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Latinamericanist

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Title:
Latinamericanist
Added title page title:
University of Florida latinamericanist
Alternate title:
Latin americanist
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University of Florida Center for Latin American Studies
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Fla.
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Center for Latin American Studies,
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semiannual
regular
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English
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v. ;28-36 cm.

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Subjects / Keywords:
Periodicals -- Latin America ( lcsh )
Study and teaching (Higher) -- Periodicals -- Latin America -- Florida ( lcsh )
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Periodicals ( fast )
serial ( sobekcm )
periodical ( marcgt )

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Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Vol. 1, no. 1 (Feb. 3, 1964)-
Numbering Peculiarities:
Suspended between v. 35, no. 1 (fall 1999) and v. 36, no. 1 (spring 2005).
General Note:
Latest issue consulted: Vol. 36, no. 2 (fall 2005).

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University of Florida
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UF Latin American Collections
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Copyright, Patricia Alba at Center for Latin American Studies. Permission granted to University of Florida to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
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337250 ( ALEPH )
5269284 ( OCLC )

Full Text













UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA GAINESVILLE,.FLOlDA
CENTER FOR LATIN AMERICAN STUDIES VOLUME 7, NUM'RErIj
;N $$E 15, 1971tk




THE ROLE OF THE STUDENT AND LOW ACADE IC

PERFORMANCE IN LATIN AMERICAN UNIVERSI

Manuel J. Carvajal has an M.S.A. in Agricultural Economics IYUniV rsity of Florida and a B.A. Summa Cum Laude in Economics from Florida Atlan ersity. He holds a joint appointment as an Instructor in the Departments of Economics and Social Sciences at the University of Florida, where he is currently working toward a Ph.D. in Economics. Before joining the University of Florida, Carvajal worked with the Agency for International Development in Costa Rica, where he published several bulletins on Costa Rican agriculture.


Youth represents the future of every country. Today's young people will inevitably become the mature citizens who will be determining the nature and outcome of future issues. Therefore, studying the patterns of behavior of the young is likely to help us predict the development of future events.
On the whole we may say that the feelings and opinions held by a person at the university level will remain roughly the same throughout the individual's life. Of course, his personality will be subject to continuous remodeling as years pass by and the bright outlook so characteristic of the young tends to fade away. But his basic sets of beliefs and values, acquired through childhood and adolescence, is likely to endure subsequent experiences. The university is, at least theoretically, a means by which the individual can achieve a higher status in the socioeconomic scale. In Latin America, however, many obstacles virtually prohibit its accessibility to most segments of the population. The most important is the factor of poor economic conditions, especially undernourishment, a condition certainly not conducive to the flourishing of intellectual ability. 1
The Latin American student thinks of himself as the only one having a clean mind in the midst of corruption.


1The-minimum diet recommended by the Junta de Alimentacion y Nutrici'n includes 70 grams of protein and 2,900 calories per day for the average student (18-35 years of age, 5 feet 9 inches tall, 175 pounds). See Burton, Benjamin T., Nutrici6n Humana; Pan American Health Organization, 1966, p. 151. According to America en Cilras, 1970, the only countries with more than a minimum per capita protein intake are Argentina, Chile and Uruguay, and the only ones with more than a minimum per capi alorie intake are Argentina and Uruguay.


The existing social, economic and political order appear unjust to him. Politicians seem to promote their own interests rather than those of the nation. Consequently, the student feels he must do something to remedy this situation.
The university is then transformed into a center of conspiracy. The feeling of discontent is communicated through furtive comments, pamphlets or secret meetings. Sabotage is planned. Uprisings take place. As the university becomes the nucleus of revolt, it also becomes the banner of the oppressed.2 Resources which otherwise would be allocated for the improvement of academic efficiency are thus diverted into other uses.
The inevitable conclusion of this course of events is violent confrontation with the authorities, who try to suffocate revolt by means of violence. Violence elicits more violence in response, with a consequent escalation of the conflict. Eventually the university may be occupied by the armed forces and academic activities discontinued.
The university in the United States, on the other hand, presents a different picture. Decisions do not take the form of life or death. Academic activities are not likely to be disrupted by political strife. And the economic conditions of the student are enhanced by a more copious supply of part-time jobs, loans and scholarships.
(continued on page 7)

2For further reference see Gonzalez Alberdi, Paulino, Los Estudiantes en el Movimiento Revolucionario Latinoamericano;
Ediciones Medio Siglo, Buenos Aires, 1968. Also see Silva Michelena, Hector and Heinz Rudolf Sonntag, Universidad, Dependencia y Revolucio'n; Siglo Veintiuno Editores S. A., Mexico, D. F., 1970.





I C


Coioquif m, September 21 LATIN


Changing attitudes tow~aW family planning in Brazil

Dr. Pedro Calderan Beltrao is Director of the Center for Documentation and Research, Universidade do Vale do Rio Dos Sinos, Sdo Leopoldo, Brazil. A Jesuit priest, Dr. Beltrao is also Professor of Sociology and Demography at the Pontifical University in Rome and Professor of Christian Sociological Doctrine at Instituto de Ciencias Humanas, Pontificia Universidade Catolica, Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre.


Although Brazil has no official policy regarding family planning, it has de facto begun to take a semiofficial position favorable to contr-ol of population growth. An indication of this semiofficial position is found in the establishment, in the last five years of numerous government centers for the dissemination of family planning information. Two states, Espirito Santo and Rio Grande do Norte, now provide state funds for the creation of family planning clinics.
In the 1970 Brazilian census, for the first time in this century the rate of population growth showed a decrease. Dr. Beltrao cautioned, however, that this rate, 2.9 per cent per year, should not be looked upon as satisfactory but rather only as an encouraging note which should induce expansion of programs of birth control now in effect, so that perhaps by the end of the twentieth century Brazil may achieve a rate of 1 per cent per year.
Along with family planning programs, Brazil must undertake to provide means and incentives for migration to the interior of the country, to achieve a better geographical distribution of the population. Development of the interior is expected to be stimulated by the construction of the Trans-Amazonian Highway designed to cut across the tropical forest to the Andes and eventually link the eastern coast of South America with the western. The highway, which should be completed during the 1980s, will be more than a road: it will be a catalyst to the development of towns and industry which will attract migration to the now underpopulated interior.
The most immediate concern, according to Dr. Beltrso, is to proceed with population planning rather than depend on future development of the country


and of technology to solve a problem the attention to which is long overdue. Family planning has been discussed in the Brazilian legislature and there has been an encouraging increase in its open, straightforward treatment there. The point of argument seems to be the method to be used to curtail population increase; that some method should be found is agreed.
The present situation regarding abortion is a symptom that a satisfactory solution must be forthcoming. In an environment in which birth control information and acceptance is not widespread, illegal abortions occur at a rate of about 1.8 million cases a year in Brazil. An increase in the practice of family planning would be the best way to reduce the incidence of abortion, which as it is currently practiced, is unsafe and unjust. Legally, only therapeutic abortion is permissible in Brazil. In this milieu, physicians face a dilemma: to the poor they can only unofficially recommend self-induced termination of pregnancy, a dangerous answer for the indigent; but for those who can afford clinical abortion, it is available, although illegal.
Dr. Beltrao considers it a matter of social justice to provide all families with adequate medical treatment, including termination of pregnancy. To eliminate a situation which produces illegal and nontherapeutic abortion at such a high rate, there is a need for reform of Brazil's abortion laws and for education on and availability of means for birth control.
Brazil faces the added difficulty of solving the problems of rapid population growth within the teachings and traditions of its dominant religion. Historically the Catholic Church has shifted its attitude. For centuries the


Church was very tolerant of the use of birth control methods and issued reminders to confessors to be gentle and forgiving upon confessions. Not until the nineteenth century, when the Church was under the direct influence of French and Belgian churchmen who viewed population limitation as being ruinous to their countries' importance in Europe vis-a-vis German interests after the Franco-Prussian War, was there a concerted effort to formulate dogma disallowing birth control. Ironically, the need for a large population was not a religious need, but rather a need to fill armies with sufficient men to wage war in pursuit of nationalistic aims.
Restrictions on birth control endured until the Second Vatican Council reminded the Church that procreation is not the primary purpose of marriage, it was stressed that love between man and woman should be the foundation of marriage.
The current discussion in the Church is not as to whether procreation or love is the foundation; the method of limiting procreation is the matter in dispute. For some time, the only acceptable means of limiting procreation was considered to be one which would not interfere with the normal and natural activity of the human body. Only cyclical abstinence met this standard. The physician who originally researched the rhythm method has more recently written, however, that this 'natural method'' is not recommendable for all women of all age groups, and he suggests that a variety of methods must be made permissible.
Dr. BeltrAo considers the methods of controlling birth to be a medical, rather than a moral issue, one which should








be left to medical science to work out in a scientific way. Brazilian doctors responding to a survey of their opinions were conducted by unanimously in accord on the advisability of family
-%planning. Nearly all, 97 per cent, reported they did not consider intrauterine devices to be "abortive".

Brazil's doctors, under present law and tradition, are frequently placed in the position of making decisions which should at this stage of development of civilization not remain arbitrary. In an incident which took place in Dr. Beltrao's archdiocese, a group of doctors went to see their archbishop requesting information and advice concerning family planning. The archbishop sent them to Dr. Beltrao, who was then put in the position ofultimate arbiter in the archdiocese. He not only encouraged them to disseminate knowledge about birth control but infused in the doctors a missionary spirit. to carry out Christian mercy and educate the ignorant. It is in this context, according to Dr. Beltro, that one should try to understand the encyclical of Paul VI, Humanae Vitae. It is a basic principle of Catholic theology that the Pope teaches not alone but in conjunction with the episcopate. The degree of acceptance of a statement is relative


to the concordance of opinion between the Church Universal and the Pope. In the case of Humanae Vitae, Pope Paul did not consult with bishops throughout the world. He acted, for his own reasons, without their concordance, as is obvious by the reaction of many European episcopates. Latin American bishops followed the Pope as they usually do, because of an insecure feeling of an inferior level of theological training.

In Dr. Beltrdo's case, he found the first part of the encyclical encouraging, since it reaffirmed the Second Vatican Council's affirmation of love as the foundation of marriage. But the remainder was disconcerting, in that when family planning was discussed only rhythmic abstinence was acknowledged to be permissible. Dr. Beltrao thereafter wrote extensively and stated forthrightly that he disagreed with the last tenet of the encyclical. He expectedly found himself criticized by civilian and clerical traditionalists. His writings were sent to Rome. There the Rector of the Gregorian University, an institution to which the more outstanding candidates for the priesthood are sent to study, stated that he had read Dr. Beltrio's writings and had confidence in his judgment. Dr. Beltrio was asked by the editors of the journal


Civilli Cat6lica to write about hi s views on family planning from a scientific point of view. His article was carefully considered by the editors and was sent to Pope Paul, who retained it for more than a week. When the article was returned to Dr. Beltrio, only one censor had made a single, brief comment; the Pope had changed nothing.
Dr. Beltrao concludes that this lack of objection to his diverging opinions by the highest church authority is consistent with history. The Church has found it necessary through the ages to modify its statements as science makes more areas of knowledge clear. This is not a loss of faith, but rather giving faith its rightful place and making things that do not belong to the realm of faith to take their rightful place in the world of ideas. Confident that current efforts to educate the peoples of the world in family planning will lead to a happier life on earth, Dr. BeltrEo likes to extend this confidence to the entirety of God's Universe. It seems characteristic of his sense of humor as well as his sense of love that Dr. Beltrao muses that he would like to be one of the first missionaries to travel to the moon where he might establish a religious order, Los Luncticos y las Lunaticas del Senlor.


CENTRAL AMERICAN POPULATION STUDIES


PLANNED


Data verification and data complementation for a study of the social and economic determinants, of human fertility differentials in Costa Rica was the purpose of a research visit to the Central American country this summer by Dr. David Geithman, Assistant Professor of Economics, and doctoral candidate Manuel Carvajal. The data forming the spring board for the study was the 1963 Costa Rican census, stored in the Latin American Data Bank.
While in San Jos6, they visited Direcci6n General de Estadistica y Censos, Instituto Geogrdfico, Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganadera, Ministerio de Saldd Ptblica, Centro de Estudios Sociales y de Poblaci6n and Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia.
The goal of Dr. Geithman and Mr. Carvajal is to construct a statistical model from the Costa Rican census. Their objective in this investigation of the socioeconomic determinants of human fertility is to formulate a hypothesis based on the nature of income effect on desired family size. The real economic costs and benefits of having fewer children will be quantitatively tested. The resulting knowledge of statistical associations between regional fertility and features of the parents' environment likely to modify the number of children parents desire will contribute to the formation and implementation of family planning programs. Dr. Geithman and Mr. Carvajal stopped briefly in El Salvador and Guatemala for the purpose of determining whether a study similar to their Costa Rican endeavor would be feasible in those countries as well.








URBANIZATION IN SMALL NATIONS THEME OF 22ND LATIN AMERICAN CONFERENCE


The Center for Latin American Studies of the University of Florida will sponsor its 22nd Conference at Gainesville from February 16 to 21, 1972. The theme of the conference will be "Public Policy Determinants of Urban Growth in Small Latin American Nations." Within this theme, a regional focus will emphasize Central America and the Caribbean.

The conference theme reflects the belief'that Latin American urbanization is erroneously perceived as a selfgenerating mechanism lacking in conscious control. Seldom has it been analyzed in terms of total regional, national and international contexts. At all these levels public policy produces effects which are both direct and latent.

It is the intent of the Center that its 22nd Annual Latin American Conference provide the point of departure needed to establish guidelines for future research in analyzing key urban policies and methods that affect the growth or stagnation of given population clusters, in understanding how public policies govern the scale and location of urban growth and in illustrating how policy determinants may be related to each other in additional, and possibly more productive, ways. The initial outlines of a model construct may be produced during the conference for describing and predicting urban growth in small Latin American nations.


Topics to be covered at this conference are the following.

Public Policy Determinants of Urban Growth in Small Latin American Nations: Research Trends and
Prospects

Empirical Discussions of Urban
Growth: Two Case Studies
Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic
San Jos6, Costa Rica


Methodological Approaches to Key
Urban Policies
Public Works
Private Investment
Public Services
Land Policies

Problems of Developing Holistic
Models of Urban Growth


The conference format will consist of three major components. Eight position papers by invitees and staff will be presented February 16 and 17.

Workshops will be established during the second phase of the conference on February 18 and 19 to discuss and review methodological approaches to four key urban policy fields by a panel of scholars. The objectives of these workshops will be to test and refine general theoretical approaches to key urban policies by analyzing urban growth features in two case study regions and relating these features to specific policy implementation. This conference phase will close with representatives from each workshop participating in a round-table discussion where interpolicy linkages and functional ties among key urban policies will be examined.

The final conference phase, on February 21, will summarize the workshop discussions, syntheses and recommendations for evaluating the impact of specific present policies on urban growth in the Dominican Republic and Costa Rica.


At least ten social scientists and urban planners from Latin America will be invited so that there will be strong representation from the region. Tentatively expected to attend are:


Dr. Jorge Hardoy, President and Director, Interamerican Planning Society; Research Fellow, Instituto Torcuato di Tella, Buenos Aires


Professor Oscar Yujnovsky, Buenos Aires, Argentina, formerly of the College of Environmental Design, University of California at Berkeley


Drs. Fuad and Suphan Andic, Caribbean Research Institute and Department of Economics, University of Puerto Rico, Ri'o Piedras

Ing. Orlando Haza, Professor of City Planning, Universidad Aut6noma de Santo Domingo; President, Haza & Pellerano, C. por A.

Ing. Jos6 Joaquin Hungria Morell, Director General, Instituto Geogr~fico Universitario, Universidad Aut6noma de Santo Domingo


Dr. Manuel Jos6 Cabral, Dean and Professor, Faculty of Business Administration and Economics, Universidad Cat6lica Madre y Maestra, Santiago de los Caballeros, Dominican Republic


Lic. C6sar Garcia V., Professor of Urban Anthropology, Universidad Cat6lica Madre y Maestra, Santiago de los Caballeros, Dominican Republic


Arq. Guillermo Santoni R., Director of Regional Planning, National Planning Office, Technical Secretariat to the Presidency of the Dominican Republic; Prof essor, Faculty of Architecture, Universidad Nacional Pedro Henriquez Ureia, Santo Domingo


Ing. Eduardo Castro Dobles, Director, Instituto Nacional de Urbanismo, San Jos6, Costa Rica

Lic. Leonardo Silva King, Department of Coordination, Control and LongRang e Planning, Central Planning Office, Presidency of the Republic of Costa Rica


Participants from the United States









will include:


Cultural Program Emphasizes Music


Professor Francine Rabinovitz, Department of Political Science, University of California at Los Angeles


Professor Dale Truett, Department of Economics, Florida International University, Miami


Professor Paul Doughty, Department of Anthropology, University of Florida, Gainesville


UF faculty being invited to chair sessions and workshop committees include:

L. N. McAlister T. Lynn Smith, Charles Wagley Raymond Crist Solon Kimball Andros Saurez
Howard T. Odum
David Niddrie
Carl Feiss
John Saunders
Elizabeth Eddy Richard Renner
Hugh Popenoe


Gustavo Antonini, Coordinator of Research for Latin American Studies, is serving as Conference Chairman.


This 22nd Annual Latin American Conference has been designed to encourage scholars who have been working separately on related research in disparate regions of Latin America to come together, share insights and develop hypotheses which will benefit all concerned with evaluating the impact of public policies on long-term governmental planning objectives in Latin America. Even more important for the University of Florida, however, will be its training impact on Florida staff and graduate students. The theme and format have been developed with the express purpose in mind of forming a local research team capable of dealing with the problems of the urban milieu in Latin America.


The 1971-72 cultural program sponsored by the Center for Latin American Studies and the University's Department of Music began in October with a presentation featuring the music of Villa-Lobos, followed the succeeding week with a recital of Latin American Music by pianist Raul Spivak. On October 7, Dr. David Z. Kushner, Professor of Music, lectured on the life, works, educational efforts and nationalistic activities of Heitor VillaLobos (1887-1959). The Brazilian composer, who wrote over 2,000 pieces, was the most prolific and influential musician of twentieth century Brazil. Villa-Lobos succeeded in his efforts to introduce music education in the Brazilian public schools. Considered avant-garde by his countrymen, VillaLobos found his music acclaimed by performing artists and orchestras of the United States and other Nations. Along with the informative lecture by Dr. Kushner, tapes and records of Villa-Lobos' compositions recorded by United States musicians were played. In a live interlude, guitarist Albert Kunze presented two preludes and one etude by Villa-Lobos. Mr. Kunze is a senior majoring in music history at the University of Florida. On October 12, the series continued as Raul Spivak, an Argentine and Professor of Music at Florida Atlantic University, presented a piano program featuring the work of several Latin American composers. The program included music by Gianneo, Ginastera, Villa-Lobos, Camargo-Guarnieri and Albeniz. Professor Spivak, concert pianist and master teacher, is considered one of the most prominent Latin American musicians. He has held faculty chairs in the National Conservatory of Music in Buenos Aires and the School of Fine Arts of the University of La Plata; he has been Musician-in-Residence at several United States universities; he has performed to critical acclaim throughout the world. While Raul Spivak is outstanding in his interpretation of the classics, he is noted as well for his ability to enchant audiences with the


spirit of his Latin American repertoire. The Latin American cultural program emphasizing music this academic year will resume in the winter and spring, 1972. Dr. Kushner will present a lecture in February which will be a survey of Latin American compositions and composers. Three more recitals by gifted musicians featuring Latin American Music are planned, in February, April and May.
On two successive Sundays in April, the Gainesville station WRUF-FM regular series "Music from Florida' will be devoted to two ninety minute programs of Latin American music.


Mayan Photographs

from UF Loaned to

Guatemalan Museum

At a recent ceremony in Guatemala City, Roy C. Craven, Jr., Director of the University Gallery, represented the University of Florida and its Center for Latin American Studies when thirtyseven photographs of the classical Mayan ceremonial center of Tikal were placed on extended loan to the Museo de Arqueologia y Etnologia de Guatema la.
These photographs, taken by Professor Craven, were originally part of the University Gallery's exhibition "The Maya" which was sponsored at the Gainesville gallery by the UF's Center for Latin American Studies in 1969.
Installed in a special hall of the museum in Guatemala City, the photographs will be displayed with actual artifacts and a large three-dimensional scale model of the archaeological site, Tikal.
Those attending this presentation were archeological historian Verle L. Ann is; Sefiora Laura de Garcia Prendes, president of the Tikal Association; Nathaniel Davis, Ambassador of the United States; Luis Lujan, Director del Instituto de Antropologia e Historia; Roy Craven; Dr. Wilson Popenoe; Rafael Morales, Director del Museo Nacional de Arqueologia y Etnologia; and Robert Ebersole, Cultural Attach6 of the United States Embassy, Guatemala City.








Collogqim, September 29


Huichol peyote ritual


As the Huichol Indians of western Mexico annually set out in search of peyote, a hallucinatory drug derived from the mescal cactus, they journey not only to the high desert country where the mescal grows, but also to a state of mind which they believe leads them to their ancestors and therefore to their own origins.

The first documentary film of this ritual was presented as the second Latin American Colloquium of the academic year, in conjunction with the Anthropology Club. "To Find Our Life: The Peyote Hunt of the Huichols of Mexico" was filmed in the field in December 1968 by anthropologist Peter T. Furst.


By means of superb tuated by indigenous panied by narration


color film puncmusic, accomadapted from


native text, and agumented by use of Huichol wool and beeswax ritual paintings, the viewer travels with a group of Huichols on their ritual journey. A shaman leads the Indians as they follow the high desert trails to find the mescal, a spineless, globe-shaped cactus which has buttonlike tubercles. In the quest, the Huichols symbolically return to their origins. The tubercles of the mescal are dried, and during the ritual the peyote derived from them is chewed. The hallucinatory effect of peyote ends in a trance, a culmination of the ceremonial return to and reenactment of the ancient Huichols.
The film has been called by anthropologists "a work of both esthetic and ethnographic integrity, interesting and ,moving alike" and "a beautiful opportunity. to witness the effects of culture upon drug-induced behavior."


Coioqix, Octokr 6


Divergent development of sugar production in Brazil and Cuba


Dr. David A. Denslow is Assistant Professor of Economics at the University of Florida. His special fields include economic development and the economic history


of Brazil.


Northeastern Brazil is the largest area of extreme poverty in the Western Hemisphere, its twenty-five million people having an estimated average income per person of $125 a year. That poverty is related in part to its history of centuries of plantation monoculture, producing sugar for export. Such monoculture inhitits the development of a skilled and spirited labor force and stifles the growth of mass markets for industrial products.

But specialization in sugar production does not explain the degree of poverty found in the Northeast. Cuba in the 1950s had the highest per capita income


of any tropical country. One cause of the extreme poverty in the Northeast is the region's failure to compete successfully in international markets after the 1880s and in the Brazilian market after the First World War. The aim of this talk is to explain why the sugar industry of Northeastern Brazil did not expand between 1884 and 1914, during which period sugar production in Cuba increased fourfold.

The main expense in sugar production was the labor cost of cultivating and harvesting cane. The Northeast had an advantage over Cuba in that respect. In the decade preceding the First


World War, wages in Cuba were four times as high as those in the Northeast. Had wages in Cuba been the same as those in Northeastern Brazil, the average cost of producing a ton of sugar in Cuba would have fallen from $30 to $16.
Capital from the United States flowed into Cuba so that by 1914 over a third of the sugar produced on that island came from American-owned factories, Further, Cuba's proximity to the United States and tariff reductions gained in a reciprocity treaty reduced the marketing costs. Expenses from factory to consumer were $8 to $10 per ton higher for Brazilian than for Cuban sugar. But the sugar industry in Brazil received investment guarantees from national and state governments which were proportionately larger than the American investment in Cuba. Further, the Northeast could sell to a domestic market which was protected by high tariffs. For comparable grades, sugar prices were higher in Northeastern Brazil than in Cuba. Therefore the sugar industry of the Northeast must have had high costs. Such high costs came from inefficiency. Since wages were low, capital was available and competitive conditions prevailed. Sugar centrals in Brazil used more factory and field labor, more railroad mileage and more factory machinery per ton of sugar than did those in Cuba. Had Brazilian centrals been able to attain Cuban efficiency, they could have reduced production costs at least $20 per ton.
Brazilian factories were inefficient because they were small. A typical ton of sugar from Cuba came from a factory eight or nine times as large as a typical ton of sugar from the Northeast. The average scale of Cuban factories increased forty times between 1860 and 1910. That was because innovations in steel and alloys made it possible to build large tandems consisting of several mills for extracting juice from cane. Such tandems extracted nearly all the juice in the cane but required enormous amounts of cane to be profittable. The average Cuban factory had a sixteen-mile railroad which brought it 130,000 tons of cane a year.

The average central in the Northpast also had a sixteen-mile railroad, but that railroad, following the curves of a








narrow river valley through soils of widely varying quality, brought less than 40,000 tons of cane a year. Central sugar factories in the Northeast were small because the region is hilly and because fertile soil occurs in patches. The pattern of land use resulting from economies of scale in sugar production and such conditions of soils and caused a number of observers to conclude incorrectly that plantation owners leave land idle in order to keep wages low. In the middle of the nineteenth century, sugar mills in Brazil were smaller than those in Cuba. But at that time scale mattered less than in the twentieth century, since sugar-to-cane ratios were as high in small mills as in large ones. Large mills required less labor per ton of sugar; slaves were cheaper in the Northeast than in Cuba, however, and mills in the Northeast could use water power while those in Cuba had none available.
It is no wonder, then, that in some of the historiography and novels of Northeastern Brazil, the small sugar plantations of the nineteenth century and before represent a golden age, a time of heroic men, grand passions and unimaginable luxury. But in the age of steel the region, betrayed by its enchanting hills, came to resemble a mining area where the ore had run out.


(continued from page 1)

B e r t e r professional opportunities often tempt the graduate of a Latin American institution to migrate to more developed countries, especially the United States, where not only salaries and standards of living are higher, but research facilities, sources of information and funding are easier to obtain. Hence the so-called brain drain and the shortage of trained personnel in most fields in Latin America. Between 1961 and 1965, a totalof 19,100 professional, technical and kindred workers from Latin America emigrated to the United States alone. The number of such workers leaving Latin America is becoming greater each year.3
Thus four conditions that contribute to relatively low academic standards may be identified in Latin America: unfavorable economic conditions, the politization of the university, periodic discontinuity of academic life and depletion of trained personnel.



3Pan American Health Organization, "Migration of Health Personnel, Scientists, and Engineers from Latin America,' Scientific Publication No. 142, 1967.


TYLER RETURNS FROM BRAZIL
Dr. William G. Tyler, Assistant Professor of Economics, has returned from a six months' stay in Brazil, where he conducted research under a Fulbright-Hays grant. He carried out his research among economists at the Catholic University of Riode Janeiro and at the Getulio Vargas Foundation, as well as among leaders of Brazilian business and industry. Following the topic of export diversification and growth of economic differentials in Brazil, Dr. Tyler sought to examine government policy with respect to the export sector and to analyze the relationship between export growth and growth of the national economy. Braz-il has experienced during the last three years 9% growth per annum, and exports have increased remarkably. Dr. Tyler is attempting to measure the extent to which government policy has been influential in Brazil's recent economic improvement and in the successful stemming of inflation. Although the policies of the current government have been an impetus to national economic growth, the real wages of the lower classes have declined.Although the Brazilian government has stated that it expects the 9% growth rate to continue, Dr. Tyler feels that a goal of 6% is more realistic.
During his stay in Brazil, Dr. Tyler also completed work on a book, ContemPorary Brazil: Issues and Economic and Political Development, which he is coediting with H. John Rosenbaum of the Department of PoliticalScience, Harvard University. The book, containing contributions from economists and political scientists brings together some of the main issues in political and economic development in Brazil and se.eks to establish a relationship. The book will be published by Praeger early in 1972.


FLEISCH ER'S


POLITICAL


RECRUITMENT


STUDY PUBLISHED



On the evening of July 16, 1971, Professor David V. Fleischer's new book, Recrutamento Politico # em Minas, 1890-1918, Edicoes Revista Brasileira de Estudos Politicos, was formally presented to the public in ceremonies at the'Galeria Pilao in Belo Horizonte. The book was published by the Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG) as part of its Quinto Festival de Inverno (Winter Festival of the Arts and Humanities).

The study was compiled from historical data sources and deals with the process of recruitment of 151 deputies elected to the National Congress from the State of Minas Gerais. Highlighted in the change-over-time analysis were the effects of ties with political families, educational status and institutionalized political careers on differential recruitment. The role of the PRM executive committee (the Tarasca) and intrastate geographic mobility are also analyzed.

Approximately one month after the book's publication, a favorable review entitled "Renovacao'da Historiografia Politica Alineira," by Professor Francisco Igl6sias, appeared in the "Suplemento Literaria" of Minas Gerais, on August 21, 1971.

Professor Fleischer was a visiting professor in the Departamento de Ciancia Politica of the UFMG (1969-71) under the auspices of the Foreign Area Fellowship Program, while conducting further research on the political elite of the State of Minas Gerais. Currently he is 'an instructor in the Political Science Department of the University of Florida. In January, 1972, he will join the Departamento de Ci8ncias Sociais at the Universidade de Brasilia.

















Dr. Gustavo A. Antonini, Associate Professor of Latin American Studies and Geography, attended in July the Sixth Conference of Caribbean Geologists at Margarita Island, Venezuela. He presented a paper titled "Morphology and Surficial Geology of the Northwestern Dominican Republic."
Dr. Antonini was in the Dominican Republic on field data collection for an interdisciplinary research program, "Ecology Criteria for Rapid Regional Development," and visited Haiti to establish the foundations for an ecological study there.


Dr. William E. Carter, Director of the Center for Latin American Studies, and Dr. Wilmer Coggins, Director of the University Infirmary, traveled to Colombia and Costa Rica during the first half of September under a feasibility grant from the National Institute of Mental Health. The purpose of the grant was to formulate the development of binational research teams for the study of the social context and longterm impact of drug use in Latin America.

Robert W. Bradbury, Professor of Economics, was in Mexico this summer to update his materials on the Mexican economy, the Latin American Free


Trade Area, the Central American Common Market and the overall Latin American economy. In connection with his continuing research on Latin American economic integration, Dr. Bradbury visited MexicoCity, Guadalajara and Puebla.

In an informal exchange, Dr. Jacqueline Hodgson, for twelve years head of the Department of Economics at the University of the Americas in Puebla, Mexico, is a visiting professor of economics at the University of Florida this year. Among other subjects, she is teaching a course on the economy of Mexico.
In turn, Dr. Charles Fristoe is on leave from UF for the fall and winter quarters as visiting professor at the University of the Americas, teaching economic theory.


Dr. Alfred Hower, Professor of Portuguese and Spanish, recently traveled in Brazil, where he studied trends in modern Brazilian literature and met several of the authors represented in the new Portuguese reader, Cronicas Brasileiras, which he edited in collaboration with Dr. Richard A. Preto-Rodas of the University of Illinois. The book, published by the University of Florida's Center for Latin American Studies, has been exceptionally well received by Brazilian and American scholars and teachers, as an important contribution to the teaching of Portuguese and as a means of introducing some of Brazil's best contemporary writers to American students.


Dr. Hower reports that two University of Florida graduates have recently been appointed to posts in Brazil as Cultural Affairs officers for the United States Information Service: R. Don Crider in Brasilia and Edward J. Donovan in Rio de Janeiro. Another recent Florida graduate, Dr. John C. Mayer, has established an office in Brasilia as director of the Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas em Ciencias Socialis.



Professor JohnS. Fitch III, Assistant Professor of Political Science, in the course of finishing research for his doctoral dissertation supported by a Donerty Foundation grant, carried out a study the past year in Quito. Professor Fitch interviewed retired military officers concerning their participation in various military coups in Ecuador from 1948 to 1966, contacting approximately seventy-five former military personnel. He found them ready to talk and in general a good source for research, in contrast to the concept of the Latin American military as reticent about their political activities. In spite of a law placing retired military officers under the same restraints as the active military, most of those contacted freely recounted their past roles in Ecuadoran politics.



Dr. John T. Reid, Assistant Professor of Spanish, spent six weeks in Costa Rica finishing the text, "Spanish American Images of the United States," and studying Costa Rican literature.


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