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Full Text
University of Florida
Center for Latin American Studies
The Cuban Escapees, possible factual indicators of Cuban social conditions
The author of this article, Juan M. American country has ever changed its did not have previous personal contact Clark, is a doctoral degree candidate whole institutional frame in such a with Cuba before 1959.7 in Sociology at the University of radical and swift manner. It is, there- For scholars unable to attain entry, Florida. The title of his dissertation is fore, of the utmost interest for the the study of secondary sources such as "Sociological -Study of The Cuban social sciences to ascertain how the official publications of the Cuban govEscapees. Clark received his BS in social life of the Cuban people really erment offers an unhappy alternative, Agriculture from the University of operates after almost twelve years of since the very reliability of these Florida, and his MS also from the Uni- radical institutional changes. sources is placed in question by the versity of Florida. Clark, a former In order to accomplish such a task, totalitarian nature of the regime.3 The chairman of the Council of International one should preferably have access to e f fe ct of totalitarianism, however, Organizations at the University of the social environment under study. plagues even those to whom access is Florida, is married and has two sons. Unfortunately, this is very difficult given. The government manipulates
The Cuban Revolution (1959-1970) with Cuba today. Revolutionary author- foreign visitors, and people fear to has produced one of the most remark- ities are highly selective in giving speak their minds because of extremely able socioeconomic transformations in entry to social scientists. They seem high social control and political represthe Western hemisphere. No other Latin to discriminate in favor of those who sion.
Because of these facts, until all 1 restrictions are lifted by the Cuban
government, one of the best sources of factual information about social life on the island would seem to be Cuban refugees4 who have left that iln by various means.. They form part of a migratory movement without parallel in our continent.
Refugees may be classified according to their manner of departure from Cuba. The largest group (close to 600,000 persons) left the island by conventional means5 (regular airlines to the United States until 1962, via Madrid and Mexico later, and via the Varadero-Miami airlift after December N 1 1965). A smaller one (around 15,000
4 ~persons) left by unconventional means
(boats, rafts, and even the wheel compartment of an airliner). The convenRaft used recently by two Cuban tee s escape f the island. Using tional group does not seem yet to offer nailed planks, inner tubes and no sail (o y paddles Sh n the photograph); a good cross-sectional representation They crossed the Florida Strait until re 11sued by the U. st Guard. of the population for it has been domi-

nated by business and professional TABLE 1. Registration of arrivals by boat in Miami, and representative sample
types. The unconventional group, how- drawn from them for research purposes.
ever, does seem to cross-cut the com- Year U.S. Coast At the Research
plete socioeconomic profile of the Guard' CRECb Samplec
Cuban people (1953 Census), partic- Number of Mentions
ularly in terms of occupational charac- 1959 9 d -teristics. In addition these Cuban es- 1960 157 d -capees as we will name them 1961 1,399 1,801 85
possess a unique feature: they have 1962 1,920 2,274 108
1963 1,756 1,953 93
been in closer contact with day-to-day 1964 1,249 1,521 72
reality than those leaving by conven- 1965 5,730 950 45
tional means (especially since 1965), 1966 1,007 1,037 49
since the latter are under strict gov- 1967 419 456 21
1968 449 547 27
enent surveillance before their 1969 271 93-
>departure. Many of this latter group 1970 106g ....
are isolated in special agricultural Totals 14,472 10,632 500
camps where they are forced to labor
(in some cases up to three years, work- aDiario Las Americas, Miami, 3 de Octubre de 1970, p. 9-B. ing for a bare minimum of food) in order bCourtesy of the Cuban Refugee Emergency Center, Miami, Florida to be granted their exit permits. cRepresentative sample drawn from CREC registration.
The Survey on the Escapees dCREC not in existence.
An introductory survey done by the eNot available.
author6 one year ago was the first fUp to July, 1969.
study ever attempted on the socio- 9Up to August, 1970. demographic characteristics of escapees. It was based on a five per cent genuity was used to develop a type of who did not require assistance by Coast stratified weighted sample (500 cases) raft made of inner tubes (a very scarce Guard of the CREC are not included in of the 10,632 arrivals by boat that were item in Cuba) and boards (See pictures). their statistics. The humanitarian efregistered and firnished by the Cuban Though they appear to be fragile float- forts of the Seventh District Coast Refugee Emergency Center (CREC,. ing devices, they nevertheless were Guard deserve the highest praise for
see Table 1). The Sample was sub- used to carry, on the average, from two they have saved the lives of hundreds mitted to a Contingency Table Analysis to six persons over more than 100 miles of Cuban men, women and children. where the years of arrival were cross- of high seas. It is fascinating, and at tabulated against other variables or the same time frightening, to hear of Outstanding Characteristics of the social attributes (age, sex, education, the ordeals of men who surreptitiously Escapees
occupation, and marital status). All constructed these rafts and hid them The two outstanding features of the associations yielded significant results near the shore, to hear how coastal arrivals by boat are their youthfulness at various levels of probability. These patrols were deceived, and finally, to and their social class origin. were followed by attempts to establish imagine the passage of the Strait of Age. The average age of the total a rough comparison between character- Florida with its perils of stormy seas, 1966 exile population was strikingly istics of the escapees, other exiles sharks, thirst, hunger and the possi- similar to that of the total Cuban popand the Cuban population as a whole, bility of capture by Cuban patrols or ulation reported in the 1953 Census: using the latest census and earlier unfriendly vessels. Favoring the es- approximately 41 years.9 The initial studies on the refugees. capee was the darkness of moonless groups of conventional exiles were
nights, the northern flow of the Gulf commonly nuclear families but have Flow of Escapees Through the Years Stream (if he is able to catch it prop- been very heavily weighted (81.9 per
Up to 1965 there was an increasing erly) and home-made oars or improvised cent) toward young and mature adults. flow of Cuban refugees arriving by boat sails. If he was lucky the escapee Young adults, age 20 to 44, have made to the United States, although not all would either reach the Florida Keys in up more than half (51.4 per cent) of the of those included in that year can ac- four to six days or he would be rescued to tal composition of the escapee group tually be considered escapees. This is by the United States Coast Guard or a (See Table 2). This emphasis on youth because a large number of them left friendly vessel. It has been estimated seems furthermore to be augmenting. through Camarioca as part of the legal that one out of every three attempted Since 1967 the 20 to 29 years subcatedepartures agreed upon by Castro in escape did not make it.8 gory has constituted more than 40 per
December 1965 following his short-lived Due mainly to the lack of seaworthy cent of the total. This seems consistent offer of free exit7 to anyone who wished facilities and the improvement in the with a 1962 study made in Cuba indito leave Cuba. Exiled Cubans living in efficiency of Cuban vigilance, the ar- casting that young adults were not much the United States went on that occa- rivals by boat today have decreased to in favor of the revolution.10 If this is sion to that coastal town to pick up a fraction of those of the 1961-1966 so, it is most significant for, traditionrelatives who have been left behind, period (See Table 1). It must be pointed ally, the most active revolutionaries As boats available for escape be- out, nevertheless, that these figures have been found within the lower level came scarce on the island, Cuban in- are rather conservative since those of this age class active in the over-

throw of Batista. resembles the island population in that learn from the age, sex, education and
Occupation. The Cuban refugee who close to 18 per cent can be considered occupational distribution of the arrivals reached Miami by sea on improvised functional illiterates. This is almost by boat indicates that considerable crafts consisted first of unskilled, double the percentage for the entire social discontent exists in Cuba today. semi-skilled and skilled workers (49.0 exile population (See Table 2). Although the exiles may not represent per cent) and only second of profes- Males are over represented in the exactly the same attitudes as those sional andmanagerial individuals (18.1 arrivals by boat, in contrast to arrivals held by people remaining in Cuba, one per cent, see Table 2). Although the by conventional means, which presented may surmise that disillusionment does refugees who had previously engaged a more balanced sexual ratio up to 1965, exist, even among the island's masses. in agricultural, forestry and fishery and since then have been h e a v i I y Future research on this subject will occupations represented less than 11 weighted towards females. Even though seek to corroborate these preliminary per cent of the boat escapees, this pro- the statistics for marital status are not findings through the study of a larger portion (10.7 per cent) was greater complete for the refugees at large, we and totally updated sample of the total than for all exiles (2.8 per cent) and may state that the ratio of married per- refugee population. If this research inthose of the early airlift (4.8 per cent). sons in the total exile population is dicates an increasing percentage of In other words, blue collar workers (un- double that of the escapees. rIn this youth and blue-collar workers (both comskilled, semi-skilled, skilled plus ex- aspect the percentages of the escapees monly considered the staunchest suptractive) represented the majority of are closer to those of the Cuban popu- porters of the regime) among the esthe escapees (59.7 per cent). lation than their counterparts in exile capees of recent years, then we may
These data imply that even for the (See Table 2). have in our hands a potential indicator
Cuban worker, conditions on the island of the true social dynamics of present
seem to have become unrewarding. Vast Concluding Remarks day Cuban society.
numbers, unable to leave through con- One basic conclusion that may be In depth studies of the escapees inventional means, have not been deterred drawn from the analysis is that the spired by the work of Inkeles and but rather have taken to the open sea. Cuban exiles as a whole do not serve Bauer 13 with the Russian refugees may Government domination over profession- as a representative sample of the "pre- also shed light on the revolution and als, the confiscation by the State of sent" (1953) Cuban population. Unlike its aftermath. In the end we will hopepractically all urban private enterprises the social urbanites who were the first fully have a much more objective under as well as 70 per cent of the arable to flee Cuba, those who escaped later standing of social life and change in land,11 plus the regimentation of work- by sea were composed substantially of Cuba today. ers under Castro, all seem to have pro- blue-collar workers of the middle and FOOTNOTES
duced agonizing frustrations and dis- lower classes, and of significant num- 'The Cuban refugees who fled their affection. ber of ruralites. native land by boat, rafts and other perilous
Other Characteristics. The total An important aspect of the post- means. They will also be called arrivals
exile population12 has a higher educa- Castro exodus from Cuba is that persons by boat to distinguish them from regular tional level than either the Cuban pop- in all walks of life have fled the revolu- fare paying passengers.
ulaton s awhoe o th esapes. ionay rgim. Oly he ura mases *We would like to thank Lisandro Perez ulaton s awhoe o th esapes. ionay rgim. Oly he ura mases and especially Prof. Janet Kemerait and The latter, however, fairly closely have tended to remain behind. What we Dr. William Carter who kindly reviewed this paper for publication.
2Dr. Lowry Nelson, one of the outstanding American sociologists and an authority
on Cuba who wrote the classical research
A* piece Rural Cuba, Minneapolis: The University of Minnesota Press, 1950, was
recently denied permission to visit that
island for an updating of that work.
k ~3Carme lo Mesa-L-ago, ''Availability and
Reliability of Statistics in Socialist Cuba"'
Latin American Research Review, SpringSummer, 1969.
4The study done by Alex Inkeles and
Raymond A. Bauer, The Soviet Citizen,
Daily Life in a Totalitarian Society, Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University
Press, 1959, proved that Russian Refugees
could be indicators of factual conditions
in the Soviet Union, provided that the
researcher checked and controlled for
certain sources of bias per item studied.
Six Cubans signal a U. S. Coast
Guard helicopter to come ,to their

Dissafection and the Revolution, Stanford; Stanford University Press.
10Maurice Zeitlin, Revolutionary Politics and the Cuban Working Class, New York: Harper Torch Books, 1970.
11Carmelo Mesa-Lago, "The Revolutionary Offensive" in Irving Louis Horowitz
(ed) Cuban Communism, Trans-action Books, Aldine Publishing Co., 1970.
12Most data for the exile population only
covers statistics through 1966. Hence, recent airlift arrivals are not included. We suspect they are much more like the Cuban population.
13Using the refugees as informants about
the factual socioeconomic conditions in Cuba focusing in life and labor; the satisHelicopter rescue in the Strait of Florida ... faction of the basic needs of food, housing,
(OFFICIAL U.S. COAST GUARD PHOTO) work, education and community life. We will have the advantage over Inkeles of knowing the composition of the parent pop5Three stages are generally dintin- 9Richard R. Fagen, Richard A. Brody, ulation, as well as that of the exiles due
guished in the Cuban exodus: from 1959 to and Thomas J. O'Leary, Cubans in Exile, to the CREC facilities. the Missile Crisis of October 1962 characterized by a relatively easy exit; from Octo- TABLE 2. Percentage distribution of Cuban exiles at time of arrival in Miami comber 1962 to December 1965 where flights pared with the 1953 Cuban population according to their age, occupation,
between the U. S. and Cuba were inter- sex, education, and marital status.
rupted; and between December 1965 on, marked by the airlift between Varadero and Item 1953 Cuban Exiles in Miami: Mode of Arrival
Miami, developed and financed by the U.S. Population' Boatb Airliftc AIld
Government as an understanding between the two governments. Up to August 31, Age: Percent by Subject
1970, 203,387 Cubans had arrived in the Up to 19 years 45.8 11.1 31.7 31.0
United States by this means, in 2,387 20 to 44 years 36.1 51.4 36.5 40.0
flights. The total number registered at the 45 to 65 years 13.7 30.2 24.6 24.0
Cuban Refugee Emergency Center (CREC) 65 years and over 4.4 7.3 7.2 5.0
in Miami, to the same date in 387,144. CREC Occupation: news release, Diario Las Americas, Octo- Professional and Managerial 9.1 18.1 21.4 37.2d
ber 3, 1970, p. 9-B. Clerical and Sales 13.4 11.7 31.4 30.9
Services 8.1 10.5 9.5 8.7
61n the summer of 1969 and presented Extractive 41.2 10.7 4.8 2.8
at the annual meeting of the Rural Socio- Unskilled, semiskilled & skilled 28.2 49.0 32.9 20.4
logical Society in Washington, August, Sex:
1970: Selected Types of Cuban Exiles used Males 51.2 71.4 38.9 49.8
as a Sample of the Cuban Population. The Females 48.8 28.6 61.1 50.2
author is grateful to Mr. Errol T. Ballan- Education:e fonte, Director of the CREC as well as to none to 3 years 55.3 17.9 9.0f
Mr. Clifford H. Harpe, Records Control Of- 4 to 11 years 43.5 62.5 63.0
ficer and Mr. Manuel Rodriguez Fleitas and 12 to 15 years .7 11.9 20.0
Mrs. Amalia Ramos also of that center; 16 years and over .5 7.7 8.0
and to Professor Daniel E. Alleger, Uni- Marital status: versity of Florida, for critically examining Married 35.1 49.2 82.6
that paper. Single 40.6 23.6 17.4
Widowed 4.7 11.7
7After realizing the huge proportions of Divorced 1.1 6.0
the exodus that was developing, Castro All others 18.5 9.5
withdrew his offer, imposing stringent aOficina Nacional de los Censos Demograficos y Electoral, Censo de Poblaci6n, measures on those who officially expressed Viviendas y Electoral, 1953. La Habana, P. Fernandez y Cia., 1955. their decision to leave. Men of military includes only December 1965 to December 1966. age and of certain occupations were excluded from exit through the airlift devel- cAll Cuban exiles living in Miami in 1966, except for Education. See Center for Adoped afterwards. vanced International Studies,The Cuban Immigration, 1959-1966, and its Impact in
Miami-Dade County, Florida. Coral Gables: University of Miami Press, 1967, pp. 10, 8Boats, empty, adrift and sometimes 12, 14 and 17.
riddled by machine gun fire have been dJanuary 1959-October 1962. found on the open sea as mute witnesses eBased on individuals 10 years of age and older. of one of these misfortunes. f1965.

Aymara Project: teaching and research results
Aymara is an indigenous South The second goal of this project is States which teaches Aymara on a regAmerican language spoken by about the development of teaching materials ular and continuing basis. A beginning one million people in the regions of that can be used by Spanish and En- and an advanced course are offered. Peru and Bolivia surrounding Lake glish speakers. A seven-unit textbook The Teaching Materials Project has Titicaca. Dr. M. J. Hardman-de- and accompanying tapes for students already produced one Master's thesis,
Bautista, Associate Professor of An- are already completed. These are built A Phonology of Aymara, by Mrs. Laura thropology, and four teaching-research upon dialogues which reconstruct actual Barber in 1970. assistants are studying the Aymara situations thqt one piay meet as he language in order to describe it lin- enters an Aymara community. Miss It is expected that the results of this guistically and to develop an effective Juana Visquez and Juan de Di6s project will be received with enthusiand systematic teaching program. Yapita, native speakers of Aymara, asm by anthropologists, linguists, agthe dialogues, which are then riculturalists, missionaries, and others The Aymara Language Materials analyzed. Miss Lucy Briggs and Mrsthe study of
Project has been made possible through Nora England, doctoral candidate in languages and communication, espea grant to the Center for Latin Ameri- Linguistics and M.A. candidate in An- cially in the Aymara-speaking area. can Studies by the United States Office thropology respectively, work with Several of these groups have already of Education. Previous research has Miss V~squez and Yapita in the anal- expressed their interest. been very limited. The most complete ysis. These four assistants also help dictionary was written in 1612 by with the teaching aspects of the projLudovico Bartonio, a Spanish priest. ect. Mrs. England and Miss Briggs play Director Visits Subsequent efforts to provide material a valuable role in bringing student such as grammars have been both mis- judgement into the preparation of mate- Latin America leading and inadequate. In many cases trials.
this has been the result of attempting
to relate Aymara to Spanish phonology Within a year the project will comor to grammar in the Latin mold. plete a computerized dictionary of William E. Carter, Professor of An6,000-7,000 entries, designed for use thropology, and Director of the Center Dr. Hardman-de-Bautista's interest with Spanish and English. Visual aids for Latin American Studies of the Uniin Aymara came through studies of two and teacher notes will complement the versity of Florida, attended recently related Peruvian languages, Jaqaru and instructional materials developed by the 41stCongress of Latinamericanists Kawki. These three languages are found the group. in Lima, Per6. Dr. Carter also visited
in the Jaqi language family. She hopes The last major goal of the project Boliva, Paraguay, and Uruguay to coleventually to be able to reconstruct is the preparation of trained profes- lect materials for proposed courses in the ancestry of this group of languages. sional personnel. An integral part of Latin American anthropology. Dr.
There are three principle goals en- this is the training of United States Carter's newest book, "Bolivia," is compassed by the Aymara Teaching assistants for future work in the field. now in press, with an estimated publiMaterials Project. The first is a de- When the project terminates they will cation date of Spring, 1971. scription of the language itself, which have had extensive experience in both ******
involves identifying the distribution of teaching and material development. sounds and the discovery of grammati- For their part, the Bolivian assis- David T. Geithman, Assistant Procal patterns. Description is compli- fessor of Economics, has been apcated because of the great differences rants will be in a better position to pointed chairman for the 21st Annual that are found between Aymara and apply their knowledge and practice to Latin American Conference, which will Indo-European languages such as Span- Bolivia. It is their hope to institute a be held in the Reitz Union of the Uniish and English. While the latter depend literacy program for Aymara speakers, versity of Florida February 17-20, 1971. depend largely upon word order to ex- and Miss Vasquez is already editing a This is the second conference in a depend largelymar ore tough monthly Aymara newsletter which is series of five dealing with the U. S.
press ideas, Aymara operates through distributed in Bolivia. It contains brief Prese i Lai Ameia Th h a series of suffixes which are attached news articles and cultural notes of in- Presence7i neLtin meric. Tetheme to basic root words. Likewise verb nes atcl and ulakrl nes- of the 1971 conference will be "Fiscal
to terest to Aymara speakers. The news- Poic. or .nutral.ti. .nLai
patterns differ completely, and there Is letter has been requested by univer- Ameica" no gender as we know it. The words sities in Europe,the United States, and used in Spanish and English as prepo- South America. A practical phonemic *******
sitions are unknown in Aymara, which alphabet of 18 symbols developed by again relies on suffixes to provide Yapita is used in the newsletter, and (EDITOR'S NOTE: Next issue, the those meanings. These are but a few of will be used later in the literacy work. Latinamericanist will publish a list of the differences that make language new publications by the Center for
comparison and direct translation very The University of Florida is cur- Latin American Studies of the Univerdifficult. rently the only institution in the United sity of Florida.)

University of Florida Offers Colloquiumn
In 1965 a group of University of Florida graduate questions will be directed toward the specific topic of students interested in Latin America felt the need for discussion so as to derive maximum benefit from the resome vehicle which would encourage the dissemination of search being examined. Keeping the questioning within research results to members of the university community the interdisciplinary and problem-solving nature of the concerned with various Latin American fields. The diver- Colloquium is also encouraged. sity in the interests of these students required a forum Several activities have already been scheduled for the which would be interdisciplinary. Out of these two ideas 1970-71 series. Some of these are: the Latin American Colloquium was founded. Economics and Moral Incentives in Cuba"
At the beginning of each year, an informal steering," Carmelo Mesa-Lago, Associate Professor of Ecocommittee is formed to plan and coordinate the year's nomics and Acting Director, Center for Latin Ameniactivities. Suggestions for topics and speakers are solic- can Studies, University of Pittsburgh. November ited from among graduate students and faculty. Attempts 18, 1970.
are made to select those topics with current applicability. *"The Influence of 'Significant Others' on School This year, for example, Chile is felt to be of special Achievement in Brazil"
significance, and so it is anticipated that current research J. F. B. Dasilva, Associate Professor of Sociology, on Chile will be discussed. University of Notre Dame. October 28, 1970.
The Colloquium generally tries to meet twice a month. e "The Politics of Population Control in Latin AmerParticipants are drawn from resident faculty, visiting pro-e ic a" fessors, faculty members from other institutions in the J aoeSyoDrcoItrainlPplto
United States and abroad, and graduate students. The Prgrm Ma ornel tyos DiectrIteraina oulto
format is kept as flexible as possible. Usually the pro- Porm onl nvriy
cedure is a short talk or a panel discussion, followed by Arrangements are also being made for a panel discusquestions and a period for discussion. It is hoped that the sion of the Peruvian situation.
Latin American Program Strengthened
In order to further develop the Latin American program A new course, "Ideology and Revolution in Latin in the College of Law, Michael W. Gordon, Associate Pro- America," will be offered Winter Quarter to graduate stufessor, University of Florida, spent the summer months in dents in Political Science with a reading knowledge of Costa Rica and Mexico. Spanish. It will be open to other students with the perWhile in Costa Rica, Gordon served as visiting pro- mission of the instructor.
fessor of Law at the Universidad Nacional. In addition, The course will be extremely timely, for it is closely
he gathered materials for use in his two-quarter seminar, tied to current political events in several Latin American "Latin American Trade and Investment," given at the countries. The instructor, Dr. Andr6s Su6.rez, describes
University of Florida. it as an attempt to determine the relationship between
Presently there is a lack of resources relative to legal contemporary political thought and political reality.
doctrines in Latin America and to the cultural base from According to Suiirez, Marxist ideology has an important which the legal profession operates. What writings do exist role in all political activities today, and all new Latin depend upon the observations of the United States scholar American movements have incorporated Marxist terminolwith his bias toward common law. To help remedy this ogy into their own ideological foundations. The majority situation, Gordon is planning to publish a book dealing of these movements can be classified essentially as with the legal and economic development of Costa Rica. populist, and do not follow pure Marxian approaches. Part of his information has been gathered through inter- In addition to studying Latin American reinterpretaviewing the regal directors of all Costa Rican agencies tion of Marxist ideology, the course will consider the involved in the developmental process. Additional material intellectual justification given for the use of revolutionary was derived from interviews with representatives of about guerrilla techniques. twelve United States firms operating in that country. In so far as possible, original sources will be used.
Gordon's stay in Mexico was concerned with the cre- Materials will include such things as an interview with a ation and the structuring of a summer law program, pos- member of the Tupamaros (Uruguayan urban guerrillas;) sible to begin in 1971. Tentative agreement has been and a Brazilian cart illa (handbook) for guerrilla fighters. reached with the Escuela Libre de Derecho in Mexico Other underground publications may be added to suppleCity for the inauguration of the joint legal project. It ment the information available in official party organs. would be open to law students from the United States who The course instructor, Dr. Su~rez, holds a Law degree anticipate future practice dealing with the Latin American from the University of Havana and has been interested in region. Its purpose would be to encourage these students Cuban and Latin American political thought for several to study in the environment with which they will have to years. He is the author of Guba, Castroism, and Commucope during their professional careers. nism 1956-1966, published in 1967 by the M.I.T. Press.

West Indies and Pan African Liberation
Dr. Pierre-Michel Fontaine, a native tionship with France. French rejection Africa, this group argued that the conof Haiti, studied Law and International of L'Ouverture's ideas, combined with tinent should he developed through St udie s at the University of Haiti, a reluctance to eliminate repressive black capitalism. After the First World received a certificate from the Center measures finally brought about a uni- War, Garvey requested that the League for Study and Research in International fication of blacks with mulattos, in of Nations turn over its mandate of Law and Relations at the Hague A cad- opposition to both the government and former German territories to black ademy of International Law in Holland, the planters. Largely because of this ministration. His movement failed in and received his Ph.D. from the Grad- f or c e d coalition, the independence both the economic and political spheres, uate School of International Studies at struggle was eventually successful. but it nevertheless had a great impact the University of Denver.. He is pres- Negritude continued to assert itself on blacks. In Harlem, for example, it ently an Assistant Professor of Politi- in the post-revolutionary period. jean seems to have led directly to the emercal Science at Boston College. The Jacques Dessalines, the first political gence of black awareness, a philosophy topic of the presentation was "The head of the new nation, eliminated that reached an unprecendented apex West Indies and Pan African Libera- most resident French planters, con- during the 1960's. tion. fiscated all French property, prohibited The constant migration of West
Contrary to most impressions, Haiti whites from being landowners, and in Indians has long given them easy acis not a nation of ignorant, blacks gov- the 1805 Constitution declared that all cess to both African and black Amerierned by mulattos. Although proportion- Haitians would be known as blacks, can groups. Over the years, migration ately mulattos have heavier representa- However,' De 'ssalines failed in his at- has acted as a social safety valve, tion than blacks in the upper tempt to force' the marriage of his since disgruntled elements of West
socio-political strata of the country, daughter to a mulatto as a symbol of Indian society have directed many of in absolute numbers blacks predominate the nation's racial unity. their revolutionary efforts in activities
by f ar. The reaction to the new black state abroad, rather than at home. A direct
This dominance of blacks dates by planters in the southern United spin-off of these efforts seems to have from the achievement of Haitian inde- States and the Caribbean was: "Let's been the development of an internapendence in 1803. The combination of avoid a new Haiti." In the mind of the tional literature that looks upon black events and personalities that brought Haitian black man the idea of freedom men as black, rather than as inferior about that achievement represent, in had become associated with the revolu- whites, and that expresses the rage fact, the beginnings of negritude in tion. The merging of these two ideas and frustration of the oppressed. In the New World. They signal the con- only heightened the fear of Haitian in- recent years attempts have been made scious arrival of the black man on the filtration, and the fear seems to have by many to incorporate the Marxist scene of international politics and been well founded, for actual plans dialectic into much of this literature. intrigue.- were soon made for the exportation of These attempts have been plagued by
The Haitian struggle for indepen- a black independence ideology, the difficulty of relating Marxist class
dence involved four principal groups: The ideology generated by Haitian theory with racially based black movethe French government, the plantation independence led eventually to impor- ments. owners, freedmen, and black slaves. tant literary and political movements Today the black movement in the The black nation resulting from this throughout the Caribbean. In Cuba, for Uie ttshscm faeadi
struggle was totally unanticipated by example, anti-slavery and anti-hispanic Uitef catbes ofs oidi omae laderthe planters and freedmen. Planters novels emerged at approximately the islcabeofprvdn goeledr
wseauooyfrom French control same time. They were romantic works, 'i fo plc cIteinheWs
wishe autnomyIndies. Communication is difficult, in order to maintain the slave system. idealizing the noble savage, and di g- however, for the two situations are deFreedmen were anxious to gain full ging into the past to unearth some cidedly different. While the black man political and social rights. Neither de- identity other than that bequeathed by in the United States may speak in terms sired to abolish the slave system, the Spaniards. o ht-lc ofit osc
though freedmen tended to oppose the A further stimulus to the develop- ofea wite-blacki coict n such trade that supported it. Surprisingly, ment of negritude in the West Indies clar cuitiviio eitsinia such plmacesI some freedmen even questioned the came from the full scale implantation facti, Trindad fo and Haica Ineg ability of slaves to function within the of European imperialism in Africa. InfatthwodormniHiiiseg. heady framework of independence. Haiti, A. Fermin wrote of racial equal- Historically the West Indies have
A slave uprising in 1791 initiated ity, basing his arguments largely on played an important role in world-wide the momentum that finally led to the the achievements of ancient Egypt, black liberation. The role derives creation of a black Haiti. Repressive and Hannibal Price argued that the originally from one of the first indemeasures following the uprising rad- country was now a Mecca for the entire pendence movements of the Western icalized vast masses of the slave black race. In the English speaking Hemisphere. From that time to the population. It was at this point that West Indies, the first Pan African move- present, West Indians have labored in Toussaint L'Ouiverture brought a broader ment was begun. search of their identity. Because this
perspective to the scene. He proposed In more recent years Marcus Garvey, search is a continuous one, West Inthe elimination of slavery through the a Jamaican, founded the Universal dians still contribute significantly, complete transformation of society and Negro Improvement Association. Best although less than before, to the drive the establishment of a dominion reln- known for its promotion of a return to for black liberation.

Press and the Prince Bernhard Founda- Economics; Livestock, Production tion of the Netherlands Antilles. and Marketing Economics.
* ******* 3. Gustavo A. Antonini
Dr. Alfred Hower spent the winter (Ph.D., Columbia University), Asand spring quarters of 1970 in Portugal, sociate Professor of L.A. Studies, Spain and England. His research in Director of Research CLAS.
these countries was made possible 4. David P. Laws
through a Faculty Development Grant. (Ph.D., University of Illinois), InIn May, Hower was invited to partici- term Assistant Professor of ProDr. Richard Renner, Associate Pro- pate in a colloquium on Portuguese tuguese; Brazilian Literature.
fessor of Education, University of Romanticism in the Gremio Literario in Lisbon. He delivered a paper on "Dois 5. John T. Reid Florida, is in Quito, Ecuador, for a six- Jo~nlsa IaPier mga~ (Ph.D., Stanford University), Visitweek period beginning October 4. Under Librnalistas da Primeira Emigrao ing Assistant Professor of Spana Fulbright grant he will be lecturing Liberal: Jos Liberato Freire de Car- ish; Spanish-American Literature. at the Universidad Cat6lica in the fields valho e Joio Bernardo da Rocha of History of Education and Compara- Loureiro." 6. Gordon McNeer
tive Education of the United States and ******** (M.A. Princeton University), InLatin America. Dr. John Sanders, Professor of So- terim Assistant Professor of Spanciology, was a panel participant in the ish; Contemporary Spanish Literasecond annual Vanderbilt Sociology ture.
Dr. Cornelis Goslinga, Professor of Conference in Nashville, Tennessee. 7. David A. Denslow
Latin American Studies and History, The purposes of the Conference are to (Ph.D., Yale University, In Prohas returned to the University of foster an interchange of ideas by spe- cess), Assistant Professor of Florida after a two-year stay at the cialists on selected topics and to en- Economics; Economic DevelopUniversidad del Valle in C a li, Colom- courage graduate and post-graduate ment and Economic History of bia. As a professor of the Facultad de education in the Southern region. This Brazil. Letras e Historia, he taught Latin year's topic was "Racial Tensions and 8. Kurt E. Kent American History, Spanish American National Identity." Saunder's presenta- (Ph.D., University of Minnesota, Colonial Documents, and History of tion focused on Brazil. In Process), Assistant Professor
Latin American Art. ***** ** of Journalism; Associate Director,
In December of this year Goslinga's Communication Research Division;
book, The Dutch in the Caribbean and NEW LATINAMERICANISTS International Communications.
on the Wild Coast, will be published. AT THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 9. Robert N. Pierce
It covers the period 1580-1680, the rise (Ph.D., University of Minnesota,
of the Golden Age to the fall of the 1. J. Kamal Dow In Process), Associate Professor
D tch as a Great Power. The five (Ph.D., University of Missouri), of Journalism; Mass Communicayears' preparation of the book included Assistant Professor of Agricultural tion. research in the archives in Sevilla and Economics; Colombia, L. A. Free 10. Robert E. Simmons the Hague as well as in the Biblioteca Trade. (Ph.D., University of Minnesota,
Real and the Museo Naval, both in 2. W. Kerry Mathis In Process), Associate Professor
Madrid. The book is being published (Ph.D., Texas A & M University), of Journalism; Director, Communijointly by the University of Florida Assistant Professor of Agricultural cation Research Division.
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