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University of Florida latinamericanist
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Latest issue consulted: Vol. 36, no. 2 (fall 2005).

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Full Text
J UL 15 1970
University of Florida JUL 15190
Center for Latin American Studies
20th Latin American Conference
Educators Study U.S. Influence in Latin Universities
The 20th annual Latin American of their topic. Brief highlights of the Alberto SAnchez, former Rector, UniConference, sponsored by the Center papers and the discussions they pro- versidad Nacional Mayor de San Marfor Latin American Studies, Universi- yoked are presented in this issue of cos, Lima, Perl.
ty of Florida, was held at the univer- the Latinamericanist. The other members of the Core
sity February 25 to 28, 1970. The The participants presenting papers Group were: Dr. Orlando Albornoz,
topic of the conference was "The were: Dr. Reuben Frodin, Ford Instituto Societas, Caracas, VenezueUnited States Presence in Latin Amer- Foundation, New York; Dr. Ra6il la; Professor Juan Manuel Maiguaica:-Universities in Transition." Dr. Urzia, Universidad Cat61ica de Chile, schca, Adlai Stevenson Institute, ChiRichard R. Renner, Associate Pro- Santiago, Chile; Dr. Augusto Franc Guilardo Martins Alves,
fessor of Education, University of A., Instituto Colombiano para el F ral University of ParaiFlorida, was the program chairman. mento de la Educaci6n Su ~6l ba, Joo ~ Brazil; Dr. Henrique
The format of the conference did BogotA, Colombia; Dr. Frank 'To- Tono, Vic 'R tor, Universidad del
not provide for formal presentation of er, Director, Center for the of Valle, Cali, Col bia; Sir Philip Sherpapers as such. Seven participants Higher Education in Latin ca, lock, Associatio of Caribbean Unisubmitted papers in advance for the University of Houston; Dr. ,ert verersitie .and -- Research Institutes, rest of the sixteen-member Core Arnove, Ford Foundation represerFa- Mona, Kingst~i Jamaica; Dr. Luis
Group to study. Then, after a sum- tive, BogotA, Colombia; Pre Garibay, Recsot, Universidad Aut6mation, those submitting the papers Rudolf P. Atcon, Senior Specaist,- m de.Gudalajara, Mexico; and led the group in a general discussion Pan American Union; and, Dr. uis P~jp so~ e t Filho Mariano da Ro4Uni versidade de Santa Maria,
Santa Maria, Brazil. Dr. George Waggoner, Dean, University of Kansas
and Dr. GermAn O. E. Tjarks, Visit.-ing Professor of History, University of Florida summarized by giving their
personal impressions of the proceedDeputy Assistant Secretary of State
for Inter-American Affairs, John Hugh
Crimmins addressed the conference
- ebrary 27, 1970 on the subject of
"The Nixon Administration's Latin
American Policy." Professor Luis Alberto SAnchez gave a luncheon address the same day entitled "Views
V on Latin American Higher Education."
Next year's conference, the second
of a series studying the United States
presence in Latin America, will exFrom left to right: Orlando Albornoz, Juan Manuel Maiguaschca, Rail Urzfia, Mariano da plore the topic "Industrialization in Rocha, Germdn Tjarks, Sir Philip Sherlock, Luis Garibay Robert F. Arnove, Reuben Frodin, Latin America." The conference will R Richard R. Renner, Frank M. Tiller, Guilardo Martins Aives, George Waggoner, Rudolph P.
Atcon, and with his back to the picture, Augusto Franco. Part of the group of educators again be sponsored by the Center and
participating in the conference. will be held during February 1971.

The North American Foundations and the Universities
Reuben Frodin: "Foundations and Universities: A the subject disciplines that needed development, namely North American Viewpoint." the basic sciences. There is very little resistance to the
introduction of a general studies program, and what reThe need for university reform was noted after World sistance there is comes mainly from the older, less wellWar II. Prior to that time, the reforms of 1918 could best trained members of the staff, and from people in the probe described as just a movement to open Latin American fessional schools who think that such a program will dilute universities to a broader segment of the population. the power and prestige of their school.
Foundations, such as Rockefeller, have made notable Finding ways to stimulate research has been a concern contributions to the field of medical education and in the of the Ford Foundation from the beginning of its Latin development of modern agriculture. Universities in Latin American program. In the field of agriculture, for examAmerica became early recipients of grants from the Ford ple, research capacities have been built into one or more Foundation due to a belief that through the universities it national facilities for agriculture in various countries. In would be possible to develop more highly-educated and education, a small start has been made towards supporting better trained human resources, people who would work independent centers of research. for the development of their region and their nation. The In conclusion certain observations should be made. necessity for providing assistance in the upgrading of aca- Not too much has been said about students in this paper. demic and financial administrative capacities has also been But in my view, if a portion of the improvements contemrecognized. The involvement of the foundations has been plated in the development programs now underway can be to give assistance which will make the entire range of aca- accomplished, the lot of the student is also going to be demic and non-academic administration more effective, improved. Choices have to be made in the allocation of
The Ford Foundation, early in its Latin American support for different levels of education. But, while many program, supported activities designed to help modernize developed societies expect too much of their universities, the educational programs of the universities. These pro- in Latin American society too little has been expected of grams required a number of changes which went beyond them.
The Role of the Foundations and Universities
Dr. Raiil Urza: "Foundations and have a fundamental place. The uni- United States. These people are now Universities: A Latin American View- versities are responsible for educating leaders in the universities, but as point." these elites and, therefore, have be- "modernistas" or "reformistas" they
The French model was the one come places of strategic importance. will not look to the foundations for
The radical elements in the univer- aid, except as a last resort. which inspired our universities, not sities criticize the actions of the foun- The initiative must be taken from the old Spanish universities. The dations. To them, refusal of aid from the foundations, and their representaNapoleonic model responded to the the foundations is looked upon as a tives must recognize the legitimacy profound changes brought by the method of struggling against cultural of Latin American aspirations and the French Revolution. The transplant- dependency. Many facultades are legitimacy of Latin leaders to find aling of this model to Latin American now in the hands of persons who have ternatives to fulfill these aspirations. societies answered the desire of these been involved with the foundations. Also, they should recognize the duty societies to mold their institutions Likewise, many of these people have of the universities to interpret real along the lines of those in the more also completed their education in the national values. advanced countries of that time.
However, Latin societies had not experienced a change similar to the The Social M mission of Universities
French Revolution.
Dr. Augusto Franco: "The U. S. What I would like to propose is
The structure of Latin universities Government and Latin American Uni- that aid to Latin American universicombined a rigid, authoritarian heir- versities: A Latin American View- ties from the United States should be archy with a decentralization that point. channeled through some international
sometimes leads to the virtual autonomy of the facultades. The origin of My professional life has been in- organization such as the United Naauthority is either from outside the volved more in the planning of uni- tions. For example, I should like to university or by appointment from versities than with the political theme suggest UNESCO as the proper agenthe rector, prevalent in this conference. But, cy. I base this recommendation on
planners must seize on these oppor- my experience at the Universidad del Profound changes occurring in Lat- tunities to learn about the political Valle (Cali, Colombia) where the in American societies have affected process without which planning can- UNESCO program has helped and the universities. These changes have not be implemented. As I see it, the where politics were not involved. brought about a new set of problems purpose of this conference is to pro- I would also like to put some emwhich have caused the universities to vide the opportunity to exchange phasis on the mental attitude of peoredefine their values and goals. Some ideas and to analyze how relations ple. Latin Americans come to the sociologists say that Latin America is between the United States and the United States full of prejudices against a continent in transition. To assist in different components of Latin Amer- it. Conversely, United States citizens this transition, modernizing elites ican universities can be improved, have prejudices against Latin Amer-

icans. These prejudices can only beh Dlo
erased by living together and through Th Rxelevance ofthe U.S. Model
mutual understanding. The older Dr. Luis Alberto Sainchez: "The Relevance of U.S. Models for Latin Amnerpeople arc, the harder they arc to ica Univers~ity Development: A Latin American Viewpoint." adapt. Therefore, the exchange of About fifty years ago, North American universities and their system started
young people could possibly bring to have some influence in Latin America. That influence was well received; some added insights to bear upon sol- now such efforts are not so well received and in many eases arc avoided, There vmng our mutual problems. may or may not be any logic or reason behind such reluctance, but it is an
The name university suggests 11fl1 achnowledged fact. While the secondary and elementary schools benefited from versality; the university should not the Dewey system and the Dalton method, the universities were not assisted have frontiers. However, universities by those innovations. are built in one place and they arc Latin American universities have always been urban, forming a part of faced with social and political prob- city life. The reason for this is the availability of outside jobs needed by stulems besides their basic task of cdli- dents and professors to supplement their incomes. By contrast, in North cation. I think the universities, in-" America, universities exist separated from the community. eluding the United States universi- United States universities have had a great influence in the area of scienties, are obtaining a greater awareness tific investigation. But what Latin American universities do not want is the of their social mission, bitter cultural contradiction arising from the gift of money for education and
investigation on the one hand, and the imposition of conditions, born of another U.S. nvolvmentenvironment with differing goals, on the other.
U.S. nvolvmentIn my opinion, it is necessary to increase cooperation between Latin
In University Life American countries and the United States. But I insist on the following point:
We urgently need technicians, trained at superior levels, by institutions of
Dr. Frank M. Tiller: "The United higher education. If a graduate study program is not developed along with
Stats GvernentandLati Amri-technology, we would be giving roots to the worst kind of colonialism-leaving Stats Gvermen andLatn Aen-science in the hands of developed countries while leaving its application, techcan Universities: A North American nology, in the hands of developing countries. Underlying these facts, there is Viewpoint," a basic fact-the possibility or impossibility of coexistence between the inHigher education in Latin America stitutions of developed and developing countries.
and the United States is interwoveni Latin American universities have to form, inform, and reform their stuin an initmate manner. Statistics in- dents. They should not, and cannot, accept the secondary role that "interested dicate that about thirty United States development, a new form of colonialism" tries to impose on them. institutions received half of the foreign scholars; forty accounted for half Integrated University Reform
the United States faculty abroad, and
close to fifty enrolled half of the for- Professor Rudolf P. Ateon: "Promot- stitutions a sharp clash between deeign students. About one Latin Amer- ers of the United States Model in Lat- mocracy and ochlocracy, aristocracy ican student in fifty attended United in American Universities: Integrated and mediocrity, exists. There is a States universities and approximately University Reform." strong connection between the unione out of 150 visited or studied in the In his paper, which stressed the versity and society. Society, due to United States as part of an official need for an integrated approach to the nature of equality and the natural program. university reform, Professor Atcon selection mechanism, provides feedIn its survey of cooperative pro- emphasized the need for preparation, back. If paralysis develops, either in grams involving United States and organization and research, presented society or in the university, then paLatin American institutions of higher a project-proposal for action, and con- ralysis will strike the other; if we learning, the Pan American Union eluded, "If we wish to modernize the close our universities we will close cited about seventy-five Latin Amer- university, we shall have to treat the down society. ican institutions which were involv- university organically-as a system The functions of the university are ed. On the United States side, ex- under natural law-examining our to transmit knowledge and to increase eluding student exchange, there were solutions in the light of 'biological it by applying scientific methodology. close to forty institutions mentioned, viability.'" By achieving a balance between analSupport for these programs, accord- Man, summarized Professor Atcon, ysis and synthesis, these functions can ing to PAU surveys, came primarily is not yet rational; he is still the naked be carried out. In the past there has from AID and from foundations such ape that exists under biological law. been too much emphasis on facts and as Ford and Rockefeller. This applies to both individuals and not enough on putting them together.
Foreign aid and organized cultural institutions. The law of density Priority should be given to synthesis, and educational exchange on a mnas- brings about an increase in national and the foundations can help stimusive basis are still relatively new to irrationality. Under such circum- late such efforts. the United States. Twenty years en- stances, the individual is being sub- As for Latin American universities, compass most of the activity which jected to the social group, and his they should adopt North American has been generated. The Alliance for value, as an individual, is being di- techniques of administration, space Progress has lasted less than a decade. minished. allocation and curriculum integration,
Therefore, it is not surprising that Irrationality, Atcon noted, is moti- but they should reject the course conthere is less than perfection in the vated by more than institutional de- tent offered if they wish to preserve overall process. fects. However, in educational in- their sociological differences.

A Latin American Reports Dr. Germin Tjarks
Concluding Latin American speak- great interdependence between them. Latin America has resulted in ever er: Dr. Germdn 0. E. Tjarks, Visiting This realization has created a greater increasing criticism of the foundaProfessor of History, University of sense of Latin Americanism. Third, tions. Florida. The remarks of the speaker other differences between North The gap in relations between founwere personal impressions and were America and Latin America, such as dations and Latin American universinot an attempt to summarize the po- differing values, are the source of con- ties is expanding. There is a fear on sitions and attitudes taken by the Lat- flicts. In the eyes of Latin Ameri- the part of the universities of being in American participants in the con- cans, for example, universities are not accused of cultural dependence. ference. only agents of change, but also are Therefore, Latin American universiIn discussing the relationships of creators of values, ties should propose the channeling of
the foundations, government agencies As for the specific relationships be- foundation funds through neutral orand other groups involved with Latin tween Latin American universities ganizations. The various consejos of American nations, several basic pre- and North American foundations, a several Latin American countries offer mises should be considered. First, number of points can be made. While the opportunity for this type of inthere is nationalism and the con- foundations have made large contri- direct funding. The principal effort comitant feeling of hostility against butions to the development of Latin of the foundations should then be the foundations and the United American universities and these uni- aimed at the staffing of human reStates. Second, Latin American versities would be hurt if aid should sources-libraries, extension services countries have realized there is a be cut off, political radicalism within and post-graduate study centers.
Money, of course, is a big problem
for education in Latin America. Less
The Peace Corps in Latin Universities loan forty per cent of the money promised by the (President John F.)
Dr. Robert Arnove: "The Peace independence movements in their Kennedy administration has been Corps, Institutions, and Exchange countries. made available and it has been given
Programs as Promoters of the U. S. The history of the Peace Corps, as in the form of charity or as a propaModel in Latin American Universi- well as that of the exchange programs, ganda tool, thus causing resentment ties." suggests that these programs are not and alienation.
Critics of the Peace Corps and in- effective promoters of the United Exchange programs have caused ternational exchange programs be- States model. The Peace Corps, in- some problems also. Some Latin tween developed and developing stead of being a promoter of the new Americans who come to the United countries charge that they are coun- university, is a disturber of the old States suffer a disfunctional experiter-revolutionary forces, part of an university. ence and are subsequently alienated.
effort by the United States to main- United States activity should be It is both cheaper and better for Lattain its dominance. North American limited to helping educate Latin ins to stay within Latin America for universities also have been accused American professors so that they may their education. As for politicization, of becoming partners in this effort to return home with a clearer picture of there is no way the political univer"evolutionize revolutions" in the de- the role of technical assistance in eco- sity can be avoided. In fact, it is veloping countries. nomic development. These professors necessary.
However, by placing a small num- will then be better able to resist for- The final problem is the brain ber of highly trained professionals in eign technicians who come to their drain. Many countries in Latin Latin American universities, United countries proposing ready-made solu- America suffer from this problem. States agencies have set in motion a tions to particular problems, and will While it is not the fault of the country dynamic of change they cannot con- be better equipped to use foreign aid losing those people, that country trol. Contrary to anti-imperialist eri- on their own terms. Being less in- needs them. This points out two ticism, exchange programs are not terested in adopting a foreign model critical needs of Latin America: the counter-revolutionary, as shown by to their countries, they will find solu- need for more full time professors and the African and Asian students who tions to their problems within the the need for funds, both of which are have returned from abroad to lead national context. often lacking.
A North American Reports Dr. George Waggoner
Concluding North American speak- dent as a local Florida high school. And, although it is hard to adjust to er: Dr. George Waggoner, Dean, Uni- Yet Latin American universities put the idea, military governments have versity of Kansas. The remarks of much more emphasis on planning and been promoting university reform in the speaker were not an attempt to objectives than on actual programs. Latin America. The question besummarize the positions and attitudes This gives credence to the idea that comes-what happens when a militaken by the North American partici- Latin Americans have trouble taking tary government leaves power? pants in the conference. action. In spite of what Professors Atcon
Money is very important to the de- Universities do not change very and Tiller said, mass production techvelopment of universities. Some Lat- rapidly. However, Latin American niques should not be applied to orin American universities have only universities have been changing faster ganizing a university. In Latin Amerhalf as much money to spend per stu- than North American universities. (Continued on Page 8)

Nixon Policy: "Forswear Paternalism"
Speaker: John Hugh Crimmins, number of severe problems within the from countries outside the hemiDeputy Assistant Secretary of State hemisphere, problems that had sphere. for Inter-American Affairs, United brought about a deterioration in Certain pitfalls must be avoided States State Department. Crimmins, a United States-Inter-Amnerican rela- and certain understandings must be native of Massachusetts, received his tions. In addition, the emergence Of arrived at for such a policy to be sucB.A. fromt Harvard, served in the military governments and the desire cessfully implemented. The United United States Army, and then joined on the part of several countries for States must distinguish expressions of the State Department in 1946. In military equipment added new dimen- nationalism and/or efforts for genuine January 1966, he became Deputy sions to the situation. Overall, the social change from externally directed
Chief of Mission to Santo Domingo outlook was unfavorable, movements, While investment capiand in June of the same year he was CostuntalYr is ncsayfrLtnAeia
appointed Ambassador tothe Dm n elsonseqA. ly New tark noeno e epessar for Lasti Ameicane
icn epblc.In 1969 he was ap- NloA.Rockefeller was sent on a vetopmheeint it must be canneled a
pintRepbl ric tNxntohspe fact-finding trip to Latin America and it h eini uhamne oa
poitedby resden Nion o hs pe-Latin Americans were asked for their not to offend the pride of the Latin sntalkwas entStite TowartAmoet advice and suggestions concerning the American countries. In addition, the Mi ar Partedp "Thear NxorAd problems of the region. The results attitudes of anti-Yankeeism must be
MatrearnerhiAmTein olcy. of these initiatives, (the Rockefeller understood by the United States. ministration's Latin AeiaPocy"Report, the Consensus of Vifia del Recognizing that paternalism contriA prtnrshp "ase ontheprici-Mar, and other documents) led to a butes to such attitudes, the United pl farerightsbad rntespnii- policy reevaluation by the National States must reconcile its desires for ties" ofand iht requrespodnismli Security Council. Subsequently, the democratic governments with the reties an whih "equres dyamim Prsidnt' mesagpto ongrss m- lities of Latin American life. The fueld b acion is he asi ai ofphasized the special relationship the United States can hope for democrathe Nixon Administration's policy to- United States has with the rest of the tic governments, but it must accept wards Latin America. hemisphere, and its firm commitment dealing with governments it may not
Developing societies are undergo- to the Inter-American system. At the like. Stamina will be crucial to the ing far-reaching changes or are about same time, the President has stressed success of the Nixon policy. to undergo such changes. The frus- the respect held by the United States With regards to questions on Unittration of rising expectation s-expec- for each country; the United States ed States policy towards military govtations not fulfilled by the Alliance must persuade and supplement, not ernments and towards Cuba, Crimfor Progress-was, and is, a major dictate to Latin America. The Presi- mins stated that good relations exist problem in Inter-American relations, dent has also pledged to continue with Perui and Bolivia. He reiterated as is the rise of nationalism which is United States economic assistance to that the United States will deal with causing resentment to be directed to- the region on a multilateral basis, governments as they are. As for Cuwards the United States. helping, not pushing, Inter-American ba, the United States position is
Certain items in particular seem to nations, founded upon and is consistent with
be the cause of friction in United the posture of the Organization of
States-Inter-American relations. Cul- A major goal of the United States American States (OAS) that developtural differences, the disproportionate should be improving the quality of ed out of the foreign ministers meetwealth and power of the United life everywhere. In this effort, the ings of 1963, 1964 and 1967. The
States, and the efforts of the United United States should aid and encour- United States, at this time, sees no States developmental assistance pro- age, but Latin America must shape reason to change its posture towards grams that have encroached on re- its own destiny. As for expanding Cuba. sponsibilities and prerogatives not trade, the United States wants to help As for continuation of United within their realm, are cases in point, countries expand their markets and States foreign aid, Crimmins stated Other tension-producing difficulties reduce discrimination by other coun-thrisnqutonatoweert are the legal and technical restrictions tries against Latin American goods. erecotnu;i is no question astohehri on bilateral assistance and the trade The basic idea behind United States amount. Crimmins also noted that problems where Latin American de- policy is the concept of supporting while United States aid needed to be sires to increase trade have come into but not directing Latin American de- increased, aid figures did not reflect conflict with foreign tariff barriers. velopment. It is a policy of shared other sources of assistance such as the A final problem is ambivalent atti- rights and responsibilities, one where Inter-American Development Bank, tudes towards foreign investment, the United States must avoid promis- the Export-Import Bank and the While the need for skills, markets and ing more than it can produce and World Bank. While the decision on technology is recognized, there is con- must resist the temptation to support the amount of aid to be made availsiderable concern about the possible short term remedies which com- able to Latin America is ultimately up sacrifices of national sovereignty in promise the long range outlook. The to the people of the United States, trying to achieve goals through for- United States hopes for more initia- Crimmins expressed his personal eign investment. tives from Latin American govern- opinion that the level of aid will not
When the Nixon administration ments, more multilateral and fewer decrease and hopefully it will intook over in early 1969, it faced a bilateral agreements, and more aid crease.

Observations of a Rebel in Cuba
Speaker: Dr. Neill Macaulay, As- it was the premise of the white paper Bacardi Rum. The 26th of July seemsociate Professor of History, Univer- issued by the United States State De- ed to be the outfit most likely to win sity of Florida. A native of Colurn- apartment to justify the Bay of Pigs in- in the struggle against Batista, and bia, South Carolina, Dr. Macaulay vasion. The failure of this invasion many people, realizing this, decided received his A. B. from The Citadel should have erased these thoughts. to cooperate with Castro. It was, and then served in the United States Macaulay said that one of the au- therefore, not strange to find a rebel Army in Korea. In August 1958 he thors of the white paper, Richard officer with several thousand dollars went to Cuba to join the Castro guer- Goodwin, is still writing nonsense in his pocket. rilla forces in Pinar del Rio province, seven years later on how Che (Emes- The work of the other groups had There he served with a guerrilla band to) Guevara had betrayed "some of to be coordinated under Castro. and later commanded a heavy wea- his closest companions.' Macaulay When a unity pact was worked out pons platoon. After returning to the stated that perhaps Goodwin was among all groups in opposition to the United States in the summer of 1960, thinking of Huber Matos, who led a Batista government, Castro-who Dr. Macaulay received his Il. A. at group of officers out of the rebel army commanded only a small band of the University of South Carolina and in a mass resignation during October guerrillas-rejected the pact. Unity his Ph. D. from the University of 1959. But Matos was never one of was not achieved until 1958 when all Texas. He is the author of The the closest companions of Guevara. the anti-Batista groups had to accept
Sandino Affair and the recently pub- Also, an officer does not simply walk the leadership of Castro. lished A Rebel in Cuba: An Ameri- out on an army-not even a revolu- Macaulay pointed out that the 26th can's Memoir. tionary army. During the revolution of July movement was different from
By way of introduction to a dis- deserters -were shot. Matos made a that of other groups. It was formed cushion of his experiences in Cuba and play for power and lost; the power strictly along military lines; the oppothes2ith of July experens in genal, of the revolution was in the hands of site was true about the other groups. the 26th of July movement in general, Fidel Castro, not Huber Matos. The movement was very disciplined, meant with Professor Ramon Ruiz Of the former officers of the Cuban and while the other groups held a
about the number of guerrillas the revolutionary army that have fled to precarious unity, the 26th of July was Castro forces had in their ranks. In the United States, many, according unified, both in the ranks and in his book Cuba: The Making of a Rev- to Macaulay, were indeed involved command. olution Ruiz states that the Castro with the 26th of July movement in Another difference was the social guerrillas never numbered more than Cuba. Many had collected money composition. While the other groups 300 men. Macaulay noted that in and supplies in the cities for shipment were mostly university-educated and Pinar del Rio alone (where he fought) to the sierras. They were involved in belonged to the middle class, in the the guerrillas numbered 200 and he the spread of propaganda and in sab- 26th of July movement only two of estimated Castro's forces to have otage. They were brave men, but at the four leaders had university denumbered about 4,000 men, counting no time were they involved with the grees-Fidel Castro (law) and Che the groups that joined Castro in dif- guerrillas. When the revolution tri- Guevara (medicine). But Che was not ferent parts of the island. umphed, they were relegated to mi- a Cuban. Of the four, Fidel and Ra6l
Macaulay then turned to the differ- nor positions. Never were they given Castro had been born and raised in ent theories concerning the revolu- a command. The control of the army Oriente province. Although they had tion. These theories ranged from an remained in the hands of those who what was considered a good family international communist plot to the fought in the sierras, background, and were relatively
"Revolution Betrayed" theory which Others who made the same claims wealthy, they had never been accepthas been espoused by many Cubans had been connected with other revo- ed by the polite society. Indeed, Finow in exile. At the beginning, ac- lutionary groups, such as Monte del had been tagged as "Bola de cording to Macaulay, Castro profess- Cristy, Directorio Revolucionario, El Churre" (literally greaseball) at the ed adherence to the ideals of a liberal Segundo Frente del Escambray, the University of Havana. The other democracy, but this was not the ob- Organizaci6n Autentica, and others. leader, Camilo Cienfuegos, had been jective of the Cuban Revolution. If They had worked in cooperation with an apprentice tailor in Havana. As the revolution was ever betrayed so Castro's 26th of July movement and for student participation, according were the American, French, and Lat- they expected to be a part of the gov- to Jaime Suchilicki's book, University in American revolutions, each of ernment after the fall of Fulgencio Students and Revolutions in Cuba, which, at one time, professed loyalty Batista's government, the 26th of July movement never had
to the king. A revolution has its own To understand the Cuban Revolu- many students. dynamics; these are better expressed tion, the role of the 26th of July move- The movement started battle fronts by its leaders, and the leader who be- ment must be studied. This move- in other provinces by sending cotrays a revolution usually loses his ment had been led since its formation mandantes from the sierra. (Sierra grip on power, if not his head. by Castro. It was financed by money Maestra or Sierra Cristal) with limitMacaulay said Americans were un- from such people as former president ed forces to organize a new front. der certain illusions as to the validity Carlos Prio Socarras, sugar magnate Once there, the comandante was joinof the "Revolution Betrayed" theory; Julio Lobo, and Jos6 Bosh, owner of ed by the local 26th of July under-

ground, and he would organize a COLLOQUIUM, APRIL 8, 1970
skeleton military command. This
skeleton would use the guafiros (peas- Ar o The N Frontier?
ants) as soon as arms became avail- A mazonia: TNewn
able. So, while the guerrilla forces Speaker: Professor Earl Parker In the past, all six Amazonian counin a province might number only a Hanson, Consultant to the Depart- tries have been ruled by feudal landfew hundred, they would have a re- ment of State, Commonwealth of lords who were far removed from the serve group of well-trained peasants. Puerto Rico. Professor Hanson was basin. These landbarons prohibited When the peasant militia was finally formerly chairman of the Department free land distribution and settlement called to arms in the last few months of Geography at the University of because such a lure (of free land) of the revolution, the guerrilla veter- Delaware. He is the author of sixteen would have drawn away the surfs ans became officers in the newly- books including Journey to Manaos, that worked their estates. The deexpanded rebel army. Before the and is the editor of South From the velopment of the Amazon was thus mobilization of the guerrillas, the reb- S anish Main: South America Seen thwarted. el army had more than 4,000 men un- Through the Eyes of Its Explorers. In the past, the Amazon region has der arms; the claims by some that the In 1933, Professor Hanson made a been looked upon as an area to be rebel army never numbered more 20,000 mile journey on the Amazon supported and exploited. In colonial
than 1,000 are absurd. By the time and its tributaries, times, Indians were captured in the
Comandante Camilo Cienfuegos ac- Until recently, the key to the prob- area and then shipped to farmers and
cepted the surrender of the Cuban lem of Amazonian development has landholders as slaves. Later, the area army in Havana, the revolutionary been political. Those who have con- became a great source of commercial army had grown to more than 10,000 trolled the Amazon basin in the past, rubber and the basin entered into men. in absentia, have ruled it in a feudal another exploitative cycle. Three maClaims that the Batista army did fashion passed down through gener- jor "trading posts" came into existence not fight are also false. Seldom did ations from the days when feudalism as a result of the rubber boom: Iquia unit of his army surrender to the and medieval Catholicism were tos, Manaus and Belem. These towns rebels, unless it was completely sur- brought to the New World by Spain had no farmland around them nor did rounded or without any hope of being and Portugal. As long as these feud- they exhibit any industrial developreinforced. The guerrillas .had the al landholders were in control, they ment. They simply enhanced trade, option of choosing the battleground, prevented settlement; external exploi- particularly the rubber trade, out of thereby achieving numerical superi- tation rather than internal develop- which some people were making ority when needed. ment was a way of life. But now, millions.
When Bastista left Cuba on January because the six nations that own the The depression had a major effect 1, 1959, he did not leave for fear of Amazon basin need its resources for on the Amazon region further illusterrorism. The students of the Dir- themselves, they are working to de- trating its dependence on the outside ectorio Revolucionario had been fore- velop it from the outside in. Conse- world. However, Latin America was
ed to flee to the Escambray mountains quently, we are about to witness the beginning to show signs of a nascent where they united with the Guevara world's latest pioneer rush, a rush that industrialization, the upshot of which guerrillas. In the last few months of is just beginning. No argument of was that the Amazon basin began to the revolution, terrorism in Havana geographers can stop it for the Ama- be regarded as a source of supply for had "declined sharply." zon basin truly is the new frontier, the raw materials that would be needThe Amazon basin is one of the ed for industrial expansion. The Batista army was demoralized, tremendous regions of the world. It The Leticia incident of 1933 was more by actions of the guerrillas in pours one-fifth of all running fresh really the turning point. This episode the field of battle than by sabotage. water into the Atlantic Ocean. In and was actually a revolt of Amazon PerIn December of 1958, the cities of around the basin, all types of climate uvians against Lima. One result was Santiago and Santa Clara were threat- are to be found except desert. The the building of a road across the Anened by guerrilla forces. Santiago was area also can lay claim to having the des from Lima to Amazonian PerA. cut off by land, and an armored train world's largest alluvial plain. How- With the coming of World War II sent to relieve the garrison at Santa ever, it has remained an often turbu- the United States needed the AmaClara was wiped out by Guevara. lent wilderness; a place where heroes zon region as a source of rubber. Two days later, Batista fled the coun- can be made in what is a social and However, old mistakes were repeated try. The underground came out in economic vacuum. The question of by the United States and settlement the open for the first time since Batista why it has remained such has brought remained tied to a ten mile limit had stepped up the repression. The forth a number of theories from geo- (from navigable rivers). Nevertheless, Cuban army surrendered to Camilo graphers and others such as 1) de- health projects were initiated and one Cienfuegos and the rebel forces occu- bilitating tropical climate, 2) rainfall town became a real health center. pied the fortresses, training the guns in excess of that desirable for human Now, the governments that rule the (from La Cabafia) on the Presidential habitation, 3) an over-abundance of Amazon basin have a whole new outPalace, which had been occupied by disease, and 4) a lack of fertile soil. look toward the region. Of the new forces of the Directorio. The Direct- All of these theories have been prov- roads being built throughout Brazil, orio surrendered their weapons. Fi- ed false. Instead, the whole problem one of the foremost has been the highdel Castro was on top, not by deceit of Amazonian development over the way from Brasilia to Belem (the road or trickery, but through the intelligent centuries (or lack of it) has been of a of the tigers). While many people mobilization of revolutionary power. political nature. laughed at this road as it was being

built, others came in, free of the old FACULTY NOTES AND COMMENTS
myths, and started raising cattle and
growing rice in an area serviced by Dr. John Saunders, Professor of Unidos of Sdo Paulo which presented the road. What was believed to be Sociology, is the editor of and con- him with a certificate of appreciation impossible was accomplished with tributing author to a new book en- and honorary membership and has inmuch success. A similar phenomenon titled Modern Brazil: New Patterns vited him to give a series of public has occurred in Perii. and Development which will be pub- lectures at the institution next year.
listed by the University of Florida Dr. Joseph Butler, Associate ProThe opening up of the region is Press later this year. His contribution fessor of Geography at State Univernot entirely without problems how- as an author is entitled "The Mod- sity of New York, Binghamton camever. The Amazon has served, in the ernization of Brazilian Society." pus, has joined the faculty as a visitpast, to divide the six countries that On April 10, 1970 Dr. Saunders ing associate professor of geography own it more than to unite them, and presented a paper at the annual meet- for the spring quarter, 1970. His political rivalries have retarded co- ing of the Southern Sociological So- principal fields of interest are urbanioperative efforts. But there seems to ciety in Atlanta, Georgia on the topic zation and industrialization in Latin be a move towards cooperation as "Communication in a Family Planning America and he is the author of a evidenced by the building of the Program in Lima, Per6; Information monograph entitled Manufacturing in "forest edge highway" on the Amazon Seeking." In August 1970 he will pre- the Concepci6n Region of Chile, NASside of the Andes, a project initiated sent a paper on "Latin American Pop- NRC Foreign Field Report No. 7 by ex-president Belaunde Terry of ulation Policy" at a meeting of the (1960). He is currently teaching an Peri6. It should not be long before a International Union for Scientific Stu- undergraduate course on the geograroute from Colombia to Brasilia will dy to be held. in Mexico City. Dr. phy of South America. be in existence. Such routes will be Saunders has also been honored by Dr. David Bushnell, Professor of needed, because the area must be the Unido Cultural Brasil-Estados History, who is teaching this year at developed in order that the nations the National War College, Washingowning the region can utilize the re- ton, D. C. is the editor of a newly
sources available. published anthology The Liberator,
ica, there is fierce opposition from Sini6n Bolivar: Man and Image, New As for resources, oil has been dis- certain groups to the dominance of York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1970. The covered in both the Peruvian and Latin American education by the book, which is part of the Borzoi seColombian parts of the Amazon ba- United States. Programs, such as ries on Latin America, contains twensin. One oilfield has revolutionized General Studies, are often labeled ty-three selections, a chronological transportation on the Amazon; Iqui- "United States devices." Departmen- outline of Bolivar's efforts in behalf of tos, 2,300 miles upriver, has become talization is often criticized. Latin Latin American political integration, an Atlantic seaport city. Enormous American universities need a sizeable and an introduction by the editor. mineral wealth-coal, iron and baux- core of full time professors; the future Dr. Neill Macaulay, Associate Proite-has been discovered in the of the modern university cannot be fessor of History, has received a grant Guiana highlands. Near the Amazon put in the hands of persons who view from the Humanities Council, Univerdelta, large manganese deposits have the university as a sideline. sity of Florida for research on and the
been developed in the last ten to fif- Latin American universities are writing of his book on the Prestes teen years. And, finally, the hydro- changing rapidly; about one-third of Column of Brazil. The grant is for electric potential of the river and its their number having made major the summer 1970. Dr. Macaulay has tributaries is almost unlimited. The moves toward modernization. They also given several lectures recently on physical facilities for cooperation that are more involved in science and re- the Cuban revolution; the first was at are being developed should lead to a search, and have more full time pro- Indiana State University, Terre type of regional cooperation such as fessors. If this trend continues, twen- Haute, Indiana on April 22, 1970 and that which has occurred in Central ty years from now United States and the second was at the Armed Forces America with the Central American Latin American universities will be Staff College, Norfolk, Virginia on Common Market (CACM). quite similar. May 8, 1970.
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