GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA 32601 VOLUME 6, NO. A MAY 1, 1971
21st Latin Conference Looks at Economy
The 21st Annual Latin American Conference was held at the University of Florida February 17-21, 1971. The Conference, organized by the Center for Latin American Studies, examined fiscal policy for industrialization in Latin America. The objective was to analyze and evaluate the interrelationships among fiscal problems, fiscal tools, and fiscal systems in the .Arts developing nations of Latin America.
The format revolved around the Exhibit
participation of thirty economists and other social scientists in ten working Highlights sessions. One session was devoted to each of the major topics on the agenda. Talks
This "Latinamericanist" summarizes four of the papers presented. Eventually, ten major papers and the disscusant papers, as well as supplementary commentaries, will be edited by the Conference Chairman for publication. This year's chairman was Dr. David Geithman, Professor of Economics at the University of Florida.
Sponsoring the 21st Annual Con- richs, University of Maryland, College were presented by William E. Carter, ference were: Alcoa Foundation of Park; Richard M. Bird, Institute for Director of the Center for Latin AmeriPittsburgh, Penn., Esso Inter-America, Quantitative Analysis of Social and can Studies, Robert F. Lanzilotti, Inc. of Coral Gables, Fla., IBM World Economic Policy, University of Toron- Dean of the College of Business AdTrade Corporation of New York, and to; Richard F. Musgrave, Harvard ministration, and Distinguished Visitand the Department of Economics of University; James W. Wilkie, Univer- ing Professor Willard L. Thorp. the University. sity of California at Los Angeles; A highlight of the Conference was
Those invited to present papers at Alfredo Navarrete, Nacional Financiera, the opening of an exhibition of Prethe Conference were: David Felix, S.A., Mexico; Nicholas Kaldor, Kings Colombian textiles at the University Washington University, St. Louis; College, Cambridge University; and Gallery of the College of Architecture Warner Baer, Vanderbilt University, Javier Villanueva, Centro de Inves- and Fine Arts. Alan R. Sawyer, DirecNashville; Vito Tanzi, The American tigaciones, Economicas, Instituto tor of The Textile Museum of WashingUniversity, Washington; Harley Hin- TorcuatoDi Tella. Luncheon addresses ton, D.C., opened the exhibit.
Tax structure for industrialization
by Vito Tonzi This proposal involves the following steps:
(a) The government would have to survey the various
Two proposals for a new tax structure policy for Latin enterprises once a year to determine how much they could America may be made, if a few highly backward countries produce if they were fully utilized. are excluded and if the proposals are applied only to those (b) On the basis of the estimated full-capacity output, nations that have now attained a level of economic develop- the value of that output would be calculated. Of course, ment which makes possible the introduction of somewhat some assumption concerning the elasticity of demand would sophisticated tax schemes. have to be made. The simplest method would assume that
Industrialization is necessary for the development of prices remain the same as output increased.
Latin America and therefore must be stimulated. It will (c) From the estimate of the value of potential output, require, and be aided by, the development of the corporate actual inputs purchased from other firms would be subtractform of business organization, which should receive prefer- ed. That is, only inputs the firm actually buys from other ential treatment. Where investment takes place is perhaps firms, and not what it would buy at full capacity, would a more important question than how much investment is be deducted. undertaken, and the allocation of investment depends in (d) The difference, which is actually higher than the part upon the allocation of saving. potential value-added, would be taxed at a certain rate.
These assumptions, together with some empirical evi- Thus, for example, assume the government estimates dence on the marginal propensity to consume of individuals that enterprise A could product a potential output, if it in Latin America, provide the background for the first pro- were working a full capacity, which at current prices would posal. This states that what is needed for Latin America sell for 100 pesos. Suppose that the tax rate is 10 percent. is a system of taxation with highly progressive rates on Suppose also that purchased inputs from other firms are incomes of individuals, coupled with very low rates, or no valued at 20 pesos. Then, the tax would be 10 percent of tax at all, on incomes of corporations and on unrealized 80 pesos, or 8 pesos. But the enterprise might actually be capital gains. producing only, say, an output which would sell for 50
The combination of high personal income taxes-with pesos. This means that the actual value-added for that rates, say, up to 50 per cent -and a low, or zero, tax on enterprise would be 30 pesos and that the tax paid would corporate income (and no tax on unrealized capital gains) be almost 27 percent (8/30) of value-added. If the value should increase total private saving for the country and of the output increased to, say, 60 pesos, both the tax create a situation in which such saving is invested pro- rate and the tax payment would fall. In other words, the ductively. In other words, both personal saving and con- enterprise could increase the value of its output up to 100 sumption are likely to fall while corporate saving is likely pesos without any increase in tax liability and, in fact, to rise. with decreases in the rate and the amount of the tax. This
The tax on personal income could be complemented by should provide a stimulus toward higher utilization of the a special tax on income from capital withheld at the source. existing capacity. Ideally, such a tax on capital income should be levied at While such a land tax would force a better use of land, a rate equal to, or close to, the maximum rate for the regu- a tax on the potential value-added would have the purpose lar income tax. in other words, we could conceive of a of forcing a better use of capital. The two taxes on potenpersonal income tax with two schedules: one progressive tial value-added or production could actually be combined and starting with relatively low rates to apply to most to get an ideal tax system for the more advanced of the individual incomes; the other, proportional and with a rate Latin American countries. That ideal system, in rough very close to the maximum rate in the individual income outline, would include but not be limited to a tax on potentax schedule to apply to dividends paid by corporations. tial agricultural production, a tax on potential value-added Thus, retained earnings would escape taxation. in the manufacturing sector, a progressive income tax on
For many Latin American countries the flagrant under- most incomes excluding income from capital, and a proporutilization of land due, in part, to over-concentration of tional tax on the latter with a rate equivalent to the maxiland holdings has led to many proposals aimed at forcing mum rate on regular income. the land into more productive uses. Many tax experts While the recent workontax structure change in relation
believe that a tax on potential production (which, for the to economic development is certainly one of the most agricultural sector, is very close to potential value-added) exciting areas of research, much remains to be done before would go far toward making land more productive. it can be of immediate use for the design of tax structure
The suggestion made here is simply to borrow the for industrialization. We have learned a lot from it, but basic idea about a tax on potential output in the agricul- there are still too many aspects to be analyzed and questural sector and apply it to the manufacturing sector, tions to be-answered before it becomes much more than an especially to the modern manufacturing sector. intellectually satisfying exercise.
Agricultural taxation and industrialization
by Richard M. Bird weak valuation systems, which have, in many cases,
remained weak despite decades of plans and programs
supposedly designed to improve them. Where agricultural
There appears to be no country in Latin America in taxation effectively transfers resources out of agriculture, which agricultural land has been taxed heavily enough in this task is generally accomplished through taxes on agrirecent years either to provide substantial resources for cultural exports or, occasionally (though not in Latin public developmental purposes or to affect significantly America), through other taxes on production. Even in these the allocation and distribution. of resources within the instances it appears that the importance of these revenue agricultural sector itself. The most effective taxation of sources has been declining in recent years in most counagricultural land has probably been in Chile. Even there, tri es. however, it appears that no government has enunciated an The level and form of agricultural taxation appropriate explicit policy as to the appropriate size and nature of for any particular country will depend very much on the agriculture's contribution to the national development initial conditions in that country and on its developmental effort. objectives and possibilities. The conventional argument
When the agricultural sector has been taxed moderately for heavy agricultural taxation as an essential ingredient heavily, it has usually been by means of taxes on exports of development policy is derived from an overly simplistic of agricultural products rather than through direct taxes on model of agriculture's role in development and an unrealincome or property. Examples thus taxed include coffee in istic view of the feasible structure of agriculture taxation. Colombia and Central America, bananas in Ecuador and It cannot, therefore, be casually applied to a particular some Central American countries, and wool and meat in country without close examination of its individual circumUruguay. The administrative case for taxing exports in stances. these instances appears to have outweighed the political This line of reasoning also emphasizes the importance difficulties of taxing agriculture, whereas in the case of of initiating and fostering acceptable taxes (e.g., simple, land taxes the considerable administrative complexity of low-rate land taxes associated with some tangible benefit the conventional approach has combined with the political to at least some prospective taxpayers) rather than perfect problems to block the development of an effective land taxes. It is, of course, quite possible that-~in particular tax system. countries objective analysis may suggest that drastic land
In the long run, export taxes on agricultural products redistribution which usually means a revolution of some are not a promising fiscal instrument, in part because of sort-is the only way to achieve professed social and their disincentive effects. Heavier taxes on agricultural economic goals. Even so, there would seem to be nothing land have much more merit, if political circumstances to gain (and perhaps something to lose -time) by attemptallow their use, and if sufficient time and resources can ing to achieve revolutionary aims through reformist meabe devoted to establishing the necessary legal and admin- sures. istrative framework. Latin American experience in this There is a wide and often conflicting range of obregard suggests that if an agricultural land tax is to con- jectives and instruments conceivably open to those contribute to development, the most rewarding path to follow cerned with agricultural tax policy. The problems are not would be to concentrate on establishing a solidly-based particularly encouraging to those who believe in the genproperty tax with meaningful rates, rather than to depend eral applicability of simple developmental models, or the on graduated rates of tax, and special taxes on idle lands. possibilities of technical end runs around the political
Virtually all authorities seem to agree that a properly difficulties and administrative weaknesses hampering constructed tax on agricultural land is the most desirable agricultural tax policy in all countries. Although the task way to mobilize and transfer the needed resources from the is a subtle and complex one varying from country to country, agricultural to the non-agricultural sectors of the economy, a general approach -quite different in tone from that ususince only such a tax can perform this task without affect- ally offered is tentatively ventured: the road to heavier ing agricultural production too adversely. Yet nowhere, agricultural taxation in general, and more effective agrieither in Latin America or elsewhere, does the form of cultural land taxes in particular, probably lies in simpliciland tax usually recommended appear to be an important ry, even crudity, of both valuation technique and tax revenue-raiser -and certainly not one of increasing impor- structure coupled with appropriate expenditure policies, tance. Few countries appear to have effective land taxes rather than in the fiscal philosopher'.s stone of personalized of any sort, largely because of the almost universally taxes on presumptive agriculture income.
Ar~ic s. Richard A. Preto-Rodas. This new Portuguese grammar. The book conC ro c a...textbook has been designed to fill the tains 35 lively cr'3nicas that originally
The Center for Latin American need for a reader suitable for use at appeared in Brazilian newspapers and Studies announces publication of the end of the first year or beginning magazines and were written by some Cr8nicas Brasileiras: A Portuguese of the second year, after students have of Brazil's most popular and most Reader, edited by Alfred Hower and completed study of an elementary (Continued on page 4)
Role of government enterprises
by Werner Baer Ideological considerations about 1966, over 35 percent of public investIn Latin America the direct partic- the role of the state in the economy ment was attributable to public enteripation of government in economic have rarely, if ever, been important in prises. Although the contribution of activity rarely occurred because of the the growth of Latin American state Chilean public enterprise to public ideological convictions of the govern- enterprises. The circumstances that investment amounted to only 25 pering classes about the role of the state have led to this participation can be cent, the sum of Chile's public enterin the productive process. Prior to the placed in three categories: growth and prises and autonomous agencies inGreat Depression of the thirties Latin industrialization policies of the state; vestment gives an even larger proporAmerican governments played a rela- nationalism; and welfare statism. With tion than the comparable proportions lively passive role in their economies respect to the first category, the for Brazil. Some of the autonomous
-leaving the development of exports, scarcity of entrepreneurial capacity agencies are in fact government entermost infrastructure projects and in- and the inability of the private sector prises; that is, they function as governdustry to the private sector. Often the to save sums for projects requiring ment entities rather than as mixed latter did, however, receive special large investments often forced state enterprises in which the government governmental assistance e.g., sub- activity. In almost all of the countries is the major shareholder. sidies to railroads, favorable rates for the majority of government firms that The performance of government public utilities, etc. Thus, the state evolved were mixed companies with enterprise has left much to be desired acted as a "'stage-setter" rather than the government holding the majority of when judged by the criteria applied to as a direct participant. the shares. private firms. Some cannot cover even
A variety of circumstances has The urge to industrialize was in their current expenditures, while alled to direct government participation part based on the desire for greater most all need substantial outside in productive enterprises in various economic independence from the tradi- funds for expansion purposes. This is Latin American nations. In Argentina, tional industrial centers of the world, often due to the broader goals of govthe 1940's saw several foreign-owned Most governments hoped to insulate vernment, such as subsidized prices public utilities nationalized. Petroleum their economies from the vicissitudes to the public for various products and extraction and refining were already of the international market and also services, or employment absorption under state control. The Per6n regime maiiedmsi oto vrntrl considerations. One thus has to use
subsequently tried to enter specific and capital resources. Due to capital broader social criteria in evaluating industries in an attempt to make the and entrepreneurial scarcities, how- performance. However, there must be a state the predominant power in Argen- ever, they were forced to rely on limit to the deficits which public tina's economic life. In Brazil, govern- foreign savings and know-how. enterprises can accumulate if a mixed ment participation in direct productive The growth of more populist and system is to be continued. There are activities was almost non-existent development al-oriented regimes result- also taxation limits beyond which until the late 1930's. Beginning with ed in policies less favorable to for- such a system could not continue to World War II, the state acquired rail- eign domination of public utilities, function adequately. roads, began administration of port Rates were increasingly controlled by facilities, and assumed a substantial the state and used to subsidize the Cr6nicas ... (continued) role in the banking and credit sectors urban population and the growing distinguished authors. These cronicas of the economy. Pressures of Brazilian industrial sectors. The situation was da ihagetvreyo neetn nationalism resulted in the establish- especially serious in inflationary toplics a serea ait an inrtiand ment of Petrobras, the state petroleum economies where public utility rates etertcsanin itroductanio atife and company in the early fifties. In Chile were often not allowed to rise with mnersainin Bnrzci The matea asd direct government participation in general price levels. As a result, been fully tested in mimeographed form economic activities has a longer privately-owned utilities made little in actual classroom situations and has history, with early direction of banking effort to modernize and expand their proved immensely popular with stuand insurance institutions and later capital stock and, in many cases, dents at various levels. The editors, the creation of CORFO, the Chilean existing capital stock was allowed to who have had considerable experience Development Corporation. By the end fall into disrepair. The resulting de- in teaching Portuguese, have supplied of the fifties CORFO was generating cline in the service of the public a variety of drills and exercises, 50 percent of national investment funds, utilities brought increasing pressures abundant cultural and linguistic notes, In Mexico nationalization and expro- on governments to resolve this situa- and an end vocabulary. Containing 224 priation have given the government tion. pages, bound in hardcover and illusdirect control over petroleum activities, The weight of the public sector in trated, the volume sells for $5.00 and a monopoly on power production, and Latin American countries is now con- may be ordered either through any booka major role in investment through the siderable and in some cases exceeds dealer or from the University of Florida Nacional Financiera (NAFIN), a that of Western European countries Press, 15 N.W. 15th St., Gainesville, publicly-owned financial corporation. and the United States. For Brazil in Fla. 32601.
Fiscal policy for industrial growth
by Daniel M. Schydlowsky producing more in accordance with exchange rate systems are likely to
In the post-war period Latin Amer- their comparative advantage. In this produce distorted patterns of specialican economic development and poliy context, tariff preferences, export ization; stepwise devaluation accentuhave been decisively influenced by subsidies and compensated devalua- ates these distortions. An improved the balance of payments crises. The tions have been proposed and examined outlook for integration would require typical response has been to import as tools to narrow cost/price different- the uniformization of the exchange rate substitute industrial goods. Contrary ials. Foreign aid could well bolster structures of the participating countries to expectations, this has led to greater this process in a variety of ways, and smoothing the over- and underforeign dependency and, in addition, while private capital inflow could valuation cycle. has produced considerable excess help these economies grow in the capacity in the industrial sector. direction of more competitive indus- In sum, healthy economic developAs a result, the Latin American trial exports. ment in Latin America in the 1970's
countries enter the 1970's with widely Economic integration has also calls for some novel departures in the diversified economies that operate at been examined in this connection restructuring of the exchange rate many different levels of efficiency. and it has been found that the existing systems of the area. Such departures from specialization
along lines dictated by comparative
advantage are, in part, the conse- Latin A~merica: quence of exchange rate systems that
are implicitly of the multiple-rate type Two Agricultural Conferences Set
consisting of numerous differing commodity exchange rates in addition to
the financial rate. The particular The Department of Animal Science turalists and researchers from throughstructure of these exchange rate sys- and the Center for Tropical Agriculture out the hemisphere. tems has a strong bias in favor of of the Institute. of Food and Agricul- The sessions of the Conference on import substitution and against in- tural Sciences, University of Florida, Cattle and Poultry will be held in dustrial exports. In addition, these have announced the dates of two annual Spanish and English and the proceedexchange-rate systems create the conferences, both of which have been ings will be published in both lanillusion that Latin American industry of special significance to the agricul- guages. In addition to the formal is hopelessly inefficient. The large tural sector of Latin America. The sessions of the Conference, two days differences in real productivity thus 20th Annual Beef Cattle Short Course, will be dovoted to visits to private validated partly explains the observed under the direction of Dr. T. J. Cunha, farms in Florida in order to observe fact that balance of payments adjust- will take place at the University Live- the application of production research. ment mechanisms in Latin America stock Pavilion May 5-8, 1971. It will This year's discussion topics will operate primarily through the income be followed immediately by the 5a. include: production practices with effect and only a minor extent through Conferencia Latinoamericana Sobre beef and dairy cattle, horses and through adjustments in relative prices. Ganaderi'a y Avicultura, to be held at poultry, and the development and
Policy action in the 1970's must the Flagler Inn May 11-14. management of pasture and forage
be directed strongly to the promotion The Beef Cattle Conference will crops. Conference speakers will reof industrial exports. This is indis- attempt to summarize work that has present several institutions in Latin pensable if installed excess capacity been conducted throughout the world America, including the Centro Interis to be put to use and if industry is on cattle crossbreeding. Speakers nacional de Agricultura Tropical in to perform its role as an engine of from the United States, Latin America, Colombia, the Universidad Central de growth and provider of employment. Europe, Africa and Australia will Venezuela, the Instituto, Colombiano Such exports will also help improve participate in the program. The May 8 Agropecuario, and the Universidad del the balance of payments adjustment session, to be presided over by Dr. Mar del Plata y Balcarce, Argentina. mechanism and lead to greater econom- J. C. Glenn of the University's Departic stability. ment of Animal Sciences, will be
Success on this front will require devoted to Latin America, featuring the cooperation of developed and less- representatives from Venezuela, Bodeveloped countries to devise means livia, Colombia and Argentina. Inquiries concerning these two
of narrowing the cost/price differential, For the past four years the Univer- conferences may be directed to as well as to increase productive sity has conducted a Latin American Dr. J. C. Glenn, 2103 McCarty Hall, capacity and ease the adjustment of Conference on Cattle and Poultry which University of Florida, Gainesville, Latin American economies toward brings together numerous agricul- Florida 32601.
Role in Latin American development
Hugh A. Poole is a, student in the Master of Science A third important advantage is the availability of space program in the Department of Ornamental Horticulture, on cargo planes between producing points and U.S. marstudying under a Ford Foundation Fellowship. He has a kets. In some instances shipping costs are very low; e.g., BS in Ornamental Horticulture and has experience in field 4 cents per pound from Guatemala city to Miami, and 7 production work. Poole is minoring in Tropical Studies. cents from San Jos6, Costa Rica, to Miami. Another favorIn the agricultural development of the tropical countries, able aspect is the probable continued advance in technolornamental horticulture has been ignored because it is not ogy which has made possible flower production in certain concerned with the development of food and fiber products. areas under conditions impossible 25 years ago. One Floriculture crops do, however, offer a great opportunity example is the application of photoperiodism in the culfor the natio-is of Latin America. This industry has ex- ture of chrysanthemums and other flowers. Harvesting in panded rapidly since World War II due to major technologi- the tight-bud stage for gladiolus, carnations and chrysancal breakthroughs. Foliage plants, gladiolus, and chrysan- themums is another example of technology reducing shipthemums account for over half the total value of production. ment costs and damages without a reduction in quality. The major problem confronting the industry is marketing. The floricultural industry in Central and South America There is great need for the development of an industry- has reached its present stage either with the assistance of wide program of quality improvement, control and marketing U. S. capital and entrepreneurship, or with local capital services. Costs of labor and materials are currently rising supplemented by technical consultants from the U. S. In faster than prices; as a result cooperative efforts among both instances, U. S. marketing firms have been closely producers and marketing outlets are both profitable and es- associated in the sale of the output. The rising volume of sential. Increased organization of all phases of produc- flower imports to the U. S. in winter and spring from troption and marketing will stimulate the establishment of a ical zones or the southern hemisphere, is a boon to the production-oriented floriculture industry in Latin America. economy of Latin America.
Presently, the major countries exporting to the U.S. Problems in production consist of the high cost of and other foreign markets include Brazil, Colombia, Costa specialized supplies for production inputs and the accomRica, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras and Panama. As can panying delays and other difficulties in importing supplies, be noted in the table, receipts rose from less than $17,000 and equipment, plus high import dutie's and shipping costs in 1965 to more than $250,000 in 1968. In each year the for such supplies. Many production supplies are unavailable major shipper, Ecuador, accounted for more than half the in the country where flowers are produced. In certain areas value of imports recorded. Colombia was in second place. expenses are incurred for irrigation and water control. Flower imports consisted almost entirely of types presently Shipping problems include delays due to cancellations of grown commercially in the United States. Although many flights, changes in schedules and the impossibility of flower growing operations in Latin America were locally shipping supplies of flowers when they exceed specified owned, a number of growers in the floricultural industry amounts. Petal burn, due probably to temperature conditions were from the U. S. Most local ly-c on trolled firms relied on in flight, has been experienced on many shipments. AvailU. S. technological consultation and marketing contacts. able information indicates that air cargo is often extremely
Four key factors help explain the rapid growth of this cold as well as dry. Complex customs, laws and regulaindustry in the tropics during the past five years.' A major tions in other countries often inhibit the successful initiaproduction advantage of the region is the wide variety of tion and operation of a business by inexperienced operators. natural climatic conditions, a condition which favors a The Latin American grower can raise stock material of multitude of floricultural crops. In most instances there is many plants in an ideal tropical climate and produce seeds little danger of cold weather, with subsequent crop dam- and vegetative material for propagation purposes, as well ages and losses, and a minimum of protection is required as cut greenery and flowers for the trade in the U. S. and against heavy rainfall and other weather conditions. A Europe. He can also produce cuttings or seeds from stock second advantage is a readily available supply of labor. plants, rooted cuttings, cut flowers or cut foliage or he Because of rapid population growth in Latin America, the may have a hybridization program to develop hybrid seeds fast-growing florist industry is able to obtain labor which or selected varieties for propagation. is essentially surplus, rather than having to bid it away Effects upon Economic Development
from other industries.
1) The most obvious effect upon economic development
C. N. Smith and W. E. Waters, "Some Observations on of a nation is the increased receipt of export dollars and a Imports and Exports of Floricultural Products with Special better balance of payments for the country as a whole. Reference to Latin America," Proceedings of the Florida State The floriculture industry might also prove to be an incentive Horticultural Society, Vol. 82, 1969, pp. 429-436. for local investment due to its high percentage return.
Chrysanthemums, require a 4-month growing period, and farm units, ornamentals research personnel would be better under continuous production, 3 crops can be produced per qualified to work and understand the interrelationships year at staggered planting intervals. between multiple crop systems in an intensive form of
2) A floricultural industry requires a large number of agriculture.
skilled and semi-skilled workers on nearly a full rime 5) Ornamental crops may help to promote the tourist
basis for intensive crops. Moreover, in an area where a industry in the country. Hotels, parks. resort areas and firm has a large operation and a large number of employees, golf courses all require an aesthetic and well-landscaped these employees can supplement their own income and the surrounding with resulting high maintenance crews to diversity of products for the firm by growing small plots of maintain them in proper condition. cut flowers, cut foliage or seed production as a mixed 6) With an increase in urbanization and incomes in the
crop with their other cash and food crops. The ability of a Latin American countries as well as the natural love that farmer to supplement his income, using ornamentals, most Latins have for flowers, a large local demand for
should nor be underestimated, especially if a large firm ornamental crops may develop. provides the marketing and technological know-how. It cannot be denied that these crops can help the
3) The floricultural industry can also be a boon to economics of the developing Latin American nations espeother industries. Increased demands for fertilizers and cially those bordering on and near to the Caribbean region pesticides may be sufficient to decrease actual costs of due to their close proximity to increasingly improved these commodities locally and thus lower the costs and markets in the U. S. and Europe. Ornamentals cannot help increase productivity for other agricultural commodities of in economic development, however, if the industry is the country. Another industry that would similarly benefit ignored by those individuals responsible for making ecowould be packaging. Transportation facilities would also be nomic decisions. Floriculture may develop into a large needed. Usually operations would be located near airport industry in a single nation or in a specific region if forefacilities or large metropolitan areas, requiring short- sight is properly used in order to take advantage of coopdistance trucking. In many cases, airlines have encouraged erative efforts in production, transportation, marketing and and helped finance floricultural operations in order to take research. This recognition in itself would be advantageous
adataeofcrrig ain-arobaktote .S for developing a top-notch university for agricultural re4) Ornamental crops may also encourage agricultural search and technology. If properly planned, these crops research. Since fertilizer requirements and disease control should complement U. S. production, since there is a wide~ are most important, problems would be expected to arise variety of tropical plant materials not being grown commersooner than with most agronomic crops. Ornamental crops cially in the U. S. In the future, nearly all field grown usually require a tissue analysis laboratory which is often floricultural crops may move south to Latin America as' superior to a soils analysis laboratory when properly present U. S. growers concentrate on more intensive crops utilized and interpreted. In areas containing many small such as potted plants.
Total Imports into the United States of Cut Flowers and
Cut Foliage Valued in Dollars, 1965, 1967 and 1969.2 C hairm an
SOURCE 1965 1967 1969
Dollars Dollars Dollars
Canada 18,817 21,409 440,296na e
Argentina --1,909 480 Dr. Paul L. Doughty will join the
Brazil 132,660 241,813 297,341
British Honduras --- -Latin American faculty of the UniverChile -,- -sity of Florida in September, 1971, as
Colombia --41,033 123,645 Chairman of the Department of AnthroCosta Rica 3,160 20,721 15,391 pology. Dr. Doughty snow Director
Ecuador 12,111 118,468 293,041
Guatemala 2, 2?1)7 2,329 15,622 of the Latin American Studies Program
Mexico 71 1,183 24,583 at Indiana University, and since 1964
Panamna 1,801 3,841 2,473 has been associate professor of AnthroPent -- pology at Indian a. Cultural and social
Uruguay anhrploy culur chne n
Venezuela 814 1,062 302 atrplg, clue cag n
Central and South America 153,492 432,691 772,868 developmental change are his major
Caribbean 10,483 3,158 4,203 fields of interest.
Europe 715,548 639,513 1,074,788 Doughty's articles on the Andean
Asia 92,584 136,806 116,115 peasant and peasant communities have
Oceania 124,630 154,276 174,777 appeared in numerous journals, in both
Africa 3,979 12,734 19,441 English and Spanish. He is the author
World TLotal 1,119,533 1,400,587 2,602,488 of Huaylas: An Andean District in
Search of Progress, which was also
2E. F. Scarborough and F. I1. Ileshears, "Marketing Florida Ornamental Crops Summary published in Spanish by the Instituto 1970 Season," Federal-State Market News Service, September 1, 1970, 37 pages. Indigenista Inter- ameri cano. Peasants
and Power, which he co-edited, is now lished in each country. Attention is Fellowships Awarded in press. also given to regional developments,
Dr. Doughty has served as consul- notably in the Caribbean area. University of Florida graduate stutant to the USAID Community Develop- ****** dents ranked second in national comment Program in Peru, as a Peace Dr. Gustavo A. Antonini, Associate pet ition for 30 fellowships for disserCorps lecturer, consultant, and train- Professor of Latin American Studies ration re s earch in Latin America. ing coordinator, and also has directed and Geography, presented a paper to These were awarded by the Foreign summer field studies programs in Peru. the second Conference of Latin Amer- Area F ello w ship Program of the Currently he is a representative on the ican Geographers meeting in Boston in American Council of Learned Societies board of the National Consortium for April. The title of the paper was "Data and the Social Science Research CounLatin American Studies and a member Banks: A New Research Tool for Latin cil. With four winners, Florida was of the Executive Committee of the Americanists." This meeting was held topped only by Yale University with six. Central States Anthropological Associ- in conjunction with the national meet- Awards in anthropology went to ation. His work as national coordinator ing of the Association of American Marigene Arnold of Miami for study in of the Peru Earthquake Relief Commit- Geographers. Mexico; Ransford Pyle of Gainesville
tee is well-known. for study in Costa Rica and Gary Shute
of Ossining, N. Y., for study in Guyana.
Dr. William E. Carter, Director of Mark Brinson, Shelby, Ohio, a biothe Center for Latin American Studies, logical science winner, will study in announced that an exchange agreement Guatemala. The students will leave has been reached with the Universidad this summer to begin their research. Nacional Pedro Ruiz Gallo in Lam- "These are the most prestigious
bayeque, Peru. The Program will con- awards given for pre-doctoral research sist of an interchange of teaching and in Latin America. Our high ranking inlaboratory assistants. For the first year dicates that the University of Florida one student from each institution will program is well recognized nationally Current National Bibliographies of participate. In selecting the students, and that the quality of our applicants Latin America: A State of/the Art Study first priority will be given to those is outstanding," said Dr. William E. by Dr. Irene Zimmerman, Librarian Latin who have an interest in relating tech- Carter, Director of Latin American American Collection, is being published nical fields with the social sciences. Studie s. by the Center for Latin American Studies Financial support will be provided The fellowships, which usually under contract with the University of reciprocally by the host institutions for average $10,000, are for doctoral disFlorida Press. Research for this bib- the visiting graduate students. sertation research in the country being liographic volume was completed by ******* studied. The exact amount is deterDr. Zimmerman during the spring of Dr. John Saunders, Professor of mined by allowances for transportation,
1969, when funds from the Center and a Sociology, has been invited by the cost of living in the country and proFaculty Development Grant made it Council of Brazilian University Rectors ject study. possible for her to visit several Latin to work as a consultant in the developAmerican countries to obtain the latest ment of social science and population University of Houston, which adminisavailable information. Current National programs at member universities. Sup- ters the consulting services under a Bibliographies describes the best port for this project is provided by the grant from the Agency for International sources of information presently pub- office of International Studies of the Development.
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Permit No. 338
Center for DOC~neits Dept.
Latin American West
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