the health.)
The research findings were varied:
-Due to the illegality of marijuana in Jamaica, subjects were not allowed to smoke while in the hospital undergoing tests. Observation of these subjects confirmed other studies that there are no withdrawal symptoms when marijuana usage is suspended.
-The usage of ganja is affected by the set of predispositions and the setting in which the drug is taken. The
cultural effects of ganja seem to be more important than the pharmaceutical a s p e c t s of the drug in determining reactions.
-Ganja is used for a multiplicity of reasons, including prevention of hunger and medicinal purposes. However its widest usage is in motivating people to work.
-No chromosome defects were found among chronic users.
-In tests such as electroencephalograms and psychological evaluations, no substantial differences were found between users and non-users. Although hampered by the use of U.S. IQ tests which often presume exposure to North American culture, no significant differences were found in intelligence or personality between smokers and nonsmokers.
-With one exception, all the tests revealed no difference between users and non-users of ganja. The exception is that smokers tend to have greater problems with lung function and the resulting difficulty of air reaching the tissues. This factor may perhaps be explained by the fact that ganja is always smoked with tobacco and rolled in heavy paper. Jamaican smokers of ganja also tend to smoke great quantities of cigarettes. Thus there is a need
to differentiate between the effects of ganja and tobacco on the body. There is a world of difference between the usage of ganja in Jamaica and marijuana in the United States. In the U.S., marijuana was used primarily by Mexicans and the lower classes until it spread to middle class youth in the 1960's. These youths used marijuana to "turn on." Already conditioned by technology and the media, a whole related vocabulary had emerged in the 1960's a vocabulary including phrases such as "turn on" and "tune in." In Jamaica, the plant is respected for a variety of reasons -as a medicine, as a divine weed, as a motivational instrument, but never to "turn on."
After the project report was made in both the U.S. and Jamaica, but before it was published, the report was serialized by a Jamaican newspaper. The serialization continued for six weeks and U.S. researchers involved in the project were baffled as to the reasons for the project's publicity. Apparently the report was leaked to the press by government officials in an effort to mobilize support for a bill which was introduced shortly afterwards in the Jamaican parliament. The bill was passed and all mandatory sentences for the use of ganja were repealed.
Intensive Brazilian Portuguese Course to be
taught at University of Florida
The Department of Romance Languages and the Center for Latin American Studies have been awarded a grant by the U.S. Office of Education to offer intensive elementary and advanced courses in Brazilian Portuguese during the summer of 1973. The two intensive courses, under the direction of Dr. Alfred Hower, Professor of Portuguese and Spanish, will run from June 18 to August 17, 1973. The intensive elementary Brazilian Portuguese course is open to undergraduate and graduate students with no previous study of the language and will offer 15 quarter hours of college credit (the equivalent of three college quarters of Portuguese.) The intensive advanced Brazilian Portuguese course is open to undergraduate and graduate students with one year of college study of Portuguese (or its equivalent) and will offer 13 quarter hours of credit (the equivalent of three quarters of courses in Portuguese conversation, composition, and readings.) The emphasis in both courses will be on the spoken language and native Brazilian informants will assist with the course.
A limited number of NDFL fellowships are available for highly qualified graduate and undergraduate students. Undergraduate applicants must have completed one year of college Portuguese or its equivalent. The fellowships provide funds for travel, tuition, and expenses; applications for these fellowships must be completed by April 1, 1973. Additional information on the Intensive Brazilian Portuguese program and application forms for fellowships may be obtained from: Dr. Alfred Hower, 335 GSIS, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32601
Florida professor teaches in Colombia
Dr. David Busnell, Professor of History, recently returned from a six month stay in Colombia where he worked as a lecturer and university consultant under the auspices of the Fulbright Lectureship program. Dr. Bushnell was formally affilated with the Universidad Pedagdgica y Tecnol6gica de Colombia (UPTC) in Tunja, Colombia, a city of approximately 100,000 inhabitants located about 90 miles northeast of Bogota. UPTC is one of the few universities in Colombia which offers a specialized program in history. Dr. Bushnell found few courses in history offered by Colombian universities and the field of U.S. history is particularly undeveloped although several universities offer courses on the history of the Americas.
Dr. Bushnell spoke at five univer-
sites and several other institutions while in Colombia. His teaching program included public lectures, informal class visits and a series of seminars. His public lectures and informalclass visits were primarily given to students in the social sciences. Although he had anticipated lecturing on topics of U.S. history, Dr. Bushnell found greater demand for lectures on comparative and Colombian history. One of his most interesting experiences was his lecture at a school for cooperative members in Cartagena. The school was largely composed of working people taking self-improvement courses. The group, which was predominantly black, was responsive to Dr. Bushnell's treatment of comparative race relations and, perhaps because they were familiar with racial discrimination in Colombia,
were less eager to point an accusing finger at racial inequality in the U.S. He also spoke at the Escuela Normal in Tunja, an experimental laboratory school, and at a Centro ColombianoAmericano.
Dr. Bushnell offered a series of seminars on methodological problems including methods of teaching history and of doing historical research. These seminars, held in Tunja, were directed at staff members from three different institutions.
Although he did not have time for extensive research, Dr. Bushnell was able to collect some data on his continuing research project of the study of 19th century Colombian elections.
The lectures given by Dr. Bushnell during his stay will be published by the UPTC in Tunja.
The maturity of U.S.
foreign policy toward Latin America
The speaker at the January 10, 1973 Colloquium was Mr. T. Elkin Taylor, Colombian Desk Officer, U.S. State Department. Mr. Taylor received his M.A. in Political Science at Emory in 1959 and entered the State Department in the same year. He served as Political Officer in Buenos Aires, Argentina from 1963-1968 and has served as Chief of Colombian Affairs since June 1971. He has also served in State Department assignments in Angola and Indonesia.
U. S. foreign policy toward Latin America during the past ten years may be analyzed as a dialectical movement. This analysis is especially relevant to comparisons of John Kennedy's and Richard Nixon's administrations. Kennedy's administration (or in dialectical terms, the thesis) was characterized by optimism, idealism, liberalism, pride, a "can-do approach," deep involvement, specified goals, and the phrase "Alliance for Progress." Richard Nixon's administration (or the antithesis) is characterized as being pessimistic, realistic, conservative, humble, reflective, protective, available, vague, with few specified goals, and the phrase "mature partnership." These words, while somewhat generalized, delineate the basic difference in attitudes toward Latin America between the two administrations.
President Nixon's Latin American foreign policy speech in October 1969 outlined the tone of his administration's policy toward Latin America. He called for a meaningful interchange of ideas and for a "mature partnership" between the U.S. and Latin America a partnership in which neither
One cannot realistically analyze U. S. foreign policy toward Latin America without considering five controversial issues: trade, aid, attitudes toward military regimes, investment problems, and Cuba. Although Nixon promised generalized trade preferences in his Latin American speech of October 1969, a bill to implement this program has not yet been introduced in Congress. This is not due to bad faith on the part of the President, but rather to his concern about the future of such a bill in today's somewhat protectionist Congress.
The international coffee agreements and the coffee quota mechanisms are the key to U.S. relations with Colombia. Due to the current low market prices of coffee, these former agreements are somewhat meaningless. The U. S. has become increasingly concerned over recent meetings held among the coffee-supplying nations -meetings which exclude the U. S. and other coffee importers. The U. S. strongly favors negotiations within the framework of the International Coffee Organization.
The U. S. is shifting its position on foreign aid away from bilateral agreements towards aid through international organizations. Mexico and Brazil have somewhat outgrown the need for U. S. aid while Chilean and Peruvian aid has been reduced due to bilateral problems with the U. S. concerning the position of U. S. investment. At the present time, Colombia is receiving a large portion of U. S. bilateral aid to Latin America. Colombia receives approximately $80 million out of a total of $250 million in aid to Latin America.
U. S. attitudes toward military regimes have varied with presidential administrations. Kennedy took a moralistic approach to military dictatorships and in 1962-63 tried to withhold recognition of Honduras' military government in an attempt to influence that nation's politics. Nixon's more realistic approach maintains that the withholding of recognition of a regime is not a productive means of foreign policy.
Disputes over U. S. investment in Latin America have played a major role in U. S.-Latin American relations. Frequently, the State Department is forced into taking a strong stand on expropriation or nationalistic measures by a Latin American government because it is bound by inflexible legislation. The International Petroleum Company (IPC) case in Peru was an unfortunate experience which damaged U. S.-Peruvian relations. Although the amount of capital involved was relatively small, the U.S. was forced to implement measures to decrease aid. The Peruvian military
government has many positive aspects and had moved to implement many reforms -reforms which the U. S. government has advocated for years. The Chilean case, on the other hand, was "unsaveable." Virtually any U. S. administration would have taken a similar stand to that taken by President Nixon. The U. S. cannot ignore the interests of the copper companies and this attitude is reinforced by U. S. public opinion.
An additional complicating factor in U. S.-Latin American investment relations in the U. S. government's insurance program of protecting U. S. investment in foreign countries. The Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC) insures U. S. foreign investment against expropriation. In the Chilean case, OPIC does not have sufficient funds to cover the U.S. copper companies' losses. The U.S. is also increasingly concerned about protecting its supply of petroleum. It is estimated that by 1980, over half of U.S. imports will consist of oil and the U. S. will be by far the largest importer of petroleum.
The question of U. S. recognition of Cuba will not be resolved in the U. S. State Department but rather by President Nixon. Domestic considerations have been the major obstacle to the resumption of relations between the two nations. While there is no active lobby in the U. S. working for U. S. recognition of Cuba, the lobby to prevent the resumption of U. S. relations is strong and well-organized.
Photographic exhibit to open 23rd Annual Latin American Conference
The 23rd Annual Latin American Conference to be held at the J. Wayne Reitz Union from February 19-21, 1973, will focus on the theme of "Man in the Amazon." This year the conference is presented under the joint sponsorship of the Conselho Federal de Cultura, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil the Center for Latin American Studies and the Center for Tropical Agriculture, University of Florida.
The Conference will open on February 18, 1973 with a special photographic exhibit "Some Brazilian Architecture: Old and New" in the University Gallery, University of Florida. The exhibit was specifically photographed and prepared for the Center for Latin American Studies and the University Gallery by Mr. Roy Craven, Director of the University Gallery.
Mr. Craven photographed a variety of styles of Brazilian architecture while in Brazil for three weeks in August 1972. The exhibit includes 180 black
and white photographs and 80 color slides.
The exhibit focuses on Brasilia and other examples of modern Brazilian architecture from Rio de Janeiro, Sio Paulo, and Belo Horizonte. A selection of colonial and later architecture is also presented, including photographs of architecture from Manaus and the state of Minas Gerais. The exhibit will be on display in the University Gallery until March 8 and will tour other art centers in the U.S. beginning in April with the Jacksonville Museum of Art.
The sessions of the conference, commencing 9:00 A.M., Monday, February 19, will focus on the amazing activity of the Brazilian government in its attempts to develop the Amazon. The sessions will build on a previous symposium on the Biota Amazonica held in Belem, Brazil from June 6 to 11, 1966.
The Conselho Federal de Cultura has assisted in the selection of outstanding Brazilian scholars and scientists, who, together with the invited North American scholars and scientists, will present position papers and serve as formal discussants. The papers to be presented cover a wide range of topics, including the Trans-Amazon Highway, Agriculture, Macro-Economics, Socio-Cultural Change, Transmissible Diseases, Soils, Environment, Demography, Geopolitics, and Native Peoples of the Amazon.
Papers presented and discussed at the conference will be in English or Portuguese with simultaneous translation into the other language. All papers given during the conference will be published in English by the Center for Latin American Studies, University of Florida, and in Portuguese by the Conselho Federal de Cultura, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Ms. Felicity Trueblood, Assistant Professor of English and Social Sciences, has co-edited with Francine Rabinovitz, the second volume of Urban Rcscarch (Sage Publications, 1972). This volume deals with theoretical approaches to urban and regionaldevelopment policies and case studies of regional and urban development programs. Crfnicas Brasileiros, a Portuguese reader, by Dr. Alfred Hower, Professor of Spanish and Portuguese and Dr. Richard A. Preto-Rodas, is currently in its second printing. The reader, which is published by the Center and may be obtained from the University of Florida Press, has been widely used throughout the country.
Dr. John Saunders, Professor of Sociology, presented a paper entitled "Processos e Caracteristicas Demogrdficos: Conteddo e Mtodos de Ensino na Sociologia Rural" at a conference held at the University of Sao Paulo, Brazil, from November 26December 1, 1972. The conference was
entitled Consulta de Expertos en la Ensefianza e Investigacidn en la Sociologia Amsrica Latina. The conference was sponsored by the United Nations, the Organization of American States, the Instituto Interamericano de Ciencias Agricolas, and the Asociaci6n Latinoamericana de Sociologia Rural. After attending this conference in Brazil, Dr. Saunders spent a week in Colombia making plans for field work, which will begin in January 1973. The project will involve an evaluation of rural electrification in Colombia and is part of a larger study which includes Costa Rica. Dr. Saunders was accompanied in Colombia by Galen Moses (Food and Resource Economics) and Michael Davis.
Mr. Lisandro P6rez, M.A. degree candidate in sociology, gave a lecture on January 18, 1973 on the changing demography of modern Cuba. Mr. P6rez explored this topic in his M.A. thesis entitled "The Growth of Population in Cuba, 1953-1970" (University of Florida). One of his major findings was that the Cuban revolution and its political effects had repercussions on the nation's demography. Since the Cuban revolution, the birth rate in Cuba as well as the number of marriages, has increased and medical
services have been expanded. Accurate data on mortality rates are not available. As a result of the Cuban emphasis on agricultural development, ruralurban migration, particularly to Havana, has decreased.
The Brazilian Portuguese Club of which Dr. Alfred Hower is faculty advisor will present its annual Brazilian Carnival on Saturday, February 24 at the University Golf Club, Gainesville, Florida. The Carnival, which will last from 9 p.m. to 2 a.m., will feature Brazilian music, costumes, and decorations.
Mr. Richard Ogburn, who received his M.A. in Latin American Studies from the University of Florida in December 1971, is currently working with the planning board of the Bahian affiliate of the Federal Rural Extension Service in Brazil. This organization is supported principally by the Ministry of Agriculture and the state government. The planning board programs, controls and evaluates the work of some 150 agents involved with preparing special studies, reports, budgets, and longrange plans. He is personally coordinating the collection of data for an indepth analysis of the state economy which will provide the basis for the five year plan.
This public document was promulgated at an annual cost of $3,166.00 or $.70 per copy to inform interested persons of the activities of the Center for Latin American Studies.
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