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Full Text
latilHaierl ic aist
Indians, Oil, and Colonists: Contrasting
systems of man-land relations in the Aguarico
River Valley of Eastern Ecuador
William T. Vickers, a graduate student, Anthropology Department, University of Florida, worked with the Salasaca Indians of the Ecuadorian highlands as a Peace Corps volunteer from 1964-1965. In 1971, he did field work with the Otomi Indians of the Mezquital Valley of Mexico in conjunction with the National Science Foundation sponsored Field School in Ethnography and Linguistics at Ixmiquilpan, Hidalgo, Mexico. In August and September of 1972, he conducted an ethnographic survey of the indigenous groups of the Aguarico River in cooperation with the Institute Nacional de Antropologi' e Historia of Ecuador. He plans to return to Ecuador in the summer of 1973 to begin his doctoral research on the nature of the relationships between the subsistence activities, migration patterns, and social organization of the tropical forest Siona tribe.
To the east of the Andes in the Republic of Ecuador pipeline from the Pacific port of Esmeraldas, over the lies the region known as the Oriente, a vast expanse of Andes, and down into the jungle. This line began operation sparsely inhabited tropical forest lands dissected by trib- on June of this year and has a capacity of 250,000 barrels utaries of the Amazon. per day. A road has also been constructed to Lago Agrio
The Oriente was the forgotten stepchild of the nation and Coca and the area has become a hotbed of activity as until Peru invaded the region in 1941. Both nations had oil companies, workers, entrepreneurs, and migrants have conflicting claims to the Oriente dating back to the colonial moved into the region. period when it was known as the Provincia de Mainas and At first glance the area presents a rather raw and chaotic had alternated under the jurisdiction of the audiencias of appearance, with little evidence of order to the events that Quito and Lima. Although Ecuador's claims had greater are taking place. The visitor to Lago Agrio is most impressed historical weight, Peru's vastly superior military power and by the sticky humidity,muddy streets,ramshackle buildings, de facto occupation of the disputed territory led to a settle- begrimed oil workers, and the dull red pipeline that snakes ment in its favor at the Pan American Foreign Minister's along the road. If one takes a broad perspective in an atConference in Rio de Janeiro in 1942. As a result of the tempt to understand the major aspects of life and human Protocol of Rio, Ecuador was forced to cede two-thirds of activity, however, he will see that there are essentially its Oriente to Peru. Since the Peruvian debacle, the Oriente three systems of man-land relations in operation there. has become a symbol of Ecuadorian nationalism. A large These may be classified as the "Indian," "oil," and sign facing the Plaza de la Independencia in Quito proclaims "colonist" systems. Each of these human land use systems "Es gloria de Quito el descuvrimiento del Rio Amaz6nas has its own dynamics and characteristics that differentiate and one oftens sees the written slogan "El Ecuador ha sido, it from the others. es, y siempre sera pal's Amazonico," There are five indigenous groups in the Aguarico Valley
Despite government interest in settling the Oriente, the today: the Cofan, Siona, Secoya, Tetete, and lowland Quegreatest impetits for its development has come from the pri- chua (Ingana). The Cofn speak an isolated language which vate sector. In 1967 a consortium of the Texaco and Gulf may be related to Chibchan, while the Secoya, Siona, and Oil Companies discovered large petroleum reserves in the Tetete belong to the Tucanoan family (whose members were Aguarico River Valley in the extreme northern Oriente. referred to as the Encabellado by the early Spanish exFollowing the location of the Lago Agrio and Shushufindi plorers due to their long hair). The Ingdna are relatively ,d Texaco-Gulf began the construction of a 318 mile acculturated Quechua speakers who have migrated from the

Napo River and have settled various sites on the lower elsewhere. At other times entire village sites may be aban. Aguarico and Cuyabeno Rivers. The Tetete migrated to an doned and relocated. The siona, for example, attribute thei inland area north of the Aguarico following their defeat by movements to a variety of factors, including such social the Secoya earlier in this century. They have avoided con- factors as disputes within the village, the death of a family tact with outsiders since that time. Although the Siona and member (afterwhich the place becomes "sad"), or to escape Secoya have had some contact with the larger society white encroachment and exploitation. They also mention through occasional river traders and missionaries, they still the need to secure fresh lands for chacras as a factor, an maintain many of the basic cultural patterns attributed to the game supply in an area may also be an important consid them by the earliest white explorers in the region. This is eration. Before moving they journey by canoe to the new especially true in reference to aspects such as political, site to prepare a chacra so that they will have a source of organization, settlement pattern, and subsistence activities, food awaiting them once the move is made. Such movement
In 1651 the Encabellado inhabited villages of 4-8 houses is frequently conducted in relation to a widespread network with a total population of 60 or so. During the 18th century of kin and tribesmen. village size sometimes increased to 300 persons, perhaps The activities of the oil companies in the Oriente a as a result of the attempts of missionaries to concentrate limited to exploration, drilling, the extraction of crude oi Indian populations for easier control. At the present time from the ground, and its transportation out of the region the largest village consists of 18 households and has a and the country. The refining and marketing activities of population of 118 individuals. The remaining population the companies takes place at the international level. The lives in settlements of 3-4 households, or in scattered Ecuadorian government has a keen interest in tightly con. individual households. Settlements are always found in trolling all the operations of the companies within its bound association with a river. In preconquest times the houses aries. On October 1, 1971 the military juntar governing thel were apparently set back in the forest a little way from the country passed a new law stating that all hydrocarbons rivers for defensive purposes, but today they are located belong to the state, and creating the Corporacion Estal, on the bank. Petrolera Ecuatoriana (CEPE) which was given the exclusive
Indian subsistence is based on slash and burn horti- right to explore and develop Ecuadorian oil directly or culture and hunting and gathering. Men select plots in the through contractual arrangements with the companies forest that are usually no more than an hour's travelling At the present time the government appears to favor t time from their houses. Drainage and soil characteristics contractual approach due to the technical expertise of th are important factors in the selection process. Once a plot companies. is selected, its outer boundaries are marked by clearipg the Under this new law companies are issued exploration perimeter with a machete and then the interior is cut with a and development contracts for amaximum of 200,000 hectaes machete and axe. At the end of the dry season the plot is of land. The company has five years to explore the concesburned over and then planted in various types of bananas, sion, and twenty years to develop it if oil is found (thi sweet and bitter manioc, chiles, maize, papayas, peanuts, may be extended to thirty years). However, the company may pineapples, tobacco, and sugarcane. The clearing of new develop only two-fifths of its exploration concession, and! plots or cbacras is staggered at 1-2 year intervals, and each the remaining land must be returned to the government. At household unit always has at least 2-3 cbacras in produc- the end of the development period the company must also tion. Cbacras vary in size from about 1/4 to 1 hectare each, turn all of the equipment and installations in its fields and the amount of land in cultivation for most households, over to CEPE. probably falls between 11/ and 2Y2 hectares. The distribution of the income on a barrel of crude oil
The Indian groups engage in a significant amount of with a reference price of U.S. $2.80 will be as follows: hunting and gathering. Actually they are seminomadic,
since they leave their households a number of times during Ecuadorian government .......... ..$1.71
the year to make extended hunting trips to areas where Oil company ......................58
game is plentiful. Fishing provides most of the animal Cost of production .................21
protein in the diet, and is conducted in the rivers near Cost of pipeline ...................30
the villages, as well as on long trips to secluded oxbow lakes where especially large specimens are taken. Peccaries, Total. f h sE..................... $2.80
tapir, capybara, monkeys, and birds are hunted with muzzle The first shipments of oil from Ecuador began in August loading shotguns, or with the more traditional blowguns, of 1971. The country will make about 50 million dollars in spears, and bows and arrows when powder and shot are oil revenues in 1972, and within two years will be making scarce. Some hunts are specifically seasonal, such as dur- well over 200 million dollars per year, thus doubling the'
scare. omehuns ar spcifcaly season, uchas ur- national revenues of the pre-oil period. The impact of this' ing the turtle egg season between September and November, I
while others are initiated when meat supplies are exhausted income will no doubt be significant, but its direction is no and the people desire variation from the banana-manioc-fish yet fully clear. One aspect of the oil operations worthy o:, routine, mention is the fact that that they do not generate a really
significant number of new jobs. Large numbers of lov paid
Native households and villages are semipermanent at temporary laborers may be hired during the early stages ofi best. The individual household is the primary unit of pro- exploration and drilling, but once an oil field reaches production and consumption (it may consist of a single nuclear duction very few employees are neededto operate it. Texaco, family or an extended family), and it is a common occurrence Gulf, for example, estimates that it will employ only 300' for such units to fission off from a village and resettle persons in its operations once it reaches the full production

stages. Of these, 240 will be Ecuadorians.
Spontaneous colonization along the Quito-Lago Agrio
route has been so rapid that most of the land adjoining the
road has already been occupied by migrants. A town has
sprung up around the Texaco-Gulf camp at Lago Agrio, and
has been named Nueva Loja after the city of Loja in the
southern Sierra (Loja has experienced a severe drought
during the past two years and has sent many settlers into
the Lago Agrio area). Nueva Loja initially consisted of
nothing more than a muddy street and a collection of hastily
built bars and restaurants that competed for the wages of
the oil workers. As more settlers have come into the region,
and the oil camps have moved farther into the interior, the
number of small stores handling general goods are increasing and community life is beginning to develop. Cluster of Siona households on the Cuyabeno River, a tributary
The Instituto Ecuatoriano de Re/orma Agraria y Colon- of the Aguarico.
izaci'n (IERAC) has now established a regional office in into direct competition with the Indians for the riverine Nueva Loja and is attempting to control settlement in the lands. Of the three land use systems, the Indian and colonist area. At first IERAC tried to persuade the people to re- are the most alike in terms of exploitation patterns and are locate the town on higher ground on the banks of the Ag- therefore the most likely to compete. uarico River two miles away from the oil camp because it
was felt to be a healthier site. The plan called for an urban Even if the oil companies and colonists do not exploit community with outlying farmlands. Each family of colonists the native groups directly, their presence in the Oriente was to receive a 30 by 40 meter plot in the town for a house, may upset the balance of traditional Indian subsistence and 50 hectares of land outside the community for agricul- patterns. The aboriginal pattern is predicated on the free tural use. Many of the colonists refused to move to the river use of rather large areas of land, and the flora and fauna site, however, so IERAC has laid out property lines in the associated with the land. The building of roads and the existing community according to the specifications of their subsequent settlement along them will reduce animal popesplanned" town. ulations and create barriers that will limit Indian access to
The current population of Nueva Loja is about 2,000, traditional hunting areas. It appears that the Indians of the and there approximately 10,000 colonists in the Aguarico Aguarico Valley are in the process of being forced into an region as a whole. The two principal areas sending settlers ever decreasing territory with declining natural resources to the area appear to be the drought stricken Loja Province and limited access to new settlement sites. and the northern coastal provinces (especially Esmeraldas At the present time the Ecuadorian government has no Province). Most of the arriving migrants are without signif- uniform policy vis-a-vis the tribal Indians of the Oriente. icant capital resources, so their immediate concern is to Organizations such as the InstitutoNacional de Antropologia provide for their own needs, although they eventually hope and the Summer Institute of Linguistics have expressed an to produce for the markets of the Sierra. The eventual suc- interest in working to secure official recognition of the land cess of the IERAC settlement is in doubt, for many claims of the Cofan, Siona, and Secoya Indians of the
colosts ompln at stheifes aplan is in dobt foany Aguarico region, but these efforts are still in the preliminary colonists complain that their fields are too far from the town,
and some have built houses on their 50 hectare plots in the stages. It is evident that any allocation program should be forest, based on studies of native land utilization patterns by
Although the colonists will be small farmers for the competent specialists in consultation with the Indians themmost part, it is important to recognize that they are not selves. Native subsistence patterns differ from those of the subsistence farmers in the same sense that the Indians are. colonists in many significant respects, and the application They may produce a considerable part of their own food, but of colonist criteria for the granting of land titles to Indians they are highly dependent on the market for some staples may well have unforseen and unfortunate consequences. (potatoes, sugar, rice, etc.), as well as for their tools, Anyone interested in further reading should consult: clothing, and household goods. Their goal is to produce at
least some surplus in order to acquire cash for the purchase Cabezas, Rodrigo, El petrdleo es neustrol. Quito: Editorial Casa of these necessary items. For this reason the vast majority 1972 de la Cultura Ecuatoriana. of the migrants settle on or near the roads that link them to Casagrande, J. B. et. al., Colonization as a research frontier: the fthe Sirandsprovideothemwithaccessat the rkets. 1964 Ecuadorian case. In Process and pattern in culture: essays the Sierra and provide them with access to the markets. in honor of Julian H. Steward, R.A. Mannerd, ed. Chicago:
The Indians and the colonists in the Aguarico Valley Aldine.
are not in particularly close contact at the present time. The Phelan, John Leddy, The kingdom of Quito in the Seventeenth Indian settlement pattern is determined by the existence of 1967 Century. Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press. aRobinson, Scott, El etnocido Ecuatoriano. Mexico: Universidad hands suitable for cultivation in association with the rivers 1971 Iberoamericana. that provide their most important source of protein in the Steward, Julian H., Western Tucanoan tribes. In Handbook of South form of fish, and which are also their main routes of trans- 1963 American Indians Vol. III, The tropical forest tribes, Portation. As has been shown, the colonists tend to settle Julian H. Steward, ed. New York:Cooper Square Publishers.
along the roads, not the rivers. As settlement increases
and more roads are built, however, the colonists may enter

Social Science Research
in Latin America
The speaker at the November 16 Colloquium was Dr. Kalman Silvert, Program Advisor for Social Sciences (South American and the Caribbean) of the Ford Foundation. Dr. Silvert is one of the most prominent figures in Latin American studies in the U.S. today. From 1955 to 1967, he was a contributor to the American Universities Field Staff. He has taught Political Science at Tulane, Dartmouth, and New York University. He has written and edited numerous books including Chile Yesterday and Today, Expectant Peoples: Nationalism and Development, The Social Reality of Scientific Myth, as well as numerous articles. He was the Founding President (1965-1967) o/ the Latin American Studies Association (LASA) and has been associated with the Council on Foreign Relations, the Alliance for Progress, and many other international organizations.
The state of the art of social science in Latin America Chicago and the Universidad Catlica de Chile. Many may be analyzed on two levels: 1) the institutional locus Chilean students from the Catholic University studies in and the importance of understanding the shifts in these loci. Chicago and returned toChile as good economists and better and 2) the relationship between the social scientist as an ticnicos than those produced at the National University of academic and as a citizen. Latin American social science Chile. Thus, in Chile a split developed between those does not have a long formalized tradition. As of 1958-1959, economists with a Marxist orientation who believed that it would have been difficult to count five Ph.D.s in social economists provide social infrastructure and those ecoscience in Latin America. But if the criterion of individual nomists trained at the University of Chicago. production is used, the social sciences in Latin America The factional split was aggravated at a meeting of could be considered to extend back to the 1940's. The study economists held in Brazil. Numerous ideological issues of anthropology began in the 1920's, economics began in were debated with the result that the leftists, historicists, the mid-1930's, and political science in the early 1960's. and structuralists were soundly defeated. This was a blow
There has been a massive change in social science from which the Chilean economists have not yet recovered. structure in Latin America; the shift has been away from the The Faculty of Economics at the National University of great public universities to private research institutes and Chile has split into a Marxist faction and a faction incorto quasi-academic research institutes. The Peruvian Insti- porating all other approaches (emphasizing methods). The tuto de Estudios Peruanos (IPE) consists of a group of best economics in present-day Chile is being taught at the social scientists who could not exist in the university. Universidad Catdlica. Jos6 Matos Mar states that IPE's purpose is the creation of In Mexico there are 17,000 students in the Faculty of ideology. Virtually all Latin American researchers in such Economics at the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de institutes would state their purpose in similar terms. I
The role of ideology in the universities of Latin America Mexico. The emphasis at the Faculty of Economics howand in the research institutes has been an important one; ever, has been primarily directed toward meeting the demand the problem of relating the "creation of ideology" to the for accountants. (The same emphasis on accounting has national and international environments has led to dif- also characterized the Faculty of Economics at the Nationferent approaches by these institutions. The National al University Argentina). With such an emphasis, the need University of Chile offers an example of virtually complete for economists was not being met. The responsibility of concentration on ideological problems while the case of the training Mexican economists was therefore assumed by Colegiode Mexico exemplifies the results of a non-ideological small independent associations such as the Fondo de approach. Cultura (public), the Casas del Pueblo Espafiol, and the
The National University of Chile has had a strong fac- Colegio de Mexico.
ulty of economics since 1938. The faculty was begun as an The Colegio de M6xico was begun by Spanish refugee "econometrics factory" and developed the tradition of intellectuals interested in speculation, history, and lineconomics as the universal science. Economists saw tnem- guistics. The Colegio began to develop a strong economic selves as civil servants without politics and were uninhibited emphasis through the establishment of Ph.D. programs in in giving advice to governments. The placement of the the field. However, it became increasingly difficult for the Comisi6n Economica para America Latina (CEPAL) in Colegio to retain its economists when faced with governChile was a mandate of the strong economics faculty at the meant competition. The Colegio's concern with radical National University of Chile. econometrics and ideological issues has led to a decrease
During this period (1938-1955) in which the National Uni- in the ability of the institute to function. The Colegio has versity of Chile was developing into a strong economics- then turned to less ideological fields. Demography and oriented institution, the Universidad Cat6lica de Chile was international Relations have been added to its programs. growing. The Universidad Cat6lica was a small, elitist, At the present time, the Colegio is composed of part-time right-wing university designed to train Catholic upper-class economists, demographers, and scholars of international youths. By the mid-1950's,the enrollment was approximately The Colegio provides trained personnel for the Mexican 5,000-6,000. Then the U.S. Agency for International Develop- Foreign Ministry. By shifting its focus to non-ideological meant (AID) arranged a program between the University of issues, the Colegio de Mexico has been able to survive as

a unified institution at the cost, Amazonian project underway by Florida Researchers however, of neglecting vital
controversial social issues. Dr. Charles Wagley, Graduate Research Professor of Anthropology, and
In all Latin American countries, Emilio Moran, Ph.D. candidate in Anthropology, prepared the groundwork for a the national universities have been un- forthcoming research project on Amazonian development. Mr. Moran spent a week able to deal with sensitive problems. in Rio de Janeiro, visiting governmental agencies and gathering data on the The development of governmental and Transamazonian highway. He then spent ten days in Manaus, at the request of private research institutes has been the director of the Instituto Nacional das Pesquisas da Amazonia (INPA). He had in part, a response to the failure of the opportunity to meet with other researchers with similar but not overlapping national universities, projects. Mr. Moran also delivered three lectures at INPA on the use of energy
The major problem facing social flow analysis.
scientists in all developing countries In Belem, Mr. Moran visited governmental agencies involved with Amazonian is the role of social science in society. develment. ved verbal ageniesivolved do ara'
Whereas in the United States, social development. He delivered several lectures at the Universidade Federal do Parr science is relatively autonomous in on methods of research in anthropology. He collected some 200 bibliographic regards to government, Latin American items on sources pertaining to the Amazon and Amazonian development. While social scientists are very active in in Belem, Mr. Moran also had an opportunity to observe the traditional Brazilian politics. It is quite common for a Latin procession, the Cirio de Nazar6. This religious festival lasts 15 days and Mr. American social scientist to spend the Moran was able to photograph and take notes on the festival with a view to morning in a governmental ministry and future research.
the afternoon in a university. Although After meeting with officials in Rio de Janeiro, Sio Paulo, and Brasilia, isolation of social science is not a Dr. Wagley joined Mr. Moran in Belem on October 24. In Belem, they were based solution to the problems of the various at the Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi, the oldest scientific institution in the disciplines, a degree of apartness to Amazon.
enable social scientist to study social The two researchers then flew to Altamira, on the Xingu River where tney conditions and factors is needed. stayed at the National Highways Department headquarters. From Altamira they
At the present time, the development were able to visit several agrovilas (planned settlement communities) including of a comprehensive Latin American "kilometer 46" which is the first agropolis and which will become the headsocial science is virtually at an im- quarters of the area's colonization. Traveling byroad to Itaituba (516 kilometers passe. Latin American intellectuals distant on the Tapajoz River) they were able to visit other agrovilas, and to argue that there is not time for the observe changes in soils, crops, population, and topography along the highway. In development of social science and that Itaituba they stayed at the headquarters of the National Institute of Colonization and the problems facing Latin Amer- Agrarian Reform. The activities of this agency are still in the "take-off" stage ica need solution, not study. Yet in Itaituba and progress is expected b next year. present organizational social action
programs have only accidental success; The purpose of this trip was to survey the area for future research. Arrangethe need for a comprehensive Latin ments were made with Brazilian officials for Mr. Moran's return trip to the Amazon American social science to evaluate region in September or October 1973. Mr. Moran hopes then to undertake research in the social conditions and factors is an of the agrovilas near Altamira and in a traditional community of the type studied by acute one. Wagley. (Amazon Town, 1953) He hopes to study the adaptations of each commuSocial scientists have a respon- nity to the humid tropic environment and then, through the use of energy flow sibility as citizens; their minimal analysis, to arrive at alternatives for intensive use of that area for agriculture. obligation is to extend the possibilities
for action. Research findings should be The study of self-concepts in history made available to governments and The speaker at the November 15 Colloquium was Dr. Theo de Jong, an economic institutions which want them. The devel- historian from the Netherlands. Dr. de Jong's dissertation was entitled The Naropment of acomprehensive socialscience rowing Horizon of the Dutch Traders, 1780-1830 in which he explored the role in Latin America-one which seeks to of international banker-merchants in Latin American independence. This theme explain problems and their significance has subsequently been developed in articles in Dutch and German journals. through data collection and analysis- At the present tiAhe, Dr. de Jong is working as a scientific assistant to the could have a great social impact. Board of the General Bank of the Netherlands where he is writing a study of
banking practice in the Netherlands (1824-1974).
The analysis of the self-concept relating the psychological level of anal- concepts of persons, classes or nations of a nation, a group, or an individual, ysis to the more objective factors, enables one to incorporate information provides a new dimension to the study Many social scientists feel that histor- on the psychological situation of the of history. While historians strive to ical circumstances explain the actions actor as well as information on the present a cross-sectional view of social taken. Other social scientists discuss situation in which the actor lives. development and change through anal- the interdependence of psychological ysis of factors such as industry, ag factors with objective criteria. A comparison of Holland in 1900 riculture, or social structure, the y In general these methods have been and in 1950 exhibits the usefulness of often fail to resolve the problem of insufficient. Focusing on the self- the "self-concept approach." In 1900

the nation was characterized by a dual economy which was small merchants, and reports from large companies. Many of colonial in that it was based on the East Indies income. The these reports treat the same topic in quite different ways. highest social group was composed of bankers and traders, Some of these differences may be explained by the positions while industrialists were relegated to a lower level. The which the various authors have held. Personal correspondence national self-concept was one of grandeur, and of confidence also reveals that psychological differences are important in the riches of the East. By 1950, Holland had developed in determining attitudes. an industrial economy and the social positions of the in- The concepts of social structure and self-concept may dustrialists and skilled labor had correspondingly increased. be combined. The change in social structure and the growth The national self-concept was that of an industrial society of the middle class is an example of changing self-concepts. based on a middle class. This industrialist self-concept While people of the lower class view one large homogeneous which was national in scope in 1950 was one which was upper class, members of the upper class are aware of very held by relatively few in 1900. The 1900 self-concept of fine gradations within the class. Holland's grandeur was limited by 1950 to the same social The Dutch failure to concentrate on Latin America is group which had once been the elite class, the result of emotional as well as economic factors. With
One can measure the change in self-concept through the both, investment in Latin America was seen as involving study of economic data. In the case of twentieth century high risks. Holland, the shifts in self-concept may be compared with Social change is the result of awhole set of interrelated shifts in economic data such as the length of time that in- variables. Objective criteria are important in studying social comes from the Indies were important to Holland. change but an equally important factor is that of people's
Methods for analyzing changes in self-concepts vary. perceptions of reality. The changing self-concepts of elites In analyzing short periods of time, content analysis of is perhaps the most importantfactorin studying social change. journals is possible. In longer time periods, reinforcement While it would be possible to study the self-concepts of the from other scholars is useful. In studying the Dutch reaction lower classes, through analysis of folk stories and songs. to new economic opportunities in the Americas, de Jong the rate of change in the self-concepts of peasants is much uses governmental documents, trade documents, reports of slower than that of elites.
The University of Florida Aymara program
Since its inception in 1968, the exercises and corresponding tapes for and Qumpi. He has directed two threeUniversity of Florida Aymara program two years of instruction. A English- month courses at the YMCA in La Paz, has been expanded to include a variety Spanish-Aymara dictionary is being one in Aymara literature and one for of projects. This year, the program of prepared. radio announcers. He and several other
Aymara instruction continues as a two- Several projects involving Florida linguistic students, have done some year course, three volumes of teaching Aymara program participants are under volunteer teaching of Aymara linguistics materials have been completed, and a consideration. The Peruvian govern- in Qumpi. At the request of community number of special projects are under ment has asked for advice from the leaders in Tiwanaku (Tiahuanaco) he consideration. University of Florida Aymara program taught a course to Aymara-speakers in
The University of Florida offers a in regard to the establishment of a that community. The course included two-year course in Aymara under the program in the Puno area to train an introduction to anthropology and direction of Dr. M. J. Hardman-de- Aymara instructors, linguistics and the teaching of the
Bautista. The courses are taught by A second project under development phonemic alphabet. Lucy S~nchez and
native Aymara speakers; this year the is the establishment of an Instituto Enriqueta Asport of the Instituto instructors are Pedro Copana (fall Aymara de Lengua y Cultura in Qumpi Nacional de Estudios Lingui'sticos quarter)andJuandeDiosYapitaM.(spring with offices in La Paz. Community (INEL) also participated in the course. and summer quarters). The course leaders in Qumpi including Juan de Some 34 Aymara speakers successfully makes extensive use of tapes and Dios Yapita and Karen Evans de Yapita completed the course. A Comit6 de
visual aids. Students who complete the (both participants in the University of Promoci6n Aymara was founded to two-year course may continue their Florida Aymara program) originated the continue similar courses in other study of Aymara through individual proposal. The objectives of the Institute Aymara communities. research. are to promote the Aymara culture
Three volumes of teaching materials through emphasis on literature. The A number of University of Florida have recently been completed. The Aymara Institute will train Aymara graduate students who have participated authors of the materials are Dr. M. J. speakers to read and write their native in the Aymara program are actively Hardman-de-Bautista, Juan de Dios language and assist them to develop a pursuing their studies. Lucy Briggs Yapita, and Juana Vdsquez with the literature. There will also be a cultural plans to begin her Ph.D. research in collaboration of Lucy Briggs, Laura museum to preserve the Aymara herit- February or March 1973. She will study Barber, and Nora England. Volume I is age and a library with texts and works Aymara dialects in a number of Aymaradesigned as a student manual, volume of literature in Aymara. Spanish as a speaking communities. Other graduate II as a teacher's guide, and volume III second language will also be taught students whose research plans focus on as an Aymara grammar. All three volumes at the Institute. Aymara are Karen Evans de Yapita,
are illustrated by Juana Vdisquez. The Juan de Dios Yapita has been Andrew Miracle, Sylvia Boynton, and
Aymara texts includes dialogues, active in several projects in La Paz Carlos Saavedra.

The expression of struggle in Ecuadorian Literature
The speaker at the November 2nd colloquium was Jorge Icaza, the well-known Ecuadorian novelist whose most famous work, Huasipungo has been translated into many languages, lcazcf is a representative of the group of writers known in Ecuador as the "Generation of 1930" and more broadly, of the Latin American literary and social current known as Indigenismo. The main protagonists of his various novels are either the Indian (Huasipungo), the Cholo (Huairapamuschas, Cholos), or the Mestizo in the cities (El Chulla Romero y Flores, En las Calles), all of whom, taken together, represent the majority of the population of Ecuador-the pueblo.
The dominant theme of Latin American literature has The theme of the struggle was not present in early been internal struggle; this theme reflects the contradictions Spanish American literature due to the fact that most of the of a society in transformation. Many of the world's best authors were Spanish and thus did not face the struggle of literary works were written as an expression of this struggle the continent. The lack of a clear self-definition of Latin which i6 always present in a process of formation. For ex- American literature led many authors to turn to Europe, and ample, Spanish literature reached its peak during the strug- wholesale adoption of European concepts was prevalent. gles to rid the country of the Moors. Don Quixote de la Ecuadorian literature offers numerous examples of writers Mancha, Cervante's masterpiece, presents the struggle as whose works exemplify the struggle. one not only between men but also against the symbols of Writing in the late 1700's, Eugenio de Santa Cruz y feudalism. Espejo attacked the traditional Spanish American literature
Latin America is a continent in formation in that it is of foreign imitation. As a Mestizo his literature reflects searching for identity. Geologically the continent is rel- the struggle to assert himself. He looked for cultural roots atively new. Economically the Latin American nations are in Europe and in Ecuador. He was greatly influenced by the struggling to achieve "development" through diversification. French encyclopedists and studied both law and medicine Latin American intellectuals are searching for cultural which he used to help the lower classes. He called for a identity-an identity in which foreign influences are minimized, national culture, attacking Quevedo and G3ngora. He
The greatest struggle occurring in contemporary Latib satirized the movements of "perceptivismo" and "cultAmerica is that of achieving a balance between the Spanish eranismo" which were in vogue at the time. He edited a and the Indian traditions. This struggle is evident in virtually periodical calling for political independence for all of all aspects of society. Latin American architecture reflects Spanish America. His literature is that of struggle; he the attempt to synthesize the two cultures. The physical attacked the system of Spanish political and literary features of the "Latin American man" are as yet unformed. colonization.
The cultural effects of Spain's cultural, economic, and Latin American culture progresses in waves and will political domination of the continent are widespread. "El continue to do so until a representative Latin American sefiorito espaiiol" considered manual labor demeaning and as culture is formed. The wave for Ecuador rose again in the a result, the Indians were forced into building the nations middle of the Republican period. After achieving Independof Latin American. ence, Spanish America was plagued by dictators. Don Juan
The Mestizo, the product of unions between the two Montalvo, also a Mestizo, understood the necessity of races, has become an integral part of Latin American culture fighting these dictatorships. He attacked Garcia Moreno, and and his struggle to assert himself has been one of the even when exiled, he continued to struggle. Garcia Moreno dominant themes in Latin American literature, was assassinated by men who had been inspired by Montalvo.
Socially Latin American culture has not as yet achieved Later Montalvo fought against another dictator, Ignacio an equilibrium. Analysis of the social structure reveals a Veintemilla and was successful in contributing to the class of "sub-men"who live without material possessions dictator's fall. Miguel de Unamuno called Montalvo "the or exposure to education or health facilities, greatest insultor of Spanish America." The literature of
The struggle to achieve an equilibrium between the Montalvo exhibits the struggle against dictatorship.
cultures of Spain and the Indian, to escape underdevelop- Even when the waves of Ecuadorian literature were at ment, to correct social injustice and to create a Latin relatively low points, there still were authors who were American tradition, have been reflected in the literature of engaged in struggle. Father Gonzalez SuArez wrote seven Latin American. Although, often glossed over with an volumes of Ecuadorian history and crusaded against a imitation facade, the theme of struggle is to be found in corrupt clergy. During this period, clergymen were convirtually all Latin American literature. The theme of struggle stantly revealing miracles and the mystical appearances is often presented through the use of the internal dialogue of holy figures. It is said that a priest while eating lunch frequently a dialogue between the Spaniard and the Indian. one day, proclaimed that he had seen the "Virgen de la Whereas in Spanish literature of the last century, the usage Empanada." This was the type of behavior that Gonzalez of the internal monologue was widespread, Spanish society attacked. had resolved many of these contradictions and the use of In the late 1930's a new generation of Ecuadorian the monologue reflected this equilibrium. Latin American writers emerged. The movement was not the result of one usage of the internal dialogue reflects the contradictions individual but rather of three groups of writers that emerged of its society. simultaneously -one in Guayaquil, one in Quito, and one

in the south of Ecuador. The groups acted as "conducting sponse was that the words he used were not obscerPe words threads" in which ideas were shared and reinforced. At this but rather good words, in that they best represented that time, Ecuador was governed not by a "dictadura" but rather which he wanted to portray. Icaza was struggling against by a "dictablanda", that is, one which acted in subtle injustice and continues to do so. He writes to show the Latin ways. The group felt it necessary to denounce injustice. American reader that there is a Spanish American soul; he These writers of the 1930's sought to introduce an ethical is fighting for the men of the lower classes. In response to value into Ecuadorian literature and were concerned with the criticism that Huasipungolacked ametaphysicalmessage, the social inequality of the time. Icaza responded by stating that his work was primarily
The opposition to the generation of 1930 was violent concerned with portraying the Indian philosophy of life. and was primarily focused on one book, Huasipungo. This point was illustrated by a portion of the book in which Critics of the book maintained that it was pornographic, the primitive reaction to death is presented in an Indian's tricky, and lacked metaphysical contribution. Icaza's re- poignant and soulful lament for the death of his wife.
American Subregion" at the Florida University of Florida Latinamer.
Political Science Association meeting icanists were well represented at the in Orlando, Florida on December 2. He American Anthropological Association has also had an article, "Nuevos mod- Convention held in Toronto fromNovemelos de relaciones Interamericanas" ber 29th through December 3rd. Dr. published in Problemas lnternacionales, Maxine Margolis, Assistant Professor November-December, 1972. of Anthropology presented a paper enDr. John T. Reid, Associate Profes- Dr. T. Lynn Smith, Graduate Re- titled "Two Agricultural Frontiers: sor of Spanish, has recently had an ar- search Professor of Sociology,presented Parallel Developments in Brazil and ticle, "Decline and Fall of the Ariel a paper entitled "The Race between the United States." Dr. Paul Doughty, Galivan Metaphor," accepted for pub- Population and Food Supply in Colombia" Chairman of the Department of Anthrolication in a forthcoming issue of at the 23rd Congress of the Institute pology presented a paper entitled "The Americas. Dr. Reid's current research Internacional de Sociologie which met Fiesta: Ritual Expression of Commuprojects involve the study of symbolic in Caracas, Venezuela from November nitas, Conflict and Alienation in the nationalism in Spanish America. 22-25. Dr. Smith also served as presi- Peruvian Highlands." Dr. William Carter,
Dr. David Denslow, Assistant dent of the roundtable discussion on Director of the Center for Latin AmerProfessor of Economics, is currently Rural Sociology. The President of Ven- ican Studies, wrote a paper entitled spending the 1972-1973 academic year ezuela, Rafael Caldera, a sociologist "Trial Marriage in the Andes?" which teaching in Fortaleza, Brazil at the and longtime member of the Rural was read by Dr. M. J. Hardman-deCenter for Improvement of Economists Society, gave the opening address at Bautista. Mr. Juan Yapita, Aymara from the Northeast and doing research the Conference. The Institute Inter- instructor, also wrote a paper which on cotton agriculture in Ceara during natcional de Sociologie is the oldest of was presented at the Conference enthe nineteenth century. the sociological societies; the con- titled "Marriage among the Bolivian
Dr. Weston Agor, Assistant Profes- ference in Venezuela was the third Aymara: a Highland Community as comsot of Political Science, presented a time the Institute had met outside of pared with an Urban Family in La Paz paper entitled "Interactions in the Latin Europe. City."
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